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PRINCETON,

N.

J.

BL 1010

.S3
V.15
Upanishads.
The Upanishads
5/4^^..

"i:-

...t

:••

fu.

v^5^^:Sji^

J

-r'y

THE

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST

[15]

Hontron

HENRY FROWDE

OXFOHD UNIVEKSITY PRESS WAREHOITSE
AMEN CORNER

THE

"sacred books of the east
TRANSLATED

BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS

AND EDITED BY

F.

MAX MULLER

VOL. XV

AT

THE CLARENDON PRESS
1884

\_All rights rese)fed'\

THE UPANISHADS
TRANSLATED BY

F.

MAX MULLER

PART

II

THE KAr^A-UPANISHAD

THE MUiVZ)AKA-UPANISHAD
THE TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD
THE Bi?/HADARA7VYAKA-UPANISHAD

THE 6'VETA5'VATARA-UPANISHAD
THE PRA^-A^A-UPANISHAD
THE MAITRAYAi\^A-BRAHMA7VA-UPANISHAD

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1884

[^All rights reserved]

4.,-'— -••
..F-

f

PHIIiOSTOH

T.-n'

>T^r

CONTENTS,
Introduction

.

...

PAGE
ix

Ka/-^a-upanishad

Muwa'aka-upanishad

xxi

xxvi

.

Taittiriyaka-upanishad

Brzhadarawyaka-upanishad

xxvii

XXX

.

xxxi

-Svetajvatara-upanishad

Prama-upanishad

xlii

Maitraya7/a-brahma«a-upanishad

xliii

Translation of the Kat-^a-upanishad

Translation of the Muiw?AKA-uPANiSHAD

27

Translation of the Taittiriyaka-upanishad

45

Translation of the Bj?/hadaraa^yaka-upanishad

73

Translation of the .Sveta^'vatara-upanishad
Translation of the Pra^-^ov-upanishad

231

.

271

.

Translation of the MAiTRAVAiVA-BRAHMAA^A-uPANiSHAD

287

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred

Books of the East

.

u^

.

.347

"Tv

V

:

INTRODUCTION.
This second volume completes the

translation of the

Upanishads to which 5ahkara appeals
great commentary on the Vedanta-Sutras^, viz.
principal

1.

in

his

iT/^andogya-upanishad,

2.

Talavakara or Kena-upanishad,

3.

Aitareya-upanishad,

4.

Kaushitaki-upanishad,

5.

Va^asaneyi or li-a-upanishad,

6.

Ka/^a-upanishad,

7.

Mu;^(^aka-upanishad,

8.

Taittiriyaka-upanishad,

9.

Br/hadara«yaka-upanishad;

10.

5vetai-vatara-upanishad,

11.

Prai-^la-upanishad.

These eleven have sometimes^ been called the old and
genuine Upanishads, though I should be satisfied to call
them the eleven classical Upanishads, or the fundamental
Upanishads of the Vedanta philosophy.
Vidyara«ya^, in his 'Elucidation of the meaning of all
the Upanishads,' Sarvopanishadarthanubhuti-prakai-a, confines himself likewise to those treatises, dropping,

however,

and adding the Maitrayawa-upanishad, of which
I have given a translation in this volume, and the Nrzsiwhottara-tapaniya-upanishad, the translation of which
had to be reserved for the next volume.

the

^

tsdi,

See Deussen, Vedanta, Einleitung,

to the Paifigi, Agnirahasya, Gabala,
^

Deussen,

'

I state this

p. 38.

5'ankara occasionally refers also

and Narayawiya Upanishads,

loc. cit. p. 82.

on the authority of Professor Cowell.

See also Fitzedward

Hall, Index to the Bibliography of the Indian Philosophical Systems, pp. 116

and 236.

UPANISHADS.
It is

more

determine which of the Upanishads
or deserving the honour of a special

difficult to

were chosen by 5arikara

commentary. We possess his commentaries on the eleven
Upanishads mentioned before \ with the exception of the
Kaushitaki 2-upanishad. We likewise possess his commenfor
tary on the Ma;;^ukya-upanishad, but we do not know
other
the
of
any
on
certain whether he left commentaries

Some more or less authoritative statements
have been made that he wrote commentaries on some of the
Upanishads.

minor Upanishads, such as the Atharvaj-iras, Atharva-j-ikha,
and the Nrzsiwhatapani^ But as, besides 5ankara^arya, the
disciple of Govinda, there is ^ankarananda, the disciple of
Anandatman, another writer of commentaries on the Upanishads, it is possible that the two names may have been
confounded by

less careful copyists

*.

regard to the Nmi;«hatapani

With
seem to be removed,

after Professor

all

uncertainty might

Ramamaya

Tarka-

text with the commentary

ratna has actually published its
of vSankara/tarya in the Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1871.

But some uncertainty

still

remains.

While at the end of

each KhsLuda. of the Nr/siwha-purvatapani we read that
the Bhashya was the work of the Paramaha;«sa-parivra^aka/('arya vSri-vSankara, the pupil of Govinda, we have no
such information for the Nrzsiwha-uttaratapani, but are
words 5ri-Govindabhagavat

told on the contrary that the

&c. have been added at the end

This

by the

editor,

because he

to say the least, very suspicious,

fit to do so.
and we must wait for further confirmation. There is another
commentary on this Upanishad by Naraya«abha//a, the son

thought

of Bha//a Ratnakara^,

is,

who

is

well

known

as the author of

Dipikas on several Upanishads.

*

They have been published by Dr. Roer

"

Dr. Weber's statement that ^ankara wrote a commentary on the Kaushltaki-

upanishad has been corrected by Deussen,
^

See Deussen, loc.

*

A

long

list

of

sophic de rindc,

cit. p.

loc. cit. p. 39.

39.

works ascribed
p. 34, chiefly

to 5'ahkara

may be

seen in Regnaud, Philo-

taken from Fitzedward Hall's Index of Indian

Philosophical Systems.
*

in the Bibliotheca Indica.

See Tarkaratna's Vig-ZJapana, p.

3,

1.

5.

;

;;

;

;

INTRODUCTION.
I

subjoin a

lished

list

XI

of thirty of the smaller Upanishads, pub-

by Professor Ramamaya Tarkaratna

in the Biblio-

theca Indica, with the commentaries of Naraya;/abha^?/a.
T.

5"ira-upanishad,pp.i-io; DipikabyNaraya«a,pp.42-6o.

2.

4.

Garbha-upanishad, pp. 11-15
Nadavindu-upanishad, pp. 15-17 ;
Brahmavindu-upanishad, pp. 18-30

5.

Amrz'tavindu-upanishad, pp. 21-25

6.

Dhyanavindu-upanishad, pp. 26-28
Te^ovindu-upanishad, pp. 29-30

pp. 103-114.
pp. 1 14-118.

Yogaj-ikha-upanishad, pp. 31-32 ;
Yogatattva-upanishad, pp. 33-34

pp. 122-127.

3.

7.
8.

9.

10.
1 1.

12.
13.

14.
1

5-

16.
17.
18.

pp. 60-73.

;

pp. 73-78.

pp.

5

;

pp. 128-184.

Sannyasa-upanishad, pp. 35~39
Aruweya-upanishad, pp. 39-41
Brahmavidya-upanishad, pp. 197—203
j

Kshurika-upanishad, pp. 203-218
^ulika-upanishad, pp. 219-228

pp. 184-196.

ibidem.

;

;

;

Atharvajikha-upanishad, pp. 229-238

;

Brahma-upanishad, pp. 239-259
Pra«agnihotra-upanishad,pp.26o-27i
Nilarudra-upanishad, pp. 272-280

;

;

;

281-294
20. Pi;/(ia-upanishad, pp. 295-298 \
A
21. Atma-upanishad, pp. 299-303
22. Ramapurvatapaniya-upanishad,

24.

;

;

;

PP- 304-358
Ramottaratapaniya-upanishad,

PP- 359-384
Hanumadukta-Rama-upanishad,
PP- 3^5-393
Sarvopanishat-sara//, pp. 394-404

Ha;/^sa-upanishad, pp. 404-416

Paramaha;;/sa-upanishad, pp. 417-436 „
G^abala-upanishad, pp. 437-455

Kaivalya-upanishad, pp. 456-464

Kaivalya-upanishad, pp. 465-479 Dipika by
;

35.
26.
27.

38.
39.

;

;

;

;

;

;

6"ankarananda,
30.

Garu^a-upanishad, pp. 480 seq.
Naraya;/a,

83-101.

pp. 118-133.

19. Ka;///^aj'ruti-upanishad, pp.

33.

pp. 78-83.

;

;

Dipika by

UPANISHADS.

xii

We owe

to the

same

editor in the earlier

BibHotheca the following editions

numbers of the

:

Nr/siwhapurvatapani-upanishad, with commentary.
Nr/si;«hottaratapani-upanishad, with commentary.

commentary by Naraya;/a.

Sha//i'akra-upanishad, with

Lastly, HaraX'andraVidyabhushawa and Vij-vanatha 5astri
have published in the BibHotheca Indica an edition of the

Gopalatapani-upanishad, with commentary by

Vij-vej-vara.

These editions of the text and commentaries of the
Upanishads are no doubt very useful, yet there are many
passages where the text is doubtful, still more where the
commentaries leave us without any help.

Whatever other

may

scholars

of translating the Upanishads,

have said before, that
senting

I

know

I

think of the difficulty

can only repeat what

to the translator than

more formidable problems

may be said that most of
No doubt they have
before.

these philosophical treatises.

them had been

translated

It

been, and a careful comparison of

those of

my

advance, at

my own

predecessors will show,
all events,

understanding of these

I

of few Sanskrit texts pre-

translation with

believe, that a small

I

now been made towards a truer
ancient texts. But I know full well

has

how much

still remains to be done, both in restoring a corand in discovering the original meaning of the
Upanishads and I have again and again had to translate
certain passages tentatively only, or following the commentators, though conscious all the time that the meaning
which they extract from the text cannot be the right one.

rect text,

;

As

to the text, I explained in

my

preface to the

first

volume that I attempted no more than to restore the text,
such as it must have existed at the time when vSankara
wrote his commentaries. As 5ahkara lived during the
ninth century A.D.\ and as we possess no MSS. of so early
a date, all reasonable demands of textual criticism would
thereby seem to be satisfied. Yet, this is not quite so.
We may draw such a line, and for the present keep within
it, but scholars who
hereafter take up the study of the
*

India,

What

can

it

teach us

?

p. 360.

INTRODUCTION.

XUl

Upanishads will probably have to go beyond. Where I had
an opportunity of comparing other commentaries, besides
those of 5ankara,

became

it

quite clear that they often

followed a different text, and when, as in the case of the

Maitraya;/a-brahma;/a-upanishad,
copies which

I

was enabled to

came from the South

which

I

MSS.

received fresh confirmation.

collate

of India, the opinion

have often expressed of the great value of Southern
The study of Grantha
and other Southern MSS. will inaugurate, I believe, a new

period in the critical treatment of Sanskrit texts, and the
text of the Upanishads

will, I

treasures

The

have followed myself, and which

of

rule

my

asked

which

I

much

hope, benefit quite as

by the
the Dekhan.

as later texts

still

concealed in the libraries

have

I

fellow translators to follow, has been adhered to

new volume also, viz. whenever a choice has to be
made between what is not quite faithful and what is not
in this

quite English, to surrender without hesitation the idiom

rather than the accuracy of the translation.
scholars have approved of this,

all true

and

I
if

know

that

some of our

have been offended by certain unidiomatic expres-

critics

sions occurring in our translations, all I can say

is,

that

we

they would suggest translations which are not only faithful, but also idiomatic. For
the purpose we have in view, a rugged but faithful transalways be most grateful

shall

if

seems to us more useful than a smooth but mis-

lation

leading one.

However, we have

laid ourselves

open to another kind

of censure also, namely, of having occasionally not been

enough.

literal

It is

impossible to argue these questions

in general, but every translator

a

literal translation

I shall

My
will

knows that in many cases
entirely wrong meaning.

may convey an

give at least one instance.
old friend, Mr.

allow

still

me

—at least hope he
— the 'Occasional

Nehemiah Goreh
call him so

to

I

in

Papers on Missionary Subjects/ First Series, No. 6, quotes,
p. 39, a passage from the iT/zandogya-upanishad, trans-

on

lates

it

into

translated

it

English, and then remarks that
accurately.

But the

fault

seems to

I

had not

me

to lie

xiv

UPANISHADS.

entirely with him, in

attempting to translate a passage

without considering the whole chapter of which it forms
I\Ir. Nehemiah Goreh states the beginning of the
a part.

when he says
ketu went, by the advice
story rightly

that a youth

of his

by name

father, to

vSveta-

a teacher to

study under him. After spending twelve years, as was
customary, with the teacher, when he returned home he
appeared rather elated. Then the father asked him:

Uta tam adej-am apraksho^ yena^rutawz i'rutam bhavaty
amatam matam avi^;7ata;/z vi^/latam iti ?
Have you ever asked for that instrucI translated this
tion by which we hear what cannot be heard, by which we
perceive what cannot be perceived, by which we know what
cannot be known ?'
Hast thou asked (of
Mr. Nehemiah Goreh translates
thy teacher) for that instruction by which what is not heard
:

'

'

:

becomes heard, what is not comprehended becomes comprehended, what is not known becomes known.?'
I shall

not quarrel with

my friend

for translating

man by

comprehend rather than by to perceive. I prefer my
own translation, because manas is one side of the common

to

sensory (anta/^kara«a), buddhi, the other

ence between the two being, so far as

;

the original differ-

can see, that the
buddhi with concepts^.
But the chief difference on which my critic lays
stress is that I translated aj^rutam, amatam, and avi^watam
not by 'not heard, not comprehended, not known,' but by
what cannot be heard, what cannot be perceived, what
cannot be known.'
Now, before finding fault, why did he not ask himself
what possible reason I could have had for deviating from
the original, and for translating avi^;7ata by unknowable or

manas

I

originally dealt with percepts, the

'

Mr. Nehemiah Goreh writes aprakshyo, and this is no doubt the reading
adopted by Roer in his edition of the A'Aandogya-upanishad in the Bibliotheca
'

Indica, p. 384.
In 5'ankara's commentary also the same form is given. Still
grammar requires apraksho.
' The Pa;7/{ada!.i (I, 20) distinguishes between manas and buddhi,
by saying,
mano vimar.san'ipawi syad buddhiAsyan nis/ayatmika, which places the difference

between the two rather in the degree of certainty, ascribing deliberation to
manas, decision to buddhi.

V

INTRODUCTION.

XV

what cannot be known, rather than by unknown, as every one
would be incHned to translate these words at first sight ? If
he had done so, he would have seen in a moment, that without the change which I introduced in the idiom, the translation would not have conveyed the sense of the original, nay,
would have conveyed no sense at all. What could 5vetaketu have answered, if his father had asked him, whether
he had not asked for that instruction by which what is not
heard becomes heard, what is not comprehended becomes
comprehended, what is not known becomes known ? He
would have answered, Yes, I have asked for it and from
the first day on which I learnt the vSiksha, the ABC,
I have every day heard something which I had not heard
before, I have comprehended something which I had not
comprehended before, I have known something which I had
not known before.' Then why does he say in reply, 'What
is that instruction?'
Surely Mr. Nehemiah Goreh knew
that the instruction which the father refers to, is the instruction regarding Brahman, and that in all which follows the
father tries to lead his son by slow degrees to a knowledge
of Brahman^. Now that Brahman is called again and again
that which cannot be seen, cannot be heard, cannot be perceived, cannot be conceived,' in the ordinary sense of these
words can be learnt, in fact, from the Veda only^. It was
in order to bring out this meaning that I translated aj-rutam
not by not heard,' but by not bearable,' or, in better English,
by 'what cannot be heard
'

;

'

;

'

'

^ In the Vedanta-Sara, Sadananda lays great stress on the fact that in this very
chapter of the ATAandogya-upanishad, the principal subject of the whole chapter

is

mentioned both

beginning and in the end.

in the

Tatra prakarawaprati-

padyasyarthasya tadadyantayor upadanam upakramasajwharam.

dogyashash/Aaprapa/^ake
dvitiyam (VI,

prakarawapratipadyasyadvitiyavastuna

'

to be declared in any given section

and

at the

is

end

is

eva-

declared both at the beginning and at the

as, for instance, in the sixth section

'the Real, besides

that section

ekam

ityadav aitadatmyam ida.m sarvam (VI, i6, 3) ity ante ka,
The beginning with and ending with ' imply that the matter

2, i)

pratipadanam.

end thereof:

Yatha Khan-

which there

is

nought

else'

of lIieii-'Handogyaupanishad,

— which

is

to be explained in

declared at the outset in the terms, 'One only, without a second,'

in the

terms

'

All this consists of That.*

^

Vedanta-Sara, No. 118, tatraivadvitiyavastuno manantaravishayikarawam.

'

See Mund, Up.

I,

1,6,

adresyam agrahyam.

;

UPANISHADS.

XVI

Any classical scholar knows how often we must translate
invictus by invincible, and how Latin tolerates even
invictissimus, which we could never render in English by
English
the most unconquered,' but the unconquerable.'
avi^;1ata
that
required
sense
common
idiom, therefore, and
'

'

should be translated, not by inconceived, but by inconceivable, if the translation was to be faithful, and was to give
to the reader a correct idea of the original.

Let us now examine some other translations, to see whether
the translators were satisfied with translating literally, or

whether they attempted to translate thoughtfully.
Anquetil Duperron's translation, being

He

help us much.

translates

Non

'

:

in Latin,

cannot

auditum, auditum

fiat

non cognitum, cognitum.'
Rajendralal Mitra translates
Have you enquired of your
tutor about that subject which makes the unheard-of heard,
the unconsidered considered, and the unsettled settled?'
He evidently knew that Brahman was intended, but his
non scitum, scitum

et

;

et

'

:

rendering of the three verbs

Mr. Gough
instruction

is

not exact.

Hast thou asked for that
43) translates
which the unheard becomes heard, the un-

(p.

by

:

'

thought thought, the unknown known?'

But now

let

degree, always

us consult a scholar who, in a very marked

was

a thoughtful translator,

interest in the subject,

who

and therefore was never

mere words, however plausible.

The

felt

a real

satisfied

with

late Dr. Ballantyne, in

theVedanta-Sara^, had occasion to transpassage from the iT/zandogya-upanishad, and how

his translation of
late this

did he translate it?
glorifying of

Veda)

;

what

as, for

is

'The eulogizing of the subject

is

the

set forth in this or that section (of the

example,

in

that

same

section, the

sixth

chapter of the /iT/zandogya-upanishad, the glorifying of the
Real, besides whom there is nought else, in the following
terms " Thou, O disciple, hast asked for that instruction
:

whereby the unheard-of becomes heard, the inconceiv'

Lecture on the Vedanta, embracing the text of the Vedanta-Sara, AllaVedantasara, with Nnsi/nha-Sarasvati's Subodhini, and
p. 69,

habad, 185 1,

Ramatirtha's Vidvanmanoraw^ini, Calcutta, i860, p. 89.
right reading, aprakshaA,

Here we

find

the

INTRODUCTION.
able

XVll

becomes conceived, and the unknowable becomes

thoroughly known.'"
Dr. Ballantyne therefore

felt

exactly what

I felt,

that in

would be wrong,
would convey no meaning, or a wrong meaning
and
will
that
he
Goreh
see
ought
not
Mr. Nehemiah
to express
blame, without trying to find out whether those whom he
blames for want of exactness, were not in reality more
scrupulously exact in their translation than he has proved
our passage a strictly

literal translation

;

himself to be.

Mr. Nehemiah Goreh has, no doubt, great advantages in
when he writes without
any theological bias, his remarks are often very useful.
Thus he objects rightly, I think, to my translation of a
interpreting the Upanishads, and

sentence in the same chapter of the TT/^andogya-upanishad,

where the father, in answer to his son's question, replies
Sad eva, Somya, idam agra asid ekam evadvitiyam.' I
had tried several translations of these words, and yet I see
now that the one I proposed in the end is liable to be misIn the beginning, my dear,
I had translated
understood.
there was that only which is, one only, without a second.'
The more faithful translation would have been The being
alone was this in the beginning.' But the being' does not
mean in English that which is, to or, and therefore, to avoid
any misunderstanding, I translated 'that which is.' I might
have said, however, 'The existent, the real, the true (satyam)
was this in the beginning,' just as in the Aitareya-upaniThe Self was all this, one alone, in the
shad we read
But in that case I should have sacrificed the
beginning^.'
gender, and this in our passage is of great importance,
being neuter, and not masculine.
What, however, is far more important, and where Mr.
Nehemiah Goreh seems to me to have quite misapprehended
the original Sanskrit, is this, that sat, to oi>, and atma, the
Self, are the subjects in these sentences, and not predicates.
Now Mr. Nehemiah Goreh translates This was the existent one itself before, one only without a second ;' and he
:

'

'

:

'

:

'

'

:

'

:

'

[15]

Atma

va idam eka evagra
b*

asit

:

UPANISHADS.

xvill

was developed in the
Brahma, itself.' This
present form, was
world, were the
visible
cannot be. If 'idam,' this, i.e. the
tad
subject, how could the Upanishad go on and say,
xplains
ex

:

'

This universe, before

it

the existent one,

tat te^o 'srz>ata,

syam pra^ayeyeti

aikshata bahu

may I be many, may I grow forth.
This can be said of the Sat only,

thought,
fire.'

Brahman^

Sat, therefore,

a Vcdantist

sent forth

mere

is

'

that

It sent forth

that

is,

the

the subject, not idam, for

may well say that Brahman is the world, or
the world, but not that the world, which is a
was, in the beginning. Brahman.

illusion,

This becomes clearer still in another passage, Maitr. Up.
VI, 17, where we read Brahma ha va idam agra asid eko
He was
'nanta/^, 'In the beginning Brahman was all this.
neuter
to
the
from
transition
Here the
one, and infinite.'
the
can
be
the masculine gender shows that Brahman only
:

and

subject, both in the first

In English

it

may seem

in the

to

make

second sentence.
little difference whether

Brahman was this,' or this was Brahman.' In
Sanskrit too we find, Brahma khalv idam vava sarvam,
Brahman indeed is all this (Maitr. Up. IV, 6), and Sarva7;z
khalv idam Brahma, all this is Brahman indeed ( A7/and.

we

say,

'

'

'

'

'

'

Up.

Ill, 14,

But the

i).

Brahman was

all

this,

i.

logical
e.

all

meaning

that

we

being the subject, idam the predicate.

is

always that

Brahman
Brahman becomes

see now.

idam, not idam Brahman.

Thus the

Va.nka.da.si,

I, 1 H,

says

:

Ekada^endriyair yuktya j-astrewapy avagamyate
Yavat ki;;/X'id bhaved etad idawi^abdodita?;? ^agat,
which Mr. A.Venis (Pandit, V, p. 667) translates: 'Whatever may be apprehended through the eleven organs, by
argument and revelation, i. c. the world of phenomena, is
expressed by the word idam, this.' The Ta.fika.da.sx then
goes on
Ida;« sarvam pura sr/sh/er ekam evadvitiyakam
Sad cvasin namarupc nastam ity Aru;/er vaka.h.

This Mr. Vcnis translates: 'Previous to creation,
'

-S'ahk.ira

snys (p. 398,

Jcalc 'pi tat sad aikshata.

1.

5)

:

all

this

ckam evadvitiyam paramarthata idam buddhi-

XIX

INTRODUCTION.
was the existent

(sat),

one only without a second

:

name and

this is the declaration of the son of Aru7/a.'
form were not
This is no doubt a translation grammatically correct, but
from the philosophical standpoint of the Vedanta, what is
:

really

meant

is

that, before the srishti (which

not crea-

is

but the sending forth of the world, and the sending
forth of it, not as something real, but as a mere illusion),

tion,

the Real alone,

i.

e.

the Brahman, was, instead of

this,

i.

e.

was not, but the
instead of this illusory world. The
Real, i.e. Brahman, was. What became, or what seemed to
change, was Brahman, and therefore the only possible
subject, logically, is Brahman, everything else being a predicate, and a phenomenal predicate only.
If I were arguing with a European, not with an Indian
scholar, I should venture to go even a step further, and try to
illusion

prove that the idam, in this and similar sentences, does not
mean this, i. e. this world, but that originally it was intended
This use of idam,
as an adverb, meaning now, or here.
unsuspected by native scholars, is very frequent in Vedic
literature, and instances may be seen in Boehtlingk's DicThe real
In that case the translation would be
tionary.
'

:

(to ov),

O

friend,

was here

in

the beginning.'

This meaning

of idam, however, would apply only to the earliest utterances
of ancient Brahmavadins, while in later times idam was used
and understood in the sense of all that is seen, the visible universe, just as iyam by itself is used in the sense of the earth.
However, difficulties of this kind may be overcome, if
once we have arrived at a clear conception of the general
drift of the

different

number
and

The real difficulties are of a very
They consist in the extraordinary

Upanishads.

character.

of passages which

seem

to us utterly meaningless

irrational, or, at all events, so far-fetched that

we can

hardly believe that the same authors who can express the
deepest thoughts on religion and philosophy with clearness,
nay, with a kind of poetical eloquence, could have uttered in
the same breath such utter rubbish. Some of the sacrificial
technicalities, and their philosophical interpretations with
which the Upanishads abound, may perhaps in time assume

a clearer meaning, when we shall have more fully mastered

b

2

UPANISHADS.

XX

the intricacies of the Vedic ceremonial.
always remain in the Upanishads a vast

we can

only

of which in

But there

amount

will

what

of

meaningless jargon, and for the presence
these ancient mines of thought I, for my own
call

mine
of
Books
wrote to me, after reading some of the Sacred
the East, you are right, how tremendously ahead of other

part, feel quite

unable to account.

'

Yes,' a friend of

'

sacred books

is

the Bible.

The

difference strikes one as

almost unfairly great.' So it does, no doubt. But some
of the most honest believers and admirers of the Bible
have expressed a similar disappointment, because they had

formed their ideas of what a Sacred Book ought to be,
The Rev. J. M. Wilson, in
theoretically, not historically.
his excellent Lectures

writes:
it

'The Bible

is

on the Theory of Inspiration, p. 32,
so unlike what you would expect;

does not consist of golden sayings and rules of

life

;

give

explanations of the philosophical and social problems of
contain teachings
the past, the present, and the future
;

immeasurably unlike those of any other book

;

but

it

con-

tains history, ritual, legislation, poetry, dialogue, prophecy,

memoirs, and letters it contains much that is foreign to
your idea of what a revelation ought to be. But this is not
There is not only much that is foreign, but much that
all.
The Jews tolerated
is opposed, to your preconceptions.
slavery, polygamy, and other customs and cruelties of
imperfect civilisation. There are the vindictive psalms, too,
with their bitter hatred against enemies, psalms which
we chant in our churches. How can we do so.'' There are
;

stories of immorality, of treachery, of crime.

How

can

we

the Bible has been and

is

a truly sacred,

because a truly historical book, for there

is

nothing more

read them?'

Still

sacred in this world than the history of man, in his search
after his highest ideals.

All ancient books which have once

been called sacred by man,

will

have their lasting place

the history of mankind, and those

who

in

possess the courage,

the perseverance, and the self-denial of the true miner,
of the true scholar, will find even in the darkest

and
and dustiest

what they are seeking for, real nuggets of thought,
and precious jewels of faith and hope.

shafts

INTRODUCTION.

XXI

L

THE KAri7A-UPANISHAD.
The

Ka/Z/a-upanishad

is

probably more widely known

than any other Upanishad.
translation,

was rendered

It

formed part of the Persian
by Rammohun Roy,

into English

and has since been frequently quoted by English, French,
and German writers as one of the most perfect specimens
oPthe mystic philosophy and poetry of the ancient Hindus.
It was in the year 1845 that I first copied at Berlin the
text of this Upanishad, the commentary of 5ankara (MS. 1 27
Chambers^), and the gloss of Gopalayogin (MS. 224 Chambers). The text and commentary of 5ankara and the gloss
of Anandagiri have since been edited by Dr. Roer in the
Bibliotheca Indica, with translation and notes. There are
other translations, more or less perfect, by Rammohun Roy,
Windischmann, Foley, Weber, Muir, Regnaud, Gough, and
others. But there still remained many difficult and obscure
portions,

where

and

I differ

I

hope that

from

in

some

at least of the passages

my predecessors, not excepting .S'ankara,

succeeded in rendering the original meaning of
the author more intelligible than it has hitherto been.
I

may have
The

is in some MSS. ascribed
Chambers MS. of the combelong to that Veda 2, and in the

text of theKa///a-upanishad

to the Ya^ur-veda.

In the

mentary also it is said to
Muktikopanishad it stands first among the Upanishads of
the Black Ya^ur-veda. According to Colebrooke (Miscellaneous Essays, I, 96, note) it is referred to the Sama-veda
Generally, however, it is counted as one of the
also.
Atharva;/a Upanishads.

