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Allowable stress

alternating stress

brittle

ductile

compression

deflection

elastic limit

clearance fit

factor of safety

Failure

failure mode

Mechanical failure

Modulus of Resilience

Impact Loading

interference fit

loss-of-function

parameter

10

maximum allowable

parameter

modulus of elasticity

modulus of rigidity

nominal stress.

proportional limit

11

proof load

12

proof strength

13

resilience

14

rigidity

15

True stress

16

shear

17

tension

18

tensile

19

tensile stress

20

yield

yield strength

21

yield point

22

toughness

23

transition fit

24

Ultimate strength

25

Locking Fasteners

26

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DEFINITION

Or permissible stress. typically the average stress level experienced during

operation. Equal to the allowable load divided by the area.

limit is passed

deformation takes place between the elastic limit and the fracture point

in Eq1 in the lesson Normal Strain. It is the change in length of a part due

to an applied axial force. The units are in length.

The largest value of the stress for which a material behaves elastically. If a

specimen is loaded beyond this point, the deformation is said to be plastic

ad the material will take on a permanent set when the load is removed.

One having limits of size so prescribed that a clearance always results

when mating parts are assembled. A fit in which there is clearance in the

assembly for all tolerance conditions.

The safety factor may also be called the factor of safety. The safety factor

may be abbreviated by F.S., SF, or n. The safety factor is a ratio of the

ultimate capacity to the allowable capacity. Ultimate can be thought of as

the maximum value that can be tolerated by a part without failure.

Allowable can be though of as the maximum value to be experienced by

the part for the duration of its working life.

Can mean a part has separated into two or more pieces; has become

permanently distorted, thus ruining its geometry; has had its reliability

downgraded; or has had its function compromised, whatever the reason. A

designer speaking of failure can mean any or all of these possibilities.

combine their effects to produce failure. According to a definition from

FMEA, a failure mode is any design flaw, out-of-spec condition, or change

in a product which prevents it from functioning properly. Notice this

definition of failure mode is similar to the definition for mechanical

failure. Some examples are: a break, a leak, fracture, loosening, wear,

rupture, a short circuit, warpage, misalignment, deformation, discoloration,

blistering, and roughness.

machine, or machine part that renders it incapable of satisfactorily

performing its intended function.

The modulus of resilience is the maximum elastic energy absorbed by a

material when a load is applied.

Consider a rod BD of uniform cross section which is hit at its end B by a

body of mass m moving with a velocity v0. As the rod deforms under the

impact, stresses develop within the rod and reach a maximum value m.

After vibrating for a while, the rod will come to rest, and all stresses will

disappear. Such a sequence of events is referred to as an impact loading.

in which there is interference for all tolerance conditions.

Say a load at 1000lb is causing failure. but that load is known within 10%.

Therefore, the load causing failure can actually range from 900lb to

1100lb. So to be safe, the highest possible load is taken into account,

which would be 1100lb. But the loss-of-function parameter is actually 1

over 1 minus the variance, where the variance is 10%. Which would then

be 1/(1 0.1) = 1.11111. The loss-of-function parameter is used in

conjunction with the maximum allowable parameter to get the design

factor. The parameter part of the loss-of-function parameter can be a

number of things, such as load or torque. Then loss-of-function load or

loss-of-function torque would be obtained.

Say a load at 1000lb is causing failure and the maximum load on the

structure is known with an uncertainty of 15%. The maximum allowable

parameter is actually 1 over 1 plus the variance, where the variance is

15%. Which would then be 1/(1 + 0.15) = 0.8696. The maximum

allowable parameter is used in conjunction with the loss-of-function

parameter to get the design factor. The parameter part of the maximum

allowable parameter can be a number of things, such as load or torque.

Then maximum allowable load or maximum allowable torque would be

obtained.

Commonly associated with Hooke's Law. The units are in terms of stress.

Every material has a unique elastic modulus value. The modulus of

elasticity is the slope of the linear part of the stress-strain curve. The

modulus of elasticity is a measure of the stiffness of a material.

Abbreviated by G. Also known as shear modulus, shear modulus of

elasticity, or torsional modulus. The modulus of rigidity is anywhere from

one third to one half the magnitude of the modulus of elasticity for most

materials

Nominal or Engineering stress is the applied load divided by the original

cross-sectional area of a material.

The largest value of the stress for which Hooke's law can be used for a

given material. Everything before the proportional limit can be fitted to a

linear relationship.

permanent set.

The proof strength is the quotient of the proof load and the tensile-stress

area. With respect to the offset yield method, proof strength is the nominal

stress corresponding to an offset of 0.01 percent. Stated another way, the

proof strength corresponds to 0.0001 in permanent set in the fastener (first

measurable deviation from elastic behavior). This value is very close to

the proportional limit.

The ability of a material to absorb energy in the elastic range.

The property of a material which indicates its rigidity is its modulus of

elasticity.

True stress is the applied load divided by the actual cross-sectional area

(the changing area with respect to time) of the specimen at that load

A force which is the magnitude of the resultant of shearing forces that exist

in the plane of a section of a member. These internal forces are due

to transverse forces acting on the member. See the given picture. In

physics, shear might actually be referred to as a stress.

The longitudinal deformation of an elastic body that results in its

elongation. The force producing such deformation. Can be thought of as

pulling, stretching. The act of stretching or straining. The state of being

stretched or strained. A body that has pulling forces applied at its ends is in

tension.

Of or pertaining to tension. Capable of being stretched or drawn

out; ductile.

Typically refers to normal stress, or stress that is experienced in the same

direction as the tensile load.

When a material yields, it physically changes its shape under an

applied load; elongate; deform.. To give way to force, pressure, etc., so as

to move, bend, collapse, or the like. In everyday terms, one definition is: to

concede under some degree of pressure, but not necessarily to surrender

totally.

The yield strength is the stress applied to a material that just causes

permanent plastic deformationthe stress which marks the onset of

permanent plastic deformation in a material. Commonly abbreviated

by Sy or y.

The point at which the strain begins to increase very rapidly without a

corresponding increase in stress. Not all materials have an obvious yield

point, especially for brittle materials.

The ability of a material to absorb energy prior to fracture. The capacity of

a material to absorb energy without failing. The toughness of a material is

related to its ductility as well as to itsultimate strength. The capacity of a

structure to withstand an impact load depends upon the toughness of the

material used. Toughness is usually characterized by a combination of

strength and ductility in the material. A material with good toughness

implies good yield strength, good impact strength, good tear strength, and

good puncture resistance.

amount of either clearance or interference is permissible.

is the maximum allowable stress before failure. May also be referred to as

ultimate stress. The ultimate stress is dependent upon the type of material.

In machine design, ultimate stress is abbreviated by Su. There are also

different types of ultimate stress, such as ultimate compressive strength

(Suc), ultimate tensile strength (Sut). The ultimate compressive strength or

the ultimate tensile strength may be referred to simply as the ultimate

strength.

Locking fasteners are used to prevent loosening of a threaded fastener in

service and are available in a wide variety differing vastly in design,

performance, and function.

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