You are on page 1of 75

N t

Naturally
ll Fractured
F
t
d Reservoirs
R
i
Characterization is the key to success

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Table of Contents

Natural fractures
Conceptualizations
Reservoir characterization
General rules and responses
Fractures and faults
Fractures and logs
G
General
l issues
i
and
d approaches
h
Modeling approaches
Outlook

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Natural Fractures

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Natural Fractures
Formed historicallyy over time due to g
gradual formation
movement
Orientated along regional stress directions but can
deviate from the stress trend as a result of local stress
perturbation
Act as preferred flow pathways, which can be critical to
low permeability formations
Can be detrimental to the wellbore stability due to their
low strength and tendency to fail

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Actual Fractures

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Actual Fractures (From Seismic Observation and Image Logs)

Beddings and offsets (faults)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Conceptualization

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Modeled Fractures

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Modeled Fractures (2)

Plates

Lines, pipes
Disks

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

10

Locations of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

11

Reservoir Characterization

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

12

Fractured Reservoir Characterization

Large conductivity
Single-single

Average k&p
Large storage

Dual-dual
Triple-triple
Dual-single

Triple-dual
2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Percentage of Oil Recovery

13

Type A: high
storage in matrix
Type B: equal
storage
t
iin matrix
ti
and in fractures
Type C: high
storage in fractures

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

14

Concept of Dual-Porosity/Single Permeability

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

15

Typical Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Triple-Porosity Media

16

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

17

General Rules and Issues

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

18

Comparison between Fractured Media and Porous Media

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

19

Why Need to Examine the NFR?

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

20

NFR Responses

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Field Response

21

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

22

Field Response of Various Media

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

23

Identify Interporosity Flow from Pressure Derivative

Pressure

Pressure derivative
2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Fractures and Faults

24

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

25

Relation between Faults and Fractures

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

26

Relation between Faults and Fractures (2)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Relation between Faults and Fractures (3)

27

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

28

Fractures and Logs

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

29

Fractures & Logs

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

30

Fractures & Logs (Porosity, Permeability and Connectivity)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Fractures & Logs (Density)

31

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

32

Fractures & Logs (Size, Aperture and Spacing)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

33

Fractures & Logs (Size, Aperture and Spacing)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

34

Fractures & Logs (Density, Rock Type, Stress, and Permeability)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

35

Fractures & Logs (Density from FMS and Core Data in Six Wells)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

36

An Example (Fractures & Logs)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

37

Fractures Characterization (Plan)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Fractures & Logs (Raw)

38

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Fractures & Logs (Utilities)

39

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Fractures & Logs (Interpretation)

40

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

41

Fractures & Logs

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Fractures & Logs (With Modeling)

42

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

43

General Issues and Approaches

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

A Comprehensive Approach

44

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

A Comprehensive Approach (2)

45

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

A Comprehensive Approach (3)

46

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

A Comprehensive Approach (4)

47

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

A Comprehensive Approach (5)

48

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

A Comprehensive Approach (6)

49

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

50

Modeling Approaches (Discrete Media)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Vertical Fractured Model

51

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

52

Vertical Fractured Model (2)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Vertical Fractured Model (3)

53

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Vertical Fractured Model (4)

54

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

55

Discrete Fractures and Percolation

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

56

Discrete Fractures and Percolation (2)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

57

Discrete Fractures and Percolation (3)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

58

Discrete Fractures and Percolation (4)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Discrete Fractures and Percolation (5)

59

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

60

Discrete Fractures (Simple Calculation)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Discrete Fractures (2)

61

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

62

Discrete Fractures (3)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

63

Discrete Fractures (4)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

64

Discrete Fractures (5)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Discrete Fractures (6)

65

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

66

Discrete Fractures (7)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

67

Fracture Orientations

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

68

Some Modeling Results

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Some Modeling Results (2)

69

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

Some Modeling Results (3)

70

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

71

Some Modeling Results (4)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

72

Modeling Approaches (Continua Media)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

73

Outlook

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

74

Where to Go?
Understand fractures better
Simulate fracture behavior better
Restrict the negative side of fractures better (e
(e.g.
g
wellbore stability)
Make use of positive side of fractures better (e
(e.g.
g
enhanced oil/gas production)

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

75

Exercises
1. What are the differences that set apart the
fractured reservoirs from homogeneous
reservoirs?
2. List typical
yp
storage
g and conductivity
y contrasts
between fractured reservoirs and non-fractured
reservoirs
3. Are naturally fractured reservoirs majority or
minority?

2008 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.