The

why

reason

it

is

ascribed

to

the Ya^ur-veda,

is

probably because the legend of Na/'iketas occurs in the
Brahma//a of the Taittiriya Ya^-ur-veda. Here we read
(111,1,8):

Va^a^ravasa, wishing
'

"

for

rewards,

sacrificed

is a mere copy of MS. 127.
Yarurvede Ka.'/iavallibhashyam.

MS. 133

all

his

UPANISHADS.

Xxii

He had a son, called Na>^iketas. While he was
a boy, faith entered into him at the time when the
cows that were to be given (by his father) as presents to
wealth.
still

the priests, were brought

He

in.

said

'Father, to

:

whom

me?' He said so a second and third time.
To Death, I
round and said to him
turned
father
The

wilt thou dive

'

:

give thee.'

young Gautama, as he stood
up
He (thy father) said, Go away to the house of Death,
Go therefore to Death when he is
I eive thee to Death.'

Then
:

a voice said to the

'

not at home, and dwell

house for three nights with-

in his

he should ask thee, Boy, how many nights
hast thou been here ? say, Three.' When he asks thee,
'What didst thou eat the first night?' say, 'Thy offWhat didst thou eat the second night ? say,
spring.'
out eating.

'

If

'

'

'

'Thy
say,

'

He

'

'What

cattle.'

Thy good
went

didst thou

eat

the

third

night?'

works.'

to Death, while

he was away from home, and

When
house
he dwelt
many
Death returned, he asked
nights hast
Boy, how
thou been here?' He answered: 'Three.'' 'What didst
for three nights without eating.

in his

:

thou eat the

night

first

eat the second night

the third night

?

'
'

Then he said:
Choose a boon.'
'

May

I

?

'

?'
'

'

Thy offspring.' What didst thou
Thy cattle.' What didst thou eat
'

'

'

Thy good works.'
'My respect to thee, O

return living to

my

father,'

venerable

sir!

he said.

Choose a second boon.'
Tell me how my good works may never perish.'
Then he explained to him this Na./I'iketa fire (sacrifice),
and hence his good works do not perish.
Choose a third boon.'
'

'

'

'Tell

mc

the conquest of death again.'

Then he explained

to

him

this

(chief)

Na/^iketa

fire

and hence he conquered death again ^
This story, which in the Bra.hma;/a is told in order to
explain the name of a certain sacrificial ceremony called
(sacrifice),

'
The commentator explains pnnar-mr/tyu as the death that follows after
the present inevitable rkath.

INTRODUCTION.
Na/^iketa,

was used as a peg on which

of theUpanishad. In

original form

its

xxHl
to

it

hang the doctrines

may have constituted

one Adhyaya only, and the very fact of its division into two
Adhyayas may show that the compilers of the Upanishad
were

still

aware of

We

gradual origin.

its

however, of determining

its

have no means,
we even

original form, nor should

be justified in maintaining that the first Adhyaya ever existed
by itself, and that the second was added at a much later
time. Whatever its component elements may have been
before it was an Upanishad, when it was an Upanishad it

more nor

consisted of six Vallis, neither

The name
Vedic work,
Upanishads.

of

is

valli,

important.
Professor

the sense of chapter,
or branches of the
branch,

i.

e.

occurs again in the Taittiriya

It

thinks that

valli,

creeper, in

based on a modern metaphor, and

for a creeper, attached to the j-akhas

Veda ^

same sense

the

in

less.

creeper, as a subdivision of a

Weber

is

was primarily intended
used

lit.

as

More likely^ however, it was
par van, a joint, a shoot, a

a division.

Various attempts have been made to distinguish the
more modern from the more ancient portions of our Upani-

No

shad^.

doubt there are peculiarities of metre, gramthought which indicate the more

mar, language, and
primitive or the

There

are

more modern character of certain verses.
which offend us, and there are

repetitions

several passages which are clearly taken over from other

Upanishads, where they seem to have had their original
place.

Thirty-five years ago,

Upanishad,

saw no

when

I

first

worked

at this

what I
thought the original text of the Upanishad must have
been.
I now feel that we know so little of the time and
the circumstances when these half-prose and half-metrical
Upanishads were first put together, that I should hesitate
I

^

History of Indian Literature,

*

Though

remarks on

it

re-establishing

difficulty in

p. 93,

note

;

p.

157.

would be unfair to hold Professor Weber responsible

for his

and other questions connected with the Upanishads published
many years ago (Indische Studien, 1853, p. 197), and thougii I have hardly ever
thought it necessary to criticise them, some of his remarks are not without their
value even now.
this

\

UPANISHADS.

Xxlv

expunging even the most modern-sounding lines
from the original context of these Vedantic essays
The mention of Dhatrz, creator, for instance (Ka//z. Up.
rise
II, 30), is certainly startling, and seems to have given
and
dhatrz
But
to a very early conjectural emendation.

before

vidhatr/ occur in the

and

in

hymns

of the Rig-veda (X, 82,

the Upanishads (Maitr. Up. VI, 8}

as almost a personal deity,

a),

and Dhatr/,

;

invoked with Pra^apati

is

in

Deva, in the sense of God (Ka///. Up.
II, 12), is equally strange, but occurs in other Upanishads
Much might
^veta^v. Up. I, 3).
also (Maitr. Up. VI, 23

Rig-veda X, 184,

i.

;

Up. Ill, 2 Mwid. Up.
Up. VI, 5), as being character-

said about setu, bridge (Ka///.

be

II, 2, 5),
istic

adarja, mirror (Ka//^.

of a later age.

But setu

is

;

not a bridge, in our sense of

the word, but rather a wall, a bank, a barrier,
frequently in other Upanishads

Up. VIII, 4

mentioned

are

mirrors,

Bnh. Up.

;

^rauta-sutras.

date of the

first

ideas the

To

first

;

the Brzhadarawyaka and the

in

we know something more about the

Till

the Upanishads,

IV, 4,

and occurs

Up. VII, 7 iT/zand.
22, &c.), while adar.fas, or

(Maitr.

and the

last

how

we

are

composition or compilation of
to tell

what subjects and what

author or the last collector was familiar with

attempt the impossible

may seem

courageous, but

?

it is

hardly scholarlike.

With regard

to faulty or irregular readings,

know whether they

we can never

are due to the original composers, the

compilers, the repeaters, or lastly the writers of the Upanishads.

It is

easy to say that adrejya {Mwud. Up.

I, 1,

6)

ought to be adrzVya but who would venture to correct that
form ? Whenever that verse is quoted, it is quoted with
;

adrcrya, not adr/^ya.

The commentators themselves

tell

us sometimes that certain forms are either Vedic or due to
carelessness (pramadapa/'/;a); but that very fact

shows that

such a form, for instance, as samiyata (AV^and. Up.
rests on an old authority.

I,

12, 3)

No doubt, if we have the original text of an author, and
can prove that his text was corrupted by later compilers
*

See Regnaud, Le Pessimisme Brahmanique, Annales du Muse'e Guimet,

1880;

torn,

i,

p. loi.

XXV

INTRODUCTION.
or copyists or printers,

we have

a right to remove those

whether they be improvements or corrupBut where, as in our case, we can never hope to gain
access to original documents, and where we can only hope,
by pointing out what is clearly more modern than the rest
or, it may be, faulty, to gain an approximate conception
of what the original composer may have had in his mind,
later alterations,
tions.

before handing his composition over to the safe keeping
of oral

much

tradition,

it

is

almost a duty to discourage, as

as lies in our power, the

work

of reconstructing an

old text by so-called conjectural emendations or

critical

omissions.
I have little doubt, for instance, that the three verses
16-18 in the first Valli of the Ka//^a-upanishad are later
additions, but I should not therefore venture to remove
them. Death had granted three boons to Na/^iketas, and

In a later portion, however, of the Upanishad
the expression srmka vittamayi occurs, which I have

no more.
(II, 3),

translated

by the road which leads
'

to wealth.'

As

it

is

some reader
him by Death,

said that Na^iketas did not choose that srnika,

must have supposed that a sr/iika was offered
S;7nka, however, meant commonly a string or necklace, and
hence arose the idea that Death must have offered a neckan additional gift to Na/^iketas. Besides this, there
was another honour done to Na/('iketas by Mr/tyu, namely,
his allowing the sacrifice which he had taught him, to be
called by his name. This also, it was supposed, ought to have
been distinctly mentioned before, and hence the insertion
lace as

They are clumsily put in, for
of the three verses 16-18.
verse 16 ought not to have
again/
after punar evaha,'he said
commenced by tam abravit, he said to him.' They contain
'

to

be called

by verse

19, 'This,

nothing new, for the fact that the sacrifice
after Na/^iketas

was

sufficiently indicated

O

thy

fire

Na^'iketas,

is

is

which leads to heaven, which thou
But so anxious was the

hast chosen as thy second boon.'
interpolator to impress
sacrifice should

of

the

upon his hearers the
go by that name,

in future

metre, he inserted

verse 19.

fact that the
that, in spite

tavaiva, 'of thee alone,'

in

UPANISHADS.

XXVI

II.

THE MUTV^i^AKA-UPANISHAD.
This

It is a
an Upanishad of the Atharva-veda.
But,
i. e. it has the form of a Mantra.

is

Mantra-upanishad,
the

as

verse,

it

commentators observe, though it is written in
is not, Hke other Mantras, to be used for sacri-

purposes.

ficial

Its

only object

is

to

teach the highest

knowledge of Brahman, which cannot
be obtained either by sacrifices or by worship (upasana),
knowledge, the
but

by

such

teaching

only

as

is

imparted

the

in

Upanishad.

A

breath, &c.,

but without

hundred times restrain his
the Upanishad his ignorance

Nor

right to continue for ever in the

does not cease.

performance of

man may
is it

sacrificial

a

and other good works,

if

wishes to obtain the highest knowledge of Brahman.

one

The

Sannyasin alone, who has given up everything, is qualified
know and to become Brahman. And thoufjh it mieht
seem from Vedic legends that Grz'hasthas also who conto

tinued to live with their families, performing
required of

them by law, had been

knowledge,

this,

we

are told,

is

all

the duties

in possession of the

a mistake.

highest

Works and know-

ledge can be as

little together as darkness and light.
This Upanishad too has been often translated since it
first appeared in the Persian translation of Dara Shukoh.

My own

copy of the text and .Sahkara's commentary from
Chambers Collection was made in October
Both are now best accessible in the Bibliotheca
1844.
Indica, where Dr. Roer has published the text, the comcommentary by vSaiikara, a gloss by Ananda^/7ana, and an

the

MS.

in the

English translation with notes.

The

title

explained.

of the Upanishad, Mwir^aka, has not yet been

The Upanishad

is called Muw/aka-upanishad,
and its three chapters are each called Mu;/^/akam. Native
commentators explain it as the shaving Upanishad, that is,
as the Upanishad which cuts off the errors of the mind, like
a razor. Another Upanishad also is called Kshurika, the

razor,

a

name which

is

explained in the text

itself

as

1

INTRODUCTION.

XXVI

meaning an instrument for removing illusion and error.
The title is all the more strange because Muudaka, in its
commonest acceptation, is used as a term of reproach for
Buddhist mendicants, who are called Shavelings,' in opposition to the Brahmans, who dress their hair carefully, and
often display by its peculiar arrangement either their family
Many doctrines of the Upanishads are, no
or their rank.
'

doubt, pure Buddhism, or rather Buddhism

is

on many points

the consistent carrying out of the principles laid

down

in

seems impossible that this should be the origin of the name, unless
we suppose that it was the work of a man who was, in one
sense, a Muw^aka, and yet faithful to the Brahmanic law.
the Upanishads.

Yet, for that very reason,

it

III.

THE TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.
The Taittiriyaka-upanishad seems
place in the Taittiriya-Ara^yaka.
as Rajendralal Mitra has

shown

to have had its original
This Ara/zyaka consists,

in the Introduction to his

work
Out of its ten Prapa///akas, the
Arawyaka proper, or the Karma-ka;/(^a,
edition of the

in

the Bibliotheca Indica, of three por-

tions.

Then

first

six form the

as Sayaz/a writes.

follow Prapa//mkas VII, VIII, and IX, forming the

Taittiriyaka-upanishad; and lastly, the tenth Prapa//^aka,
the Ya^>7iki or Mahanaraya//a-upanishad, which is called
a Khila, and was therefore considered by the Brahmans

themselves as a later and supplementary work.
5ahkara, in his commentary on the Taittiriyaka-upanishad, divides his work into three Adhyayas, and calls the
first

5iksha-valli, the second the Brahmananda-valli, while

he gives no special name to the Upanishad explained in the
This, however, may be due to a mere
third Adhyaya.
accident, for

division of the Taittiriyaka-upanimentioned, we always have three \ the

whenever the

shad into Vallis

is

1 5'ahkara (ed. Roer,
p. 141) himself speaks of two Vallis. teaching the
paramatman-j7ana (the 5'iksha-valli has nothing to do with this), and Anquetil
has Anandbli = Anaiida-valli, and Bharkbli = 13hn'gi.i-Yalli.

UPANISIIADS.

XXVlii

5iksha-valli, the Brahmananda-valli,

Properly, however,

it

is

and the Bhngu-valli^

only the second

Anuvaka

of the

seventh Prapa//^aka which deserves and receives in the text
of the first
itself the name of ^ikshadhyaya, while the rest
Valli ought to go

by the name

of Sawhita-upanishad^', or

Sawhiti-upanishad.

commentary on the Taittiriya-ara;/yaka,
explains the seventh chapter, the 5ikshadhyaya (twelve
His commentary, howanuvakas), as Sawhiti-upanishad.
ever, is called 5iksha-bhashya. The same Saya;/a treats the
Saya;/a^

in his

eighth and ninth Prapa///akas as the Varu;^y-upanishad^.
The Ananda-valli and Bhr/gu-valli are quoted among the

Upanishads of the Atharva;/a^
At the end of each Valli there is an index of the Anuvakas which it contains. That at the end of the first Valli
It gives

is intelligible.

the Pratikas,

of each Anuvaka, and states their

end of the

first

At
i.

i.

e.

the

initial

e. five

we have the

sections in the

initial,

i.

e.

Anuvaka.

the

words satyam
paragraphs at the

final

five short

words,

At

as twelve.
'

the end of the second Anuvaka, where

the final words,
psinka..

/^a,

e

number

Anuvaka, we have the

vadishyami,' and pa^-^a
end.

i.

we expect

j-iksham,

At

and then

the end of the

Anuvaka, we have the final words, but no number of
At the end of the fourth Anuvaka, we have the
final words of the three sections, followed by one paragraph at the end of the fifth Anuvaka, three final words,
and two paragraphs, though the first paragraph belongs
In the sixth Anuvaka, we
clearly to the third section.
have the final words of the two Anuvakas, and one paragraph. In the seventh Anuvaka, there is the final word

third

sections.

;

'

The

*

See Taitlhiyaka-upanishad, ed. Roer,

'

See M. M., Alphal.>ctisches Veizeichniss der Upanishads, p. 144.
The Anul<rama;ii of the Atreyi school (see Weber, Indische Studien,

*

thiid Valli ends with Bhngiir ity upanishat.
p. 12.

p. 108) of the Tailtiriyaka gives likewise the

ninth Prapa/Aaka, while

it

calls the seventh

name

of Varuni to the eighth

II,

and

Prapa/Aaka the Sawhiti, and the

tenth Prapa/Aaka the Ya^/7iki-upanishad.
ever, a different text, as

That Anukiama?ii presupposes, howmay be seen both from the number of Anuvakas, and

from the position assigned to the Ya^iiiki as between the Sa/whiti and Vaiuwi
Upanishads.
'

See.M.M., Alphabctisches Verzeichniss der Upanishads.

INTRODUCTION.

XXIX

sarvam, and one paragraph added. In the eighth Anuvaka,
we have the initial word, and the number of sections, viz.
final words of one
and six paragraphs. In the tenth Anuvaka, there
is the initial word, and the number of paragraphs, viz. six.
In the eleventh Anuvaka, we have the final words of four
sections, and seven paragraphs, the first again forming an

In the ninth Anuvaka, there are the

ten.

section,

The

integral portion of the last section.

twelfth

Anuvaka

and five paragraphs. If five, then the j-anti
has one
would here have to be included, while, from what is said
afterwards, it is clear that as the first word of the Valli is
section,

sa.m na//, so the last

is

vaktaram.

In the second Valli the index to each
at the
I

end of the

Anuvaka pratika

st

:

is

given

brahmavid, and some other catch-

:

Number

words, idam, ayam, idam.

2nd Anuvaka

Anuvaka

Valli.

of sections, 21.

pratika: annad, and other catchwords;

:

Sections, 26.
last word, pukk/^a.
3rd Anuvaka: pratika: pra;/am, and other catchwords;
last

word, puH'//a.

4th Anuvaka:
last

5th

last

pratika:

word,

Anuvaka

Sections, 22.

:

Sections, 18.

pukk/ia..

pratika vi^/7anam, and other catchwords

word,

:

pukk/ia..

Taitt. Ar. 7).

8th

asanneva, then atha (deest in

Sections, 28.

Anuvaka pratika: asat. Sections, 16.
Anuvaka: pratika: bhishasmat, and other
:

words;
9th

;

Sections, 22.

6th Anuvaka: pratika:
7th

and other catchwords;

yata//,

Anuvaka

last
:

word, upasahkramati.

pratika:

(deest in Taitt. Ar.).

yata/^

catch-

Sections, 51.

kutai-zJ-ana

;

then tarn

Sections, 11.

In the third Valli the Anukramaz/i stands at the end.
1. The first word, bhr/gu//, and some other catchwords.
Sections, 13.
2.

3.
4.
5.

The
The
The
The

first

word, annam.

first

word, pra//am.

first

word, mana/^.

first

word, vi^'anam, and some other words.

tions, 12.

Sections, 12.
Sections, 12.

Sections, 12.

Sec-

UPANISHADS.

XXX
6.

The

7.

The

8.

The

9.

The

first

word, ananda, and some other words.

Sec-

tions, lo.

words,

first

annaw na

nindyat,

pra;^a/<;,

jariram.

Sections, 11.

words, anna;;^ na pariZ-akshita, apo gyoXMi.

first

Sections, 11.
first

words,

annam bahu

kurvita pr/thivim akaj-a.

Sections, 11.
ID.

Sections 61. The last
first words, na ka^/^ana.
words of each section are given for the tenth Anu-

The

vaka.

IV.

THE Bi?/HADARAA"YAKA-UPANISHAD.
This Upanishad has been
that

it

calls for

no

so often edited

special remarks.

vSatapatha-brahma^a.

and discussed

forms part of the

In the Madhyandina-i-akha of that

Brahma;/a, which has been edited
the

It

by

Professor Weber,

Upanishad, consisting of six adhyayas, begins with

the fourth adhyaya (or third prapa//^aka) of the fourteenth

book.

There is a commentary on the Br/hadara;/yaka-upanishad
by Dviveda^rinarayawasunu Dvivedagahga, which has been
carefully edited by Weber in his great edition of the
^^atapatha-brahma/za from a

MS.

in the

Bodleian Library,

formerly belonging to Dr. Mill, in which the Upanishad

is

called Madhyandiniya-brahma;/a-upanishad.

In the Ka/zva-i-akha the Br/hadara/zyaka-upanishad forms
the seventeenth book of the 5atapatha-brahma«a, consisting
of six adhyayas.

As

commentary and the gloss of Anandatirtha,
Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica, follow the
Ka;/va-jakha, I have followed the same text in my transvSankara's

edited by Dr.

lation.

Besides Dr. Roer's edition of the text, commentary, and
gloss of this Upanishad, there

There

is

is

also a translation of

Foley's edition of the text.
it

by Dr. Roer, with

extracts from 6"ankara's commentary.

large

INTRODUCTION.

XXXf

V.

THE ^VETASVATARA-UPANISHAD.
The

5vetai-vatara-upanishad has been handed

down

as

one of the thirty-three Upanishads of the Taittiriyas, and
though this has been doubted, no real argument has ever
been brought forward to invalidate the tradition which
represents it as belonging to the Taittiriya or Black Ya^urveda.

sometimes called KS'vetai-vatara/^am Mantropanishad
and is frequently spoken of in the plural, as 6"vetaj-vataropanishada/^. At the end of the last Adhyaya we read
It is

(p. 274),

that vSvetaj-vatara told

it

among

to the best

the hermits,

and that it should be kept secret, and not be taught to any
one except to a son or a regular pupil. It is also called
6"vetaj-va\ though, it would seem, for the sake of the metre
The 5"veta.<-vataras are mentioned as a ^akha^,
only.
subordinate to the A'arakas
to

them

this

in particular,

;

but of the literature belonging

nothing

is

ever mentioned beyond

Upanishad.

means

vSveta^vatara

known and

a white mule,

and as mules were

prized in India from the earliest times, wSveta-

name

is no more startling than
an epithet of Ar^-una. Now as no
one would be likely to conclude from the name of one of
the celebrated Vedic i?/shis, Sya.va.sva., 1. e. black horse,
that negro influences might be discovered in his hymns, it

j-vatara, as

the

of a person,

Sveiksva., white horse,

is

hardly necessary to say that

tian

all

missionaries, being indicated

speculations as to Chrisof white Syro-Christian

or the teaching

influences,

by the name of

6'vetai'vatara,

are groundless '^

The
among
is

holds a very high

vSvetaj-vatara-upanishad

the Upanishads.

Though we cannot say

quoted by name by Badarayawa
'

Va^aspatyam,

*

Catal. Bodl. p. 271 a

^

See Weber, Ind. Stud.

in the

it

Vedanta-sutras,

p. 1222.
;

rank

that

p.

222

I,

pp. 400, 421.

a.

UPANISHADS.

XXxii

it

distinctly referred to as ^ruta or revealed ^

is

It is

one

of the twelve Upanishads chosen by Vidyara?/ya in
Sarvopanishad-arthanabhutiprakaj-a, and it was singled out
his

by ^ankara as worthy of a special commentary.
The ^veta^vatara-upanishad seems to me one of the
most difficult, and at the same time one of the most
Whether on that and on
interesting works of its kind.
to a more ancient or to
assigned
be
other grounds it should
a more modern period

is

what, in the present state of our

be honest, of our ignorance of minute
chronology during the Vedic period, no true scholar would
venture to assert. We must be satisfied to know that, as
a class, the Upanishads are presupposed by the Kalpaknowledge,

sCitras,

or,

that

part of the

to

some of them, called Mantra-upanishads, form
more modern Sa;//hitas, and that there are

even in the Rig-veda-sa;«hita- for which the
We
is claimed by the Anukrama;ns.
Upanishad
name of
Brahma/zathe
however,
during
frequent,
find them most
period, in the Brahmawas themselves, and, more especially,
in those portions which are called Ara;^yakas, while a large
number of them is referred to the Atharva-veda. That,
in imitation of older Upanishads, similar treatises were

portions

composed

to a comparatively recent time, has, of course,

long been known

-^

But when we approach the question whether among the
ancient and genuine Upanishads one may be older than
the other, we find that, though we may guess much, we
can prove nothing. The Upanishads belonged to Parishads

There is a stock of
Yet,
most
of them.
to
all
grown
have
the Upanishads cannot

or settlements spread
ideas,

the ideas collected in

up

in

sion.

all

over India.

common

even of expressions,

one and the same place,

still

less in regular succes-

They must have had an independent growth,

deter-

mined by individual and local influences, and opinions
which in one village might seem far advanced, would in
another be looked upon as behind the world. We may
'

See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 24 Ved. S'utra I, 1, 11
See Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. Ixvi.
;

"
"

Loc.

cit. p. Ixvii.

;

I, 4,

8

;

II, 3, 22.

INTRODUCTION.

XXXIU

admire the ingeniousness of those who sometimes in this,
sometimes in that pecuharity see a clear indication of the

modern date

of an

Upanishad, but to a conscientious

scholar such arguments are really distasteful for the very

He knows

sake of their ingeniousness.
convince

many who do

know

that they will

he
have to be got out of the way with no
small trouble, and he knows that, even if they should prove
true in the end, they will require very different support
from what they have hitherto received, before they can be
admitted to the narrow circle of scientific facts.
While fully admitting therefore that the 6'vetaj'vataraupanishad has its peculiar features and its peculiar difficulties, I must most strongly maintain that no argument that
has as yet been brought forward, seems to me to prove, in

knows they

has been

upanishad

is

the real difficulties

;

will

any sense of the word,
It

not

said,

its

for

modern

character.

instance, that the 5veta^vatara-

a sectarian Upanishad, because,

when speak-

ing of the Highest Self or the Highest Brahman,

such names to him as Hara

it

applies

Rudra

(11, 17; HI, 2 4
IV, 12; 21 22), ^iva (III, 14; IV, 10), Bhagavat (III, 14},
Agni, Aditya, Vayu, &c. (IV, 2).
But here it is simply
taken for granted that the idea of the Highest Self was
(I, lo),

;

;

;

developed

first,

and, after

was lowered again by an
personal deities.

The

it

had reached

its

highest purity,

identification with mythological

and

questions whether the conception of

the Highest Self was formed once and once only, whether
it was formed after all the personal and mythological deities
had first been merged into one Lord (Pra^apati), or whether
it was discovered behind the veil of any other name in the
mythological pantheon of the past, have never been mooted.

Why

should not an ancient Rishi have said
What we
have hitherto called Rudra, and what we worship as Agni,
or Siva., is in reality the Highest Self, thus leaving much of
the ancient mythological phraseology to be used with a
new meaning ? Why should we at once conclude that late
sectarian worshippers of mythological gods replaced again
the Highest Self, after their fathers had discovered it,
by their own sectarian names.? If we adopt the former
:

['5]

C

UPANISHADS.

Xxxiv

still show these rudera of
to be considered as more
have
would
the Incient temples,
the idea of the Brahwhich
in
those
primitive even than
its utmost purity.
reached
has
man or the Highest Self
argument in supstrong
It has been considered a very

view, the Upanishads, which

sectarian character of the 5veta-

modern and

port of the

jvatara-upanishad, that

'it

inculcates

what

called

is

Bhakti\

worshipped.'
or implicit reliance on the favour of the deity
Now it is quite true that this Upanishad possesses a very

own, by the stress which it lays on
of
the personal, and sometimes almost mythical character
bhakti,
inculcating
from
far
so
but,
Spirit
Supreme
the
that
in the modern sense of the word, it never mentions
distinct character of its

;

the very last verse, a verse which, if necessary, certain critics would soon dispose of as a palpable
If these
But that verse says no more than this
addition.

word, except

in

'

:

truths (of the Upanishad) have been

man, who

Guru

feels the highest

told to a

devotion for God, and for his

as for God, then they will shine forth indeed.'

that prove the existence of Bhakti as
^a«^/ilya-sutras-

Again,
is

it

we

Upanishad

find

it

Does
in the

?

has been said that the ^veta^vatara-upanishad

sectarian in a philosophical sense, that
of the

of the Vedanta.

it

is

in fact

an

Sahkhya system of philosophy, and not

Now

I

am

quite willing to admit that, in

origin, the Vedanta philosophy

its

high-minded

is

nearer to the Vedic

literature than any other of the six systems of philosophy,
and that if we really found doctrines, peculiar to the Sahkhya, and opposed to the Vedanta, in the vSvetajvataraupanishad, we might feel inclined to assign to our Upani-

But where is the proof of this ?
doubt there are expressions in this Upanishad which
remind us of technical terms used at a later time in the

shad a later date.

No

Saiikhya system of philosophy, but of Sahkhya doctrines,

which

*

*

I

had myself formerly suspected

in this

Upanishad,

Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 422; and History of Indian Literature, p. 238.
The Aphorisms of 6'a«(/ilya, or the Hindu Doctrine of Faith, translated by

E. B. Cowell, Calcutta, 187S.'

XXXV

INTRODUCTION.

I think it was
can on closer study find very little.
Mr. Gough who, in his Philosophy of the Upanishads, for
the first time made it quite clear that the teaching of our
Upanishad is, in the main, the same as that of the other

I

Upanishads.

'

The ^vetaxvatara-upanishad

teaches,' as

he

the one and only Self;

the

unreality of the world as a series of figments of the

self-

says, 'the unity of souls

feigning world-fiction

in

and as the

;

first

of the

fictitious

emanations, the existence of the Demiurgos or universal
soul present in every individual soul, the deity that projects

the world out of himself, that the migrating souls
the recompense of their works in former

may find

lives.'

