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Module 04.(B1) Electronic Fundamentals
1.1a. Semiconductors - Diodes.
Question Number.
1.
What gives the colour of an LED?.
Option A.
The active element.
Option B.
The plastic it is encased in.
Option C.
The type of gas used inside it.
Correct Answer is.
The active element.
Explanation. The active element is the element used in the doping of the semiconductor
material. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 121.
Question Number.
2.
A germanium diode is used for.
Option A.
rectification.
Option B.
voltage stabilization.
Option C.
modulation.
Correct Answer is.
rectification.
Explanation. Germanium diode has the least forward bias voltage drop and is best for
rectification.
Question Number.
3.
Why is a diode put in parallel with an LED?.
Option A.
To protect it from AC.
Option B.
So it will work only above a certain voltage.
Option C.
So it will work only below a certain voltage.
Correct Answer is.
To protect it from AC.
Explanation. An LED has a high forward bias voltage drop but is easily damaged when
reverse biased. AC is therefore not good for an LED.
Question Number.
4.
When testing the forward bias of a diode with a multimeter.
Option A.
the positive lead of the ohmmeter is placed on the anode.
Option B.
it does not matter which terminal the positive lead of the ohmeter is placed.
Option C.
the positive lead of the ohmmeter is placed on the cathode.
Correct Answer is.
the positive lead of the ohmmeter is placed on the anode.
Explanation. To test forward bias, the positive lead of the multimeter must be placed on the
anode. Note: If the question says 'moving coil meter' then it would be the negative lead on the
anode, since the negative side of the battery in such a meter is connected to the + lead.
Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 113.
Question Number.

Option A.

5.

This is a diagram of.

an SCR.

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Option B.
a TRIAC.
Option C.
a Schottky diode.
Correct Answer is.
an SCR.
Explanation. NIL.

Question Number.
6.
Which of the following describes the characteristics of a
Thyristor?.
Option A.
High voltage handling.
Option B.
High power handling.
Option C.
High current handling.
Correct Answer is.
High current handling.
Explanation. A thyristor (such as an SCR) is a high current switching.
Question Number.
7.
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).
Option A.
emit light of only one wavelength dependent on type.
Option B.
have very wide viewing angles.
Option C.
are easily damaged if forward biased b more than 5V.
Correct Answer is.
emit light of only one wavelength dependent on type.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
8.
In a semiconductor junction diode, electrons are the minority
carriers.
Option A.
within the P region.
Option B.
within the N region.
Option C.
in both the N and P regions.
Correct Answer is.
within the P region.
Explanation. NIL.

Question Number.
9.
A silicon diode, when compared to a germanium diode has.
Option A.
a higher forward bias voltage.
Option B.
the same forward bias voltage.
Option C.
less forward bias voltage.
Correct Answer is.
a higher forward bias voltage.
Explanation. Si = 0.6V, Ge = 0.2V. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin
Page 111.
Question Number.

10.

This symbol is.

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Option A.
a transistor.
Option B.
a diode.
Option C.
a triac.
Correct Answer is.
a diode.
Explanation. NIL.

Question Number.

11.

This symbol is.

Option A.
a photodiode.
Option B.
a laser diode.
Option C.
an LED.
Correct Answer is.
a photodiode.
Explanation. The photodiode is used in reverse bias. The minority current increases when
light shines on it.

