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AUTOMOTIVE CONTROL

Assignment 4

Question 1

The linearized vehicle model is

CF CR

mCOG vCOG

C l C l

F F

R R

JZ

CRlR CF lF

CF

1

2

mCOG vCOG

mCOG vCOG W

2

2

C R l R C F l F C F l F

JZ

J Z vCOG

y 0 1

Now applying the given values,

2.66 0.87 0.79

W

24.68 3.52 8.69

y 0 1

2.66 0.87

A

24.68 3.52

0.79

B

8.69

As the output of the model is Yaw rate, ; C 0 1

and assuming rational and proper transfer function, D 0

Now the Transfer function,

G( s)

8.69s 42.61

s 6.18s 30.84

2

The poles of the transfer function are in the left side of the S-plane. So the system is

Stable.

Root Locus Plot:

Root Locus

6

0.925

0.965

0.87

0.76

0.6

0.35

0.984

20

0

-2

0.996

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

2.5

0.996

0.984

-4

0.965

-6

-20

0.925

-15

0.87

-10

0.76

0.6

-5

0.35

0

SIMULINK Model:

As shown on the root locus, the gain values can vary from zero to infinity without

passing the imaginary axis thus the system is stable. Besides since the poles of the open

loop are not close the imaginary axis the system should not be oscillatory.

Question 2

The transfer function is,

1

( s a11 )

JZ

R( s)

G(s)

a11 2.66

a12 0.8743

where,

a 21 24.68

[Reference: Problem - 1]

a 22 3.52

So, G( s)

R( s )

s 2.66

2

M Z ( s) 3545( s 6.18s 30.8)

So, Transfer function, T ( s)

Gc ( s)G( s)

1 Gc ( s)G ( s)

( K P s K I ) NUM

( K P s K I )(s 2.66) / 3545

2

s * DEN ( K P s K I ) NUM 3545s( s 6.18s 30.8) ( K P s K I )(s 2.66)

---------

------(i)

Now as,

0.7

n 10(rad / s)

We need an additional pole (s+a) hence,

D(s) s 3 (14 a)s 2 (14a 100)s 100a 0

--------------- (ii)

K P 34528

From (i) and (ii) equating the coefficients Gains are,

K I 248648

and a=1.92

Since the additional pole that we found from equating the desired characteristic

equitation and the C.L.T.F is also on the L.H.P (s= -1.92) thus the system is stable.

Question 3

Vehicle parameter values are given.

Desired slip ratio 0.15

The peak friction coefficient is 0.3 at slip 0.15. 60% static weight is distributed on front

axle and 40% on rear axle.

Neglect the dynamic weight transfer due to deceleration and steering.

We are given,

0.9

,

n 5(rad / s)

Close loop characteristics equation is given by

1 PD ( s) G ( s) 0

1 ( K P K D s)(

b

)0

sa

s a ( K P K D s)b 0

si

i (k i )

ki

0.3

2 ,

0.15

--------------------- (i)

a(

b

R

si Fzi si g )

I i

R

,

I i

Normal force at contact patch of frontal wheel, Fzfi

0.6

1740 g kg-m/s2

2

= 5120.82 kg-m/s2

Normal force at contact patch of rear wheel,

Fzri

0.4

1740 g kg-m/s2

2

= 3413.88 kg-m/s2

PI controller for Front Wheel

Transfer function, G( s)

b

0.35

s a s 1274.22

Since the C.L characteristic equation order is just one, we have to use the desired

equation from the same order we know the for the second order system

s+4.5= 0 (ii)

When we equate (i) and (ii) we get one equation and two unknowns thus we will have

infinite set of

K P 3627.1

K D 0.2

The characteristic equation we know that the only pole of the system is -4.5 thus the

system is stable. But since the gains are found negative, the desired performance is not

achievable. We need to either change the desired pole or tune them to find reasonable

gains.

K P 10 6

K D 0.2

O.L step response:

Response

Response

Transfer function, G( s)

b

0.35

s a s 856.02

Now comparing the coefficients of equations (i) & (ii), we get similar gain values for the

rear wheel controller as well and again we need to tune the gains.

Observations:

Since the plant (for both front and rear wheel ) has a pole very far in the left half plane,

both O.L and C.L response have super fat response while O.L has huge steady state error,

this error is removed by very large proportional gain.

Question 4

Vehicle parameter values are given.

Desired acceleration slip at 0.2

The road surface is covered with packed snow. The peak friction coefficient is 0.3 at slip

0.2. 60% static weight is distributed on front axle and 40% on rear axle.

Neglect the dynamic weight transfer due to deceleration & steering and no engine

intervention.

Assuming, Rising time, Tr1 = 70 ms and Max Overshoot < 10 %.

So we get,

0.8

n 2(rad / s)

---------------- (i)

Now,

si

i (k th )

k th

0.3

1.5

0.2

Now PID controller was preferred for the Brake based Traction Control System. [you can

use any other controller]

Close loop characteristics equation is given by

1 PID ( s) G ( s) 0

K

b

1 ( K P I )(

)0

s sa

s^2 (a bK P )s bK I 0

a(

where,

b

--------------------- (ii)

R

si Fzi si g )

I i

R

I i

Normal force at contact patch of frontal wheel, Fzfi

0.6

1740 g kg-m/s2

2

= 5120.82 kg-m/s2

Normal force at contact patch of rear wheel,

Fzri

0.4

1740 g kg-m/s2

2

= 3413.88 kg-m/s2

Transfer function, G( s)

b

0.35

s a s 955.67

Now comparing the coefficients of equations (i) & (ii)

K P 2721.4

K I 11.43

Since the Kp is negative, the desired performance is not reachable and tuning the gains

which yields reasonable performance are:

K P 1220

K I 19650

Transfer function, G( s)

b

0.35

s a s 642.02

Now comparing the coefficients of equations (i) & (ii)

K P 1825

K I 11.43

Again since Kp is negative , the desired performance of the system is not reachable so we

need to tuned the gains to just find a reasonable performance close to what we firstly

wished to.

The tuned gains which give us similar step response for this section as well.

K P 960

K I 16450

O.L step response:

C.L

step

response:

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