I do not quite agree with this view of the l^vara, whom
Mr. Gough calls the Demiurgos, but he seems to me perfectly right when he says that the ^vetaj-vatara-upanishad
propounds in Sankhya terms the very principles that the

Saiikhya philosophers

One

make

their business to subvert.

it

might doubt as to the propriety of calling certain

Sankhya terms in a work written at a time when
a Sankhya philosophy, such as we know it as a system,
had as yet no existence, and when the very name sankhya
meant something quite different from the Sankhya system
Sankhya is derived from sankhya, and that
of Kapila.
meant counting, number, name, corresponding very nearly
Sankhya, as derived from it, meant
to the Greek Xoyos.
terms

'

'

more than theoretic philosophy, as opposed
to yoga, which meant originally practical religious exercises and penances, to restrain the passions and the senses
originally no

All other interpretations of these words,

in general.

they had become

But even

when

technical names, are of later date.

in their later forms,

whatever we

may

think of

the coincidences and differences between the Sankhya and
of philosophy, there is one point on which
they are diametrically opposed. Whatever else the San-

Vedanta systems

khya may

may be,
else

be,

it is

we may

Vedanta

is

it

dualistic

monistic.

it is

call

it,

not.

is

;

whatever else the Vedanta

In the Sankhya, nature, or whatever
independent of the purusha in the

Now

distinctly that nature, or

;

the 5veta.fvatara-upanishad states

what
c 2

in the

Sankhya philosophy

:

UPANISHADS.

XXXvi

intended by Pradhana, is not an independent power, but
a power (^akti) forming the very self of the Deva. Sages,'
we read, 'devoted to meditation and concentration, have
seen the power belonging to God himself, hidden in its own

is

'

qualities.'

What

is

really peculiar in the 5vetaj-vatara-upanishad

the strong stress which

Lord, the

tj-vara.

it

Deva,

is

lays on the personality of the

in the

the nearest approach to our

passage quoted,

own

is

perhaps

idea of a personal God,

though without the background which the Vedanta always
retains for it. It is God as creator and ruler of the world,
as i^vara, lord, but not as Paramatman, or the Highest Self.
The Paramatman constitutes, no doubt, his real essence,
but creation and creator have a phenomenal character
only

The

^.

creation

is

maya,

work,

in its original sense of

The creator
then of phenomenal work, then of illusion.
is mayin, in its original sense of worker or maker, but
again, in that character,

phenomenal only^.

The

Gu//as

or qualities arise, according to the Vedanta, from praknti

or maya, within, not beside, the Highest Self, and this
is

the very idea which

here expressed

is

by

'

the Self-power

of God, hidden in the guwas or determining qualities.'
easily that sakti or

being, as

How

power may become an independent

Maya, we see

in

such verses as

Sarvabhuteshu sarvatman ya jaktir aparabhava

Guwa^raya namas tasyai

But the important point

jai'vatayai pare^-vara^.

is this,

that in the 5vetaj-vatara-

upanishad this change has not taken place.
the whole of

we have one Being

it

Whatever Sankhya philosophers

everything, never two.
of a later date

Throughout

only, as the cause of

may have

imagined that they could discover

Upanishad in support of their theories \ there is not
one passage in it which, if rightly interpreted, not by itself,
but in connection with the whole text, could be quoted in
in that


'

Prathamam isvaratmana mayirupe«avatish<Aate brahma;
Mayi 9,ngato sarvam etat.
See

• iSee

p. 270,

1.

5.

Sarvatman seems a vocative,

Sarvadarsanasangraha,

p. 152.

see p. 2S0,

like parejvara.

1.

5.

INTRODUCTION.

XXXVll

support of a dualistic philosophy such as the Sarikhya, as
a system, decidedly
If

we want

is.

what seems at first sight contraGod, a Lord, a Creator, a Ruler,

to understand,

dictory, the existence of a

and at the same time the existence of the super-personal
Brahman, we must remember that the orthodox view of
the Vedanta^ is not what we should call Evolution, but
Illusion.
Evolution of the Brahman, or Pariwama, is heterodox, illusion or Vivarta is orthodox Vedanta. Brahman
is a concept involving such complete perfection that with it
evolution, or a tendency towards higher perfection, is impossible.
If therefore there is change, that change can
only be illusion, and can never claim the same reality as
Brahman. To put it metaphorically, the world, according
to the orthodox Vedantin, does not proceed from Brahman
as a tree from a germ, but as a mirage from the rays of the
sun.
The world is, as we express it, phenomenal only, but
whatever objective reality there is in it, is Brahman, 'das
Ding an sich,^ as Kant might call it.
Then what is Ij-vara or Deva, the Lord or God ? The
answers given to this question are not very explicit.

His-

no doubt, the idea of the Ijvara, the personal
God, the creator and ruler, the omniscient and omnipotent,
existed before the idea of the absolute Brahman, and
after the idea of the Brahman had been elaborated, the
difficulty of effecting a compromise between the two ideas,
had to be overcome. Ij-vara, the Lord, is Brahman, for what
else could he be ? But he is Brahman under a semblance,
the semblance, namely, of a personal creating and governing God.
He is not created, but is the creator, an office
too low, it was supposed, for Brahman. The power which

torically,

ti-vara to create, was a power within him, not independent of him, whether we call it Devatma.mkti, Maya,
or Prakr/ti.
That power is really inconceivable, and it

enabled

has assumed such different forms in the mind of different
Vedantists, that in the end

Maya

the creating power, nay, as having

1

Vedantaparibhasha,

herself

is

represented as

created li-vara himself.

in the Pandit, vol. iv, p. 496.

\
.'

/

:

UPANISHADS.

XXXvili

our Upanishad, however, tj-vara is the creator, and
though, philosophically speaking, we should say that he was
conceived as phenomenal, yet we must never forget that
In

the phenomenal

the form of the

is

fore an aspect of

Brahman ^

Dasa Mitral

the spirit

'is

real,

and

li-vara there-

'This God,' says Pramada
conscious

the

of

universe.

Whilst an extremely limited portion, and that only of the
material universe, enters into my consciousness, the whole
of the

universe, together, of course, with

conscious

material one that hangs upon
ness

And

of God.'

it,

the

enters into the conscious-

again, 'Whilst

we

(the ^ivatmans)

If we
we know him as Brahman if we truly
know ourselves, we know ourselves as Brahman. This
being so, we must not be surprised if sometimes we find

are subject to
truly

know

M^ya, Maya

is

subject to l^ara.

l^vara,

;

tjvara sharply distinguished from Brahman, whilst at other

times li-vara and

Brahman

Another argument

in

are interchanged.'

support of the sectarian character

brought forward, not by
European students only, but by native scholars, namely,
that the very name of Kapila, the reputed founder of the

of the 6"veta^vatara-upanishad

is

Sahkhya philosophy, occurs in it. Now it is quite true
if we read the second verse of the fifth Adhyaya by
itself, the occurrence of the word Kapila may seem startling.
But if we read it in connection with what precedes and fol-

that

we

anything unusual in it. It says
he who, being one only, rules over every germ
it is he who,
(cause), over all forms, and over all germs

lows,
'

shall see hardly

It is

;

in the beginning,

whom
Now it is

fiery,

bears in his thoughts the wise son, the

he wished to look on while he was born.'
quite clear to

me

that the subject in this verse

same as in IV, ii, where the same words are used,
and where yo yonbn yonim adhitish//^aty eka/i refers clearly
to Brahman.
It is equally clear that the prasuta, the son,
the offspring of Brahman, in the Vedanta sense, can only
be the same person who is elsewhere called Hirawyagarbha,
is

the

*

*

Savisesham Brahma, or sabalam Brahma.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1878, p. 40.

INTRODUCTION.
the personified Brahman.
'

He the

creator

Thus we read
of

Hira/zyagarbha;' and in IV,
sion which

is

garbha being

before, III, 4,

and supporter of the gods, Rudra, the great

(maharshi), the lord

seer

XXXIX

all,

11,

formerly gave birth to

we have

the very expres-

used here, namely, 'that he saw Hira;/yaUnfortunately, a

born.'

new

adjective

is

applied in our verse to Hiraz/yagarbha, namely, kapila,
and this has called forth interpretations totally at variance

with the general tenor of the Upanishad.
kapilam, reddish, fiery

^,

any other

of Hiraz/yagarbha, no one,

moment

for a

instead of

If,

had been used
would have hesitated

epithet

I believe,

to recognise the fact that our text simply

repeats the description of Hira;/yagarbha in his relation

Brahman,

to

for the other epithet rtshim, like

too often applied to

is

Brahman himself and

maharshim,
to Hira;/ya-

garbha to require any explanation.
But it is a well known fact that the Hindus, even as early
as the Brahmawa-period, were fond of tracing their various
branches of knowledge back to Brahman or to Brahman
Svayambhu and then through Pra^apati, who even in the
Rig-veda (X, 121, 10) replaces Hira;/yagarbha, and sometimes through the Devas, such as Mrityu, Vayu, Indra,
Agni"^, &c., to the various ancestors of their ancient families.

In the beginning of the Mu//<^akopanishad

we

are told

Atharvan to Aiigir,
Angir to Satyavaha Bharadva^a, Bharadva^a to Ahgiras,
Ahgiras to 5aunaka. Manu, the ancient lawgiver, is called
both Hairawyagarbha and Svayambhuva, as descended from
Svayambhu or from Hirawyagarbha^ Nothing therefore
was more natural than that the same tendency should have
that

led

Brahman

some one

told

it

to Atharvan,

to assign the authorship of a great philoso-

phical system like the Saiikhya to Hirawyagarbha, if not
And if the name of Hira;/yato Brahman Svayambhu.

garbha had been used already for the ancestors of other
sages, and the inspirers of other systems, what could be
more natural than that another name of the same Hirawya>

2

3

see IV, i; 4.
nila, harita, lohitaksha
See Vawsa-brahma;ia, ed. Burnell, p. 10; Bnhadara«yaka-up. pp. 185, 224.

Other colours, instead of kapila, are
See

M. M.,

India, p. 372.

;

UPANISHADS.

X1

garbha should be chosen, such as Kapila. If we are told
that Kapila handed his knowledge to Asuri, Asuri to TslhksLslkha, this again is in perfect keeping with the character
Asuri occurs in the Va;;zj-as
of literary tradition in India.
of the 6'atapatha-brahma;/a (see above, pp. 187, 226)

;

Tailka.-

might be either a general name or
He is
a proper name of an ascetic, Buddhist or otherwise.
quoted in the Sahkhya-sutras, V, 32 VI, 6<S.
But after all this was settled, after Kapila had been
accepted, like Hira«yagarbha, as the founder of a great
system of philosophy, there came a reaction. People had
now learnt to believe in a real Kapila, and when looking out
for credentials for him, they found them wherever the word
jikha^ having

five tufts,

;

Kapila occurred

in old

writings.

The question whether
who took the name

there ever was a real historical person

and taught the Sahkhya-sutras, does not concern
What is instructive is
I see no evidence for it.
this, that our very passage, which may have suggested at
first the name of Kapila, as distinct from Hirawyagarbha
Kapila, was later on appealed to to prove the primordial
of Kapila

us here.

existence of a Kapila, the founder of the

sophy.

However,

it

Sahkhya

philo-

requires but a very slight acquaintance

with Sanskrit literature and very

little reflection

in

to see that the author of our verse could never have

order

dreamt

known to him as a great
was such a man, to a divine rank^.

of elevating a certain Kapila,

philosopher,

if

there ever

Hirawyagarbha kapila

may have

given birth to Kapila, the

hero of the Sahkhya philosophers, but Kapila, a real

human

person, was never

changed into Hira/^yagarbha kapila.
Let us see now what the commentators say. 6"ahkara
first explains kapilam by kanakaw
kapilavar;/am ....
Hira;/yagarbham. Kapilo 'gra^a iti pura//ava>('anat. Kapilo Hirawyagarbho va nirdii'yate. But he afterwards quotes
some verses in support of the theory that Kapila was a
^'

*

For

fuller

information on Paw^-arikha, Kapila, &c., see F. Hall's Preface

Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 433.
Weber, Hist, of Indian Literature, p. 236.
This ought to be Kanakavarwam, and I hope will not be identified with the

to Sahkhya-prava^ana-bhashya, p. 9 seq.
''

'

name of Buddha

in

a former existence.

;

INTRODUCTION.

xll

Paramarshi, a portion of Vish/m, intended to destroy error
in the Krita. Yuga, a teacher of the Sahkhya philosophy.

Vi^«anatman explains the verse rightly, and without any
Sankhya teacher.
5ankarananda goes a step further, and being evidently
fully aware of the misuse that had been made of this
passage, even in certain passages of the Mahabharata

reference to Kapila, the

(XII, 13254, 13703), and elsewhere, declares distinctly that
kapila cannot be meant for the teacher of the Sankhya

namamatrasamyena

(na tu sankhyapra//eta kapila/^

He

graha7/e syad atiprasaiiga/^).
interpretation,

viz.

is

avyakrztasya

fully

tad-

aware of the true

prathamakaryabhutaw

kapila;;/ vi^itravar;/a;;z ^^lanakriya^-aktyatmaka;;/ Hira;;ya-

garbham ityartha//, but he yields to another temptation,
and seems to prefer another view which makes Kapila
Vasudevasyavatarabhtata;;/ Sagaraputra;za;;/ dagdharam, an
Avatara of Vasudeva, the burner of the sons of Sagara.

What

vast conclusions

may be drawn from

no

facts,

may

be seen in Weber's Indische Studien, vol. i, p. 430, and even
in his History of Indian Literature, published in 1878.

Far more

explain than these supposed allu-

difficult to

sions to the authors

and to the teaching of the Sankhya

philosophy are the frequent references in the 5veta.yvataraupanishad to definite numbers, which are supposed to point
to certain classes of subjects as arranged in the

Sankhya

and other systems of philosophy. The Sahkhya philosophy
name is
is fond of counting and arranging, and its very
it numbecause
chosen
been
have
sometimes supposed to
certainly
is
It
treats.
it
which
bers (saiikhya) the subjects of
true that

if

we meet,

as

we do

if

some

the later

the vSvetawatara-upani-

numbered as

shad, with classes of things \
five, eight,

in

sixteen, twenty, forty-eight, fifty

one, two, three,

and more, and

numbers agree with those recognised
Sahkhya and Yoga systems, we feel doubtful as

of these

in

to

whether these coincidences are accidental, or whether, if not
accidental, they are due to borrowing on the part of those
I feel
later systems, or on the part of the Upanishads.
1

See

I,

4

;

5

;

VI,

3-

UPANISHADS.

xlii

it

come to a decision on this point. Even so
hymns of the Rig-veda we meet with these

impossible to

early as the

numbers assigned to days and months and seasons, rivers
and countries, sacrifices and deities. They clearly prove the

amount of

existence of a considerable

intellectual labour

which had become fixed and traditional before the composition of certain hymns, and they prove the same in the
But beyond this, for the
case of certain Upanishads.
and I must say that
present, I should not like to go
the attempts of most of the Indian commentators at explaining such numbers by a reference to later systems of
philosophy or cosmology, are generally very forced and
;

unsatisfactory.

One more

point I ought to mention as indicating the age

of the vSvetaj-vatara-upanishad,

many of

its

which

verses,

and that

may be due

the obscurity of

is

to a corruption of the

and the number of various readings, recognised as
such, by the commentators.
Some of them have been
mentioned in the notes to my translation.
The text of this Upanishad was printed by Dr. Roer in
the Bibliotheca Indica, with 5ahkara's commentary. I have
text,

consulted besides, the

commentary

of Vi^>7anatman, the

pupil of Paramaha;;zsa-parivra^aka/^arya-i-rima^-6^«anotta-

maMrya, MS.

I.

and a third commentary, by

O. 1133;

vSahkarananda, the pupil of Paramaha7;^sa-parivra^akaMr-

yanandatman, MS.

I.

O, 1878. These were kindly lent me
liberal librarian of the India

by Dr. Rost, the learned and
Office.

VI.

PRA5A^A-UPANISHAD.
This Upanishad

is

called the

Frasna. or Sha/-praj^7a-

upanishad, and at the end of a chapter
iti

pra^>7aprativa/('anam,

question.

It is

i.

e.

we

find occasionally

thus ends the answer to the

ascribed to the Atharva-veda, and occa-

most important
mentioned in the

sionally to the Pippalada-i-akha, one of the

jakhas of that Veda.

Pippalada

is

Upanishad as the name of the principal teacher.
vSahkara, in the beginning of his commentary, says:

INTRODUCTION.

xliii

Mantroktasyarthasya vistaranuvadidam Brahmawam arabhyate, which would mean this Brahmawa is commenced
as more fully repeating what has been declared in the
'

Mantra.'

This, however, does not,

Mantra or hymn

in the

I

believe, refer

to a

Atharva-veda-sawhita, but to the

Mu;/^aka-upanishad, which, as written in verse,

is

some-

times spoken of as a Mantra, or Mantropanishad. This
one might
is also the opinion of Anandagiri, who says,
think that it was mere repetition (punarukti), if the
'

which has been explained by the
here again by the Brahma;/a.'
taught
Mantras, were to be

essence of the

Self,

For he adds, by the Mantras " Brahma devanam," &c.,'
and this is evidently meant for the beginning of the
'

Mu//^aka-upanishad,' Brahma devanam.' Anandagiri refers
again to the Muw/aka in order to show that the Frasua. is
not a mere repetition, and if 5ahkara calls the beginning
of

it

a Brahma7/a, this must be taken in the more general
Mantropanishad is a name
is not Mantra^'

sense of 'what

used of several Upanishads which are written in verse, and
some of which, like the tsa., have kept their place in the
Sawhitas.

VII.

MAITRAYAiV^A-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.
In the case of this Upanishad we must
to

settle its

right

translation of

and

it,

states that

of all attempt

Maitri or Maitraya;nya-upanishad,
belongs to the Maitraya;nya-.fakha of the

calls

it

first

Professor Cowell, in his edition and

title.
it

formed the concluding portion of a lost Brahmawa of that 5akha, being preceded by
the sacrificial (karma) portion, which consisted of four books.
In his MSS. the title varied between Maitry-upanishad
Black Yagur-veda, and that

it

and Maitri-.yakha-upanishad. A Poona MS.
yamya-.yakha-upanishad, and a MS. copied
Eckstein, Maitrayawiyopanishad.

I

calls

it

Maitra-

for Baron von
myself in the Alpha-

of
betical List of the Upanishads, published in the Journal
>

vol.

Mantravyatiriktabhage tu brahma«asabdaA, Rig-veda, Saya«a's Introduction,
i,

p. 23.

^

UPANISHADS.

xllv

the

German

ya;/as, or the

In a

it, No. 104, Maitraya;?a
Upanishad of the Maitra-

Oriental Society, called

or Maitri-upanishad,

i.e.

either the

Upanishad of

MS. which

our Upanishad

is

I

Maitri, the principal teacher.

received from Dr. Burnell, the

title

of

Maitraya//i-brahma«a-upanishad, varying

with Maitraya7zi-brahma;/a-upanishad, and vSriya^ujsakha-

yam Maitraya;nya-brahma;/a-upanishad.
The next question is by what name this Upanishad

is

quoted by native authorities.

Vidyara;^ya, in his Sarvo-

panishad-arthanubhutipraka^a^

v. i,

yawiyanamni ya^ushi

speaks of the Maitra-

and he mentions Maitra (not

j-akha,

Maitri) as the author of that .Sakha (vv. 5^^ 150).

In the Muktika-upanishad^
Maitraya/^i

name
list

as

the

we meet with

twenty- fourth

of Maitreyi as the twenty-ninth

;

name

the

Upanishad,

with

and again,

of the sixteen Upanishads of the Sama-veda,

Maitraya;n and Maitreyi as the fourth and

Looking

in

we

of

the
the
find

fifth.

we should come to
our Upanishad derives its name from

at all this evidence, I think

the conclusion that

5akha of the Maitraya;/as, and may therefore be called
Maitrayawa-upanishad or Maitraya«i Upanishad. Maitraya;/a-brahma«a-upanishad seems likewise correct, and
the

Maitraya«i-brahma;/a- upanishad, like Kaushitaki-brahma;/a-upanishad and Va^asaneyi-sawhitopanishad, might
be defended, if Maitrayanin were known as a further derivative of Maitrayawa.

If the

teacher Maitri or Maitra,

the

name
title

is

formed from the

of Maitri-upanishad

would also be correct, but I doubt whether Maitri-upanishad would admit of any grammatical justification
Besides this Maitraya«a-brahma;/a-upanishad, however,
MS. of what is called the Maitreyopanishad,
sent to me likewise by the late Dr. Burnell.
It is very
I

possess a

and contains no more than the substance of the first
Prapa//^aka of the Maitraya«a-brahma;/a-upanishad. I give

short,

'

See Cowell, Maitr. Up. pref. p.

"

Calcutta,

"

iv.

791 (,1869), P- 4; also as quoted in the Mahavakya-ratnavali, p. 2^
Dr. Burnell, in his Tanjore Catalogue, mentions, p. 35", a Maitrayawi1

brahma«opanishad, which can hardly be a right
yawiya and Mailrcyibrahma^ia.

title,

and

p. 36>> a

Maitra-

INTRODUCTION.
the text of
in

my

it,

as far as

possession

Hari//

it

xlv

can be restored from the one

MS.

:

Om. Br/hadratho

vai

nama

ra^a vaira^ye putra;;^

manyamana// j-ariraw vairagyam upeto 'ra;/yaw nir^agama. Sa tatra paramam tapa^
adityam udikshamawa urdhvas tish//^aty. Ante sahasrasya
muner antikam a^agama^. Atha Br/hadratho brahmavitpravaram munindraw sampu^ya stutva bahuW^ prawamam
akarot.
So 'bravid agnir ivadhumakas te^asa nirdahann
nidhapayitvedam

a.ssLSVSita.m

ivatmavid Bhagava;! >^/^akayanya, uttish//^ottish///a vara;«

ra^anam abravit ^. Sa tasmai punar namaskrzBhagavan na(ha)matmavit tva;;^ tattvavi/^ k/mj'rumo vayam sa tvaw no bruhity etad vratam purastad
aj-akyam ma prikk/ia. prai-^Tam Aikshvakanyan kaman

vrzVnshveti
tyova/('a,

;

vrzVnshveti

6"akayanya/^.

abhimrwyamano
Bhagavann,

ra^ema;;/

vSarirasya

jarire (sic) ka.Ya.nsiV

gathaw ^agada.

i

asthi/&armasnayuma^^ama;«saj"uklaj"o;?ita-

jreshmai"rudashikavi;/mutrapittakaphasa;;/ghate durgandhe
nUisare 'smi« Marire

kim kamabhogai//.

2

Kamakrodhalobhamohabhayavishadershesh/avlyoganish^asamprayogakshutpipasa^"aram;-ztyurogai"okadyair abhihate 'smi;T ZV/arire ki;;^ kamabhogai/^.

3

Sarva;;^ -^edaw kshayish;m paj'yamo

jakadayas trzV/avan
vartina/z

yatheme dawwama-

naj-yata yodbhutapradhvawsina/^.

4
va pare 'nye dhamartharaj- (sic) /^akraSudyumnabhuridyumnakuvalayajvayauvanaj-va-

Atha kim

*

etair

vaddhnyaj-vaj-vapati/^

i^a^abindur

hari^-z^andro

'^//barisho

nanukastvayatir yayatir a;/ara«yokshasenadayo marutabharataprabhrztayo ra^ano mishato bandhuvargasya ma-

hathn snya.7u tyaktvasmal lokad amum lokam prayanti. 5.
Atha kim etair va pare 'nye gandharvasurayaksharakshasabhutagawapii-a/^oragrahadinaw nirodhanam pasysitna/i. 6

Atha kim

etair

vanyanaw soshanajn mahar;^avana;«

^

One

*

This seems better than the Maitraya^/a

expects asthaya.
text.

He

went near a Muni,

viz.

iSakayanya.
^
*

This seems imnecessary.
There may be an older reading hidden

in

this,

from which arose the

reading of the Maitraya-Ja B. U. tn«avanaspatayodbhutapradhva?nsina/4, or yo
bhiltapradhva/nsinaA.

UPANISHADS.

xlvi

j-ikhariwam prapatanaw dhruvasya pra/l'alanaw vataru;/a;;/

nima^^anam
'ham

ity

So

sthanapasara/^aw sura;/am.

przthivya/^

etadvidhe 'smin sawsare kbn kamopabhogair yair

evaj-ritasya sakr/d avartanaw dmyata ity uddhartum arhasi
tyandodapanabheka ivaham asmin sam Bhagavas tvaw gatis
tvam no gatir iti. 7
Ayarti^ agnir vauvanaro yo 'yam anta/^ purushe yenedam
annam pakyate yad idam adyate tasyaisha ghosho bhavati
yam etat kamav apidhaya snnoti, sa yadotkramishyan
bhavati nainaw ghoshaw srmoti. 8
Yatha^ nirindhano vahnl/i svayonav upaj-amyati. 9*
Sa s'lva/i so 'nte vaii-vanaro bhutva sa dagdhva sarva;/i
'^

bhutani przthivyapsu praliyate^, apas te^asi liyante*^, te^o
vayau praliyate'^, vayur akaj-e viliyate^, akai-am indriyeshv,
tanmatra;/i bhutadau

tanmatreshu,

indriya;n

bhutadi mahati

tam akshare

viliyate^'^,

mahan avyakte

aksharam tamasi

viliyate^^,

viliyante^,

viliyate^S avyakviliyate^^,

tama

ekibhavati parasmin, parastan na^* san nasan na sad ityetan

nirvawam anui-asanam

iti

vedanuj-asanam.

We should distinguish therefore between the large Maitraya«a-brahma;m-upanishad and the smaller MaitreyopaniThe title of Maitreyi-brahma;/a has, of course, a
shad.
totally different origin,

which

As

and simply means the Brahma;<!a

the story of Maitreyi^^.

tells

Professor Cowell, in the Preface to his edition and

of

translation

discussed

its

subject.

I

Maitrayawa-brahmawa-upanishad, has

the

peculiar character,

I

have

little

to

add on that

agree with him in thinking that this Upanishad

has grown, and contains several accretions.

The

Sanskrit

commentator himself declares the sixth and seventh chapPossibly the Maiters to be Khilas or supplementary.
treya-upanishad,

framework.
Professor

'

*

as

printed

Then we have

Cowell (Preface,

Maitr. Up. II, 6; p. 32.
Maitr. Up. VI, 34 p. 178.

p. vi)

''

liyyatc.
liyyate.

"

liyante.

^

kramishyan, m,

^

lipyate.

*

lipyante.

'*

*"

tanasanna.

recensions.

mentions a MS., copied

*

;

*

above, contains the earliest
traces of various

"

liyyate.
^'

lipyate.

Yadlia, m.
''

^^

liyyate.

liyyate.

See A'Aand. Up. p. 623.

INTRODUCTION.

xlvil

for Baron Eckstein, apparently from a Telugu original,
which contains the first five chapters only, numbered as
The verses given in VI, 34 (p. 177), beginning with
four.

atreme jloka bhavanti, are placed after IV, 3. In my own
MS. these verses are inserted at the beginning of the fifth
chapter^ Then follows in Baron Eckstein's MS. as IV, 5,
what is given in the printed text as V, i, 3 (pp. 69-76). In
my own MS., which likewise comes from the South, the

Upanishad does not go beyond VI, 8, which is called the
sixth chapter and the end of the Upanishad.
We have in fact in our Upanishad the first specimen of
that peculiar Indian style^ so

and

stories,

another.

which delights

The

common

in the later fables

in enclosing

kernel of our Upanishad

is

one story within
really the dialogue

This is
between the Valakhilyas and Pra^apati Kratu.
called by the commentator (see p. 331, note) a Vyakhyana,
explanation of the Sutra which comes before,
i. e. a fuller
and which expresses in the few words, He is the Self, this
is the immortal, the fearless, this is Brahman,' the gist of
the whole Upanishad.
This dialogue, or at all events the doctrine which it was
meant to illustrate, was communicated by Maitri (or Maitra)
to 5akayanya, and by 5akayanya to King B/'zhadratha
Aikshvaka, also called Marut (II, i VI, 30). This dialogue
might seem to come to an end in VI, 29, and likewise the
dialogue between vSakayanya and Br/hadratha but it is
carried on again to the end of VI, 30, and followed afterwards by a number of paragraphs which may probably be
'

;

;

considered as later additions.

cannot bring myself to
in considering, as he does, even
the earlier portion of the Upanishad as dating from a late

But though admitting
follow Professor Cowell

all this, I

period, while the latter portions are called

by him com-

paratively modern, on account of frequent Vaish/zava quo-

imparts to this Upanishad, according to my
exceptionally genuine and ancient character,
the preservation in it of that peculiar Sandhi which,

tations.

What

opinion, an
is

^

See p. 303, note

i

;

p. 305,

note

i

;

p. 312, note i.

