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ME 50400 and ECE 59500

AUTOMOTIVE CONTROL
Assignment 4
Question 1
The linearized vehicle model is

CF CR

mCOG vCOG
C l C l
F F
R R

JZ

CRlR CF lF

CF

1
2


mCOG vCOG
mCOG vCOG W
2
2
C R l R C F l F C F l F

JZ
J Z vCOG


y 0 1

Now applying the given values,
2.66 0.87 0.79


W
24.68 3.52 8.69

y 0 1

From the model

2.66 0.87
A

24.68 3.52
0.79
B

8.69
As the output of the model is Yaw rate, ; C 0 1
and assuming rational and proper transfer function, D 0
Now the Transfer function,

G( s)

8.69s 42.61
s 6.18s 30.84
2

The poles of the transfer function are in the left side of the S-plane. So the system is
Stable.
Root Locus Plot:
Root Locus
6
0.925

0.965

0.87

0.76

0.6

0.35

Imaginary Axis (seconds-1)

0.984

20
0

-2

0.996

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

2.5

0.996

0.984
-4
0.965
-6
-20

0.925
-15

0.87
-10

0.76

0.6
-5

0.35
0

Real Axis (seconds -1)

SIMULINK Model:

Observation and Stability limit:


As shown on the root locus, the gain values can vary from zero to infinity without
passing the imaginary axis thus the system is stable. Besides since the poles of the open
loop are not close the imaginary axis the system should not be oscillatory.

Question 2
The transfer function is,

1
( s a11 )
JZ
R( s)
G(s)

M Z ( s) s 2 (a11 a 22 ) s (a11a 22 a12 a 21 )


a11 2.66
a12 0.8743

where,

a 21 24.68

[Reference: Problem - 1]

a 22 3.52
So, G( s)

R( s )
s 2.66

2
M Z ( s) 3545( s 6.18s 30.8)

Now, PI controller, Gc (s) ( K P s K I ) / s


So, Transfer function, T ( s)

Gc ( s)G( s)
1 Gc ( s)G ( s)

( K P s K I ) NUM
( K P s K I )(s 2.66) / 3545

2
s * DEN ( K P s K I ) NUM 3545s( s 6.18s 30.8) ( K P s K I )(s 2.66)

So the Characteristics equation is-

s3 (6.18 kp)s 2 (30.8 2.66Kp K I )s 2.66K I 0

---------

------(i)
Now as,

0.7
n 10(rad / s)

Desired Characteristics equation, s 2 14s 100 0


We need an additional pole (s+a) hence,
D(s) s 3 (14 a)s 2 (14a 100)s 100a 0

--------------- (ii)

K P 34528
From (i) and (ii) equating the coefficients Gains are,
K I 248648

and a=1.92

O.L step response

C.L step response:

O.L ramp response:

C.L ramp response:

Observation and Stability limit:


Since the additional pole that we found from equating the desired characteristic
equitation and the C.L.T.F is also on the L.H.P (s= -1.92) thus the system is stable.

Question 3
Vehicle parameter values are given.
Desired slip ratio 0.15
The peak friction coefficient is 0.3 at slip 0.15. 60% static weight is distributed on front
axle and 40% on rear axle.
Neglect the dynamic weight transfer due to deceleration and steering.
We are given,

0.9
,
n 5(rad / s)

Now, to design PD Anti Lock Brake (ABS) control system


Close loop characteristics equation is given by

1 PD ( s) G ( s) 0
1 ( K P K D s)(

b
)0
sa

s a ( K P K D s)b 0

si

i (k i )
ki

0.3
2 ,
0.15

--------------------- (i)

a(
b

R
si Fzi si g )
I i

R
,
I i

Now compute normal force at contact patch,


Normal force at contact patch of frontal wheel, Fzfi

0.6
1740 g kg-m/s2
2

= 5120.82 kg-m/s2
Normal force at contact patch of rear wheel,

Fzri

0.4
1740 g kg-m/s2
2

= 3413.88 kg-m/s2
PI controller for Front Wheel

Transfer function, G( s)

b
0.35

s a s 1274.22

Where, a = 1274.22 & b = 0.35


Since the C.L characteristic equation order is just one, we have to use the desired
equation from the same order we know the for the second order system

s+4.5= 0 (ii)

When we equate (i) and (ii) we get one equation and two unknowns thus we will have
infinite set of

. One of them would be

K P 3627.1
K D 0.2
The characteristic equation we know that the only pole of the system is -4.5 thus the
system is stable. But since the gains are found negative, the desired performance is not
achievable. We need to either change the desired pole or tune them to find reasonable
gains.

K P 10 6
K D 0.2
O.L step response:

Response

C.L step response:

Response

PD controller for Rear Wheel

Transfer function, G( s)

b
0.35

s a s 856.02

Where, a = 856.02 & b = 0.35


Now comparing the coefficients of equations (i) & (ii), we get similar gain values for the
rear wheel controller as well and again we need to tune the gains.

Observations:

Since the plant (for both front and rear wheel ) has a pole very far in the left half plane,
both O.L and C.L response have super fat response while O.L has huge steady state error,
this error is removed by very large proportional gain.

Question 4
Vehicle parameter values are given.
Desired acceleration slip at 0.2

The road surface is covered with packed snow. The peak friction coefficient is 0.3 at slip
0.2. 60% static weight is distributed on front axle and 40% on rear axle.
Neglect the dynamic weight transfer due to deceleration & steering and no engine
intervention.
Assuming, Rising time, Tr1 = 70 ms and Max Overshoot < 10 %.
So we get,

0.8
n 2(rad / s)

Desired Characteristics equation, D(s) s 2 3.2s 4 0

---------------- (i)

Now,

si

i (k th )
k th

0.3
1.5
0.2

Now PID controller was preferred for the Brake based Traction Control System. [you can
use any other controller]
Close loop characteristics equation is given by

1 PID ( s) G ( s) 0
K
b
1 ( K P I )(
)0
s sa

s^2 (a bK P )s bK I 0
a(

where,
b

--------------------- (ii)

R
si Fzi si g )
I i

R
I i

Now compute normal force at contact patch,


Normal force at contact patch of frontal wheel, Fzfi

0.6
1740 g kg-m/s2
2

= 5120.82 kg-m/s2
Normal force at contact patch of rear wheel,

Fzri

0.4
1740 g kg-m/s2
2
= 3413.88 kg-m/s2

PI controller for Front Wheel

Transfer function, G( s)

b
0.35

s a s 955.67

Where, a = 955.67 & b = 0.35


Now comparing the coefficients of equations (i) & (ii)

K P 2721.4
K I 11.43
Since the Kp is negative, the desired performance is not reachable and tuning the gains
which yields reasonable performance are:

K P 1220

K I 19650

O.L step response:

C.L step response:

PID controller for Rear Wheel


Transfer function, G( s)

b
0.35

s a s 642.02

Where, a = 642.02 & b = 0.35


Now comparing the coefficients of equations (i) & (ii)

K P 1825
K I 11.43

Again since Kp is negative , the desired performance of the system is not reachable so we
need to tuned the gains to just find a reasonable performance close to what we firstly
wished to.
The tuned gains which give us similar step response for this section as well.

K P 960

K I 16450
O.L step response:

C.L

step

response: