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How to use PECI(CIC)L in each paragraph of the body of your essay.







State POINT clearly, ELABORATE on the point &

COMMENT on the point.

Recursive - 1st illustration, 1st comment

followed by 2nd illustration, 2nd
comment, etc

Make the LINK to the question explicit.

Make the link to the next point in your

P State your key POINT clearly.

How to decide on the point to make?
Unpack the key terms and instruction words in the question to understand the questions
- Brainstorm on the points that you will be making to answer the question.
- Decide on which point you are going to discuss first, second, third, fourth, etc.
- Ensure that the points are relevant in the answering of the question.
- Make sure that each paragraph is based on ONE point.

E ELABORATE on your point - FLESH out the point you are making so that the reader is clear
about what you are discussing.
How to Elaborate?
You may have to:
- explain the words/ terms/ concepts/ ideas in the point that you have just made.

C Comment on your point. Examiners appreciate fresh, insightful and personal response
from candidates (of course this personal response must be an informed response from a
sound reading of the text).
How to Comment?
- It is important for you to think about the issues in the novel thoroughly BEFORE you enter the
examination hall.
When you have thought about issues beforehand, it makes for easier for you to give personal
You may have to comment on:
- C1: The significance of the point you are making/ Why your point is a valid point
- C1: Goldings purpose in portraying someone/ an incident/ an event/ an issue in a particular way.

I Provide Illustrations; that is, evidence from the novel to support the point you are making.
How to provide illustrations?
- Select relevant evidence from the novel.
- Weave this evidence in as a quote or rephrase it.
- Give the context of this illustration who said it, to whom, when.

C COMMENT on your illustrations. Do not just plonk your evidence in and expect it to speak

for itself. You have to take an active responsibility to unpack the significance of the cited
How to comment?
Comment on your illustration/ evidence what does it tell youwhy does it support your point.
Are there any insights that you have received from this piece of evidence?
You may have to comment on:
C2: How your evidence (I) supports the point you are making.
C1: The significance of the point you are making/ Why your point is a valid point
C1: Goldings purpose in portraying someone/ an incident/ an event/ an issue in a particular way.

(Repeat the

I and the C again if necessary)

L L1: Make the necessary LINK to the question. Anchor your argument to the question.
Always ask yourself if you are answering the question. Stay focussed because that is
what Cambridge wants to see. They do not want you to retell the story nor do they wish
for you to go off on a tangent (make irrelevant points). Good essays stay focussed and
the all-essential LINK helps you to do that.
How to make the link (L1)?
- One easy way is to use the terms in the question in your concluding sentence (in the paragraph).
- You could begin your concluding sentence like this: Thus. Therefore.

L2: Link your point to the next point. This ensures a coherent and cohesive argument, where
one point of the argument leads to the next point. This will ensure that the argument has a
logical flow of thought and it also makes for a stronger argument.

Why use PECI(CIC)L?

PECI(CIC)L reminds you to:
1) Unpack the questions key terms and understand the questions demands and concerns.
2) Brainstorm for key points to answer the question.
3) Elaborate on each point made in the paragraph so that the reader knows exactly what you are
referring to and what you mean.
4) Select relevant evidence.
5) Work out the evidence and its relevance to the point being made.
6) Include more evidence if necessary (from other parts of the novel).
7) Work out this new evidence and its relevance.
8) Keep your answer relevant by anchoring it to the question.
9) Achieve a logical and cohesive argument.
Answers have greater depth of response as you are conscious of:

how the points in your argument work together to provide a convincing, logical, cohesive
the importance of making personal, thoughtful and insightful comment on the points you are
making AND the evidence you are citing.

Examples of paragraphs that have used the PECI(CIC..)L structure:

CA Qii)

Explore in detail one other moment in the novel when Golding makes you feel strongly about

Introduction (State the selected moment CLEARLY) : The MOMENT I will be discussing is the voting of
chief competition between Ralph and Jack. This is from Chapter 1. In this moment we witness Jacks
arrogance as he comes forward with the statement that he ought to be chief. This moment makes me
feel strong feelings of annoyance and disgust at his audacity.

P1 I feel annoyed at Jack and it is because (E) Jack gives me the impression that he is arrogant.
(C)Jack is overly confident and the manner in which he states that he should be chief, grates on my
nerves. (I) He states that he ought to be chief. Golding wants the reader to note that the tone is that of
simple arrogance. (C3) (explains the quote/ evidence) Ought to also leaves no room for
consideration of any other contender/ candidate for position of chief. (C2) (links your evidence to the
point P1) It suggests that Jack feels he is superior to the other boys and there is every reason for him
to lead them and this arrogance is offensive (feeling). (C1*) (Discusses the significance of the point in
relation to this situation/ the novel, brings in Goldings intent/ purpose) This is important to note
because Golding intends to use Jack to illustrate how humans have a darker and more selfish side to
themselves. Here Jack is selfishly coveting the title and power of chief. Golding wants to incite the
reader to feel great unhappiness for Jacks selfish supreriority complex here. (L2) (Link back to P1).
(L1*) Link also to the next point (P2). This brings me to my next point about how Jacks superiority
makes him upset over the democratic system of voting.

P2 I feel disturbed that Jack is against this system of voting for chief. (E)- Voting is a fair system of
electing someone into a position of power so Jacks initial protest makes me feel troubled. (I) When
Roger suggests voting, the boys are all for it. However, Jack started to protest. (C3) Protesting
meant that Jack did not agree with voting. (C2) The fact that Jack was protesting suggests that he
was acting like a dictator and wanted complete and immediate power. It reflects his disbelief also that
allowing the boys to decide is their right. All he wants is his way. Thus I feel disturbed by his selfishness
and lack of the spirited of equality and fairness. (C1*) This adds on to Goldings portrayal of Jack as
unreasonable and it foreshadows the manifestation of this unreasonable behaviour in ways more
savage and inhumane than one can imagine in the later part of the novel. (L2) Our feeling of being
disturbed is strong here and these feelings will surface again later in the novel. (L1) This brings me to
my next point about