:

UPANISHADS.

xlviii

thanks to the labours of Dr. von Schroeder,

we now know

to be characteristic of the Maitraya;/a-^akha. In that 5akha
final unaccented as and e are changed into a, if the next word

begins with an accented vowel, except

Before

a.

however, e remains unchanged, and as becomes
initial

a

rules,

it

initial a,

o,

and the

sometimes elided, sometimes not. Some of these
must be remembered, run counter to Pacini, and
safely conclude therefore that texts in which they

is

we may

are observed, date from the time before Pacini. In some
MSS., as, for instance, in my own MS. of the Maitraya^za-

brahmawa-upanishad, these rules are not observed, but this

makes

their strict observation in other

MSS.

the more

all

Besides, though to Dr. von Schroeder belongs,

important.

no doubt, the

of having,

credit

Maitrayawi Sa;«hita,

first

in

edition

his

of the

pointed out these phonetic pecu-

they were known as such to the commentators,
expressly point out these irregular Sandhis as dis-

liarities,

who

Thus we read Maitr. Up.
tigmate^asa urdhvaretaso, instead of

tinctive of the Maitraya;n i'akha.

that

iS),

II,

3 (p.
tigmate^asa,

evawvidha

is

dasa/^ sarvatra, i.e.

is

eta/^/^//akhasahketapa///ai" k/ian-

throughout theVedic reading indica-

tory of that particular wSakha, namely the Maitraya;/i.

A
a

still

final t

stranger peculiarity of our 6"akha

before

Upanishad.

initial

In VI,

8,

is

the change of

This also occurs

s into n.

we read svan

^arirad

;

in

in

our

VI, 27, ya/l

Such a change seems phonetically so unnatural,

.yarirasya.

that the tradition must have been very strong to perpetuate
it

among

the Maitraya;/as.

Now what

is

important for our purposes

phonetic peculiarities run through

our Upanishad.
I.

This

will

is this,

that these

the seven chapters of

be seen from the following

Final as changed into a before
II, 3,

all

voweP
(Comm. eta-^Makha-

initial

tigmategaj-a urdhvaretaso

list

:

sahketapa/Z/aj- k/idndasa/i sarvatra).
II, 5,

vibodha evam.

'
1 have left out
they are disregarded

Sandhi occurs

in

tlie

in

restriction

II, 7,

avasthita

iti.

as to the accent of the vowels, because

the Upanishad.

It

should be observed that this peculiar

the Upanishad chiefly before

ili.

:

:

:

xHIX

INTRODUCTION.
abhibhuta

III, 5, etair

VI,

4,

pra;/ava

VI,

6,

aditya

iti

vyana

iti.

iti

VI,

;

7,

iti

Final

ahavaniya

;

sannivish/a

e

iti

iti.

iti.

before

i,

vidyata

iti.

eko.

sArya

;

iti

ahaiikara

;

bharga iti.
VI, 23, deva onkaro.
VI, 30, vinirgata iti.

VI,

VI, 30, prayata
II.

IV,

iti*.

bhumyadaya

;

7,

becomes

vowels

initial

For

a.

instance

dmyata

I, 4,

apadyata

IV,

vidyata

I,

VI, 20, ajnuta

Even

prsigrihya. e

is

II, 2,

iti.

III, 2,

nishpadyata

Ill, 2,

iti.

VI,

iti.

iti.

pushkara

iti.

bhurikta

iti.

10,

VI, 30, eka ahur.
changed to a in
iti.

VI, 23, eta upasita,

i.

e.

ete uktalaksha;/e brahmawi.

In VI, 31, instead of te etasya, the commentator seems to
have read te va etasya.
Final as before

III.

I,

and au becomes

a, u,

a,

and

is

then

For instance

contracted.
4,

vanaspatayodbhuta,

(Comm.

udbhuta.

instead

of vanaspataya

Sandhij- ^//andaso va, ukaro

vatra lupto drash/avya//.)
II,

6,

devaush;/yam,

(Comm. Sandhij

of deva

instead

aushwyam.

>^//andasa//.)

VI, 24, atamavish/am, instead of atama-avish/am
cf. AV^and. Up.
(Comm. Sandhij' Mandasa//)
;

VI,

8, 3,

ai-anayeti

IV. Final e before

i

(Comm.

becomes

a,

visar^aniyalopa/^).

and

is

then contracted.

For instance
VI,

7,

atma

^aniteti for ^anita

iti.

(Comm.

^anite,

^anati.)

VI, 28, ava/aiva for avata
vn'ddhi

initial

vowels becomes

:

II, 6, yena va eta anugrzTiita
VI, 22, asa abhidhyata.

On

(Comm. Sandhi-

k/ia.nda.se.)

V. Final au before
stance

iva.

iti.

abhibhilyamanay iva, see p. 295, note 2.
V, 2, asa atma (var. iect. asav atma).
C15]

d

a.

For

in-

:

:

UPANISHADS.

1

VI. Final o of atho produces elision of initial

For

a.

instance

so antar

I,

VII. Other

^andhij- kJAn-

Various reading, ato 'bhibhutatvat.

dasa//.)

VI,

(Comm.

atho 'bhibhutatvat.

III, 2,

is

explained as sa u.

irregularities

:

apo pyayanat, explained by pyayanat and
apyayanat. Might it be, apo "py ayanat?

VI,

7,

VI,

7,

II, 5,

atmano tma
so

neta.

tmanam abhidhyatva.

dvidharmondham
(Comm. Mandasa.)

VI,

VI,

for

'>f^,

'>^^,

te^asendham,

i.e.

dvidharmandham.

te^asa-iddhan. (In explain-

ing other irregular compounds, too, as in

commentator has recourse
madika licence.)
VI,

\,

hira;/yavasthat

I,

4,

the

to a Z'/zandasa or pra-

hirawyavasthat.

for

the dropping of a in avasthat

is

Here

explained by

a reference to Bhaguri (vash/i Bhagurir allopam

avapyor upasargayo/^).

See Vopadeva

III, 171.

VIII. Vi.ylish/apatha
VII,

(Comm.

vii-lish/a-

apy ahkura.

(Comm.

brahmadhiyalambana.

2,

pathai- /?^//andasa/^.)

VI,

apyay ahkura

'>^^,

for

yakara// pramadapa//nta//.)

On

the contrary VI,

'^^,

vliyante for viliyante.

on the grounds which we have hitherto examined there
seems good reason to ascribe the Maitraya7^a-brahma;zaupanishad to an early rather than to a late period, possibly
to an ante-Pa;nnean period, we shall hardly be persuaded to
change this opinion on account of supposed references to
If

Vaish;/ava or to

have

As

Bauddha

tried to discover in

doctrines which

some

scholars

it.

one of the many maniHighest Spirit, we have seen it alluded to
in other Upanishads, and we know from the Brahmawas
that the name of Vish;m was connected with many of the
to the worship of Vish;/u, as

festations of the

earliest

Vedic

sacrifices.

H

INTRODUCTION.

As to Bauddha doctrines, including the very name of
Nirva;/a (p. xlvi, 1. 19), we must remember, as I have often
remarked, that there were Bauddhas before Buddha. Br/haspati, who is frequently quoted in later philosophical writings
an heretical philosophy, denying the auis mentioned by name in our Upanishad
(VII, 9), but we are told that this Bnhaspati, having become
vSukra, promulgated his erroneous doctrines in order to mis-

.as the author of

thority of the Vedas,

lead the Asuras, and thus to insure the safety of Indra,

the old

i.e.

of

faith.

The

King Br/hadratha
^akayanya, can never be used

fact that the teacher of

Upanishad

is

called

port of the idea that, being a descendant of

in

our

in sup-

5aka\ he must

have been, hke 5akyamuni, a teacher of Buddhist doctrines.
He is the very opposite in our Upanishad, and warns his
hearers against such doctrines as we should identify with

As I have pointed out^on several
the law of the Aj-ramas is
through
occasions, the breaking
the chief complaint which orthodox Brahmans make against

the doctrines of Buddha.

Buddhists and their predecessors, and this

yanya condemns.
which

is

much

the

is

what 5aka-

A

Brahman may become a Sannyasin,
same as a Buddhist Bhikshu, if he has

passed through the three stages of a student, a houseBut to become a Bhikshu
holder, and a Vanaprastha.
without that previous discipline, was heresy in the eyes of
the Brahmans, and it was exactly that heresy which the
first

Bauddhas preached and practised. That this social laxity
was gaining ground at the time when our Upanishad was
written

is

clear (see VII, 8).

We hear of people who wear red

dresses (like the Buddhists) without having a right to them
we even hear of books, different from the Vedas, against
;

which the true Brahmans are warned. All this points to
times when what we call Buddhism was in the air, say the
sixth century B. C, the very time to which I have always
assigned the origin of the genuine and classical Upanishads.
The Upanishads are to my mind the germs of Buddhism,
^

-Sakayanya means a grandson or further descendant of <Saka

vali (^Baroda, 1874), p. 57".

d

2

;

see Gawaratna-

UPANISHADS.

lii

while

Buddhism

is

in

many

respects the doctrine of the

Upanishads carried out to its last consequences, and, what is
important, employed as the foundation of a new social
In doctrine the highest goal of the Vedanta, the
system.
knowledge of the true Self, is no more than the Buddhist
Samyaksambodhi in practice the Sannyasin is the Bhikshu,
;

only emancipated alike from the tedious discipline
the
student, the duties of the Brahmanic
Brahmanic
of the
yoke of useless penances imposed on
the
and
householder,
friar,

the Brahmanic dweller in the forest.

The

spiritual

freedom

Buddhism the common pro-

of the Sannyasin becomes in
perty of the Sahgha, the Fraternity, and that Fraternity is
open alike to the young and the old, to the Brahman and

the 5udra, to the rich and the poor, to the wise and the
In fact there is no break between the India of
foolish.
the

Veda and

the India of the Tripi/aka, but there

is

an

between the two, and the connecting
link between extremes that seem widely separated must
be sought in the Upanishads \

historical continuity

F.

MAX MULLER.

Oxford, February, 1884.

* As there is room left on this page, I subjoin a passage from the Abhidharma-kosha-vyakhya, ascribed to the Bhagavat, but which, as far as style and
thought are concerned, might be taken from an Upanishad Uktaw hi Bhaga:

bho Gautama kutra pratish/Aita ? Pnthivi Brahma??a ahmandale
pratish.'/iita.
Abma«(falam bho Gautama kva pratish^Aitam ? Vayau pratish/Ailam. Vayur bho Gautama kva pratish/Aita/^ ? Akase pratish'^itaA. Akasam
bho Gautama kutra pratish^Aitam ? Atisarasi Mahabrahma^ja, atisarasi Mahabrahmana.
Akasam Brahmanapratish^Aitam, analambanam iti vistaraA. Tasmad asty akasam iti VaibhashikaA. (See Br/had-Ar. Up. Ill, 6, 1. Burnouf,
Introduction a I'histoire du Buddhisme, p. 449.)
For it is said by the Bhagavat " O Gautama, on what does the earth rest ?'*
"The earth, O Brahmana, rests on the sphere of water." "O Gautama, on
what does the sphere of water rest?" "It rests on the air." " O Gautama, on
what does the air rest?" "It rests on the ether (akasa)." "O Gautama, on
what does the ether rest?" "Thou goest too far, great Brahma'^a thou
It
goest too far, great Brahma^^a. The ether, O Brahmana, does not rest.

vata

:

Pr/thivi

'

:

;

has no support."

Therefore the Vaibhashikas hold that there

is

an

ether,'

&c.

KA77/A-UPAN I S H AD,

[15]

:

KAr//A-UPANISHAD.
FIRST ADHYAYA.
First Valli.

Vagasravasa^ desirous

1.

surrendered (at a

sacrifice) all that

had a son of the name of

When

2.

(of heavenly rewards),

he possessed.

He

Na/C'iketas.

the (promised) presents were being given

(to the priests), faith

entered into the heart of Na/^i-

who was still a boy, and he thought
surely, are the worlds to which
'Unblessed^,
3.
a man goes by giving (as his promised present at a
sacrifice) cows which have drunk water, eaten hay,
ketas,

given their milk

He

^,

and are barren,'

had promised
to give up all that he possessed, and therefore his
Dear father, to whom
son also) said to his father
4.

(knowing

that

father

his

'

:

wilt thou give

^

Va^ajravasa

The

NaMetas.

me
is

?'

called Aru«i

Auddalaki Gautama, the father of

father of ^vetaketu,

another enlightened pupil

Up. VI, 1,1), is also called Arum (Uddalaka^ comm.
Kaush. Up. I, i) Gautama. 6'vetaketu himself is called Aruweya,
Auddai. e. the son of Aru«i, the grandson of Aru«a, and likewise
laki, Auddalaki is a son of Uddalaka, but -Sahkara (KaZ/^.Up. I. i^i)
See Br/h. Ar.
takes Auddalaki as possibly the same as Uddalaka.
(see

Up.
^

^Mnd.

Ill, 6, I.

As

to

ananda, unblessed, see Brih. Ar. Up. IV,

4, 1 1

;

Va^as.

Samh. Up. 3 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 311).
^ Anandagiri explauis that the cows meant here are cows no
longer able to drink, to eat, to give milk, and to calve.
['5]

B

KATTfA-UPANISHAD.

He

said

it

a second and a third time.

Then

the

father replied (angrily):
'

shall give thee

I

^

unto Death.'

(The father, having once said so, though in haste,
had to be true to his word and to sacrifice his son.)
I go as the first, at the head
5. The son said
of many (who have still to die)
I go in the midst
of many (who are now dying).
What will be the
work of Yama (the ruler of the departed) which
to-day he has to do unto me ^ ?



*
'

:

;

'-

^

-. -

-

Dadami,

I give,

with the meaning of the future.

Some MSS.

write dasyami.
2

I translate these verses freely,

tator,

i.

e.

independently of the

commentators have preserved
having examined

it,

we have a

to us, but

because

I think that, after

right to judge for ourselves.

says that the son, having been addressed by his father

was

commen-

not that I ever despise the traditional interpretation which the

and

sad,

Yet though

I

6'ahkara

of anger,

pupils I am the first,
am the middlemost, but now^here am
am such a good pupil, my father has said

'Among many

said to himself:

among many middling pupils
I the last.

full

I

me unto

death. What duty has he to fulfil toward
which he means to fulfil to-day by giving me to him ? There
be no duty, he may only have spoken in haste. Yet a father's

that he will consign

Yama
may

word must not be broken.' Having considered this, the son comforted his father, and exhorted him to behave hke his forefathers, and
to keep his word.
I do not think this view of ^ahkara's could have
been the view of the old poet. He might have made the son say that
he was the best or one of the best of his father's pupils, but hardly
that he was also one of his middHng pupils, thus implying that he
never was among the worst. That would be out of keeping with the
character of Na/^iketas, as
full

drawn by the poet himself.
die, he would be the last

of faith and wishes to

Na/('iketas is

to think of

why he should not die. The second half of the verse may
be more doubtful. It may mean what ^'afikara thinks it means, only
that we should get thus again an impHed complaint of Na^^iketas
excuses

against his father, and this

mind of

Na/^iketas

is

not in keeping with his character.

bent on what

is

to

come, on what he

The

will see

and on what Yama will do unto him.
What has Yama
he asks, 'what can he do, what is it that he will to-day do unto

after death,

to do,'

is

'

ADHYAYA,

I

I

VALl!,

9.

3

Look back how it was with those who came
before, look forward how it will be with those who
come hereafter. A mortal ripens like corn, like
6.

'

corn he springs up again

^.'

(Na/^iketas enters into the abode of

Yama

Vai-

and there is no one to receive him.
Thereupon one of the attendants of Yama is supposed to say :)
Fire enters into the houses, when a Brahma/^a
7.
enters as a guests
That fire is quenched by this
peace-offering
bring water, O Vaivasvata ^!
A Brahma;^a that dwells in the house of a
8.
vasvata,

'

;

*

foolish

man

without receiving food to

eat,

destroys

and expectations, his possessions, his
righteousness, his sacred and his good deeds, and
all his sons and cattle ^'
(Yama, returning to his house after an absence
of three nights, during which time Na/^iketas had
received no hospitality from him, says :)
hopes

his

9.

'

O

dwelt in

me ?'

Brahma/^a, as thou, a venerable guest, hast

my

house three nights without eating,

This seems to

me consistent with

the tenor of the ancient story,

while -Sankara's interpretations and interpolations savour too

much

of the middle ages of India.
^

Sasya, corn rather than grass

according to Rhys

;

different

;

eia,

rj'iov,

Benfey

;

Welsh haidd,

from ^ash-pa, ces-pes, Benfey.

Cf VasishMa XI, 13 Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. 51.
name of Yama, the ruler of the departed. Water
the first gift to be offered to a stranger who claims hospitality.
^

;

^

is

*

He

Vaivasvata, a

Here again some words are translated

differently

from ^ahkara.

explains a^a as asking for a wished-for object, pratiksha as look-

ing forward with a view to obtaining an

unknown

object.

he takes as reward for intercourse with good people
usual, as good and kind speech; ish/a as rewards for
;

purta as rewards for public benefits.

B 2

Sahgata

sunr2'ta, as

sacrifices;

!

KArffA-UPANISHAD.

now

therefore choose

Hail to thee

three boons.

and welfare to me!'
10.

'O Death,

NaZ'iketas said:

three boons

I

pacified, kind,

and

free

as the

Gautama,

choose that

of the

first

my

from anger towards me
greet me, when I

;

may know me and

that he

have been dismissed by thee.'
11. Yama said: 'Through

my

be
and

father,

shall

favour Auddalaki

know thee, and be again towards

Aru;2i,thy father, will

He

thee as he was before.

shall sleep peacefully

through the night, and free from anger, after having
seen thee freed from the mouth of death.'
In the heaven-world there is
Na/^iketas said
1 2.
'

:

no fear thou art not there, O Death, and no one is
Leaving behind both
afraid on account of old age.
the
reach of sorrow, all
of
hunger and thirst, and out
rejoice in the world of heaven.'
13. 'Thou knowest, O Death, the fire-sacrifice
which leads us to heaven tell it to me, for I am
Those who live in the heaven-world
full of faith.
this I ask as my second boon.'
reach immortality,
I tell it thee, learn it from me,
14. Yama said:
and when thou understandest that fire-sacrifice which
;

;


*

leads to heaven, know,

O

Na/C'iketas, that

it

is

the

attainment of the endless worlds, and their firm support,
15.

hidden

in darkness^.'

Yama

beeinninor of
^

then told him that
all

fire-sacrifice,

the

the worlds ^ and what bricks are

Tiie commentator translates: '1

tell it

thee, attend to

me who

Here the nom. sing, of the participle
would be very irregular, as we can hardly refer it to bravimi. Then,
Know this fire as a means of obtaining the heavenly world, know

knows

the heavenly

fire.'

'

that fire as the rest or support of the world,

when

it

assumes the

form of Vira^^', and as hidden in the heart of men.'
the first embodied, in the shape of Vir%-.
6'aiikara
''

:

I

ADHYAYA,

required for the

had been

And

2

1,

Na/§iketas repeated

Then

told to him.

with him, said again

VALli,

and how many, and how they

altar,

are to be placed.

I

all

as

it

M?^/tyu, being pleased

:

The generous \ being satisfied, said to him:
give thee now another boon that fire-sacrifice

1 6.
*

I

;

be named after thee, take also

shall

coloured chain

'He who

17.

keta

rite,

many-

this

^.'

has three times performed this Na/'i-

and has been united with the three

(father,

mother, and teacher), and has performed the three
duties (study, sacrifice, almsgiving) overcomes birth
and death. When he has learnt and understood
this fire, which knows (or makes us know) all that is
born of Brahman ^, which is venerable and divine,
then he obtains everlasting peace.'
18.
He who knows the three Na/('iketa fires, and
knowing the three, piles up the NaZ'iketa sacrifice, he,
having first thrown off the chains of death, rejoices
in the world of heaven, beyond the reach of grief.'
19. 'This, O Na/t-iketas, is thy fire which leads
to heaven, and which thou hast chosen as thy second
boon. That fire all men will proclaim ^ Choose now,
'

O

Na/^iketas, thy third boon.'

man

is

This

I

dead,

is

— some

saying, he

is

'
:

that doubt,
;

others,

he

should like to know, taught by thee

the third of
21.

There

Na/^iketas said

20.

my

^

Verses 16-18 seem a

^

This

^

G^atavedas.

*

Tavaiva

verses 15-18.

is

is

;

a

not.

this

is

boons.'

Death said: 'On

arises

when

this

point even the gods

later addition.

probably from a misunderstanding of verse
a later addition, caused

II, 3.

by the interpolation of

KArJfA-UPANISHAD.

have doubted formerly

That

not easy to understand.

it is

;

Choose another boon, O
do not press me, and let me off that

subject

Na/C'iketas,

is

subtle.

boon.'

Na/nketas said: 'On this point even the gods
indeed, and thou, Death, hast declared
doubted
have
it to be not easy to understand, and another teacher
surely no other boon
like thee is not to be found
2 2.

:

is

like

unto

this.'

'Choose sons and grandsons who
23. Death said
shall live a hundred years, herds of cattle, elephants,
Choose the wide abode of the
gold, and horses.
earth, and live thyself as many harvests as thou
:

desirest.'

24.

'If

you can think of any boon equal

choose wealth, and long

life.

on the wide earth \

make

I

Be

to that,

(king), Na/6iketas,

thee the enjoyer of

desires.'

all

Whatever desires are difficult to attain among
these
mortals, ask for them according to thy wish
25.

'

;

maidens with their chariots and musical instrusuch are indeed not to be obtained by
ments,

fair


men, be waited on by them whom
but do not ask me about dying.'
26.

Na/^iketas said

morrow,
all

O

Death, for

the senses.

Even

I

give to thee,

These things last till tothey wear out this vigour of
'

:

the whole of life

is

short.

Keep

thou thy horses, keep dance and song for thyself.'
2 7.
No man can be made happy by wealth. Shall
'

we

possess wealth,

when we

see thee

?

Shall

we

live,

Mahabhumau, on the great earth, has been explained also by
maha bhumau, be great on the earth. It is doubtful, however,
whether maha for mahan could be admitted in the Upanishads, and
whether it would not be easier to write mahan bhumau.
^

I

ADHYAYA,

28.

*

is

to

VALl!, 29.

Only that boon (which
be chosen by me.'

as long as thou rulest

have chosen)

I

?

What mortal, slowly decaying here

I

below, and

knowing, after having approached them, the freedom
from decay enjoyed by the immortals, would delight
long life, after he has pondered on the pleasures
which arise from beauty and love^?'
29. No, that on which there is this doubt, O Death,
in a

'

tell

us what there

is

in that great Hereafter.

Na/^i-

ketas does not choose another boon but that which
enters into the hidden world.'

^

A

very obscure verse.

iSankara gives a various reading kva

tadastha/z for kvadha>^stha/^,in the sense of 'given to these pleasures,'

which looks like an emendation. I have changed a/iryatam into
a^aryatam, and take it for an ace. sing., instead of a gen. plur.,
which could hardly be governed by upetya.


;

KAr^A-UPANISHAD.

8

Second Vall!.
Death

1.

another

said:

'The good

is

one thing, the pleasant

these two, having different objects, chain

;

a man. It is well with him who clings to the good
he who chooses the pleasant, misses his end.'
2.
The good and the pleasant approach man
the wise goes round about them and distinguishes
them.
Yea, the wise prefers the good to the
'

:

pleasant, but the fool chooses the pleasant through

greed and avarice.'
3.

'

Thou,

O

Na-^iketas, after pondering

sures that are or

them

all.

Thou

seem

delightful,

many men

'Wide apart and leading

perish.'

to different points are

these two, ignorance, and what
I

plea-

hast not gone into the road^ that

leadeth to wealth, in which
4.

all

hast dismissed

is

known

as wisdom.

who desires knoweven many pleasures did not tear thee

believe NaX'iketas to be one

ledge, for

away 2.'
5.

'

Fools dwelling

in darkness,

wise in their

own

and puffed up with vain knowledge, go
round and round, staggering to and fro, like blind
conceit,

men

by the blind ^'
6. 'The Hereafter never rises before the eyes of
the careless child, deluded by the delusion of wealth.
"

led

This

is

thus he
7.

'

^

ta^.

'

Cf.

the world," he thinks, "there
falls

Self) of

;"

my sway.'
whom many are not even able

16.

The commentator explains lolupanta/z by yiM/ieda.m krz'tavanSome MSS. read lolupante and lolupanti, but one expects

either lolupyante or lolupati,
'

no other

again and again under

He (the
I,

is

Cf.

Uwid. Up.

II, 8.

'

ADHYAYA,

I

2 VALLI, II.

to hear, whom many, even when they hear of him,
do not comprehend wonderful is a man, when found,
who is able to teach him (the Self) wonderful is
he who comprehends him, when taught by an able
;

;

^'

teacher
8.

That

'

(Self),

when taught by an

inferior

man,

not easy to be known, even though often thought
upon^; unless it be taught by another, there is no
is

way

to

9.

for

it,

it

inconceivably smaller than what

is

^'

small

is

That doctrine is not to be obtained^ by arguwhen it is declared by another, then, O

'

ment, but
dearest,

it is

easy to understand.

Thou

hast obtained

now^ thou art truly a man of true resolve. May
we have always an inquirer like thee ^\
10. NaX^iketas said T know that what is called a
it

;

:

treasure

by

transient, for that eternal

is

things which are not eternal.

keta

fire(-sacrifice)

has been laid by

by means of transient
is

things,

I

is

not obtained

Hence

me

the Na/6i-

(first)

;

then,

have obtained what

not transient (the teaching of Yama)^'

Yama

11.

said:

fulfilment of

'Though thou hadst seen

all desires,

the

the foundation of the world,

the endless rewards of good deeds, the shore where
^

Cf.

^

I

Bhag. Gita

one who
it

is

^

II, 29.

read a/zupramawat.

has been taught as identical

^

municate
"^

If

:

If

Up
it

is

II, 4-

taught

by-

is

no failure in understanding it (agati).
Apaneya; should it be apanaya, as afterwards sugnanaya?
Because you insist on my teaching it to thee.
Unless no is negative, for Yama, at first, does not like to com-

identified with

^

else.

Mund.

no uncertainty. If
with ourselves, then there is no perit has been taught by one who is

identified with the Self, then there

ception of anything

*

cf.

Other interpretations

his

it,

then there

is

knowledge.

The words

in

parentheses have been added in order to remove

the otherwise contradictory character of the two lines.

KArZ/A-UPANISHAD.

lO
there

no

is

fear, that

which

is

magnified by praise,

the wide abode, the rest ^ yet being wise thou hast

with firm resolve dismissed
1

2.

The

*

it all.'

wise who, by means of meditation on his

who

be
seen, who has entered into the dark, who is hidden
in the cave, who dwells in the abyss, as God, he
indeed leaves joy and sorrow far behind^.'
13. A mortal who has heard this and embraced
it, who has separated from it all qualities, and has
thus reached the subtle Being, rejoices, because he
has obtained what is a cause for rejoicing. The
house (of Brahman) is open, I believe, O Na/^iketas.'
14. Na/^-iketas said: 'That which thou seest as
Self, recognises

the Ancient,

is

difficult to

*

neither this nor that, as neither effect nor cause, as
neither past nor future,
15.

Yama

the Vedas record, which

men

desire

word

tell

I

when they

me

tell

said: 'That
all

that.'

word

which all
penances proclaim, which
(or place)

live as religious students, that

thee briefly,

it is

Om ^'

That (imperishable) syllable means Brahman,
that syllable means the highest (Brahman); he who
knows that syllable, whatever he desires, is his.'
16.

'

This is the best support, this is the highest
he who knows that support is magnified
the world of Brahma.'

1

7.

'

support
in

18.
it

;

'The knowing

(Self)

is

not born,

dies not;

it

sprang from nothing, nothing sprang from

'

Cf. ^/^and.

Yama

Up.VII,

it.

The

12, 2.

seems here to propound the lower Brahman only, not yet
the highest.
Deva, God, can only be that as what the Old, i. e. the
Self in the heart, is to be recognised. It would therefore mean, he
who finds God or the Self in his heart. See afterwards, verse 21.
3 Cf. 6-vet. Up, IV,
9; Bhag. Gita VIII, 11.
^

'

ADHYAYA,

I

Ancient
killed,
19.

is

killed,

is

'The

20.

is

he

kills, if

the killed

they do not understand

nor

not

is

is

;

for

that one killed.'

Self^, smaller than small, greater than

hidden

is

man who

kill,

he

;

killed ^'

'If the killer thinks that

one does not

great,

II

unborn, eternal, everlasting

is

though the body

thinks that he
this

2 VALLI, 25.

free

in

the heart of that creature,

from desires and free from

grief,

A
sees

^'
the majesty of the Self by the grace of the Creator
21.' Though sitting still, he walks far; though lying

down, he goes everywhere ^ Who, save myself, is able
?
to know that God who rejoices and rejoices not

'The wise who knows the

Self as bodiless

within the bodies, as unchanging

among changing

22.

and omnipresent, does never grieve.'
That Self ^ cannot be gained by the Veda,
23.
He
nor by understanding, nor by much learning.
Self
can
be
the
him
by
whom the Self chooses,
gained. The Self chooses him (his body) as his own.'
But he who has not first turned away from
24.
his wickedness, who is not tranquil, and subdued,
things, as great
'

'

whose mind

or

is

not at

rest,

he can never obtain

the Self (even) by knowledge.'
25.

'Who

then knows where

He

is.

the Brahmans and Kshatriyas are (as

food ^ and death
^

As

2

Cf. Svet.