Question Number.
12.
A zener diode.
Option A.
allows current to flow in one direction.
Option B.
stabilizes voltage at a predetermined level.
Option C.
acts like a switch.
Correct Answer is.
stabilizes voltage at a predetermined level.
Explanation. Zener diodes are usually used in voltage regulator circuits. Aircraft Electricity
and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 385.
Question Number.
13.
A junction diode.
Option A.
is similar to a vacuum diode but cannot rectify.
Option B.
has one p-n junction.
Option C.
can handle only very small currents.
Correct Answer is.
has one p-n junction.
Explanation. NIL.
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Question Number.
14.
Reverse bias.
Option A.
raises the potential barrier.
Option B.
lowers the potential barrier.
Option C.
greatly increases the majority carrier current.
Correct Answer is.
raises the potential barrier.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
15.
A diode connected across a relay coil is used to.
Option A.
dissipate coil spikes on switch off.
Option B.
allow the coil to energize with only one polarity.
Option C.
cause a delay in switching on.
Correct Answer is.
dissipate coil spikes on switch off.
Explanation. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 121 reading
material.
Question Number.
16.
To check the forward resistance of a diode with a multimeter,
the lead connected to the positive terminal is put to the.
Option A.
anode.
Option B.
cathode.
Option C.
either anode or cathode.
Correct Answer is.
anode.
Explanation. To forward bias a diode with a multimeter, the positive lead must be connected
to the anode. Note: If it were a moving coil meter, you must connect the negative lead to the
anode since the positive end of the battery is connected to the negative lead.
Question Number.
17.
A thyristor has which of the following?.
Option A.
A positive temperature coefficient.
Option B.
High resistance when switched off.
Option C.
High resistance when switched on.
Correct Answer is.
High resistance when switched off.
Explanation. The thyristor (such as an SCR or TRIAC) is basically a switch which provides
a high resistance when switched off.
Question Number.

Option A.
Option B.
Option C.

18.

What does the circuit shown do?.

Full wave rectifier.


Half wave rectifier.
Voltage doubler.

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Correct Answer is.
Half wave rectifier.
Explanation. The diagram shows a half wave rectifier. The capacitor is for smoothing the
output. A full wave rectifier requires 4 diodes and a voltage doubler requires two capacitors.

Question Number.
19.
In an LED, what is used to make the colour?.
Option A.
The plastic lens cover.
Option B.
The electrons.
Option C.
The doping material.
Correct Answer is.
The doping material.
Explanation. The dopant is what gives the LED its colour.
Question Number.
20.
An atom with 5 electrons in its outer shell is part of.
Option A.
a C type material.
Option B.
a P type material.
Option C.
an N type material.
Correct Answer is.
an N type material.
Explanation. An atom with five electrons in its outer shell (pentavalent) will provide an
extra free electron and make the material an N type. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th
Edition Eismin Page 110.
Question Number.
21.
A thyristor is commonly used for.
Option A.
overvolts regulation.
Option B.
voltage regulation.
Option C.
rectification.
Correct Answer is.
rectification.
Explanation. A thyristor (especially an SCR) is often used for rectification.
Question Number.
22.
A diode which emits photons when conducting is a.
Option A.
light emitting.
Option B.
varactor.
Option C.
zener.
Correct Answer is.
light emitting.
Explanation. Photons = light, so a diode which emits light is a Light Emitting Diode.

Question Number.
23.
The electrodes of an SCR are.
Option A.
gate, cathode, anode.
Option B.
source, drain, gate.
Option C.
anode, cathode, source.
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Correct Answer is.
gate, cathode, anode.
Explanation. The electrodes of an SCR are the anode, cathode and the gate. Aircraft
Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 120.
Question Number.
24.
What gives an LED its colour?.
Option A.
A gas.
Option B.
The cover.
Option C.
Composition and impurity of the compound.
Correct Answer is.
Composition and impurity of the compound.
Explanation. It is the doping element which gives an LED its colour.
Question Number.
25.
Forward voltage of a silicon diode is.
Option A.
1.6V.
Option B.
0.6V.
Option C.
0.2V.
Correct Answer is.
0.6V.
Explanation. Si = 0.6V, Ge = 0.2V Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin
Page 111 or 113.
Question Number.
26.
What is the typical volts drop across an LED.
Option A.
0.2V.
Option B.
0.4V.
Option C.
1.6V.
Correct Answer is.
1.6V.
Explanation. An LED volts drop is typically 1.6 - 2.4V. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics
5th Edition Eismin Page 121.
Question Number.
27.
What diode gives off light photons when forward biased.
Option A.
LED.
Option B.
Gunn diode.
Option C.
Schottky diode.
Correct Answer is.
LED.
Explanation. LEDs give off light (photons) when forward biased.
Question Number.
28.
The anode of a diode is connected to a +4V DC supply and the
cathode is connected to a +2V DC supply. The diode is.
Option A.
forward biased not conducting.
Option B.
reverse biased not conducting.
Option C.
forward biased conducting.
Correct Answer is.
forward biased conducting.
Explanation. Forward bias is anode to cathode. 4V fwd bias and 2V reverse bias, the diode
is 2V fwd bias in total.

