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a x = e (ln a ) x

Sometimes you have a need to create-apply-analyze functions, which are related to an exponential base other than e. Some examples might be “Radioactive Half-Life”, “Bacteria Growth”, “Compound Interest”, “Population”, etc. Example 1: The half-life of Carbon-14 = 5730 How much of 1 gram remains after 10,000 years? ) Amount Remaining: y = 1( 1 2

t 5730

**Consider what happens when t = 5730 …
**

) … So, after 10,000 years … … y = 1( 1 2

10000 5730

≈ 0.30 grams

**Generalization for Half-Life
**

y = ( Initial Amount )( 1 ) Half −Life 2

t

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Example 1B: How much of 1 gram remains after 11,460 years? …28,650 years??? Example 1C: How much time would it talk for the 1 gram to decay to 0.0004 grams? …0.948 grams???

**Basic Exponential Properties 1. a 0 = 1 2. a x a y = a x + y
**

3.

ax x− y = a ay

4. ( a

x y

) = a xy

**DEFINITION OF A LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION TO BASE A
**

log a x =

1 ln a

ln x

**Review of Logarithmic Properties
**

1. 2. 3. 4.

log a 1 = 0 log a xy = log a x + log a y

log a

x y

= log a x − log a y

log a x n = n log a x

Inverse Properties

5. 6.

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y = a x ↔ x = log a y

a log a x = x

28675978.doc

7. Example 2: a. b.

log a a x = x

Solve each equation:

1 ⇒ log 3 x = log 1 ⇒ 3 x = 81 x = log 3 3−4 = −4 3 3 81

log 2 x = −4 ⇒

2log2 x = 2 − 4 =

1 1 ⇒ x = 16 24

**DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION DERIVATIVE OF BASES OTHER THAN e
**

1. 2. 3. 4. Example 3: a. y =2

x

d [a x ] = (ln a ) a x dx d [ a u ] = (ln a )a u du dx dx

d dx

log a x =

1 (ln a) x

1 du (ln a )u dx

d dx

log a u =

**Differentiate the following:
**

⇒

y ′ =(ln 2)2 x

b. c.

y = 23 x

⇒

y′ = (ln 2)23 x (3) = (3ln 2)23 x

y = log10 cos x

1 −1 ⇒ y′ = (ln10) cos x (−sin x) = ln10 tan x

INTEGRATION RULE

∫a

x 1 ) a x +C dx =( ln a

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Example 4:

**Evaluate the Integral
**

∫2

x 1 )2 x + dx =( ln C 2

Example 5: a. [e ] = 0 b. [e ] = e c. [ x ] = ex d. [ x ] ⇒ y = x

d dx e d dx x x d dx e e −1 d dx x

x

⇒

Constant Rule Exponential Rule Power Rule Logarithmic Differentiation

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**Logarithmic Differentiation (cont’d)
**

d [x x ] dx

⇒

y =x x

ln y =ln x x

⇒

ln y = x ln x

⇒

⇒

⇒

1 dy y dx

= x( 1 ) +ln x (1) x

⇒

dy dx

= y (1 + ln x) = x x (1 + ln x)

**APPLICATIONS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
**

x →∞

lim (1 + 1 )x = e x

Go ahead and try some numbers for x. Try 10, 100, 1000, and 1 million. What would you have intuitively expected to occur instead of what actually happens? Compound Interest:

r nt A = P (1 + n )

P = Principle r = Interest Rate t = Years n = Compounding (times per year)

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Continuous Compounding: Instantaneous Growth: This occurs when n → ∞ , and the time interval between each compounding approaches zero. Below is the proof.

A = P ( e)

x →∞ r nt P lim (1 + n ) = x →∞ x →∞

rt

r ) nt = A = lim P (1 + n

P lim (1 +

[

1 nr ) n r

Let x = n r

P lim (1 + 1 )x x

x →∞

[

]

rt

=

]

rt

=

Pe

rt

Example 6:

Compound Interest Growth

**Deposit: $2500 Rate: 5% Time: 5 years a. Quarterly: b. Monthly:
**

r ) nt = 2500(1 + .05 ) 4⋅5 = $3205.09 A = P (1 + n 4 r ) nt = 2500(1 + .05 )12⋅5 = $3208.40 A = P (1 + n 12

c. Continuously:

A = P (e) rt = 2500(e).05⋅5 =$3210.06

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Example 7:

Bacterial Culture Growth

Use the followinfg logistics growth function to predict the bacteria growth (in grams) over t hours. Consider other logistics models on pp.355-356/#64-66

y= 1.25 1 + 0.25e −0.4t

a. When t = 0: b. When t = 1: c. When t = 10: d. When t = ∞:

y= y= y=

1.25 1 + 0.25e 1.25

−0.4 ( 0 )