^

itself

a condiment

He
it

to

whom

were) but

?'

and 19, see Bhag. Gita II, 19, 20.
Up. Ill, 20; Taitt. Ar. X, 12, i.
The commentator translates 'through the tranquillity of the

senses,'

to verses 18

i.

e.

dhatuprasadat, taking prasada in the technical sense
As to kratu, desire, or rather, will, see Brih. Ar.

of samprasada.
IV,

4, 5-

'

a.

Tal.

^

Cf.

I,

«

In

Up.

7-9

;

5.

Mund. Up.

Ill, 2, 3

;

Bhag. Gita

I,

whom all disappears, and in whom even death is

53.

swallowed up.

2

KArWA-UPANISHAD.

1

Third Valli.
reward in
the world of their own works, entered into the cave
(of the heart), dwelHng on the highest summit (the

'There are the two\ drinking

1.

ether in the heart).

them shade and

their

Those who know Brahman

light

;

call

likewise, those householders

who perform the Tri;2a/^iketa sacrifice.'
2.
May we be able to master that Na/^iketa

rite

'

which

is

a bridge for sacrificers

;

also that which

Brahman

the highest, imperishable

for those

wish to cross over to the fearless shore

is

who

^.'

Know

the Self to be sitting in the chariot,
the body to be the chariot, the intellect (buddhi)
'

3.

the charioteer, and the
'

4.

The

^

When

he (the Highest Self)
union with the body, the senses, and the mind,

him the Enjoyer.'
who has no understanding and whose mind

then wise people
'

5.

He

The two

former being
as reward,

call

are explained as the higher

the light, the latter the

and connected with

The

difficulty

is,

how

and lower Brahman, the

shadow.

7?/ta is explained

good deeds, but
one's own good and

sukrz'ta,

quently used in the sense of svakr/ta,
deeds.

reins ^'

senses they call the horses, the objects of

the senses their roads.
is in

mind the

the highest

lit.

Brahman can be

freevil

said to

it is above all works and
it away as a metaexplains
commentator
above all rewards. The
phorical expression, as we often speak of many, when we mean one.
I have joined sukr/tasya with loke, loka
(Cf. Mnnd. Up. Ill, I, I.)
meaning the world, i. e. the state, the environment, which we made

drink the reward (r/tapa) of former deeds, as

by our former deeds.
These two verses may be later additions.
The simile of the chariot has some points

to ourselves
^
'

well-known passage
this

simile

of similarity with the

in Plato's Phsedros, but Plato did not

from the Brahmans, as

consulted our Upanishad

(II, 2) in

little

as

borrow

Xenophon need have

writing his prologue of Prodikos.


I

ADHYAYA,

3 VALLI,

1 4.

I

3

never firmly held, his senses (horses) are
unmanageable, like vicious horses of a charioteer.'

(the reins)

is

But he who has understanding and whose mind
always firmly held, his senses are under control,

6.
is

'

good horses of a

like

'

7.

He who

charioteer.'

has no understanding,

who

is

unmind-

and always impure, never reaches that place, but
enters into the round of births.'
But he who has understanding, who is mindful
8.
and always pure, reaches indeed that place, from
whence he is not born again.'
But he who has understanding for his cha9.
rioteer, and who holds the reins of the mind, he

ful

'

'

end of his journey, and that

reaches the

is

the

highest place of Vish;ai.'

Beyond the senses there are the obj ects, beyond
the objects there is the mind, beyond the mind there
is the intellect, the Great Self is beyond the intellect.'
10.

'

II.' Beyond the Great there is the Undeveloped,
beyond the Undeveloped there is the Person
Beyond the Person there is nothing
(purusha).
the goal, the highest road.'
That Self is hidden in all beings and does not
12.
shine forth, but it is seen by subtle seers through
this

is

'

their sharp

'A

13.

and subtle

wise

man

intellect.'

should keep down speech and

mind
he should keep them within the Self which
he should keep knowledge within the
is knowledge
Self which is the Great and he should keep that
^

;

;

;

(the Great) within the Self
14.

which

is

the Quiet.'

'Rise, awake! having obtained your boons ^

he should keep down speech

1

^ankara

interprets,

2

Comm.,

excellent teachers.

in the

mind.

KAr/fA-UPANISHAD.

14

understand them! The sharp edge of a razor is
thus the wise say the path (to
difficult to pass over
;

the Self)

is

hard.'

He who has perceived that which is without
sound, without touch, without form, without decay,
without taste, eternal, without smell, without begin15.

'

ning, without end,
able,

is

beyond the Great, and unchange-

freed from the jaws of death.'

A

man who

has repeated or heard the
ancient story of Na>('iketas told by Death, is magnified in the world of Brahman.'
17. 'And he who repeats this greatest mystery in
16.

*

wise

an assembly of Brahmans, or full of devotion at the
time of the ^'raddha sacrifice, obtains thereby infinite
rewards.'

II

ADHYAYA, 4 VALLI,

6.

J

5

SECOND ADHYAYA.
Fourth Vall!.
1.

Death said:

'The

Self-existent

pierced the

openings (of the senses) so that they turn forward
therefore

man
Some

looks forward, not backward

:

into

wise man, however, with his eyes
closed and wishing for immortality, saw the Self

himself.

behind.'
2.

*

Children follow after outward pleasures, and
the snare of wide-spread death. Wise men

fall into

knowing the nature of what is immortal, do
not look for anything stable here among things
only,

unstable.'

That by which we know form, taste, smell,
sounds, and loving touches, by that also we know
what exists besides. This is that (which thou hast
3.

'

asked

for).'

The

when he knows that that by which
he perceives all objects in sleep or in waking is the
great omnipresent Self, grieves no more.'
4.

'

wise,

He who knows this living soul which eats
5.
honey (perceives objects) as being the Self, always
near, the Lord of the past and the future, henceforward fears no more. This is that.'
6.
He who (knows) him^ who was born first from
*

'

^

The

first

manifestation of Brahman,

commonly

garbha, which springs from the tapas of Brahman,

called Hira;?ya-

AfterAvards only

water and the rest of the elements become manifested.
these

verses

tish//;antam

is

and

abrupt, possibly corrupt.
tish/Z/antim,

supplied from verse

4.

seem

to

me

The two
to require

The

text of

accusatives,

veda

to

be

6

KArFA-UPANISHAD.

1

the brooding heat^ (for he was born before the water),
who, entering into the heart, abides therein, and was

This is that.'
perceived from the elements.
who is one with
also,
Aditi
knows)
7. '(He who
all deities,

who

arises with Pra;^a (breath or Hira;/ya-

garbha), who, entering into the heart, abides therein,

and was born from the elements. This is that.'
There is Agni (fire), the all-seeing, hidden in
8.
the two fire-sticks, well-guarded like a child (in the
womb) by the mother, day after day to be adored by
men when they awake and bring oblations. This
'

is that.'

whence the sun rises, and whither
all the Devas are contained, and
it goes
no one goes beyond. This is that^'
What is here (visible in the world), the same
10.
and what is there,
is there (invisible in Brahman)
difference here
any
He
who
sees
is
here.
the same
(between Brahman and the world), goes from death

'And

9.

that

to set,

there

'

;

to death.'
11.

'Even by the mind

this (Brahman) is to be
no difference whatsoever.
death who sees any difference

obtained, and then there

He

goes from death to

is

here.'

The

12.'

person (purusha), of the size of a

thumbs

stands in the middle of the Self (body?), as lord of
the

past and

13.

the future, and henceforward fears

This

no more.

is

that'

That person, of the

'

size of a

thumb,

is

like

a light without smoke, lord of the past and the
future,

he

is

the

same to-day and to-morrow.

is that.'

'

2

Cf. s;7sh/ikrama.
3

^vet.

Up. 111,13.

cf_

y,

8.

This

11

14.

As

*

ridge runs

who

1 5.

17

rain-water that has fallen on a mountain-

down

the rocks on

all sides,

thus does he,

sees a difference between qualities, run after

them on
15.

*

all sides.'

As

pure water poured into pure water remains

the same, thus,

who

ADHYAYA, 4 VALlJ,

knows.'

['5]

O

Gautama,

is

the Self of a thinker

8

.

KATHA-UPANISHAD.

1

Fifth Vall!.

There is a town with eleven ^ gates belonging
to the Unborn (Brahman), whose thoughts are never
crooked. He who approaches it, grieves no more,
and liberated (from all bonds of ignorance) becomes
This is that.'
free.
2.
He (Brahman)^ is the swan (sun), dwelling in the
bright heaven he is the Vasu (air), dwelling in the
sky; he is the sacrificer (fire), dwelling on the hearth;
he is the guest (Soma), dwelling in the sacrificial jar;
'

1

*

;

men, in gods (vara), in the sacrifice (rz'ta),
in heaven
he is born in the water, on earth, in the
sacrifice (ma), on the mountains
he is the True
and the Great.'

he dwells

in
;

;

He

(Brahman) it is who sends up the breath
(pra/2a), and who throws back the breath (apana).
All the Devas (senses) worship him, the adorable (or
*

3.

who sits in the centre.'
'When that incorporated (Brahman), who

the dwarf),
4.

in the body,

is

torn

what remains then

?

away and
This

is

dwells

freed from the body,

that'

No mortal lives by the breath that goes up and
by the breath that goes down. We live by another,
in whom these two repose.'
6.
Well then, O Gautama, I shall tell thee this
mystery, the old Brahman, and what happens to the
5.

*

'

Self, after

reaching death.'

Seven apertures

in the head, the navel, two below, and the one
head through which the Self escapes. Cf. Svet
Up. Ill, 18; Bhag. Gita V, 13.
Cf. Rig-veda IV, 40, 5.
*

at the top of the

'^

9

ADHYAYA,

II

7.

Some

'

enter the

5 VALLI,

womb

as organic beings, others

according to their work

1 3.

1

order to have a body,

in

go into inorganic matter,
and according to their

knowledge ^'
8.
He, the highest Person, who is awake in us
while we are asleep, shaping one lovely sight after
another, that indeed is the Bright, that is Brahman,
*

that alone

called the Immortal.

is

contained in
is

it,

All worlds are

and no one goes beyond.

This

that^'

As

the one

has entered the world,
though one, becomes different according to whatever
9.

'

fire,

after

it

burns, thus the one Self within

it

different,

according to whatever

it

all

things becomes

enters,

and

exists

also without ^'
10. 'As the one air, after it has entered the world,
though one, becomes different according to whatever
it enters, thus the one Self within all things becomes
different,

according to whatever

it

enters,

and

exists

also without.'
11.

'

As

the sun, the eye of the whole world,

is

not

contaminated by the external impurities seen by the
eyes, thus the one Self within all things is never
contaminated by the misery of the world, being
himself without
12.

'

There

who makes

^'

is

one

ruler, the Self within all things,

the one form manifold.

perceive him within their Self, to
eternal happiness, not to others ^'
13.

'There

is

^

q^

II, 5, 19.

"

Cf.

Cf.

Bnh. Ar.
Bnh. Ar.

^

Cf.

^vet.Up.VI,

1

Cf.

wise

who

them belongs

one eternal thinker, thinking non-

II, 2, 13.

3

The

12.

C 2

jy, 9 ; VI, i.
Bhag. Gita XIII, 52.

'

KArHA-UPAKISHAD.

20

eternal thoughts, who, though one,

The

of many.

'

They

perceive

pleasure, saying, This

understand

it ?

reflect light

?

15.

'

The sun does

and the

stars,

;

by

that
is

that.

it

its

Cf. ^vet.

2

Cf.

How

own

indescribable

then can

I

or does

it

light,

not shine there, nor the

Up.VI,

is

lighted

moon

much

he shines, everything shines

his light all this

1

highest

to others ^'

nor these lightnings, and

When

this fire.

him

Has

the desires

fulfils

perceive him within their

them belongs eternal peace, not

Self, to
14.

wise

who

less

after

2.'

13.

5vet.Up.VI, 14; Muw^. Up.II,

2,

10; Bhag. Gita

XV,

6.

ADHYAYA, 6 VALLI,

II

21

4.

Sixth Vall^.
1. 'There is that ancient tree\ whose roots grow
that^
upward and whose branches grow downward
indeed is called the Bright ^ that is called Brahman,
that alone is called the ImmortaH.
All worlds are
This
contained in it, and no one goes beyond.
;

that/

is

2.

'

Whatever there

is,

the whole world,

forth (from the Brahman), trembles

in

when gone
breath

its

^.

That Brahman is a great terror, like a drawn sword.
Those who know it become immortal.'
From terror of Brahman fire burns, from terror
3.
'

the sun burns, from

Death, as the
4.

*

If a

run away

fifth,

man

Indra and Vayu, and

terror

^.'

could not understand

before the

asunder of his body, then he has to take body

falling

again in the worlds of creation

^

it

The

fig-tree

root and form

which sends down

new

its

''.'

branches so that they strike

stems, one tree growing into a complete forest.

Bhag. Gita XV, 1-3.

2

Cf.

*

The commentator

V,

8.

the world, and

its

'

says that the tree

is

Cf.

root

Brahman, but there is nothing to support this view in the original,
where tree, roots, and branches are taken together as representing
is

the

Brahman

in

^

According

«

Cf. Taitt.

''

its

various manifestations.

to the

commentator,

Up. II, 8, I.
The commentator translates:

in the highest

'If a

man

is

Brahman.

able to understand

(Brahman), then even before the decay of his body, he
If

he

is

not able to understand

in the created worlds.'

difficult to

explain

how

is

liberated.

then he has to take body again

doubt whether

I

much, and should prefer

it,

it is

possible to supply so

to read iha /'en na^akad,

though

I find

it

so simple a text should have been mis-

understood and corrupted.

KArFA-UPANISHAD.

22

5.

'

here

As in a mirror,
body

in this

the Fathers

;

so

(Brahman may be seen clearly)

as in a dream, in the world of

;

as in the water, he

seen about in the

is

world of the Gandharvas; as in light and

shaded

in

the world of Brahma.'

Having understood that the senses are distinct^
(from the Atman), and that their rising and setting
(their waking and sleeping) belongs to them in their
6.

'

existence (and not to the Atman), a wise

distinct

man

grieves no more.

Beyond the senses

'

7.

is

the mind, beyond the

the highest (created) Being ^ higher than
mind
that Being is the Great Self, higher than the Great,
is

the highest Undeveloped.'

Beyond the Undeveloped is the Person, the
Every
all-pervading and entirely imperceptible.
creature that knows him is liberated, and obtains
8.

*

immortality.'

'His form

9.

is

not to be seen, no one beholds

him with the eye. He
by wisdom, by the mind.

imagined by the heart,

is

Those who know

this,

are

immortals'
10.
still

When the

'

five

together with the mind, and

does not move, that
11.

what

'

is

when

the intellect

called the highest state.'

This, the firm holding back of the senses,
called

is

Yoga.

lessness then, for

Roer

"^

They

^

Buddhi or

*

Much

:

He

must be

free

is

from thought-

Yoga comes and goes

^'

'As in a picture and in the sunshine.'

^

arise

from the elements,

ether, &c.

intellect, cf. Ill, 10.

'Those who know him by the
and by the mind, are immortal.'
6'ahkara explains apyaya by apaya.
better in ^vet.Up. IV, 20:

heart as being in the heart,
^

instruments of knowledge stand


ADHYAYA, 6 VALLI,

II

12.

'He

I 7.

23

(the Self) cannot be reached

by mind, or by the eye.
except by him who says

:

How can it be
" He is ? '"

by speech,

apprehended

13. 'By the words "He is," is he to be apprehended,
and by (admitting) the reahty of both (the invisible
Brahman and the visible world, as coming from
Brahman). When he has been apprehended by the
words " He is," then his reality reveals itself.'
14.

When all

'

desires that dwell in his heart cease,

then the mortal becomes

and obtains

immortal,

Brahman.'
15.

'When

all

the ties^ of the heart are severed

here on earth, then the mortal becomes immortal
here ends the teaching

2.'

There are a hundred and one arteries of the
heart^, one of them penetrates the crown of the head'*.
Moving upwards by it, a man (at his death) reaches
16.

'

the Immortal

^

;

the other arteries serve for departing

in different directions.'

The Person

not larger than a thumb, the inner
Let a
Self, is always settled in the heart of men ^
steadiwith
his
body
man draw that Self forth from
1 7.

^

'

Cf. lAxxnd.

Ignorance, passion, &c.

Up.

II, i,

10;

II, 2, 9.

teaching of the Vedanta extends so far and no farther.
What follows has reference, according to the
(Cf. Prajna Up. VI, 7.)
him
who knows the highest Brahman, for he
not
to
commentator,
2

The

becomes Brahman

at

once and migrates no more

;

but to him

who

does not know the highest Brahman fully, and therefore migrates to
the Brahmaloka, receiving there the reward for his partial knowledge

and
3

*
s

good works.
iTHnd.Up.VIII, 6, 6.
It passes out by the head.
The commentator says He
for his

Cf.

«

rises through the sun Qsimid. Up.
which he enjoys some kind of immortality,
:

I, 2, 1 1)

to a world in

6'vet.

Up.

Ill, 13.

KAT'fl'A-UPANISHAD.

24

Let
ness, as one draws the pith from a reed^
him know that Self as the Bright, as the Immortal;

Immortal ^.'
1 8. Haying received this knowledge taught by
Death and the whole rule of Yoga (meditation),
Na/^iketa became free from passion ^ and death, and
obtained Brahman. Thus it will be with another

yes, as the Bright, as the

who knows

also

19.

both

!

May He
May we

thus what relates to the Self.
protect us both!

knowledge become bright!
Om Peace peace peace
!

!

^

*
^

free
*

May He

acquire strength together

!

May we
!

Hari/^,

!

enjoy us

May

our

never quarrel^!

Om

!

As from a painter's brush a fibre/
This repetition marks, as usual, the end of a chapter.
Virata, free from vice and virtue. It may have been vi^ara,

Roer

:

'

from old age.
Cf. Taitt.

Up,

See, however,
III,

I

;

Mund. Up.

III, 10, note.

I,

2, 11.

MUA^Z)AKA-UPANISHAD.

'

;

MUA^Z?AKA-UPANISHAD.
FIRST MUA^/^AKA.
First KHAiVDA.
1.

Brahma was

the

first

of the Devas, the maker

He
of the universe, the preserver of the world.
told the knowledge of Brahman, the foundation of
knowledge, to his eldest son Atharva \
Whatever Brahma told Atharvan, that knowledge of Brahman Atharvan formerly told to Ahgir;

all

2.

he told
told
3.

it

it

to

Satyavaha Bharadva^a, and Bharadva^a
Angiras.
great householder, approached

in succession to

vSaunaka, the

Sir, what is that
Angiras respectfully and asked
through which, if it is known, everything else becomes
'

:

known
4.

?

He said to him 'Two
:

be known,

this

is

what

all

kinds of knowledge must

who know Brahman

tell us,

the higher and the lower knowledge.'
The lower knowledge is the i?/g-veda, Ya^ir5.
'

veda, Sama-veda, Atharva-veda, ^iksha (phonetics),

Kalpa (ceremonial), Vyakara;^a (grammar), Nirukta
(etymology), A'//andas (metre), 6^yotisha (astronomy) ^

The change between Atharva and Atharvan, like that between
NaMetas and Na/i'iketa, shows the freedom of the phraseology of
1

the Upanishad,

2

and cannot be used

for fixing the date of the

con-

elements of the Upanishad.
Other MSS. add here itihasa-pura«a-nyaya-mima»zsa-dharma-

stituent

jastra«i.

MUiV^DAKA-UPANISHAD.

28

but the higher knowledge
Indestructible (Brahman)

is

by which the

that

is

apprehended.'

That which cannot be seen, nor seized, which
has no family and no caste \ no eyes nor ears, no
hands nor feet, the eternal, the omnipresent (all6.

'

pervading), infinitesimal, that which
that

imperishable,

which the wise regard as the source of

is

it

is

beings.'

all

*

7.

the spider sends forth and draws in

As

thread, as plants

grow on the

earth, as

its

from every

hairs spring forth on the head and the body, thus
does everything arise here from the Indestructible.'
The Brahman swells by means of brooding
8.

man

'

hence is produced matter (food) from
matter breathy mind, the true*, the worlds (seven),
and from the works (performed by men in the
worlds), the immortal (the eternal effects, rewards,
(penance)

^

;

;

and punishments of works).'
^

I translate

varwa by caste on account of

The commentator

gotra.

We

qualities.'

translates,

'

its

conjunction with

without origin and without

should say that which belongs to no genus or

species.
^

I

word

have translated tap as by brooding, because

this is the only

which combines the two meanings of warmth and
Native authorities actually admit two roots, one tap,

in English

thought.

to burn, the other

tap, to meditate;

pewaharavar^anam.

see

Tapa^

jara-smnti, p. 39^ (MS. Bodl.),

Nanu Vyasena

commentary on Parakr/^'/^/^ray^andrayawadiru-

tapo 'nyatha smaryate, tapa^

svadharma-vartitva»i jau^aw sahganibarha?zam
kr//('Mrader api svadharmavijeshat.

Tapa

iti

;

nayaw dosha-^,
asmad dhator

sa/;itapa ity

vrz'ttir mukhya.
ko 'yam moksha/z kathawi tena sa/«saram

utpannasya tapa/^-jabdasya dehajoshawe
tu tatraivoktawz,

pannavan

ity

alo^anam artha^nas tapa^ jawsanti pa«/ita

eva tapa>^jabda>^, tapa alo>^ana

ity

Hirawyagarbha, the living world as a whole.

*

Satya,

iti

.

Yat
prati-

so 'nya

Comm.

we compare KaM, VI, 7 and III, 10, seems
Here it is explained by the five elements.
if

.

asmad dhator utpanna^.

'

buddhi.

.

to

mean

I

9.

'

MUiVDAKA,

From him who

I

KHAiVDA,

perceives

all

9.

29

and who knows

whose brooding (penance) consists of knowledge,
from him (the highest Brahman) is born that Brahman ^ name, form ^, and matter (food).'
all,

'

Hira?zyagarbha.

2

Namarupam,

Comm.

a very frequent concept in Buddhistic literature.

MUiVDAKA-UPANISHAD.

Second KnAiVDA.
This

1.

is

the truth

they (the poets)

saw

have been performed
age^.
this

in

man

the

fire is

is

in the

Treta

between the two por-

an offering with
sacrifice

^ is

faith.

not followed

In the beginning of the second Kha.nda, the lower knowledge
described, referring to the performance of sacrifices and

first

other good deeds.

a desire
*

I

Veda)

lighted and the flame flickers,

his oblations

ofl"er

If a man's Agnihotra

3.

(of the

diHgently, ye lovers of truth,

tions of melted butter, as

^

hymns
many ways

the

*!

When

2.

the sacrificial works which

:

in

your path that leads to the world of good

is

works
let a

them

Practise^

^

is

The reward

awakened

The Treta age

is

of them

after the higher

is

perishable,

and therefore

knowledge.

frequently mentioned as the age of sacrifices.

should prefer, however, to take treta in the sense of trayi

vidya, and santata as developed, because the idea that the Tret^
age was distinguished by its sacrifices, seems to me of later origin.

Even

the theory of the four ages or yugas, though

Brahmawa, is not frequently alluded
See Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 283.
^
'

The

in the Ait.

termination tha for ta looks suspiciously Buddhistic

Sanskrit Texts discovered in Japan,'
*

known

to in the older Upanishads.

J.

R. A. S. 1880,

Svakn'ta and sukr/ta are constantly interchanged.

the same,

p.

;

see

i8o.

They mean

good deeds, or deeds performed by oneself and believed

to be good.

At the Agnihotra, the first of all sacrifices, and the type of
others, two portions of a^ya are sacrificed on the right and
The place between the two is
left side of the Ahavantya altar.
called the Avapasthana, and here the oblations to the gods are to
be offered. There are two oblations in the morning to Surya and
Pra^apati, two in the evening to Agni and Pra^apati. Other sacrifices, such as the Dar^a and Purwamasa, and those mentioned in
^

many

verse 3, are connected with the Agnihotra.

MUNDAKA,

I

2

KUANDA,

T^l

7.

by the new-moon and full-moon sacrifices, by the
four-months' sacrifices, and by the harvest sacrifice,
if it is unattended by guests, not offered at all, or
without the Vai^vadeva ceremony, or not offered
according to rule, then it destroys his seven worlds \
Kali (black), Karalt

4.

Mano^ava

(terrific),

(swift

Sudhumravar;^a
(purple), Sphulihgini (sparkling), and the brilliant
Vijvartapi ^ (having all forms), all these playing about
are called the seven tongues (of fire).
5. If a man performs his sacred works when these
Sulohita (very

thought),

as

red),

flames are shining, and the oblations follow at the

him as sun-rays
the one Lord of the Devas dwells.

right time, then they lead

6.

Come

hither,

tions say to him,

come

hither

and carry the

!

to

where

the brilliant obla-

sacrificer

on the rays

of the sun, while they utter pleasant speech and
This is thy holy Brahma-world
praise him, saying
*

:

(Svarga), gained
7.

But

frail,

by thy good

in truth, are

works.'

those boats, the sacri-

the eighteen, in which this lower ceremonial

fices',

has been

Fools

told^.

who praise

this as the highest

good, are subject again and again to old age and
death.
^

The

first is

seven worlds form the rewards of a pious

Bhu^, the

last

Satya.

The

seven worlds

sacrificer, the

may

also be ex-

plained as the worlds of the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather,

of the son, the grandson, and great-grandson, and of the

sacrificer himself.
^

Or Vijvaru/^i,

dhara's

if

commentary

there

is

any authority for this reading in MahiXVII, 79. The Rajah

to the Va^as. Sa^^ihita

vij-varuki, which is also the reading adopted
Roy, see Complete Works, vol. i, p. 579.
^ The commentator takes the eighteen for the sixteen priests,
But such an explanation hardly yields
the sacrificer, and his wife.

of Besmah's edition has

by

Rammohun

a satisfactory meaning, nor does plava

mean

perishable.

MUA^DAKA-UPANISHAD.

32
8.

Fools dwelling

in darkness,

wise in their

own

and puffed up with vain knowledge, go round
staggering to and fro, like blind men led
round
and

conceit,

by the blind \
9.

Children,

when they have long

rance, consider themselves happy.

lived in igno-

Because those

good works are, owing to their
passions, improvident, they fall and become miserable
when their life (in the world which they had gained
by their good works) is finished.
10. Considering sacrifice and good works as the
best, these fools know no higher good, and having
enjoyed (their reward) on the height of heaven,
gained by good works, they enter again this world

who depend on

their

or a lower one.

But those 2 who practise penance and faith
in the forest, tranquil, wise, and living on alms,
depart free from passion through the sun to where
that immortal Person dwells whose nature is impe11.

rishable^.
12.

Let a Brahma;^a, after he has examined

all

these worlds which are gained by works, acquire

freedom from all desires. Nothing that is eternal
(not made) can be gained by what is not eternal
Let him, in order to understand this, take
(made).
Cf. KaM. Up. II, 5.
According to the commentator, this verse refers to those who
know the uselessness of sacrifices and have attained to a knowledge
They live in the forest as Vanaprasthas
of the qualified Brahman.
1

'

and Sawnyasins, practising tapas, i.e. whatever is proper for their
The wise
state, and jraddha, i. e. a knowledge of Hira«yagarbha.
are the learned GnTiasthas, while those who live on alms are those

who have

forsaken their family.

That person is Hirawyagarbha. His immortality
only, it lasts no longer than the world (sazwsara).
^

is

relative

I

UVNDAKA,

2

KHAA^DA,

1 3.

hand and approach a Guru who
and dwells entirely in Brahman.
fuel in his

13.

To

that pupil

33
is

learned

who has approached him

re-

whose thoughts are not troubled by any
desires, and who has obtained perfect peace, the
wise teacher truly told that knowledge of Brahman through which he knows the eternal and true
spectfully,

Person.

[15]

^

MUiVDAKA-UPANISHAD.

34

SECOND MUiVZ^AKA.
First Kuanda.

This

1.

is

As from

the truth.

being like unto fire^

fly forth

a blazing

fire

sparks,

a thousandfold, thus are

various beings brought forth from the Imperishable,

my

and return thither also,
2. That heavenly Person is without body, he is
both without and within, not produced, without
breath and without mind, pure, higher than the high
friend,

Imperishable^.

From him (when

3.

breath, mind,

and

all

entering on creation)

organs of sense, ether,

water, and the earth, the support of

Fire (the sky)

4.

is

disclosed, the

wind

from

came the earth

his feet
all

things

born

all.

and
speech the Vedas

his head, his eyes the sun

the moon, the quarters his ears, his

Self of

is

air, light,

his breath, his heart the universe;
;

he

is

indeed the inner

^.

From him comes Agni (fire)^, the sun being the
from the moon (Soma) comes rain (Par^nya)
from the earth herbs and man gives seed unto the
woman. Thus many beings are begotten from the
5.

fuel

;

;

;

Person (purusha).
6.