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Question Number.
29.
Using electron flow in a diode the current flows from.
Option A.
Anode to Cathode.
Option B.
Cathode to Base.
Option C.
Cathode to Anode.
Correct Answer is.
Cathode to Anode.
Explanation. ELECTRON FLOW (i.e. American notation) is cathode to anode (against the
arrow direction). Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 111.
Question Number.
30.
When a hole diffuses from the p region to the n region.
Option A.
raises the potential barrier.
Option B.
it becomes a minority carrier in the n region.
Option C.
lowers the potential barrier.
Correct Answer is.
raises the potential barrier.
Explanation. The potential barrier is formed by holes diffusing from the P region to the N
region, (and electrons diffusing from the N region to the P region).
Question Number.
31.
A junction diode.
Option A.
can handle only small currents.
Option B.
is similar to a vacuum diode but cannot rectify.
Option C.
has one p-n junction.
Correct Answer is.
has one p-n junction.
Explanation. A junction diode is so named for its one junction. Aircraft Electricity and
Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 111.
Question Number.
32.
A germanium diode.
Option A.
has a lower forward bias voltage than a silicon diode.
Option B.
has a higher forward bias voltage than a silicon diode.
Option C.
has the same forward bias voltage as a silicon diode.
Correct Answer is.
has a lower forward bias voltage than a silicon diode.
Explanation. Forward bias voltage of germanium diode = 0.2 V. Silicon diode = 0.6 V.
Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 111.
Question Number.
33.
What switches off a thyristor?.
Option A.
Reverse bias gate.
Option B.
Remove the gate voltage.
Option C.
Remove supply voltage.
Correct Answer is.
Remove supply voltage.
Explanation. To switch off a thyristor (such as an SCR) you must disconnect the supply
voltage. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 120.
Question Number.
34.
When an SCR is switched on it has.
Option A.
low resistance.
Option B.
no change in resistance.
Option C.
high resistance.
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Correct Answer is.
low resistance.
Explanation. An SCR is basically a switch, which, when switched on has a low resistance.
Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 120.
Question Number.
35.
What type of pulse is required to switch on an SCR?.
Option A.
Positive.
Option B.
Negative.
Option C.
Positive or negative.
Correct Answer is.
Positive.
Explanation. A positive pulse is required to switch an SCR on.
Question Number.
36.
A piece of pure Germanium.
Option A.
is electrically stable.
Option B.
has a deficit of electrons.
Option C.
has an excess of electrons.
Correct Answer is.
is electrically stable.
Explanation. In a solid piece of semiconductor material, all the valence electrons are
occupied in the covalent bond. It does not conduct electricity. Aircraft Electricity and
Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 110.
Question Number.
37.
When a diode is forward biased, current flow is mainly due to
the.
Option A.
germanium bias junction.
Option B.
majority carriers.
Option C.
minority carriers.
Correct Answer is.
majority carriers.
Explanation. Forward bias = majority carriers.
Question Number.
38.
When a diode is forward biased the.
Option A.
positive lead is connected to both N and P type.
Option B.
positive lead is connected to the N type and negative to the P type.
Option C.
positive lead is connected to the P type and negative to the N type.
Correct Answer is.
positive lead is connected to the P type and negative to the N type.
Explanation. To forward biased, connect Positive to P, Negative to N. Aircraft Electricity
and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 117.
Question Number.
39.
Option A.
2V.
Option B.
4V.
Option C.
6V.
Correct Answer is.
2V.
Explanation. 2V typical.

The typical voltage drop across an L.E.D is.

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Question Number.
40.
What are the majority carriers for a forward biased PN junction
device?.
Option A.
Electrons and holes.
Option B.
Holes.
Option C.
Electrons.
Correct Answer is.
Electrons and holes.
Explanation. Majority carriers are electrons in the N material, and holes in the P material.