=

1.25 = 1 gram 1.25

= 1.244 grams 1 + 0.25e −0.4 (10) 1.25 1.25 y = lim = = 1.25 grams − 0 . 4 ( t ) t →∞ 1 + 0.25e 1+0

1 + 0.25e −0.4(1) 1.25

= 1.071 grams

Does the asymptotic behavior ring true with common sense, and the way things should work over the longhaul? Check out the idea of “carrying capacity” of a closed system. Check out the links below!!! http://math.stcc.edu/DiffEq/DiffEQ32.html http://math.stcc.edu/DiffEq/DiffEQ31.html

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Previously we have solved Differential Equations of the form:

y = f ′( x )

**For example … recall from Chapter 4: Find the general solution of the differential equation
**

y ′ = dy = 2x dx

y′ = 2 x

⇒

dy = 2 xdx

y = x 2 +C

⇒

dy = 2 xdx ∫ ∫

However … what if the right side of the equation has y terms? EXAMPLE 1: Solve the differential equation

y′ = 2 x

y

**You must use the technique called “SEPARATION OF VARIABLES”
**

dy dx

= 2x

y

⇒

ydy = 2 xdx

⇒

2 xdx ∫ydy =∫

y2 = x2 + C 2

⇒

y 2 −2 x 2 = C

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**GROWTH AND DECAY MODELS
**

This next example is a very common one, which models phenomena in the real world. This special model has a growth rate for y that is directly proportional to the y value. That is: dy

dt

= ky

The rate of change of y

is proportional to y

**Derivation of: EXPONENTIAL GROWTH AND DECAY MODEL
**

dy dt

= ky

⇒

1 y

dy = kdt

⇒

∫

1 dy y

= k dt

∫

ln y = kt +C

⇒

e ln y = e kt +C

⇒

y =e kt e c

**C = Initial Amount y = Ce kt k = proportionality constant
**

k > 0 : Growth

k < 0 : Decay

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EXAMPLE 2: The rate of change of y is proportional to y. When t = 0 then y = 2. When t = 2, then y = 4. What is the value of y when t = 3? First, consider the original information implication y = Ce kt Next, find the value of C, plug in (0, 2 = Ce = Ce = C (1) ∴C = 2 Then, substitute in (2, 4) with C = 2:

k ( 0) 0

4 = 2e k ( 2) ⇒

2 = e 2k

⇒

ln 2 = ln e 2 k

⇒

ln 2 = 2k

⇒

k =1 ln 2 ≈ .3466 2

ln 2 2 (t )

Finally, set up the resulting equation: y = 2e And substitute in the value of t = 3: y = 2e

= 2e.3466t

.3466( 3)

≈ 5.657

EXAMPLE 3: Suppose that 10 grams of the plutonium isotope Pu-239 was released in the Chernobyl nuclear accident. How long will it take for the 10 grams to decay to 1 gram? Note: Half-life of plutonium: 24,360 years Since we will use the y =Ce decay model. C = 10 ⇒ .5 = e ⇒ ln(.5) = 24360k Find “k”. 5 = 10e ln(.5) = k ≈ −0.000028454 Now Solve: 1 =10e .1 = e 24360

kt

k ( 24360 )

k ( 24360)

− 0.000028454t

−0.000028454t

ln .1 = −.000028454t

t=

ln .1 −0.000028454

t =80,923 years

EXAMPLE 4: Suppose that an experimental population of fruit flies increases according to the law of exponential growth. There were 100 flies after day 2, and 300 after day 4. About how many flies were in the original population (at t = 0 days)?

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**Set up 2 equations: Divide the equations:
**

ln 3 = 2k

100 = Ce k ( 2 )

300 = Ce k ( 4)

300 Ce 4 k = 100 Ce 2 k

… reduce… 3 = e …

2k

⇒

ln 3 = k ≈ .5493 2

**Substitute back into either original equation (to solve for C):
**

100 = Ce .5493( 2 )

100 = Ce1.0986

100 = C ≈ 33 flies e

1.0986

EXAMPLE 5: After stopping advertising, a company sees its sales drop off. Initial sales are at 100,000 units, then after 4 months they fall to 80,000. Use the exponential decay model to predict the decline after 2 more months pass.

80000 = 100000e k ( 4) ⇒ .8 = e k ( 4) ⇒ ln(.8) = 4k ⇒

⇒

ln(.8) = k ≈ −.0558 ⇒ y =100000e −.0558(6) ≈ 71,548 4

Graph the function. When would the sales drop below 10,000 units?

Created on 16/03/2004 14:38:00

28675978.doc

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