From him come

Bnh. Ar. II, i, 20.
The high Imperishable

the

J^t/^,

the

Saman, the

'

Cf.

^

is here the creative, the higher the nonBrahman.
Called Vishwu and Vira^ by the commentators.
There are five fires, those of heaven, rain, earth, man, and

creative
'
*

woman. Comm.

II

MUiV'DAKA,

KHANDA,

I

lO.

35

Ya^sli, the Diksha (initiatory rites), all sacrifices
and offerings of animals, and the fees bestowed on
priests, the year too, the sacrificer, and the worlds,
in which the moon shines brightly and the sun.
7.

From him

the Sadhyas

the

(genii),

many Devas
men,

too are begotten,

cattle, birds,

the up and

down breathings, rice and corn (for sacrifices), penance,
faith, truth,
8.

abstinence, and law.

The seven

senses (prawa) also spring from him,

the seven lights (acts of sensation), the seven kinds

of fuel (objects by which the senses are lighted), the

seven

sacrifices (results

of sensation), these seven

worlds (the places of the senses, the worlds deter-

mined by the senses)

in which the senses move,
which rest in the cave (of the heart), and are placed
there seven and seven.

Hence come the seas and all the mountains,
from him flow the rivers of every kind hence come
9.

;

herbs and the juice through which the inner Self
subsists with the elements.

all

10.

The Person

is all this, sacrifice,

penance, Brah-

man, the highest immortal he who knows
;

in the

cave (of the heart), he,

O

knot of ignorance here on earth.

D

2

this

hidden

friend, scatters the

!

!

MUJVDAKA-UPANISHAD.

^6

Second Khanda.
Manifest, near,

1.

Is

the great Being.

moving
In

it

in the

cave (of the heart)

everything

is

centred which

ye know as moving, breathing, and bhnklng, as being
best, that

and not-being, as adorable, as the

is

beyond

the understanding of creatures.
2. That which is brIlHant, smaller than small, that

on which the worlds are founded and their inhabitants, that is the Indestructible Brahman, that is the

mind that is the true, that is the
That is to be hit. Hit It, O friend
Immortal.
3. Having taken the Upanishad as the bow, as
the great weapon, let him place on It the arrow,
sharpened by devotion Then having drawn It with

breath, speech,

;

!

!

a thought directed to that which
friend, viz. that

Om

4.
is

called

Is

Its

which

is

not thoughtless

;

hit the

mark,

O

the Indestructible!

the bow, the Self
aim.

is,

It Is to

be

Brahman
by a man who Is

the arrow,

is

hit

and then, as the arrow (becomes one

with the target), he will become one with Brahman.
In him the heaven, the earth, and the sky are

5.

woven, the mind also with all the senses. Know
him alone as the Self, and leave off other words
He is the bridge of the Immortal.
6. He moves about becomingf manifold within
the heart where the arteries meet, like spokes
fastened to the nave.
Meditate on the Self as
Om Hail to you, that you may cross beyond (the
!

sea of) darkness

He who
whom all

7.

to

understands
this glory

all

and who knows

in the

all,

he

world belongs, the

II

Self, is

MUA^DAKA,

2

KHANDA,

II.

2)7

placed in the ether, in the heavenly city of

Brahman

(the heart).

He

assumes the nature of

mind, and becomes the guide of the body of the
senses.

He

subsists in food, in close proximity to

The

the heart.

wise

who understand

the Immortal which shines forth

The

8.

of

fetter of the heart is broken, all

are solved,

all

his

works (and their

when He has been beheld who
and

full

is

behold
doubts

effects) perish

high and low (cause

effect) \

In the highest golden

9.

there

sheath

Brahman without passions and without
is

this,
bliss.

pure, that

is

the light of lights, that

know who know the Self.
10. The 2 sun does not
and the

stars,

is it

the

That

which they

moon
much
less
and

shine there, nor the

nor these lightnings,
he shines, everything shines after

When

this fire.

him

is

parts.

by his light all this is lighted ^.
11. That immortal Brahman is before, that Brahman is behind, that Brahman is right and left. It
has gone forth below and above Brahman alone is
;

;

all this, it is

1

Cf. Ka//^.
3

the best.

Up. VI, 15.
^-vet. Up. VI, 14

-

;

Ka//2.

Bhag. Gita IX,

Up. V,

15, 6.

15.

;

MUA^DAKA-UPANISHAD.

'»8

THIRD MUA^Z?AKA.
First KHAiVDA.

Two birds, inseparable friends, cling to

1.

One

tree.

of them eats the sweet

fruit,

die

same

the other

looks on without eating ^

same tree man sits grieving, immersed,
bewildered by his own impotence (an-i^-a). But when
he sees the other lord (i^a) contented and knows his
glory, then his grief passes away 2.
and
3. When the seer sees the brilliant maker

On

2.

the

lord (of the world) as the Person

who has

his source

Brahman, then he is wise, and shaking off good
and evil, he reaches the highest oneness, free from

in

passions
4. For he is the Breath shining forth in all beings,
and he who understands this becomes truly wise,
not a talker only. He revels in the Self, he delights
in the Self, and having performed his works (truthfulness, penance, meditation, &c.) he rests, firmly
established in Brahman, the best of those who know-

Brahman ^
1

Cf.

Rv.

1,

164, 20

Nir.

;

XIV, 30

;

Svet Up. IV, 6

;

Ka/^. Up.

Ill, I.

Up. IV,

2

Cf. ^-vet.

^

The commentator

was another reading,
its

7.

states that, besides atmarati^ kriyavan, there

origin to a difficulty

acts,

atmaratikriyavan.

viz.

felt

with the brahmavida;«

in

This probably owed

reconciling kriyavan, performing

varish//ia//,

the best of those

who know

Brahman, works being utterly incompatible with a true knowledge
of Brahman.
Kriyavan, however, as 6ahkara points out, may
mean here simply, having performed meditation and other acts
conducive to a knowledge of Brahman.
Probably truthfulness,

;

MUiVDAKA,

Ill

KHANDA,

I

lO.

39

By

truthfulness, indeed, by penance, right knowand abstinence must that Self be gained the
Self whom spotless anchorites gain is pure, and like
5.

ledge,

;

a light within the body.

The

6.

the path

true prevails, not the untrue

;

by the

true

way of

the gods (devayana/^),
on which the old sages, satisfied in their desires,
proceed to where there is that highest place of the
True One.
7. That (true Brahman) shines forth grand, divine,
inconceivable, smaller than small it is far beyond
what is far and yet near here, it is hidden in the
is

laid out, the

;

cave (of the heart)

among

those

who

see

it

even,

here.

He

by the eye, nor by
speech, nor by the other senses, not by penance or
good works \ When a man's nature has become
purified by the serene light of knowledge, then he
sees him, meditating on him as without parts.
9. That subtle Self is to be known by thought
8.

(/^etas)

is

there

not apprehended

w^here

every thought of

for

senses,

breath has entered fivefold

men

and when thought

is
is

interwoven with the

purified, then the Self

arises.

Whatever state a man whose nature is puriimagines, and whatever desires he desires (for

10.

fied

himself or for others)^, that state he conquers and
penance, &c., mentioned in the next following verse, are the kriyas

For grammatical reasons also this reading is
But the last foot esha brahmavidaw varish/^a/^ is
If we examine the commentary, we see that
clearly defective.
-Sahkara read brahmanish//za/^, and that he did not read esha, which

or works intended.
preferable.

would give us the correct metre, brahmanish//zo

brahmavida;;;?

varish//^aA.
-

'

Cf. Ka//2.

Up. VI,

12.

2

cf. Brih, Ar. I, 4, 15.

MUiVDAKA-UPANISHAD.

40

those desires he obtains.

who

let every man
man who knows

Therefore

desires happiness worship the

the Selfi.

Second Khan da.
1.

est

He

home

shines

(the

knower of the

Brahman ^

of

brightly.

The

in

Self)

which

knows

all is

that high-

contained and

wise who, without desiring

happiness, worship that Person^, transcend this seed,
(they are not born again.)
2. He who forms desires in his mind, is born again
through his desires here and there.
But to him
whose desires are fulfilled and who is conscious of

the true Self (within himself)

all

desires vanish,

even

here on earth.

That Self ^ cannot be gained by the Veda, nor
by understanding, nor by much learning. He whom
the Self chooses, by him the Self can be gained.
The Self chooses him (his body) as his own.
4. Nor is that Self to be gained by one who is
3.

destitute

or without

of strength,

earnestness,

or

But if a wise man strives
by those means (by strength, earnestness,

without right meditation.
after

it

and right meditation), then his Self enters the home
of Brahman.
5. When they have reached him (the Self), the
sages become satisfied through knowledge, they are
conscious of their Self, their passions have passed
^

All this is said

the conditioned

by the commentator

Brahman

^

See verse

^

The commentator

'

Ka//^.

Up.

to refer to a

knowledge of

only.

4.

II, 23.

refers

purusha to the knower of the

Self.

1

Ill

MUiVDAKA,

2

KHAA^DA, lO,

4

The wise, having
away, and they are tranquil.
everywhere, deomnipresent
reached Him who is
voted to the

Self, enter into

Having

6.

him wholly.

well ascertained the object of the know-

ledge of theVedanta^and having purified their nature
by the Yoga^ of renunciation, all anchorites, enjoying
the highest immortality,

become

free at the time of

the great end (death) in the worlds of Brahma.
7> Their fifteen parts^ enter into their elements,

Devas

their

(the senses) into their (corresponding)

Their deeds and their Self with all his
knowledge become all one in the highest ImperishDevas*.

able.

As

8.

sea^
form, thus a wise man,

the flowing rivers disappear in the

name and their
from name and form, goes

losing their

freed

who

is

greater than the great

He who knows

to the divine Person,

^.

Brahman, becomes
even Brahman. In his race no one is born ignorant
He overcomes grief, he overcomes
of Brahman.
evil
free from the fetters of the heart, he becomes
9.

that highest

;

immortal.

And

10.

this

declared by the following Rik-

is

Let a man tell this science of Brahman to
those only who have performed all (necessary) acts,
who are versed in the Vedas, and firmly established
in (the lower) Brahman, who themselves offer as

verse

1

:

'

Cf. Taitt. Ar.

Weber, Ind. Stud.
2

man
2

5
*

By

the

Yoga

X,

12, 3;

I, p.

^vet.

Up. VI, 22

;

Kaiv. Up. 3; see

288.

system, which, through restraint (yoga), leads a

to true knowledge.

Pra^na Up. VI,
Cf. Prajna Up. VI,
Cf.

4.

'

The

eye into the sun, &c.

5.

Greater than the conditioned Brahman,

Comm.

!

MUJVDAKA-UPANISHAD,

42

an oblation the one I^ishi (Agni), full of faith, and
by whom the rite of (carrying fire on) the head
has been performed, according to the rule (of the
Atharva?^as).'
II.

The

(science

(proper)

^)

;

j?/shi

man who

a

rites,

highest Rtsh'is

Angiras formerly told
has

does not read

it.

not

this

true

performed the

Adoration to the

Adoration to the highest i?/shis

!

^

To

5'aunaka,

cf. I,

i, 3-

TAITTIRIYAKAUPANISHAD.

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.
FIRST VALLf,
Or, the Chapter on ^iksha (pronunciation).

Anuvaka^

First

Om! May

Harif,

I.

and Varuna.,

Aryaman

Mitra be propitious to
Indra, Br^'haspati,

also,

the wide-striding Vish;^u

us,

and

^.

Adoration to thee, O
Adoration to Brahman
Vayu (air)! Thou indeed art the visible Brahman.
I shall proclaim thee alone as the visible Brahman.
!

I

shall proclaim the right.

(scil.

May

(1-5)3
teacher

yes,

!

the teacher

^

I

shall proclaim the true

Brahman).

!

Om

This invocation

me! May

protect

it

may

is

it

protect me, and

Peace

!

!

peace

!

it

protect the

may

peace

it

protect

!

here counted as an Anuvaka; see Taitt.

Ar., ed. Rajendralal Mitra, p. 725.
is taken from Rig-veda-sawhitd 1, 90, 9. The deities
by the commentators Mitra as god of the
explained
are variously
Pra«a (forth-breathing) and of the day Varuwa as god of the
2

This verse

:

;

Apana

(off-breathing)

and of the

represent the eye or the sun
or intellect
it

is

only

if

;

Vishwu, the

;

feet.

night.

Aryaman

Indra, strength

Their favour

;

is

supposed to

Brz'haspati, speech
is

invoked, because

they grant health that the study of the highest

can proceed without

wisdom

fail.

^
Five short sentences, in addition to the one paragraph. Such
sentences occur at the end of other Anuvakas also, and are counted

separately.

;

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD

46

Second Anuvaka.
I

.

Om

^

!

Let us explain

doctrine of

6'iksha, the

pronunciation, viz. letter, accent, quantity, effort (in

the formation of letters), modulation, and union of
letters (sandhi).

This

the lecture on KSiksha.

is

Third Anuvaka.

May glory come to both of us (teacher and pupil)
May Vedic light belong to both of us
together
Now let us explain the Upanishad (the secret
1.

!

!

meaning) of the union

{sapihita)'^,

under

five heads,

with regard to the worlds, the heavenly lights, knowPeople call these
ledge, offspring, and self (body).

the great Sa;;2hitas.
First,

with regard to the worlds.

the former element, heaven the

The

latter,

earth

is

ether their

union

So
2. That union takes place through Vayu (air).
much with regard to the worlds.
Next, with regard to the heavenly lights. Agni
the former element, Aditya (the sun) the

(fire) is

latter,

That union takes place
So much with regard to the

water their union.

through lightning.

heavenly lights.
Next, with regard to knowledge. The teacher is
the former element,
3. The pupil the latter, knowledge their union.

That union takes place through the recitation of the
Veda. So much with regard to knowledge.
Next, with regard to offspring. The mother is
^

Cf.

Rig-veda-pratuakhya, ed. M. M.,

*

Cf.

Aitareya-arawyaka III,

i, i

p. iv seq.

(Sacred Books,

vol.

i,

p. 247).

!

I

VALXI, 4 ANUVAKA,

2.

47

the former element, the father the latter, offsprhicr

That union takes
So much with regard

their union.
creation.
4.

place through proto offspring.

Next, with regard to the self (body). The
is the former element, the upper jaw the

lower jaw

That union takes place
So much with regard to the Self.
These are the great Sa;;/hitas. He who knows
speech their union.

latter,

through speech.

these Sa;72hitas (unions), as here explained, becomes
united with offspring, cattle, Vedic light, food, and

with the heavenly world.

Fourth Anuvaka.
1.

May

he^

who

is

the strong bull of the Vedas,

assuming all forms, who has risen from the Vedas,
from the Immortal, may that Indra (lord) strengthen
me with wisdom May I,0 God, become an upholder
of the Immortal
May my body be able, my tongue sweet, may
I
hear much with my ears
Thou (Om) art the
shrine (of Brahman), covered by wisdom.
Guard
what I have learnt^.
She (^ri, happiness) brings near and spreads,
2. And makes, without delay, garments for herself,
cows, food, and drink at all times; therefore bring
that Sri (happiness) hither to me, the woolly, with
!

!

^

The

next verses form the prayer and oblation of those

wish for wisdom and happiness.
that the

Om

is

first

verse

it is

who

supposed

invoked, the most powerful syllable of the Vedas,

the essence extracted from

of Brahman.

In the

all

See J^Mnd. Up.

the Vedas, and in the end a
p.

i

name

seq.

^ Here end the prayers for the attainment of wisdom,
lowed by oblations for the attainment of happiness.

to

be

fol-

!

!

!

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.

48

May the Brahman-students
Svaha ^
May they come from all
come to me, Svaha
May they come forth to me, Svaha
sides, Svaha
May they practise restraint, Svaha May they enjoy
peace, Svahd!
May
3. May I be a glory among men, Svaha
May I enter
I be better than the richest, Svaha!
(Om),
Svaha!
Thou, O
into thee, O treasure
In thee, contreasure ^, enter into me, Svaha
her cattle

^

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

O

sisting of a thousand branches, in thee,
I

am

Svaha

cleansed,

As water

!

the months go to the year, so,
world,

from

treasure,

runs downward, as

O

preserver of the

may Brahman-students always come

all sides,

to

me

Svaha

Thou art
session of me
(i)

a refuge

!

Enlighten

me

!

Take

pos-

Fifth Anuvaka.
1.

Bhti,

Bhuvas, Suvas*, these are the three sacred

Maha/6amasya taught a
Brahman, which is the
Self The others (devatas) are its members.
BhCi is this world, Bhuvas is the sky, Suvas is
interjections

fourth, viz.

(vyahrzti).

Mahas, which

is

the other world.
2.

Mahas

is

All the worlds are increased

the sun.

Bhu is Agni (fire), Bhuvas is Vayu
sun.
Suvas is Aditya (sun). Mahas is the moon. All
the heavenly lights are increased by the moon.
by the
(air),

^

as

'

2
^
^

The

construction

is

not right.

Woolly, loma^a,

is

explained

possessed of woolly sheep.'

With

the interjection Svaha each oblation
Bhaga, here explained as bhagavat.

The

text varies

between

Bhuvar, Suvar, Mahar.

is

Bhfi, Bhuvas, Suvas,

offered.

Mahas, and Bhu,

!

;

VALLI, 6 ANUVAKA,

I

Bhii

Suvas

is
is

the

Bhuvas

7?//C'-verses,

is

2.

49

the Saman-verses,

the Ya^us-verses.

Mahas

Brahman. All theVedas are increased
by the Brahman.
(1-2) Bhti is Pra;^a (up-breathing), Bhuvas is
Apana (down-breathing), Suvas is Vyana (back3.

breathing).

is

Mahas

food.

is

All breathings are

increased by food.

Thus

there are these four times four, the four and

four sacred interjections.
(1-2)

Knows

He who knows

Brahman.

the

All

these,

Devas bring

offerings to him.

Sixth Anuvaka.

There

1.

there

is

is

the ether within the heart, and in

it

the Person (purusha) consisting of mind,

immortal, golden.

Between the two palates there hangs the uvula,
like a nipple

— that

Where

lord)^

is

the starting-point of Indra (the

the root of the hair divides, there

he opens the two sides of the head, and saying Bhu,
he enters Agni (the fire); saying Bhuvas, he enters

Vdyu

(air)

saying
2. Saying Suvas, he enters Aditya (sun)
Mahas, he enters Brahman. He there obtains lordHe becomes
ship, he reaches the lord of the mind.
;

lord of speech, lord of sight, lord of hearing, lord of

Nay, more than this. There
Brahman whose body is ether, whose nature

knowledge.

is
is

the
true,

rejoicing in the senses (pra/^a), delighted in the mind,

perfect in peace,
(i)

Worship

and immortal.

thus,

O
^

[15]

Pra/C-inayogya

Cf.

I, 4, 1.

E

TAITTIRivAKA-UPANISHAD.

50

Seventh Anuvaka.
'The

T.

earth, the sky, heaven, the four quarters,

Agni (fire), Vayu
and the Intermediate quarters,'
(air), Aditya (sun), A'andramas (moon), and
the
'

stars,'

— 'Water, herbs,
the universal Self
—so much with reference to material objects
trees, ether,

(vira^),'

(bhiita).

Now with

reference to the self (the body)

'
:

Frkna,

(up-breathing), Apana (down-breathing), Vyana (backbreathing),
breathing),'

(out-breathing), and Sama;^a (on—Udana
The
the
mind, speech, and

— The

eye,

'

ear,

and marrow.'
Having dwelt on this (fivefold arrangement of the
worlds, the gods, beings, breathings, senses, and
touch,'

'

skin, flesh, muscle, bone,

elements of the body), a Rishi said
exists

is

Whatever

'

:

fivefold (pankta)^'

By means

(i)

to the

of the one fivefold set (that referring
body) he completes the other fivefold set.

Eighth Anuvaka.

Om means Brahman.
Om means all this.
When they have been
3. Om means obedience.
told, Om, speak,' they speak.
4. After Om they
sing Samans.
After Om they recite hymns.
6. After Om the Adhvaryu gives the response.
After Om the Brahman-priest gives orders.
8. After Om he (the sacrificer) allows the performI.

2.

'

5.

7.

ance of the Agnihotra.

9.

When

a Brahma;^a

going to begin his lecture, he says,
I

acquire

Brahman

(the Veda).'

He

the Veda.

^

Cf. Brz-h.Ar.

Up.

I,

4,17.

10.

'

is

Om, may

thus acquires

VALLf, lO ANUVAKA,

I

51

3.

Ninth Anuvaka^
I. (What is necessary?)
The right, and learning
and practising the Veda. The true, and learning and
practising the Veda. Penance, and learning and practising the Veda. Restraint, and learning and practising
the Veda. Tranquillity, and learning and practising
the Veda. The fires (to be consecrated), and learning
and practising the Veda. The Agnihotra sacrifice,
and learning and practising the Veda. Guests (to
be entertained), and learning and practising the Veda.
Man's duty, and learning and practising the Veda.
Children, and learning and practising the Veda.
(1-6) Marriage, and learning and practising the
Veda. Children's children, and learning and practising the Veda.

Satyava/^'as Rathitara thinks that the

necessary.

is

penance only

is

Taponitya

Paura6"ish/i

necessary.

Naka Maudgalya
the Veda only are

that learning and practising
sary,

for that

true only

is

penance, that

is

thinks

that

thinks
neces-

penance.

Tenth Anuvaka.
I.

'

I

am he who

shakes the tree

the world, which has to be cut

My glory is like the

2.

(i.e.

the tree of

down by knowledge).

top of a mountain.

3. I,

pure light (of knowledge) has risen high,

which

is

truly immortal, as

it

whose

am

that

resides in the sun.

knowledge alone, though
itself, but must be
preceded by works. The learning of the Veda by heart and the
practising of it so as not to forget it again, these two must always
have been previously performed.
^

it

This chapter

is

meant

to

secures the highest object,

is

show

that

not sufficient by

E 2

!!
!

TAITTIRivAKA-UPANISHAD.

52
4.

I

am

the brightest treasure.

mortal, imperishable

V

the Veda, by the poet

6.

I

5.

This

am

wise, im-

the teaching of

is

Trij-aiiku.

Eleventh Anuvaka.
After having taught the Veda, the teacher

1.

structs the pupil

*

:

Say what

is

true

!

Do

in-

thy duty

Do not neglect the study of the Veda! After
having brought to thy teacher his proper reward,
do not cut off the line of children Do not swerve
from the truth Do not swerve from duty! Do not
neglect what is useful
Do not neglect greatness
Do not neglect the learning and teaching of the
!

I

!

Veda!
2.

*

Do not neglect the (sacrificial) works due to

Gods and Fathers

the

Let thy mother be to thee like
Let thy father be to thee like unto a
god Let thy teacher be to thee like unto a god
Let thy guest be to thee like unto a god!
Whatever actions are blameless, those should be
regarded, not others.
Whatever good works have
been performed by us, those should be observed by
unto a god

!

!

!

thee,
3.

'

Not

others.

better than we.

giving them a seat.

given with

faith,

modesty, with

And

there are

some Brahma/^as

They should be comforted by thee by
Whatever

not without

fear,

given should be

is

faith,

with kindness.

—with

joy, with

If there should

This verse has been translated as the commentator wishes it
be understood, in praise of that knowledge of Self which is only
to be obtained after all other duties, and, more particularly, the
^

to

study of the Veda, have been performed.
corrupt,

and the

interpretation fanciful.

The

text

is

probably


I

be any doubt

in

!

VALLi, 12 ANUVAKA,

53

5.

thy mind with regard to any sacred

act or with regard to conduct,
4.

'In that case conduct thyself as Brahma;2as

who

possess good judgment conduct themselves therein,
whether they be appointed or not \ as long as they
And with
are not too severe, but devoted to duty.
regard to things that have been spoken against,
as Brahma;/as who possess good judgment conduct
themselves therein, whether they be appointed or
not, as long as they are not too severe, but devoted
to duty,

Thus conduct

'This is the rule.
is
the true purport
This
This is
(Upanishad) of the Veda. This is the command.
Thus should you observe. Thus should this be
(1-7)

thyself.

the teaching.

observed.'

Twelfth Anuvaka.

May

and Varu7^a,
Aryaman also, Indra, Brzhaspati, and the wideAdoration to Brahman Adorastriding Vish;m
I.

Mitra be propitious to

us,

!

!

O

tion to thee,

Brahman.
Brahman.
(1-5)

I

I

Vdyu

indeed art the visible

proclaimed thee alone as the visible

proclaimed the right.
protected me.

true.

It

Yes,

protected me,

it

Thou

!

it

I

proclaimed the

It protected

the teacher.

protected the teacher.

Om

Peace! peace! peace!
^

Aparaprayukta

iti

Ind. Stud. II, p. 216.

svatantra>^.

For other renderings, see Weber,

!

!

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.

54

SECOND

VALL!,

Or, the Chapter on Ananda
Hari/^,

Om

!

May

it

May we
1

!

May

it

acquire strength together

ledge become bright!

peace

Brahman) protect us

(the

both (teacher and pupil)

peace

(bliss).

May we

!

enjoy us both

May

our know-

never quarrel! Peace!

^

First Anuvaka.

He who knows the Brahman attains
(Brahman). On this the following verse
'He who knows Brahman, which
not

effect),

which

is

is

the highest
is

recorded

(i.e.

conscious, which

is

:

cause,

without

end, as hidden in the depth (of the heart), in the

highest ether, he enjoys

all

blessings, at

one with

the omniscient Brahman.'

From

(Brahman) sprang ether (aka^a,
we hear); from ether air (that
through which we hear and feel); from air fire (that
through which we hear, feel, and see); from fire water
(that through which we hear, feel, see, and taste);
from water earth (that through which we hear, feel,
see, taste, and smell). From earth herbs, from herbs
Man thus
food, from food seed, from seed man.
This is his head,
consists of the essence of food.
that Self ^

that through which

^

Not counted here as an Anuvaka. The other Anuvakas are
number of small sentences.
Compare with this sr/sh/ikrama, Khindi. Up. VI, 2 Ait. Ar.

divided into a
^

n,

;

4, 1.

::

VALLI, 2 ANUVAKA.

II

arm, this his

this his right

55

arm, this his trunk

left

(atman), this the seat (the support) \

On

this there is also the following ^Sloka

Second Anuvaka.

From

'

food

are produced

^

Then they

dwell on earth.

is

it

consisting of

e.

i.

the heat of the body of

by

live

food,

For food

end they return to food.
all beings, and therefore
vaushadha,

creatures which

all

and

in

the

the oldest of

is

called panacea (sar-

herbs, or quieting

all

all beings).'

food as Brahman ^ obtain all
the oldest of all beings, and

They who worship
For food

food.

therefore

is

it is

tures are produced

Because

;

by

food,

when

fed on, or because

it is

therefore

From

called panacea.

it is

food

crea-

all

born, they grow.

it

feeds on beings,

called food (anna).

Different from this, which consists of the essence

of food,

is

the other, the inner Self, which consists

The

of breath.

former

of the former

is

(up-breathing)

Pra;^a

breathing)

is its

left

arm.

its

is

by

Like the

has the shape of man.
the

filled

is

human shape

It

also

human shape
of the

latter.

Vyana (backhead.
Apana (down-breathing)

its

is

right arm.

Ether

this.

is

its

trunk.

The

earth

the seat (the support).

On

this there is also the following vSloka

the tail, which is his support.' But pratishMa
have been added, the Anuvaka ending originally with
In the
Tpukk/i2L, which is explained by nabher adhastad yad ahgam.
Persian translation the different members are taken for members
^

The

seems

text has

'

to

of a bird, which

is

not unlikely.

in the more general sense of matter.
Worship consisting in the knowledge that they are born of
food, live by food, and end in food, which food is Brahman.
2

^

Anna

is

sometimes used

:

TAITTIRIVAKA-UPANISHAD.

56

Third Anuvaka.
'The Devas breathe

after breath (pra;za), so

men and

cattle.

fore

called sarvayusha (all-enlivening).'

it is

Breath

They who worship
the

full life.

therefore

it

the

is

the

life

of

Self of this (consisting of breath)

is

all

beings, and

The embodied

sarvdyusha.

called

do

of beings, there-

life

breath as Brahman, obtain

For breath
is

is

the

same as

that

of the former (consisting of food).
Different from this, which consists of breath,

is

the

which consists of mind. The
It also has the shape of
former is filled by this.
man. Like the human shape of the former is the
human shape of the latter. Ya^s is its head. Rik
other, the inner Self,

is its

right arm.

Saman

is its left

The doctrine
The Athar-

arm.

the Brahma;2a) is its trunk.
(Atharva-hymns) the seat (the support).
this there is also the following 61oka

(dde^a,

i.e.

vaiigiras

On

Fourth Anuvaka ^
'

He who knows

whence

the bliss of that Brahman, from

away unable
he never fears.' The embodied Self of
this (consisting of mind) is the same as that of the
former (consisting of breath).
all

to reach

speech, with the mind, turns

it,

Different from this, which consists of mind,

is

the

which consists of understanding.
The former is filled by this. It also has the shape
of man.
Like the human shape of the former is the
human shape of the latter. Faith is its head. What
other, the inner Self,

is

right

is its

right arm.