Question Number.
41.
Germanium in its pure state is.
Option A.
negatively charged.
Option B.
neutral.
Option C.
positively charged.
Correct Answer is.
neutral.
Explanation. Both germanium and silicon are neutrally charged, even when doped. Aircraft
Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 110.
Question Number.
42.
Which diode has a lower forward bias voltage?.
Option A.
Silicon.
Option B.
Germanium.
Option C.
Both have the same forward bias voltage.
Correct Answer is.
Germanium.
Explanation. Silicon about 0.6V, Germanium about 0.2V. Aircraft Electricity and
Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 111.
Question Number.
43.
A Zener diode is used for.
Option A.
voltage stabilisation.
Option B.
rectification.
Option C.
voltage regulation.
Correct Answer is.
voltage regulation.
Explanation. A Zener diode is used for voltage regulation. Aircraft Electricity and
Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 120.
Question Number.
44.
A thyristor SCR is a.
Option A.
bi-directional device.
Option B.
unidirectional device.
Option C.
multidirectional device.
Correct Answer is.
unidirectional device.
Explanation.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/diac.html#c4
Question Number.
45.
Option A.
Thyristor.
Option B.
Diode.
Option C.
Transistor.

What component is used to turn AC to DC?.

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Correct Answer is.
Diode.
Explanation. Although a thyristor (SCR) can be used, a diode is more common. Aircraft
Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 113.
Question Number.
45.
What component is used to turn AC to DC?.
Option A.
Thyristor.
Option B.
Diode.
Option C.
Transistor.
Correct Answer is.
Diode.
Explanation. Although a thyristor (SCR) can be used, a diode is more common. Aircraft
Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 113.
Question Number.
46.
What is an intrinsic material?.
Option A.
One with added elements.
Option B.
One with removed elements.
Option C.
A pure material.
Correct Answer is.
A pure material.
Explanation. Intrinsic is a pure material.
Question Number.
47.
The voltage drop of a silicon diode is.
Option A.
1 V.
Option B.
0.7 V.
Option C.
0.3 V.
Correct Answer is.
0.7 V.
Explanation. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 111.
Question Number.
48.
A diode is parallel to an LED in an AC circuit to.
Option A.
provide correct amount of current for LED when circuit is switched on.
Option B.
prevent back EMF in the circuit when LED is switched off.
Option C.
protect LED from AC current when switched on.
Correct Answer is.
protect LED from AC current when switched on.
Explanation. The negative half cycle of the AC must be bypassed around the LED.

Question Number.
49.
In a forward biased diode, current is carried by.
Option A.
majority carriers.
Option B.
both.
Option C.
minority carriers.
Correct Answer is.
both.
Explanation. Forward bias is both, reverse bias is minority carriers only.
Question Number.
lead goes to.

50.

When checking a diode for reverse bias resistance the positive

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Option A.
anode and negative lead to earth.
Option B.
cathode and negative lead to anode.
Option C.
anode and negative lead to cathode.
Correct Answer is.
cathode and negative lead to anode.
Explanation. Positive lead to cathode.
Question Number.
51.
Zener diodes are used for.
Option A.
Current control.
Option B.
Voltage control.
Option C.
Temperature control.
Correct Answer is.
Voltage control.
Explanation. Comment/Reference (if available).
Question Number.
52.
Once started conducting an SCR switches off.
Option A.
only when the anode goes negative to the cathode.
Option B.
automatically after a specific time.
Option C.
only when the anode goes positive to the cathode.
Correct Answer is.
only when the anode goes negative to the cathode.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
53.
In a forward biased diode, electrons leave the.
Option A.
the anode.
Option B.
the cathode.
Option C.
the doped area.
Correct Answer is.
the cathode.
Explanation. explainAnswer[3]="Electrons jump accross the depletion layer from the
Cathode (-ve) to the Anode (+ve) to recombine with the holes and close the depletion layer".

Question Number.
54.
Diodes are.
Option A.
conductors.
Option B.
semi-conductors.
Option C.
Insulators.
Correct Answer is.
semi-conductors.
Explanation. Only answer which is correct in both bias configurations.
Question Number.
55.
To function, i.e. conduct, a junction diode made of silicon
requires a forward bias of at least.
Option A.
0.2V.
Option B.
1.41V.
Option C.
1V.
Correct Answer is.
1V.
Explanation. Silicon diodes require around 0.7V, so a is the closest.

