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TERM

Allowable stress

alternating stress

brittle

ductile

compression

deflection

elastic limit

clearance fit

factor of safety

Failure

failure mode

Mechanical failure
Modulus of Resilience

Impact Loading

interference fit

loss-of-function
parameter

10

maximum allowable
parameter

modulus of elasticity

modulus of rigidity

nominal stress.
proportional limit

11

proof load

12

proof strength

13

resilience

14

rigidity

15

True stress

16

shear

17

tension

18

tensile

19

tensile stress

20

yield

yield strength

21

yield point

22

toughness

23

transition fit

24

Ultimate strength

25

Locking Fasteners

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DEFINITION
Or permissible stress. typically the average stress level experienced during
operation. Equal to the allowable load divided by the area.

Is a stress that behaves according to a cyclic loading state.

a property applicable to a material if fracture occurs soon after the elastic


limit is passed

a property applicable to a material if a large amount of plastic


deformation takes place between the elastic limit and the fracture point

Can be thought of as pushing, squeezing.

Also referred to as elongation or deformation. Abbreviated by , used


in Eq1 in the lesson Normal Strain. It is the change in length of a part due
to an applied axial force. The units are in length.
The largest value of the stress for which a material behaves elastically. If a
specimen is loaded beyond this point, the deformation is said to be plastic
ad the material will take on a permanent set when the load is removed.
One having limits of size so prescribed that a clearance always results
when mating parts are assembled. A fit in which there is clearance in the
assembly for all tolerance conditions.

The safety factor may also be called the factor of safety. The safety factor
may be abbreviated by F.S., SF, or n. The safety factor is a ratio of the
ultimate capacity to the allowable capacity. Ultimate can be thought of as
the maximum value that can be tolerated by a part without failure.
Allowable can be though of as the maximum value to be experienced by
the part for the duration of its working life.

Can mean a part has separated into two or more pieces; has become
permanently distorted, thus ruining its geometry; has had its reliability
downgraded; or has had its function compromised, whatever the reason. A
designer speaking of failure can mean any or all of these possibilities.

A failure mode is the physical process or processes that take place or


combine their effects to produce failure. According to a definition from
FMEA, a failure mode is any design flaw, out-of-spec condition, or change
in a product which prevents it from functioning properly. Notice this
definition of failure mode is similar to the definition for mechanical
failure. Some examples are: a break, a leak, fracture, loosening, wear,
rupture, a short circuit, warpage, misalignment, deformation, discoloration,
blistering, and roughness.

is any change in the size, shape, or material properties of a structure,


machine, or machine part that renders it incapable of satisfactorily
performing its intended function.
The modulus of resilience is the maximum elastic energy absorbed by a
material when a load is applied.
Consider a rod BD of uniform cross section which is hit at its end B by a
body of mass m moving with a velocity v0. As the rod deforms under the
impact, stresses develop within the rod and reach a maximum value m.
After vibrating for a while, the rod will come to rest, and all stresses will
disappear. Such a sequence of events is referred to as an impact loading.

Limits are so prescribed that interference always results on assembly. A fit


in which there is interference for all tolerance conditions.

Say a load at 1000lb is causing failure. but that load is known within 10%.
Therefore, the load causing failure can actually range from 900lb to
1100lb. So to be safe, the highest possible load is taken into account,
which would be 1100lb. But the loss-of-function parameter is actually 1
over 1 minus the variance, where the variance is 10%. Which would then
be 1/(1 0.1) = 1.11111. The loss-of-function parameter is used in
conjunction with the maximum allowable parameter to get the design
factor. The parameter part of the loss-of-function parameter can be a
number of things, such as load or torque. Then loss-of-function load or
loss-of-function torque would be obtained.