^

What
Cf. II, 9.

is

true

is its left

arm.

::

VALLf, 6 ANUVAKA.

II

Absorption (yoga)
is

:

is its

The

trunk.

57
great (intellect?)

the seat (the support).

On

this there is also the following 6'loka

Fifth Anuvaka.
Understanding performs the sacrifice, it performs
All Devas worship understanding
sacred acts.

'

all

If a man knows
Brahman, as the oldest.
does not
if he
and
Brahman,
as
understanding
swerve from it, he leaves all evils behind in the
body, and attains all his wishes.' The embodied Self

as

of this (consisting of understanding) is the
that of the former (consisting of mind).

same as

Different from this, which consists of understand-

other inner Self, which consists of bliss.
former is filled by this. It also has the shape

ing, is the

The

of man.

Like the human shape of the former

human shape
tion

its

Bliss

On

of the

Great

right arm.

is its

trunk.

latter.

Joy

is its

head.

satisfaction

Brahman

is

is

the

Satisfac-

is its left

arm.

the seat (the support).

this there is also the following 6'loka

Sixth Anuvaka.
'

He who knows

the

Brahman

as non-existing,

becomes himself non-existing. He who knows the
Brahman as existing, him we know himself as existThe embodied Self of this (bliss) is the same
ing.'
as that of the former (understanding).

Thereupon follow the questions of the pupil
Does any one who knows not, after he has departed
this life, ever go to that world ? Or does he who
knows, after he has departed, go to that world^?'
*

^
As he who knows and he who knows not, are both sprung
from Brahman, the question is supposed to be asked by the pupil,
whether both will equally attain Brahman.

:

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.

58

The answer is He wished, may I be many^
may I grow forth. He brooded over himself (like
After he had thus
a man performing penance).
:

brooded, he sent forth (created) all, whatever there
Having sent forth, he entered into it. Having
is.
entered

he became sat (what

it,

is

manifest) and

tyat (what is not manifest), defined and undefined,
supported and not supported, (endowed with) knowledge and without knowledge (as stones), real and
unreal 2. The Sattya (true) became all this what-

and therefore the wise

soever,

call it (the

Brahman)

Sat-tya (the true).

On

this there is also this ^'loka

Seventh Anuvaka.
was non-existent (not yet
defined by form and name). From it was born what
exists.
That made itself its Self, therefore it is
called the Self-made ^' That which is Self-made is
'In the beginning this

a flavour* (can be tasted), for only after perceiving a
flavour can any one perceive pleasure. Who could
breathe,

who

could breathe forth,

if

that bliss (Brah-

2, i, where a similar account
spoken of as tad, neuter. It
is said there
In the beginning there was that only which is, one
only, without a second. It willed, may I be many,' &c. (Cf. Brih.
Ar. Up. vol. ii, p. 52.)

In the ^/^andogya-upanishad VI,

^

of the creation
:

given, the subject

and

as real and unreal to the senses, not the really

unreal.

3

Cf. Ait.

*

As
all

is

'

What appears

^

real

of

is

Up.

flavour

J,

is

2, 3.

the cause of pleasure, so

The

things.

Brahman

proceeds from Brahman, the Self-made.
upanishad I, 5 Sacred Books, vol. i, p. 277.
that

it

;

is

the cause

wise taste the flavour of existence, and

know

See Kaushitaki-

:

:

II

VALLI, 8 ANUVAKA,

man) existed not

2.

59

in the ether (in the heart)

?

For

he alone causes blessedness.
When he finds freedom from fear and rest in that
which is invisible, incorporeal, undefined, unsupFor if
ported, then he has obtained the fearless.
he makes but the smallest distinction in it, there
is fear for him\
But that fear exists only for
one who thinks himself wise^, (not for the true
sage.)

On

this there is also this ^Sloka

Eighth Anuvaka.
(i)

'

From

from terror

(Brahman) the wind blows,
the sun rises from terror of it Agni
terror of

it

;

and Indra, yea Death runs as the fifths'
Now this is an examination of (what is meant by)
Bliss (ananda)

Let there be a noble young man, who is well
read (in the Veda), very swift, firm, and strong, and
let the whole world be full of wealth for him, that is
one measure of human bliss.
One hundred times that human bliss (2) is one
measure of the bliss of human Gandharvas (genii),

Fear arises only from what is not ourselves. Therefore, as
soon as there is even the smallest distinction made between our Self
and the real Self, there is a possibility of fear. The explanation
^

ud=api, aram=alpam
schools.

It

is

very doubtful, but recognised

could hardly be a proverbial expression,

'

if

in

the

he makes

another stomach' meaning as much as, 'if he admits another person.'
According to the commentator, we should translate, for one who
knows (a diiference), and does not know the oneness.'
^ I read manvanasya, the commentator amanvanasya.
'

3

Ka/^. Up.VI,

3.

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.

6o

and likewise of a great sage (learned

who is free from
One hundred

in

the Vedas)

desires.

times that bliss of

human Gan-

measure of the bliss of divine
Gandharvas (genii), and likewise of a great sage
who is free from desires.
One hundred times that bliss of divine Gandharvas
is one measure of the bliss of the Fathers, enjoying
their long estate, and likewise of a great sage who is
free from desires.
One hundred times that bliss of the Fathers is
one measure of the bliss of the Devas, born in the
Aj^dna heaven (through the merit of their lawful
works), (3) and likewise of a great sage who is free
from desires.
One hundred times that bliss of the Devas born
in the A^ana heaven is one measure of the bliss of
the sacrificial Devas, who go to the Devas by means
of their Vaidik sacrifices, and likewise of a great
sage who is free from desires.
One hundred times that bliss of the sacrificial
Devas is one measure of the bliss of the (thirty-three)
Devas, and likewise of a great sage who is free from
dharvas

is

one

desires.

One hundred
Devas

is

times that bliss of the (thirty-three)

one measure of the

likewise of a great sage

One hundred
measure of the
a great sage

who

bliss of Indra, (4)
is

free

from

desires.

times that bliss of Indra
bliss

who

is

and

is

one

of Brzhaspati, and likewise of

free

from

desires.

One hundred times that bliss of Br/haspati is one
measure of the bliss of Pra^apati, and likewise of
a great sage who is free from desires.
One hundred times that bliss of Pra^apati is one


II

VALLI, 8 ANUVAKA,

61

5.

Brahman, and likewise of
a great sage who is free from desires.
man, and he who
(5) He^ who is this (Brahman) in
are
one 2.
is that (Brahman) in the sun, both
measure of the

bliss of

1

Cf. Ill, 10, 4.

2

In giving the various degrees of happiness, the author of the

Upanishad gives us at the same time the various classes of human
and divine beings which we must suppose were recognised in his
We have Men, human Gandharvas, divine Gandharvas,
time.
Fathers (pitara^ /^iralokaloka/^), born Gods (a^ana^a deva/z), Gods
by merit (karmadeva/^), Gods, Indra, Br/'haspati, Pra^apati, Brahman. Such a list would seem to be the invention of an individual
rather than the result of

an old

tradition, if

it

did not occur in a very

similar form in the -Satapatha-brahmawa, Madhyandina-jakha XIV,
7,1,31, Kawva-^akha (Br/h. Ar.Up.IV, 3,32). Here, too,the highest
measure of happiness is ascribed to the Brahmaloka, and other
beings are gupposed to share a certain measure only of its supreme
The scale begins in the Madhyandina-jakha with men,
happiness.
who are followed by the Fathers (pitaro ^italoka-^), the Gods by

merit (karmadeva/;), the
the 6'rotriya

is

birth {aga.na.devU, with

Gods by

whom

joined), the world of Gods, the world of Gandharvas,

the world of Pra^apati, the world of

Brahman.

In the Brthad-

Srawyaka-upanishad we have Men, Fathers, Gandharvas, Gods by

Gods by

merit,

birth,

Pra^apati, and

Brahman.

we find
TAITTIRIYA-UPAN. 5ATAPATHA-BRAH.

three

side

lists

Men
Human

by

If

we

place the

side,

B/?7HADARAiV.-UPAN.

Men

Men
Gandharvas

(and iSrotriya)
Divine Gandharvas
Fathers (^iraloka)

Gods by birth
Gods by merit

Fathers (^italoka)

Fathers (^italoka)

Gods by
Gods by

Gandharvas
Gods by merit
Gods by birth

(and

merit
birth

6'rotriya)

Gods

Gods

Indra

Gandharvas

(and

6'rotriya)

Br/haspati
Pra^apati

Pra^apati

Brahman

Brahman

The commentators do not help us much.

Pra^apati

Brahman.
3'ahkara

on the Taitti-

:

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.

62

He who knows

when he has departed

this,

this

world, reaches and comprehends the Self which consists of food, the Self which consists of breath, the
Self which consists of mind, the Self which consists

of understanding, the Self which consists of

On

this there

also this vSloka

is

riyaka-upanishad explains the

human Gandharvas

have become Gandharvas, a kind of

Gandharvas by

The

birth.

bliss.

fairies

;

men who

as

divine Gandharvas, as

Fathers or INIanes are called ^iraloka,

because they remain long, though not for ever, in their world. The
%ana^a Gods are explained as born in the world of the Devas

through their good works (smarta), while the Karmadevas are explained as born there through their sacred works (vaidika).

Gods

are the thirty-three,

B/'zliaspati.

Pra^apati

whose

Vira^,

is

lord

is

The

and whose teacher

Indra,

Brahman Hirawyagarbha.

Dvive-

daganga, in his commentary on the vS'atapatha-brahmawa, explains

on the Southern path, have
by having themselves
The Karmadevas,
offered in their life sacrifices to their Fathers.
according to him, are those w'ho have become Devas by sacred
works (jrauta), the A_o-anadevas those who were gods before there
were men. The Gods are Indra and the rest, while the Gandharvas

the Fathers as those who, proceeding

conquered

more

world,

their

are not explained.

Prao-apati

particularly

is

Vira^,

Brahman

is

Hira«yagarbha.

commentary on the Br/hadara?/yakaupanishad, gives nearly the same explanation as before only that
he makes a^anadeva*^ still clearer, by explaining them as gods
Lastly,

iS'ahkara,

in

his

;

a^anata-^,

i.

e. utpattita//,

The arrangement

from

their birth.

of these beings and their worlds, one rising

above the other, reminds us of the cosmography of the Buddhists,
but the elements, though in a less systematic form, existed evidently
before.

Thus we

brahma«a XIV,

find in the so-called

6, 6, i) the

Gargi-brahmawa

following succession

the worlds of the sky^, heaven, sun,

moon,

stars,

:

Pra^apati, Brahman.

In the Kaushitaki-upanishad
i,

p.

275) there

is

air, ether*^,

gods, Gandharvas*^,

Books of

the East, vol.

(^S'atapatha-

Water,

I,

3 (Sacred

another series, the worlds

of Agni, Vayu,Varu«a, Indra, Pra^apati, and Brahman. See Weber,
Ind. Stud. II,

p.

224.

"

Deest in Ka/jva-sakha.

^

Between sky and

Up.
«

Ill, 6,

I,

sun, the

Ka«va-5akha places the Gandharvaloka (Br:h. Ar.

p. 609).

Instead of Gandharvas, the Brih. Ar.

Up. places Indra.

II

VALLI, 9 ANUVAKA.

63J

Ninth Anuvaka^
'

He who knows

whence

all

to reach

He

Why

the bliss of that Brahman, from

away unable

speech, with the mind, turns

it,

he fears nothing

^.'

does not distress himself with the thought.
did I not do what is good ? Why did I do

what is bad ? He who thus knows these two (good
and bad), frees himself. He who knows both, frees
himself ^
This is the Upanishad^
'

Cf. II, 4-

-

Even

if

of Self and
fear

might

there

is

no

fear

from anything

Brahman has been
still

arise

obtained,

knowledge
might be thought that

else, after the
it

from the commission of

evil

deeds, and the

omission of good works. Therefore the next paragraphs have been
added.
^

The

*

Here

construction of these two sentences
follows the Anukrama;/i,

and

in

invocation with which the next Valli begins.

is

not clear to me.

some

I\ISS. the

same

!

:

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD.

64

THIRD VALLt,
Or, the Chapter of Bnis/GU.
Han7^,

Om

May

!

it

(the

Brahman) protect us

May it enjoy us both May we acquire strength
together May our knowledge become bright May
both!

!

I

!

we never

quarrel

Peace

!

peace

!

peace

!

^

First Anuvaka.
Bhrigu. Varu^^i went to his father Varu;2a, saying
*

me

teach

Sir,

He

Brahman.'

told

him

this,

viz.

Food, breath, the eye, the ear, mind, speech.
That from whence
Then he said again to him
'

:

these beings are born, that by which, when born,
they live, that into which they enter at their death,
try to

know

He

That

that.

performed

Brahman.'

is

penance.

Having

performed

penance —

Second Anuvaka.

He

perceived that food

these beings are produced

Brahman, for from food
by food, when born, they

is
;

and into food they enter at their death.
live
Having perceived this, he went again to his father
;

Varu^ea, saying

'

:

Sir,

teach

me

Brahman.'

He

said

know Brahman by penance, for
of knowing) Brahman.'
means
penance
Having performed
He performed penance.
him

to

:

'

Try

is

to

(the

penance
^

The same

paragraph, as before

Ka//^a-upanishad, and elsewhere.

(II, i),

occurs at the end of the


VALLf, 5 ANUVAKA.

Ill

65

Third Anuvaka.

He

perceived that breath

breath these beings are born

they Hve

^

;

is

Brahman,

from

for

by breath, when born,

into breath they enter at their death.

;

Having perceived
Varu;^a, saying

'
:

this,

he went again

teach

Sir,

me

to his father

Brahman.'

He

said

to him
Try to know Brahman by penance, for
penance is (the means of knowing) Brahman.'
Having performed
He performed penance.
'

:

penance

Fourth Anuvaka.

He

perceived that mind (manas)

Brahman, for
by mind, when

is

from mind these beings are born
born, they Hve into mind they enter at their death.
Having perceived this, he went again to his father
He said
Sir, teach me Brahman.'
Varu/^a, saying
;

;

'

:

to

him

:

penance

He

know Brahman by penance, for
means of knowing) Brahman.'
Having performed
performed penance.
'

is

Try

to

(the

penance

Fifth Anuvaka.

He perceived that understanding (vi^;/ana) was
Brahman, for from understanding these beings are
born by understanding, when born, they hve into
;

;

understanding they enter at their death.

Having perceived

he went again to his father
me Brahman.' He said
Try to know Brahman by penance, for
to him
penance is (the means of knowing) Brahman.'

Varu;/a, saying

'

:

this,

Sir,

teach

'

:

^

[15]

Or

life;

see Brih. Ar.

F

Up. IV,

r, 3.


A

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD

66

He

Having

penance.

performed

performed

penance

Sixth Anuvaka.

He

perceived that bliss

these beings are born

;

is

by

Brahman,
bhss,

from bhss

for

when

born, they

Hve into bhss they enter at their death.
This is the knowledge of Bhr/gu and Varu;^a^
He
exalted in the highest heaven (in the heart).
in
rich
becomes
exalted,
who knows this becomes
food, and able to eat food (healthy), becomes great
by offspring, cattle, and the splendour of his know;

ledge (of Brahman), great by fame.

Seventh Anuvaka.
Let him never abuse food, that is the rule.
Breath is food 2, the body eats the food. The
body rests on breath, breath rests on the body. This
He who knows this
is the food resting on food.
food resting on food", rests exalted, becomes rich
in food, and able to eat food (healthy), becomes
great by offspring, cattle, and the splendour of his
knowledge (of Brahman), great by fame.

Eighth Anuvaka.
Let him never shun food, that
is

light.

'

Taught by Varu7?a,

learnt

^

Because, like food,

it is

'

The

the rule.

The

food, the light eats the food.

water, water rests on

is

This

is

world owes

its

show

on

by Bhr/gu Varuwi.

(see ^Sahkara's

origin to there being

enjoyed (object), but that

light rests

the food resting

inside the body.

interdependence of food and breath.

discussic*! is to

Water

The

commentary,

p.

object of this

135) that the

an enjoyer (subject) and what

this distinction

does not exist in the

is

Self.

Ill

VALLI, lO ANUVAKA,

He who knows

on food \

67

2.

food restine on food,
becomes rich in food, and able to eat
food (healthy), becomes great by offspring, cattle, and
the splendour of his knowledge (of Brahman), great
by fame.
this

rests exalted,

Ninth Anuvaka.
Let him acquire much food, that

is

the rule.

The

food, the ether eats the food.

is

Earth

ether rests

on the earth, the earth rests on the ether. This is
the food resting on food.
He who knows this food
resting on food, rests exalted, becomes rich in food,
and able to eat food (healthy), becomes great by

and the splendour of his knowledge
Brahman), great by fame.

offspring, cattle,
(of

Tenth Anuvaka.
1.

Let him never turn away

house, that

is

(a stranger)

Therefore a

the rule.

from

man

his

should

means acquire much food, for (good) people
say (to the stranger)
There is food ready for him.'
If he gives food amply, food is given to him amply.
If he gives food fairly, food is given to him fairly.
If he gives food meanly, food is given to him

by

all

'

:

meanly.
2.

He who knows

Brahman

in

breathing (apana)

human
human

(recognises and worships

as possession in speech, as acquisition

-)

and possession
in the feet

this,

;

;

up-breathing (pra/^a) and downas action in the

hands

as voiding in the anus.

recognitions (of
actions).

Next

Brahman

;

as walking

These are the

as manifested in

follow the recognitions (of

^

The interdependence

•^

Brahmawa upasanaprakara/z.

F 2

of water and

light.

!

;

;

A,.

TAITTIRIYAKA-UPANISHAD

68

Brahman) with reference
faction in rain as power
;

As

3.

to the Devas, viz. as satisin

as light in the stars;

glory in cattle;

procreation, immortality,

hghtning

and

as

member

bliss in the

Let him worship that
as everything in the ether.
(Brahman) as support, and he becomes supported.
Let him worship that (Brahman) as greatness (maha/^),
and he becomes great. Let him worship that (Brahman) as mind, and he becomes endowed with mind.
Let him worship that (Brahman) as adoration,

4.

and all desires fall down before him in adoration.
Let him worship that (Brahman) as Brahman, and
Let him
he will become possessed of Brahman.
worship this as the absorption of the gods in Brahman, and the enemies who hate him will die all
around him, all around him will die the foes whom
^

he does not love.

(Brahman) in man, and he who is
that (Brahman) in the sun, both are one.
has departed this
5. He who knows this, when he
world, after reaching and comprehending the Self
which consists of food, the Self which consists of

He^ who

is

breath, the

this

Self which consists of mind, the Self

which consists of understanding, the Self which consists of bliss, enters and takes possession of these
worlds, and having as much food as he likes, and
assuming as many forms as he likes, he sits down
singing

this

Saman

Brahman):

(of

'

Havu, havu,

havu
1

Cf.

Kaush. Up.

II,

1 2.

moon, and lightning
^ahkara adds the god of

sun,

ether.
2

Cf. II, 8.

Here
in the
rain,

the absorption of the gods of

god of

the air (vayu)

and shows

that air

is

is

fire,

described,

identical with

vall!, io anuvaka,

Ill

6.

'

I

am

food (object),

I

am

food,

I

69

6.

am

food

I am the eater of
am the poet (who
am the poet, I am the

the eater of food (subject),
I

am

the eater of food

the two together),
I

am

I

He who
*

!

I

the first-born of the Right (rita).

Devas

who

I

was
gives

eats food,

I

!

I

am

food,

joins

poet!

Before the

in the centre of all that is immortal.

me
I

away, he alone preserves me: him

eat as food.

overcome the whole world, I, endowed with
He who knows this, (attains all this).'

golden light \

This
^

If

^yoti/?,
2

is

the Upanishad^.

we read
i.

e.

suvarwa^yoti/z.

the light

After the

is

The commentator

reads suvar

;/a

like the sun,

Anukrama«i

beginning of the third Valli,

follows the
'

May

it

same invocation

protect us both,' &c.

as in the

B7?/HADARAyVYAKA-

UPANISHAD.

B7?/HADARA/l^YAKA-

UPANISHAD.
ADHYAYA^

FIRST

First BuAHMAiVA.
I.

is fit

the

Verily 2 the

dawn

is

for sacrifice, the sun

the head of the horse which
its

eye, the

wind

its

breath,

the year the body

mouth the Vaij-vanara^ fire,
Heaven is the
sacrificial horse.

of the

back, the sky

the belly, the earth the chest*, the quarters the two
sides, the intermediate quarters the ribs, the

members

the seasons, the joints the months and half-months,
the feet days and nights, the bones the stars, the

^

It is

the third

Adhyaya of the Arawyaka, but

the

first

of the

Upanishad.
is found in the Madhyandina text of the ^ataWeber, X, 6, 4. Its object is there explained by the
commentary to be the meditative worship of Vira^, as represented

This Brahma«a

^

patha, ed.

metaphorically in the

members of

the horse.

Saya;za dispenses with

explanation, because, as part of the Br/hadarawyaka-upanishad,

its

according to the Ka«va-jakha,

it

had been enlarged on by the

Varttikakara and explained.
^

Agni or

fire,

as pervading everything, as universally present

in nature.
*

Pa^asya

place of the

is

The commentator suggests pad-asya, the
The Greek Pegasos, or tWot irriyoi,
word. The meaning of hoof would hardly

doubtful.

feet,

i.

e.

the

hoof

throws no light on the
be appropriate here, and I prefer chest on account of uras in
I, 2, 3.
Deussen (Vedanta, p. 8) translates, die Erde seiner Fiisse
Schemel ; but we want some part of the horse.

Bi?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

74

The

flesh the clouds.

half-digested food

is

the sand,

the rivers the bowels^, the liver and the lungs ^ the

As

mountains, the hairs the herbs and trees.

sun

rises, it is

When

the horse.
lightens

water,

;

when
rains

it

Verily

2.

the forepart, as

voice*

thunders

it

the

the hindpart of

is its

;

when

it

it

makes

voice.

after the horse as the (golden)

Mahiman

(greatness),

placed before the horse.

the Eastern sea.

The Night

as the (silver) vessel, called
sacrifice) is

sets,

the horse shakes itself^ then

kicks,

Day arose

vessel^, called
sacrifice) is

;

it

it

which

(at

the

Its place is in

arose after the horse

Mahiman, which

placed behind the horse.

(at the

Its place is in

the Western sea. Verily, these two vessels (or greatnesses) arose to be on each side of the horse.

As a racer he carried the Devas, as a stallion the
Gandharvas, as a runner the Asuras, as a horse men.
The

sea

is its

kin, the sea

is its

birthplace.

Second BRAHMAiVA^.
In the beginning there was nothing (to be per-

I.

Guda, being in the plural, is explained by nadi, channel, and
we ought to read sira or hlragraha«e for ska., p. 22, 1. 1 6.
^ Klomana/^ is explained as a plurale tantum (nityam bahuva^anam ekasmin), and being described as a lump below the heart,
on the opposite side of the liver, it is supposed to be the lungs.
^

sira/i; for

When

^

'

*

Voice

and other

it

is

yawns.' Anandagiri.

sometimes used as a personified power of thunder

aerial sounds,

and

this is identified

with the voice of the

horse.
^

Two

vessels, to hold the sacrificial libations, are placed at the

Ajvamedha before and behind the horse, the former made of gold,
the latter made of silver. They are called Mahiman in the technical
language of the ceremonial.
set, is called their
*^

yoni.

Cf.

The

place in which these vessels are

Va^as. Saw^hita XXIII,

2.

Called the Agni-brahmawa, and intended to teach the origin of

I

ADHYAYA,

BRAHMAiVA,

2

By Death indeed

celved) here whatsoever.

concealed, — by hunger

was
Death

(the first being)

body.'

Then he moved

;

for death
'

Let

about, worshipping.

Verily, there appeared to me, while

'
:

all this

hunger.

is

me have a
From
was produced. And he

thought,

him thus worshipping water
said

75

3.

wor-

I

This is why water is
water (or pleasure)
called ar-ka\
for him who thus knows the reason why water is
shipped

water

(ar/§ate),

(ka).'

Surely there

is

called arka.

And what was there as
hardened, and became
was
the froth of the water, that
the earth. On that earth he (Death) rested, and from
Verily water

2.

is

arka.

him, thus resting and heated, Agni (Vira^) proceeded,
of light.

full

That being divided

3.

sun) as the third, and

itself threefold,

Vayu

Aditya (the

(the air) as the third 2.

became threefold. The head was
the Eastern quarter, and the arms this and that quarter
That

spirit (pra;^a)

^

which is here used for the Horse-sacrifice.
Madhyandina-^akha X, 6,
vSatapatha-brahma^a,
found in the
there explained as a description of Hira;?yagarbha.

A?ni, the

1

We

fire,

ought to read arkasyarkatvam, as in Foley's
make the etymology still clearer.

ark-kasyarkkatvam, to

mentator takes arka
ficial fire

more

employed

in the sense of

fire,

more

at the Horse-sacrifice.

natural interpretation

seems

to

me

It

It
5,

is

and

edition, or

The com-

especially the sacri-

may be

so,

but the

to take arka here as water,

from which indirectly fire is produced. From water springs the
earth; on that earth he (Mrz'tyu or Pra^apati) rested, and from
him, while resting there, fire (Vir%) was produced. That fire
assumed three forms, fire, sun, and air, and in that threefold form
it is

2
2

called prawa, spirit.

As Agni, Vayu, and Aditya.
Here Agni (Vira^) is taken as

representing the

called Arka.

fire

The

of the altar

object of the

Horse-sacrifice, which is
whole Brahma7/a was to show the origin and true character of that
at the

fire (arka).

Bi?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

^^

left and right sides).
was the Western quarter, and the two
legs this and that quarter (i.e. the N.W. and S.W.)
The sides were the Southern and Northern quarters,

the N. E. and S. E., on the

(i.e.

Then

the

tail

the back heaven, the belly the sky, the dust the

Thus he (Mmyu, as arka) stands firm in
water, and he who knows this stands firm wher-

earth.

the

ever he goes.

He

Let a second body be born of
and he (Death or Hunger) embraced Speech
in his mind.
Then the seed became the year.
Before that time there was no year. Speech^ bore
him so long as a year, and after that time sent
him forth. Then when he was born, he (Death)
opened his mouth, as if to swallow him. He cried
Bha;^
and that became speech ^
5. He thought, If I kill him, I shall have but little
food.'
He therefore brought forth by that speech
and by that body (the year) all whatsoever exists,
the Rik, the Ya^us, the Saman, the metres, the
sacrifices, men, and animals.
And whatever he (Death) brought forth, that
he resolved to eat (ad). Verily because he eats
4.

desired \

'

me,'

!

'

everything, therefore

is

Aditi (Death) called Aditi.

He who thus knows why Aditi is called Aditi,
becomes an eater of everything, and everything
becomes his food^
He

after

is the same as what was before called mn'tyu, death, who,
becoming self-conscious, produced water, earth, fire, &c. He

now

wishes for a second body, which

^

sacrifice, the
^

is

the year, or the annual

year being dependent on the sun (Aditya).

The commentator understands

the father, instead of Speech, the

mother.
^

The

*

All these are merely fanciful etymologies of ajvamedha

interjectional theory.

and arka.

I

6.

He

ADHYAYA,

2

BRAHMAiVA,

"]"]

7.

desired to sacrifice again widi a greater

and performed penance. And
while he toiled and performed penance, glorious
power went out of him. Verily glorious power
means the senses (pra/^a). Then when the senses
had gone out, the body took to swelling (^va-yitum),
and mind was in the body.
for sacri7. He desired that this body should be fit
fice (medhya), and that he should be embodied by it.

He

sacrifice.

toiled

^

Then he became
(a-?vat),
is

why

and was

a horse (a^va), because
fit

for sacrifice

the horse-sacrifice

is

(medhya)

it
;

swelled

and

this

called Ai-va-medha.

Verily he who knows him thus, knows the A^vamedha. Then, letting the horse free, he thought-,
and at the end of a year he offered it up for himself,
while he gave up the (other) animals to the deities.
Therefore the sacrificers offered up the purified

horse belonging to Pra^apati, (as dedicated) to

all

the deities.

Verily the shining sun

the A^vamedha-sacri-

is

body is the year Agni is the sacrificial
These
these worlds are his bodies.
and
fire (arka),
two are the sacrificial fire and the A^vamedha-sacriHe
fice, and they are again one deity, viz. Death.
(who knows this) overcomes another death, death
does not reach him, death is his Self, he becomes

fice,

and

his

;

one of those

deities.

Comm.

^

Or

glory (senses) and power.

^

He

considered himself as the horse.

Roer.

B227HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

78

Third BRAHMAiVA^
There were two kinds of descendants of Pra^aNow the Devas
pati, the Devas and the Asurasl
were indeed the younger, the A suras the elder ones^
1.