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Question Number.
56.
What is the average gain of an Op Amp?.
Option A.
20.
Option B.
200,000.
Option C.
200.
Correct Answer is.
200,000.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Op_amp#DC_behavior
1.1b. Semiconductors - Diodes.
Question Number.
1.
Tunnel diodes have the following characteristics.
Option A.
Heavily doped P-N junction with an extremely narrow depletion region.
Option B.
Lightly doped P and N regions and a high reverse breakdown voltage.
Option C.
Lightly doped P region, heavily doped N region and has a fast response time.
Correct Answer is.
Heavily doped P-N junction with an extremely narrow depletion
region.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunnel_diode
Question Number.
2.
The capacitance of a varactor diode is.
Option A.
inversely proportional with reverse bias voltage.
Option B.
a linear function of applied reverse bias voltage.
Option C.
directly related to the forward bias voltage.
Correct Answer is.
inversely proportional with reverse bias voltage.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varactor_diode
Question Number.
3.
A semiconductor doped with an element having a valency of 5
will produce.
Option A.
an N type material.
Option B.
either an N type or a P type depending on what type of semiconductor material
is used.
Option C.
a P type material.
Correct Answer is.
an N type material.
Explanation. Pentavalent materials make an N type material due to its extra electron.
Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 110.
Question Number.
4.
In a diode clamper, if the resistor is removed making the time
constant equal to C x r where r is the reverse resistance of the diode, this will ensure a.
Option A.
long time constant.
Option B.
short time constant.
Option C.
Very Long Time Constant.
Correct Answer is.
long time constant.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.

5.

PIN diodes are used mainly for.

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Option A.
linear rectifiers.
Option B.
fast switching devices.
Option C.
voltage operated rectifiers.
Correct Answer is.
fast switching devices.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
6.
To enable an IMPATT diode to operate correctly, it must be.
Option A.
connected to a resonant circuit.
Option B.
used in its reverse bias mode.
Option C.
operated in its negative resistance range.
Correct Answer is.
operated in its negative resistance range.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
7.
What type of diode would be used to stop voltage spikes across
a coil of a relay?.
Option A.
Gunn diode.
Option B.
Double acting diode.
Option C.
Schottky diode.
Correct Answer is.
Double acting diode.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_stabiliser,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zener_diode
Question Number.
8.
What is a schottky diode used for?.
Option A.
Rectification.
Option B.
Stabilization.
Option C.
Very high frequency applications.
Correct Answer is.
Very high frequency applications.
Explanation. A schottky diode has very little junction capacitance and can be used for very
high frequency switching applications.
Question Number.
9.
When a hole diffuses from a p-region to the n-region it.
Option A.
becomes a minority carrier in the n-region.
Option B.
lowers the potential barrier.
Option C.
raises the potential barrier.
Correct Answer is.
raises the potential barrier.
Explanation. This is descriptive of holes crossing the PN junction to form the depletion
layer. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 111.
Question Number.
10.
The junction barrier offers opposition to only.
Option A.
holes in the p-region.
Option B.
free electrons in the n-region.
Option C.
majority carriers in both regions.
Correct Answer is.
majority carriers in both regions.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P-n_junction
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Question Number.
11.
Avalanche breakdown occurs when.
Option A.
reverse bias exceeds a certain value.
Option B.
forward bias exceeds a certain value.
Option C.
forward current becomes excessive.
Correct Answer is.
reverse bias exceeds a certain value.
Explanation. Reverse biasing a diode will cause avalanche breakdown at a certain value.
Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 120.
Question Number.
12.
If forward bias is increased from zero on a p-n junction, a rapid
increase in current flow for a relatively small increase in voltage occurs.
Option A.
when the flow of minority carriers is sufficient to cause an avalanche
breakdown.
Option B.
when the depletion layer becomes larger than the space charge area.
Option C.
only after the forward bias exceeds the potential barrier.
Correct Answer is.
only after the forward bias exceeds the potential barrier.
Explanation. A forward biased PN junction will conduct only when the forward bias voltage
exceeds the junction barrier - i.e Si = 0.6V, Ge = 0.2V.
Question Number.
13.
A band pass filter excludes frequencies.
Option A.
below the frequency required only.
Option B.
above and below the frequency required.
Option C.
above the frequency required only.
Correct Answer is.
above and below the frequency required.
Explanation. A band-pass filter excludes frequencies above and below a particular
frequency. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 288.
Question Number.
14.
In an unbiased p-n junction, current flow is.
Option A.
zero, because equal but opposite currents are crossing the junction.
Option B.
zero, because no charges are crossing the junction.
Option C.
due to the diffusion of minority carriers only.
Correct Answer is.
zero, because no charges are crossing the junction.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
15.
With a small amplitude voltage, what type of diode would you
use to produce the output waveform?.