Say a load at 1000lb is causing failure and the maximum load on the
structure is known with an uncertainty of 15%. The maximum allowable
parameter is actually 1 over 1 plus the variance, where the variance is
15%. Which would then be 1/(1 + 0.15) = 0.8696. The maximum
allowable parameter is used in conjunction with the loss-of-function
parameter to get the design factor. The parameter part of the maximum
allowable parameter can be a number of things, such as load or torque.
Then maximum allowable load or maximum allowable torque would be
obtained.

Abbreviated by E. Also known as Young's modulus, or elastic modulus.


Commonly associated with Hooke's Law. The units are in terms of stress.
Every material has a unique elastic modulus value. The modulus of
elasticity is the slope of the linear part of the stress-strain curve. The
modulus of elasticity is a measure of the stiffness of a material.

Is a material stiffness property (it is a material-specific property).


Abbreviated by G. Also known as shear modulus, shear modulus of
elasticity, or torsional modulus. The modulus of rigidity is anywhere from
one third to one half the magnitude of the modulus of elasticity for most
materials
Nominal or Engineering stress is the applied load divided by the original
cross-sectional area of a material.
The largest value of the stress for which Hooke's law can be used for a
given material. Everything before the proportional limit can be fitted to a
linear relationship.

The maximum load that a bolt can withstand without acquiring a


permanent set.
The proof strength is the quotient of the proof load and the tensile-stress
area. With respect to the offset yield method, proof strength is the nominal
stress corresponding to an offset of 0.01 percent. Stated another way, the
proof strength corresponds to 0.0001 in permanent set in the fastener (first
measurable deviation from elastic behavior). This value is very close to
the proportional limit.
The ability of a material to absorb energy in the elastic range.
The property of a material which indicates its rigidity is its modulus of
elasticity.
True stress is the applied load divided by the actual cross-sectional area
(the changing area with respect to time) of the specimen at that load
A force which is the magnitude of the resultant of shearing forces that exist
in the plane of a section of a member. These internal forces are due
to transverse forces acting on the member. See the given picture. In
physics, shear might actually be referred to as a stress.
The longitudinal deformation of an elastic body that results in its
elongation. The force producing such deformation. Can be thought of as
pulling, stretching. The act of stretching or straining. The state of being
stretched or strained. A body that has pulling forces applied at its ends is in
tension.
Of or pertaining to tension. Capable of being stretched or drawn
out; ductile.
Typically refers to normal stress, or stress that is experienced in the same
direction as the tensile load.
When a material yields, it physically changes its shape under an
applied load; elongate; deform.. To give way to force, pressure, etc., so as
to move, bend, collapse, or the like. In everyday terms, one definition is: to
concede under some degree of pressure, but not necessarily to surrender
totally.

The yield strength is the stress applied to a material that just causes
permanent plastic deformationthe stress which marks the onset of
permanent plastic deformation in a material. Commonly abbreviated
by Sy or y.
The point at which the strain begins to increase very rapidly without a
corresponding increase in stress. Not all materials have an obvious yield
point, especially for brittle materials.
The ability of a material to absorb energy prior to fracture. The capacity of
a material to absorb energy without failing. The toughness of a material is
related to its ductility as well as to itsultimate strength. The capacity of a
structure to withstand an impact load depends upon the toughness of the
material used. Toughness is usually characterized by a combination of
strength and ductility in the material. A material with good toughness
implies good yield strength, good impact strength, good tear strength, and
good puncture resistance.

A fit for applications where accuracy of location is important, but a small


amount of either clearance or interference is permissible.
is the maximum allowable stress before failure. May also be referred to as
ultimate stress. The ultimate stress is dependent upon the type of material.
In machine design, ultimate stress is abbreviated by Su. There are also
different types of ultimate stress, such as ultimate compressive strength
(Suc), ultimate tensile strength (Sut). The ultimate compressive strength or
the ultimate tensile strength may be referred to simply as the ultimate
strength.
Locking fasteners are used to prevent loosening of a threaded fastener in
service and are available in a wide variety differing vastly in design,
performance, and function.