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in pressure. Converging-diverging nozzles designed for the accurate measurement and control

of all gaseous flow rates. This situation can be found in many engineering application

including steam and gas turbine, aircraft and spacecraft propulsion system, and even

industrial blasting nozzle and torch nozzle. A flow is considered to be a compressible flow if

the change in density of the flow with respect to pressure is non-zero along a streamline.

In general, this is the case where the Mach number in part or all of the flow exceeds

0.3. The Mach .3 value is rather arbitrary, but it is used because gas flows with a Mach

number below that value demonstrate changes in density with respect to the change in

pressure of less than 5%. Furthermore, that maximum 5% density change occurs at the

stagnation point of an object immersed in the gas flow and the density changes around the

rest of the object will be significantly lower.

The factor that distinguishes a flow from being compressible or incompressible is the

fact that in compressible flow the changes in the velocity of the flow can lead to changes that

the temperature which are not negligible. On the other hand in case of incompressible flow,

the changes in the internal energy such as temperature are negligible even if the entire kinetic

energy of the flow is converted to internal energy like the flow is brought to rest.

The Mach number of the flow is high enough so that the effects of compressibility can

no longer be neglected. For subsonic compressible flows, it is sometimes possible to model

the flow by applying a correction factor to the answers derived from incompressible

calculations or modeling. For many other flows, their nature is qualitatively different to

subsonic flows. A flow where the local Mach number reaches or exceeds 1 will usually

contain shock waves. A shock is an abrupt change in the velocity, pressure and temperature in

a flow; the thickness of a shock scales with the molecular mean free path in the fluid which

form because information about conditions downstream of a point of sonic or supersonic flow

cannot propagate back upstream past the sonic point.

The behavior of a fluid changes radically as it starts to move above the speed of sound

in that fluid which is when the Mach number is greater than 1. For example, in subsonic flow,

a stream tube in an accelerating flow contracts. But in a supersonic flow, a stream tube in an

accelerating flow expands. Consider that steady flow in a tube that has a sudden expansion

where the tube's cross section suddenly widens, so the cross-sectional area increases. In

subsonic flow, the fluid speed drops after the expansion. In supersonic flow, the fluid speed

increases. The mass flux is conserved but because supersonic flow allows the density to

change, the volume flux is not constant.

OBJECTIVE

1. To study the pressure-mass flow rate characteristic for convergent-divergent duct.

2. To demonstrate the phenomena of choking

3. To analyze the graph shape that obtained from the experiment.

THEORY

Referring to the figure above, the steady energy equation between 0 and 2 is given by :

P0 v 20

P2 v 22

+ + g z 0 +u0 +q= + + g z 2 +u2 +w s +w f

0 2

2 2

(1)

For the isentropic flow where there is no work is transferred, q = w = 0, 0 is showing the

stagnation conditions, so v0 = 0.

Therefore, equation 1 now is,

P0

P

+0+ c v T 0= 2 +c v T 2 .(2)

0

2

But P = RT , so T=

P

R

..

(3)

Cp = C v + R

So,

Cp

R

=1+

Cv

Cv

C v=

R

1

.................................................................................................(4)

P0

P0 P2 v 22

P2

R

R

+

= + +

0 ( 1) 0 R 2 2 ( 1) 2 R

P0

P

v2

1

1

+(1+

)= 2 (1+

)+ 2

0

1

2

1 2

2

P0

P2 v 2

=

+

1 0 1 2 2

v 2=

2 P 0 P2

( )

( 1) 0 2 (5)

P0

P2

2

P

0 2

P0

( )

(6)

Substitute (6) into (5),

v 2=

2 P0

(

( 1) 0

P 0 P2

P2

P0 0

P0

( )

P

2 P0

(1 2 1 )

( 1) 0

1

P0

2 P0

(1r

(1) 0

) , Where r =

P2

P0 .

(7)

m=

m=

(8)

2 A v

2 2

0 A 2

P2

P0

( )

A2v2

0 A v

2 2

2

+1

2 P0

( r r ) ..

(1) 0

Compressible flow

Compressible flow (gas dynamics) is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with flows

having significant changes in fluid density. Gases, but not liquids, display such behavior. To

distinguish between compressible and incompressible flow in gases, the Mach number (the

ratio of the speed of the flow to the speed of sound) must be greater than about 0.3 (since

there is a density change that is greater than 5%) before significant compressibility occurs.

The study of compressible flow is relevant to high-speed aircraft, jet engines, gas pipelines,

commercial applications such as abrasive blasting, and many other fields.

Mach number (M) is defined as the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound. M

can range from 0 to , but this broad range is broken up into several flow regimes. These

regimes are subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic, and hypervelocity flow. For

instance, in air at room temperature, the speed of sound is about 340 m/s (760 mph).

As the speed of a flow accelerates from the subsonic to the supersonic regime, the physics

of nozzle and diffuser flows is altered. Using the conservation laws of fluid dynamics and

thermodynamics, the following relationship for channel flow is developed (combined mass

and momentum conservation):

where dP is the differential change in pressure, M is the Mach number, is the density of

the gas, V is the velocity of the flow, A is the area of the duct, and dA is the change in

area of the duct. This equation states that, for subsonic flow, a converging duct (dA<0)

increases the velocity of the flow and a diverging duct (dA>0) decreases velocity of the

flow. For supersonic flow, the opposite occurs due to the change of sign of (1-M2). A

converging duct (dA<0) now decreases the velocity of the flow and a diverging duct

(dA>0) increases the velocity of the flow. At Mach = 1, a special case occurs in which the

duct area must be either a maximum or minimum. For practical purposes, only a

minimum area can accelerate flows to Mach 1 and beyond. See Table of Sub-Supersonic

Diffusers and Nozzles.

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