Option A.
Option B.
Option C.

Gunn.
Zener.
Schottky.

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Correct Answer is.
Schottky.
Explanation. The first part of the device is a basic RC differentiator, providing positive and
negative pulses from the square wave input. The diode blocks the negative pulses. Since the
amplitude is small, a fast acting diode with a low forward bias voltage is required. The
Schottky diode fits the bill.

Question Number.
16.
What diode is used to stop power spikes in a coil?.
Option A.
Gunn diode.
Option B.
Schottky diode.
Option C.
Two directional zener diode.
Correct Answer is.
Two directional zener diode.
Explanation. A two directional zener diode (actually 2 zener diodes back-to-back) is used to
stop power spikes.
Question Number.
17.
What type of diode when forward biased holes and electrons
recombine producing photons?.
Option A.
LED.
Option B.
Photodiode.
Option C.
Gunn.
Correct Answer is.
LED.
Explanation. The word 'photons' implies light emission - i.e. a light emitting diode (LED).

Question Number.
18.
A zener diode is designed to operate.
Option A.
below its breakdown voltage.
Option B.
either above or below its breakdown voltage.
Option C.
above its breakdown voltage.
Correct Answer is.
above its breakdown voltage.
Explanation. A zener diode is designed to operate above its breakdown voltage
continuously. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 120.
Question Number.
19.
A triac is a type of.
Option A.
thermistor.
Option B.
transistor.
Option C.
thyristor.
Correct Answer is.
thyristor.
Explanation. Thyristors include, SCRs, Triacs and diacs. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics
5th Edition Eismin Page 120.
Question Number.
20.
If a junction diode is reverse biased too far, the output current
would.
Option A.
reverse direction.
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Option B.
cease to flow.
Option C.
increase.
Correct Answer is.
increase.
Explanation. If a junction diode is reverse biased too far, it will 'breakdown' and a high
current will flow.
Question Number.
21.
When a PN junction is forward biased, it conducts via.
Option A.
intrinsic carrier.
Option B.
majority carrier.
Option C.
minority carrier.
Correct Answer is.
majority carrier.
Explanation. Forward biased - majority carriers.
Question Number.
point Y should be.

22.

In the Zener Diode suppressor shown, point X in respect to

Option A.
more Positive.
Option B.
either positive or negative.
Option C.
more negative.
Correct Answer is.
more negative.
Explanation. A Zener Diode is always wired in reverse bias. Aircraft Electricity and
Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 138.

Question Number.
23.
If the reverse bias voltage across a diode is too high.
Option A.
load current reduces to zero.
Option B.
load current increases rapidly.
Option C.
load current reverses.
Correct Answer is.
load current increases rapidly.
Explanation. If the reverse bias voltage is too high, the diode will break down and pass
current.
Question Number.
24.
An LED which emits green light uses.
Option A.
gallium phosphide.
Option B.
gallium arsenide.
Option C.
gallium arsenide phosphide.
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Correct Answer is.
Explanation. NIL.

gallium phosphide.
http://www.oksolar.com/led/led_color_chart.htm

Question Number.
25.
An LED which emits red light uses.
Option A.
gallium phosphide.
Option B.
gallium arsenide phosphide.
Option C.
gallium arsenide.
Correct Answer is.
gallium arsenide phosphide.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
26.
A photodiode is operated under.
Option A.
reverse bias conditions.
Option B.
forward bias conditions.
Option C.
reverse or forward bias conditions.
Correct Answer is.
reverse bias conditions.
Explanation. NIL. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/photdet.html#c2
Question Number.
27.
To increase capacitance of a varactor diode.
Option A.
reverse bias voltage is increased.
Option B.
reverse bias voltage is decreased.
Option C.
forward bias voltage is decreased.
Correct Answer is.
reverse bias voltage is decreased.
Explanation. NIL. http://www.tpub.com/content/neets/14179/css/14179_131.htm
Question Number.

28.

The diagram shows a.

Option A.
voltage doubler.
Option B.
half wave rectifier.
Option C.
full wave rectifier.
Correct Answer is.
voltage doubler.
Explanation. NIL. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/voldoub.html

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Question Number.
29.
A bi-directional TRIAC has two SCRs connected in.
Option A.
series parallel.
Option B.
inverse parallel.
Option C.
parallel series.
Correct Answer is.
inverse parallel.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIAC
Question Number.
30.
A thyristor can be forward biased by a.
Option A.
positive or negative pulse.
Option B.
negative pulse.
Option C.
positive pulse.
Correct Answer is.
positive pulse.
Explanation. Positive pulse only.
Question Number.
31.
N' type materials are doped with.
Option A.
acceptors.
Option B.
acceptors and donors.
Option C.
donors.
Correct Answer is.
donors.
Explanation. N' type materials have excess electrons, therefore the impurity element is a
donor of electrons. Aircraft Electricity and Electronics 5th Edition Eismin Page 110.
Question Number.
32.
In an electronic circuit, if the anode of a diode is clamped to
ground. What is this called?.
Option A.
A negative clamping circuit.
Option B.
A negative limiting circuit.
Option C.
A positive clamping circuit.
Correct Answer is.
A positive clamping circuit.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
33.
To decrease the capacitance of a varactor.
Option A.
reverse bias should be decreased.
Option B.
forward bias should be increased.
Option C.
reverse bias should be increased.
Correct Answer is.
reverse bias should be increased.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
34.
A Zener diode is used across the output for a power supply
circuit to.
Option A.
give a full wave rectification.
Option B.
prevent thermal runway.
Option C.
provide a steady DC voltage output without falling.
Correct Answer is.
provide a steady DC voltage output without falling.
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Explanation. A Zener diode is the main component in a voltage regulator.
Question Number.
35.
If a diode has gone open circuit in a full wave bridge rectifier,
the output frequency ripple is.
Option A.
the same as the input frequency.
Option B.
twice the input frequency.
Option C.
half the input frequency.
Correct Answer is.
the same as the input frequency.
Explanation. A fully serviceable bridge rectifier produces an output ripple twice the input
frequency. If one diode goes open circuit, one of the output 'humps' drops to zero.
Question Number.
36.
In a full wave bridge rectifier.
Option A.
the output is pure DC. Frequency is 0 Hz.
Option B.
the output frequency is twice the input frequency.
Option C.
the output voltage is twice the input voltage.
Correct Answer is.
the output is pure DC. Frequency is 0 Hz.
Explanation. The output is un-smoothed DC of 2 x input frequency.
Question Number.

37.

After passing through a rectifier, alternating current becomes.

Option A.
smooth direct current.
Option B.
pulsating direct current.
Option C.
square wave form current.
Correct Answer is.
pulsating direct current.
Explanation. Assuming the rectifier does not contain any smoothing circuitry.
Question Number.
38.
A Zener diode usually works.
Option A.
only in reverse bias.
Option B.
at variable voltages.
Option C.
only in forward bias.
Correct Answer is.
only in reverse bias.
Explanation. NIL.
Question Number.
39.
P' type materials require.
Option A.
acceptors.
Option B.
conductors.
Option C.
donors.
Correct Answer is.
acceptors.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P-type_semiconductor
Question Number.
Option A.

40.

Which of the following explains how the photodiode works?.

Photodiodes are forward biased to conduct when light falls upon them.

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Option B.
Photodiodes are back biased not to conduct when light falls upon them.
Option C.
Photodiodes are back biased to conduct when light falls upon them.
Correct Answer is.
Photodiodes are back biased to conduct when light falls upon them.
Explanation. NIL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photodiodes

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