The Devas, who were struggUng
said

:

'Well, let

in these worlds,

us overcome the Asuras at the

sacri-

by means of the udgitha.'
'Do thou sing out
2. They said to speech (Va/^)
Yes,' said speech, and sang
for us (the udgitha).'
Whatever delight there is in speech,
(the udgitha).
that she obtained for the Devas by singing (the three
6^yotish/oma)

fices (the

:

'

pavaminas)

;

but that she pronounced well

(in

the

The
other nine pavam^nas), that was for herself.
Asuras knew: 'Verily, through this singer they will
overcome us.' They therefore rushed at the singer
and pierced her with evil. That evil which consists
in saying what is bad, that is that evil.
breath (scent)
3. Then they (the Devas) said to
breath, and
said
Yes,'
for
us.'
out
sing
Do thou
:

'

'

Whatever

sang.

that he

he smelled

knew
come
^

:

'

well, that

is

in

breath (smell),

Devas by singing but that
was for himself The Asuras
;

Verily, through this singer they will over-

us.'

They

therefore rushed at the singer, and

Called the Udgitha-brahmawa.

the Upanishad, which

In the Madhyandina->fakha,
begins with this

consists of six adhyayas,

Commentary, p. 1109).
(cf. Weber's edition, p. 1047
by the commentator
explained
are
Asuras
and
Devas
The

Brahma?;a
2

delight there

obtained for the

;

as the senses, inclining either to sacred or to worldly objects, to

good or

evil.

According to the commentator, the Devas were the less
numerous and less strong, the Asuras the more numerous and
3

more powerful.

:

I

ADHYAYA,

pierced him with

smelling what

for us.'

*

That

bad, that

is

Then they

4.

evil.

3 BRAHMAiVA,

is

said to the eye

'
:

Do

thou sing out

and sang.

Whatever

but that he saw well, that was

;

The Asuras knew

singer they will overcome
at the singer,

in

in the eye, that he obtained for the

Devas by singing
for himself

which consists

that evil.

is

Yes,' said the eye,

delight there

evil

79

7.

us.'

'
:

Verily, through this

They therefore rushed

and pierced him with

That

evil.

evil

which consists in seeing what is bad, that is that evil.
Do thou sing out
5. Then they said to the ear
Yes,' said the ear, and sang.
Whatever
for us.'
'

:

'

delioht there

in the ear, that

is

Devas by singing
for himself.

he obtained for the

but that he heard

;

well, that

was

The Asuras knew: 'Verily, through this
us.' They therefore rushed

singer they will overcome
at the singer,

and pierced him with

evil.

That

evil

which consists in hearing what is bad, that is that evil.
Do thou sing out
6. Then they said to the mind
Yes,' said the mind, and sang.
Whatever
for us.'
'

:

'

delight there

is

in

the mind, that he obtained for the

Devas by singing but that he thought well, that
was for himself The Asuras knew 'Verily, through
They therefore
this singer they will overcome us.'
rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That
evil which consists in thinking what is bad, that is
;

:

that evil.

Thus they overwhelmed
thus they pierced them with

Then they

7.
'

Do

sang.

^

us.'

The Asuras knew
is

evil.

mouth ^
the breath, and

said to the breath in the

thou sing for

This

these deities with evils,

*

:

Yes,' said

'Verily, through this singer

the chief or vital breath, sometimes called

mukhya.

.

B727HADARAA'YAKA-UPANISHAD.

8o

they will overcome

They

us.'

him and pierced him with
they perished, scattered

this,

rises

him

falls.

in

by

his

as a ball of

hitting a stone, thus

Hence

directions.

all

rose, the Asuras

Devas

the

Now

evil.

when

earth will be scattered

therefore rushed at

He who knows

fell.

and the enemy w^ho hates

self,

Then they (the Devas) said Where was he
It was (the breath)
then who thus stuck to usV
'

8.

:

within the

Ayasya

;

mouth (asye 'ntar^), and therefore called
he was the sap (rasa) of the limbs (aiiga),

and therefore called Aiigirasa.
was
9. That deity was called Dur, because Death
From him who knows this,
far (duran) from it.

Death

is

far

That

10.

off.

deity, after

having taken away the

evil

of those deities, viz, death, sent it to where the
end of the quarters of the earth is. There he
Therefore let no one go to
deposited their sins.
a man, let no one go to the end (of the quarters
of the earth ^), that he may not meet there with
evil,

with death.

1 1

That

deity, after

those deities,
12.

He

viz.

having taken away the

death, carried

evil

of

them beyond death.

carried speech across

first.

When

speech

had become freed from death, it became (what it
had been before) Agni (fire). That Agni, after
having stepped beyond death, shines.
1

3.

Then he

carried breath (scent) across.

breath had become freed from
^

it

Asakta from

corresponds to

death,

embrace cf. Rig-veda
the German anhanglich.
ssalg, to

2

See Deussen, Vedanta,

'

To

distant people.

;

p.

359.

I,

it

When
became

33, 3.

Here

ADHYAYA,

I

Vayu

3 BRAHMAiVA,

That Vayu,

(air).

I

8

8.

I

having stepped beyond

after

death, blows.

Then he

14.

eye had become freed from death,

That Aditya,

(the sun).

When

carried the eye across.

after

the

became Aditya

it

having stepped beyond

death, burns.

Then he

15.

When

carried the ear across.

the

become freed from death, it became the
These are our quarters (space),
quarters (space).
which have stepped beyond death.
16. Then he carried the mind across. When the
mind had become freed from death, it became the
moon (A'andramas). That moon, after having stepped
beyond death, shines. Thus does that deity carry
him, who knows this, across death.
17. Then breath (vital), by singing, obtained for
himself eatable food.
For whatever food is eaten,
is eaten by breath alone, and in it breath rests ^
The Devas said Verily, thus far, whatever food
there is, thou hast by singing acquired it for thyself.
ear had

'

:

Now
said

He

therefore give us a share in that food.'

:
'

You

entered

there, enter into me.'

eaten by breath, by
18.

a

If

it

They said Yes, and

Therefore whatever food

into him.

all

is

the other senses are satisfied.

man knows

this,

own

then his

relations

he becomes

their

supporter, their chief leader, their strong ruler ^.

And

come
if

him

to

in

ever any one

the

tries to

of such knowledge

^

This

is

were used
^

free
^

same manner

done by the

Here annada

is

oppose^ one who

among
last

for obtaining the

;

his

own

is

nine Pavamanas, while the

reward

common

to

all

well explained by anamayavin,

[15]

pratiprati/z

;

see Foley,

and Weber,

G

p.

first

he

three

the pra«as.

and vyadhirahita,

from sickness, strong.

Read

possessed

relatives, then

n8o.

Bi?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

82
will

not be able to support his

own

But

belongings.

he who follows the man who is
knowledge, and who with his permission wishes to
support those whom he has to support, he indeed
possessed of such

be able to support his own belongings.
19. He was called Ayasya Angirasa, for he

will

is

the

sap (rasa) of the limbs (aiiga). Verily, breath is
Yes, breath is the sap of the
the sap of the limbs.
Therefore from whatever limb breath goes
limbs.

away, that limb withers, for breath verily

is

the sap

of the limbs.
20.

He

(breath)

is

also Br/haspati, for speech

Br/hati (Rig-veda), and he
is

He

(breath)

is

also Brahma^^aspati, for speech

Brahman (Ya^ur-veda), and he

fore

he

He

is

speech

is

her lord

;

there-

Brahma^^aspati.

(breath)

speech

is

her lord; therefore he

B?'ehaspati.
21.

is

is

is

is

is

Saman

also

Saman

(the

(Sama-veda), and

Udgitha), for
that

both

is

why Saman

and breath (ama)\ This is
Saman.
Or because he is equal (sama) to a grub, equal
(sa)

called
22.

to a gnat, equal to an elephant, equal to these three

worlds, nay, equal to this universe, therefore he

is

Saman. He who thus knows this Saman, obtains
union and oneness with Saman.
23. He (breath) is Udgitha ^ Breath verily is Ut,
for by breath this universe is upheld (uttabdha) and
And because he is ut and
speech is Gttha, song.
githa, therefore he (breath) is Udgitha.
;

»
^

^Mnd. Up.V, 2, 6.
Not used here in the sense of song or hymn, but

Cf.

worship connected with the Saman.

Comm.

as an act of

:

I

And

24.

'
:

May

3 BRAHMAiVA, 27.

Brahmadatta

thus

grandson of
said

ADHYAYA,

this

Soma

/I'aikitaneya

while taking

/ifikitana),

my

strike

S^

Soma

head

Aiigirasa sang another Udgitha than

off, if

Ayasya

He

this.

(the

(ra^an),

sang

indeed as speech and breath.'

it

25. He who knows what is the property of this
Saman, obtains property. Now verily its property

tone only.

is

perform the

Therefore

let

a priest,

who

going to

is

work of a Sama-singer, desire
that his voice may have a good tone, and let him
perform the sacrifice with a voice that is in good
tone.
Therefore people (who want a priest) for a
sacrifice, look out for one who possesses a good
voice, as for

sacrificial

one who possesses property.

thus knows what

is

He who

the property of that

Saman,

obtains property.
26.

He who knows

Saman, obtains

He who

thus

Saman, obtains

gold.

only.

27.

is

speech only.

is

breath

is

support

is

is

what

supported.

the gold of that

verily

knows what

He who knows

Saman, he

what

Now

gold.

is

is

its

gold

is

tone

the gold of that

the support of that

Now

verily its support
For, as supported in speech, that

sung as that Saman.

Some

say the

in food.

Next follows the Abhyaroha (the ascension) of
Pavamana verses. Verily the Prastotr/ begins
sing the Saman, and when he begins, then let him
^

the
to

(the sacrificer) recite these (three Ya^us-verses)
'

Lead me from the unreal
The

to the real

!

Lead me

is a ceremony by which the performer reaches
becomes a god. It consists in the recitation of three
Ya^us, and is here enjoined to take place when the Prastotr/ priest
begins to sing his hymn.
^

ascension

the gods, or

G 2

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

84

from darkness to

light

Lead me from death

to

Lead me from the unreal

to

!

immortaHty!'

Now when
the

He

tality.

he

When

he

darkness

is

make me
says,

When

'

verily death, the real

'

'Lead me from death

Lead me from darkness

'

immorto

immortal.'

verily death,

therefore says,

make me

is

therefore says,

immortality,

light

to light,'

immortality.

Lead me from death

He

to immortality,

immortal.'

he

says,

there

tality,'

says,

the unreal

real,'

is

'

Lead me from death

nothing there, as

to

immor-

were, hidden

it

(obscure, requiring explanation) ^
28.

priest

Next come the other Stotras with which the
may obtain food for himself by singing them.

Therefore

let

the sacrificer, while these Stotras are

being sung, ask for a boon, whatever desire he

may

An

Udgatri priest who knows this obtains
by his singing whatever desire he may desire either
for himself or for the sacrificer. This (knowledge) indeed is called the conqueror of the worlds. He who
thus knows this Saman ^, for him there is no fear of
desire.

his not being admitted to the worlds^.
^

See Deussen, Vedanta,

p. 86.

He knows

the Pra«a, which Prawa

is the Saman.
That Pra«a cannot be defeated by the Asuras, e. by the senses
which are addicted to evil it is pure, and the five senses finding
^

that he

is

i.

;

refuge in him, recover there their original nature,
Pra7;a

is

fire,

&c.

The

the Self of all things, also of speech (i?/g-ya^u/i-samodgitha),

sung and well sung. The Pra;/a
and he who identifies himself with that
VranB., obtains the rewards mentioned in the Brahma7/a. Comm.
^
In connection with loka^it, lokyata is here explained, and
may probably have been intended, as worthiness to be admitted to
the highest world.
Originally lokyata and alokyata meant right
and wrong. See also I, 5, 17.

and of the Saman

pervades

all

that has to be

creatures,

.

I

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

85

3.

Fourth BRAHMAiVA^.
In the beginning this was Self alone, in the shape

1

of a person (purusha).

but his

He

Self.

he became

I

He looking round saw nothing

first said,

'This

is

I;' therefore

Therefore even now,

by name.

a
and then
if

man is asked, he first says, This is I,'
pronounces the other name which he may have. And
because before (purva) all this, he (the Self) burnt
'

down

(ush)

evils,

all

therefore he

was a person

this, burns down
be before him.
2. He feared, and therefore any one who is lonely
He thought, 'As there is nothing but myself,
fears.

(pur-usha).

every one

Verily he

who

who knows

tries to

should I fear?' Thence his fear passed away.
For what should he have feared ? Verily fear arises

why

from a second only.
Therefore a man who
3. But he felt no delight.
He wished for a second.
is lonely feels no delight.
He was so large as man and wife together. He then
made this his Self to fall in two (pat), and thence
Therefore
arose husband (pati) and wife (patni).
Ya^7/avalkya said
like half a shell
^

:

'We

two^ are thus (each of us)
Therefore the void which was

2.'

Called Purushavidhabrahmawa (INIadhyandina-jakha, p. 1050).

See Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 24.
2 The Comm. explains sva>^ by atmana/^, of himself.

Boehdingk, Sanskrit Chrestomathie,
^

a

Roer

split

translates

pea

is

:

'

Therefore was

Br/gala

of a whole.'

(Orig. Sansk. Texts, vol.

that this one's self

is like

i,

p.

But see

p. 357.
this
is

only one half of himself, as

a half of anything.

25) translates

:

'

Muir

Ya^iiiavalkya has said

the half of a split pea.'

I

have translated

the sentence according to Professor Boehtlingk's conjecture (Chres-

tomathie, 2nd ed. p. 357), though the singular after the dual (sva//)
is

irregular.

;

BiJ/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

86
there,

filled

is

men were

by the

He

embraced

and

her,

born.

She thought,

4.

wife.

*

How

can he embrace me, after
I shall hide
himself?

me from

having produced
myself.'

She then became a cow, the other became a
bull and embraced her, and hence cows were born.
The one became a mare, the other a stallion the
one a male ass, the other a female ass. He embraced her, and hence one-hoofed animals were born.
The one became a she-goat, the other a he-goat
He emthe one became a ewe^, the other a ram.
braced her, and hence goats and sheep were born.
;

And

thus he created everything that exists in pairs,

down

to the ants.

He

5.

knew,

'

I

indeed

am

this creation, for

I

Hence he became the creation,
all this.'
and he who knows this lives in this his creation.
From
6. Next he thus produced fire by rubbing.
the mouth, as from the fire-hole, and from the hands
he created fire 2. Therefore both the mouth and the
hands are inside without hair, for the fire-hole is

created

inside without hair.

And when

they say, Sacrifice to
'

that god,' each
is all

god

this or sacrifice to

but his manifestation, for he

is

gods.

Now, whatever there is moist, that he created
from seed this is Soma. So far verily is this uni;

verse either food or eater.

Agni
^

text.
2

eater.

The

This

reading avir

is

itaro,

i.

e. itara u, is

See Boehtlingk, Chrestomathie,

He

Soma

indeed

is

food,

the highest creation of Brah-

p.

not found in the Ka/zva

357.

blew with the mouth while he rubbed with the hands.

ADIIYAYA. 4 BRAIIMAA^A,

I

87

7.

man, when he created the gods from his better part\
and when he, who was (then) mortaP, created the immortals. Therefore it was the highest creation. And
he who knows this, Hves in this his highest creation.
It became
7. Now all this was then undeveloped.
developed by form and name, so that one could say,
He, called so and so, is such a one^' Therefore at
present also all this is developed by name and form, so
*

that one can say,' He, called so and so,

He (Brahman
fitted in

He

such a one.'

or the Self) entered thither, to the

tips of the

very

is

finger-nails,

a razor-case, or as

cannot be seen,

as a razor might be

fire in

for, in

a fire-place

part only,

when

*.

breath-

when speaking, speech
name when hearing,
by name when
All
ear by name when thinking, mind by name.
who
he
And
acts.
his
of
these are but the names

ing,

he

is

breath by

name

;

seeing, eye by

;

;

;

worships (regards) him as the one or the other, does
not know him, for he is apart from this (when qualiLet men
fied) by the one or the other (predicate).

worship him as

Self, for in

the Self

all

these are one.

This Self is the footstep of everything, for through
And as one can find
it one knows everything ^
again by footsteps what was lost, thus he who knows
this finds glory

^

2
^

and

praise.

Or, when he
As man and

sacrificer.

The Comm.

takes asau-nama as a

created the best gods.

Comm.
compound, instead of ida?;^-

read asau nama, he is this by name, viz. Devadatta, &c.
Dr. Boehtlingk, who in his Chrestomathie (2nd ed. p. 31) had
accepted the views of the Commentator, informs me that he has

nama.

I

his view, and thinks that we should read asaii nama.
Kaush. Br. Up. VI, 19.
'As one finds lost cattle again by following their footsteps, thus

changed
*
5

one

Cf.

finds everything, if

one has found out the

Self.'

Comm.

'

B/tTHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

88

This, which

8.

than

is

nearer to us than anything, this

dearer than a son, dearer than weahh, dearer

Self, is

all else.

one were to say to one who declares another than the Self dear, that he will lose what is dear
Let him worship
to him, very likely it would be so.

And

if

He who

the Self alone as dear.

worships the Self

alone as dear, the object of his love will never perish ^

Here they say: 'If men think that by knowBrahman they will become everything, what
then did that Brahman know, from whence all this
9.

ledge of
?

sprang

Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, that

10.

Brahman knew

(its)

Self only, saying,

From it all this
Deva was awakened (so

man,'

I

am

Brah-

Thus, whatever

sprang.
as to

'

know Brahman), he

indeed became that (Brahman); and the same with

and men.

7?/shis

understood
sun.'

he

is

it,

The

singing,

'

I

Rishl

Vamadeva saw and

was Manu (moon),

I

was the

Therefore now also he who thus knows that
Brahman, becomes all this, and even the Devas

cannot prevent

Now

it,

for

he himself

is

their Self.

man worships another deity, thinking
one and he another, he does not know.
He is like a beast for the Devas. For verily, as
many beasts nourish a man, thus does every man
If only one beast is taken
nourish the Devas.
away,

is

not pleasant

it is

are taken

Devas
1 1.

^

On

a

if

the deity

!

that

;

Therefore

men

should

how much more when many
it

is

know

not pleasant to the
this.

Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, one
rudh, to lose, see Taitt. Sa/;/h, II, 6, 8, 5, pp. 765, 771, as
On uvaro (yat) tathaiva syat, see

pointed out by Dr. Boehtlingk.
Boehtlingk,

s.v.

I

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

That being

only.

created

still

one,

further

1

89

4.

was not strong enough. It
most excellent Kshatra

the

Kshatras (powers) among the
Varu;m, Soma, Rudra, Par^anya,
Yama, Mrityu, tsana. Therefore there is nothing
(power), viz. those

Devas, — Indra,

beyond the Kshatra, and therefore at the Rafasuya
sacrifice the Brahma^za sits down below the Kshatriya.
He confers that glory on the Kshatra alone. But Brah-

man

is

(nevertheless) the birth-place of the Kshatra.

Therefore though a king

is

exalted, he sits

down

at

the end (of the sacrifice) below the Brahman, as his
birth-place.
He who injures him, injures his own

He

birth-place.

becomes worse, because he has

injured one better than himself.

He^ was not strong enough. He created the
(people), the classes of Devas which in their

12.
Vii"

different orders are called Vasus, Rudras, Adityas,

Vii-ve Devas, Maruts.
13.

He was

not strong enough.

He

created the

.Sudra colour (caste), as Pushan (as nourisher). This
earth verily is Pushan (the nourisher) for the earth
;

nourishes
14.

all

this whatsoever.

He was

not strong enough.

further the most

excellent

Law

He

created

(dharma).

still

Law

is

the Kshatra (power) of the Kshatra ^ therefore there
is

a

nothinor higher than the

weak man

Law.

Thenceforth even

rules a stronger with the help of the

Law, as with the help of a king. Thus the Law is
what is called the true. And if a man declares what
and if he
is true, they say he declares the Law
declares the Law, they say he declares what is true.
;

Thus both
^

2

are the same.

Observe the change from tad, it, to sa, he.
More powerful than the Kshatra or warrior

caste.

Comm.

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

90
15.

and
as

Brahman, Kshatra, Vi^,
the Devas that Brahman existed

There are then

Among

6'udra.

Agni

among men

only,

(fire)

this

as Brahma^^a, as

Kshatriya through the (divine) Kshatriya, as Vai^ya
through the (divine) Vai-yya, as ^'udra through the
(divine)

Therefore people wish for their
the Devas through Agni (the

^'tidra.

future state

among

only; and

fire)

sacrificial

Brahma;2a,

for

in

among men through the
did Brahman

these two forms

exist.

Now

a

if

man

seen his true

departs this

future

life

(in

life

without having

the Self), then that

Self, not being known, does not receive and bless
him, as if the Veda had not been read, or as if a
good work had not been done. Nay, even if one
who does not know that (Self), should perform here

on earth some great holy work, it will perish for
him in the end. Let a man worship the Self only
as his true state.
his true state, his

If a

man worships

work does not

the Self only as

perish, for

whatever

he desires that he gets from that Self
16.

Now

verily this Self (of the ignorant

man)

is

In so far as man sacrithe world of all creatures.
fices and pours out libations, he is the world of the
1

he repeats the hymns, &c., he is
the world of the 7?/shis in so far as he offers cakes
to the Fathers and tries to obtain offspring, he is the
world of the Fathers in so far as he gives shelter and
food to men, he is the world of men in so far as he
finds fodder and water for the animals, he is the world
of the animals in so far as quadrupeds, birds, and

Devas

;

in so far as

;

;

;

;

even ants live in his houses, he is their world. And
as every one wishes his own world not to be injured,
^

Is enjoyed

by them

all.

Comm.

1;

I

thus

all

ADHYAYA,

5

BRAHMAA-A,

beings wish that he

not be injured.

Verily this

9

I.

who knows this should
is known and has been

well reasoned.
17.

He

In the beginning this was Self alone, one only.

be a wife for me that I may
have offspring, and let there be wealth for me that I
may offer sacrifices.' Verily this is the whole desire,
and, even if wishing for more, he would not find it.
Therefore now also a lonely person desires, 'Let
desired, 'Let there

there be a wife for

me

that

there be wealth for

let

And

I

may have offspring, and
I may offer sacrifices.'

that

so lone as he does not obtain either of these

things, he thinks

pleteness

all

he

is

Now

incomplete.

made up as follows): mind
speech the wife breath the
;

worldly wealth, for he finds

it

The body

body he works.
fivefold

is

is

his self

child

it

;

the

with the

his work, for with the

(atman)

is

This

the fivefold^ sacrifice, for

is

the animal, fivefold man, fivefold

He who knows

whatsoever.

com-

with the eye

the ear his divine wealth, for he hears
ear.

his

(is

(husband);

eye

me

tliis,

obtains

all this

all this.

Fifth Brahmaa^a^
I. 'When the father (of creation) had produced by
knowledge and penance (work) the seven kinds of
food, one of his (foods) was common to all beings,
two he assigned to the Devas, (i)
Three he made for himself, one he gave to the
In it all rests, whatsoever breathes and
animals.
'

breathes not.
^

Fivefold, as consisting of mind, speech, breath, eye,

See Taitt. Up.
2

(2)

I, 7, i.

Madhyandina

text, p.

1054.

and

ear.

B227HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

92
*

Why

then do these not perish, though they are

always eaten

He who knows

?

this

one, he eats food with his face.
'

He

goes

strength.'
2.

even to

the

imperishable

(3)

Devas, he

lives

on

(4)

When

it

said, that 'the father

is

produced by

knowledge and penance the seven kinds of food,' it
When it is
is clear that (it was he who) did so.
said, that one of his (foods) was common,' then that
He who
is that common food of his which is eaten.
worships (eats) that (common food), is not removed
from evil, for verily that food is mixed (property) ^
When it is said, that 'two he assigned to the Devas,'
that is the hut a, which is sacrificed in fire, and the
prahuta, which is given away at a sacrifice. But
they also say, the new-moon and full-moon sacrifices
are here intended, and therefore one should not offer
'

them

as an

When

ishz'i

or with a wish.

one he gave to animals,'
that is milk. For in the beginning (in their infancy)
both men and animals live on milk. And therefore
they either make a new-born child lick ghrz'ta
(butter),

they

call

it

is

said, that

or they

make

'

it

take the

a new-born creature 'atrzV^ada,'

eating herbs.

When

it is

said, that 'in

whatsoever breathes and breathes

And

breast.

not,'

it

we

i.

all

e.

not

rests,

see that

whatsoever breathes and breathes not, rests
and depends on milk.
And when it is said (in another Brahma;2a), that
a man who sacrifices with milk a whole year ^, overcomes death again, let him not think so. No, on

all this,

^

2
i.

e.

belongs to all beings.
This would imply 360 sacrificial days, each with two oblations,

It

720

oblations.

ADHYAYA,

I

BRAHMAiVA,

5

93

3.

the very day on which he sacrifices, on that day he

overcomes death again for he who knows this,
offers to the gods the entire food (viz. milk).
When it is said, 'Why do these not perish, though
they are always eaten,' we answer. Verily, the Person
;

is

the imperishable, and he produces that food again

and again \

When
one,'

'He who knows

said,

it is

Person

then, verily, the

this imperishable

the imperishable

is

one, for he produces this food by repeated thought,
and whatever he does not work by his works, that
perishes.

When

he eats food with his face,'
then face means the mouth, he eats it with his
mouth.
When it is said, that 'he goes even to the Devas,
he

lives
3.

self,'

is

it

on

it

I

I

that he

As

did not see

did not hear,'

is

meant

as praise.

made three for himmade mind, speech, and

said, that 'he

is

means

breath for himself.
elsewhere,

'

strength,' that

When
that

said, that

it

people say,
;

my mind

clear that a

is

My mind was
was elsewhere,
'

man

sees with his

mind and hears with his mind 2. Desire, representation, doubt, faith, want of faith, memory ^ forgetfulness,

shame, reflexion,

fear, all this is

mind.

There-

knows
even if a man is
it through the mind.
Whatever sound there is, that is speech. Speech
indeed is intended for an end or object, it is nothing
touched on the back, he

fore

by

itself.

the food, become themselves creators.

^

Those who enjoy

^

See Deussen, Vedanta,

^

Firmness, strength.

p. 358.

Comm.

Comm.

B/J/HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

94

up-breathing, the down-breathhig, the backbreathing, the out-breathing, the on-breathing, all

The

Verily
breath (pra/^a) only.
that Self consists of it that Self consists of speech,

that

breathing

is

is

;

mind, and breath.
4. These are the three worlds

sky mind, heaven

earth

:

is

speech,

breath.

These are the three Vedas the Rig-veda is
speech, the Ya^ur-veda mind, the Sama-veda breath.
the
6. These are the Devas, Fathers, and men
breath.
men
mind,
Fathers
the
Devas are speech,
and child the father
7. These are father, mother,
child breath.
the
speech,
is mind, the mother
8. These are what is known, what is to be known,
:

5.

:

:

unknown.
known, has the form of speech, for speech
Speech, having become this, protects
known.

and what

What
is

is

is

man^.
be known, has the form of mind,
Mind, having
for mind is what is to be known.
become this, protects man.
10. What is unknown, has the form of breath, for

What

9.

breath

is

to

is

unknown.

man 2.
Of that

Breath, having

become

this,

protects
11.

pati) earth

And

is

speech (which

so far as speech

Next, of

the form,
^

'

viz.

The food

the food of Pra^a-

the body, light the form,

earth, so far extends
12.

is

this

viz. this fire.

extends, so far extends the

fire.

mind heaven

this sun.

(speech), having

And

is

the body, light

so far as this mind

become known, can be consumed.'

Comm.
2

This was adhibhautika, with reference to

bhiitas, beings.

follows the adhidaivika, with reference to the devas, gods.

Next

Comm.

ADHYAYA,

I

BRAHMA7VA,

5

1

6.

95

extends, so far extends heaven, so far extends the
sun. If they (fire and sun) embrace each other, then

wind

and that

is

Verily a second

is

is

rival.

born,

has no

this,

rival.

Next, of

13.

the form,

and he is without a
a rival, and he who knows
Indra,

this breath

viz. this

moon.

water

And

is

the body, light

so far as this breath

extends, so far extends water, so far extends the

moon.
These are all alike, all endless. And he who worships them as finite, obtains a finite world, but he who
worships them as infinite, obtains an infinite world.
14. That Pra^apati is the year, and he consists of

The

sixteen digits.
digits,

nights^ indeed are his fifteen

the fixed point

his sixteenth digit.

^

He

is

increased and decreased

the

by the nights. Having on
new-moon night entered with the sixteenth part

into everything that has
in the

of any living
in

honour
15.

teen

life,

Therefore

let

(pCic^artham) of that deity.

Now
digits,

who knows
digits, his

he

is thence born again
no one cut off the life
thing on that night, not even of a lizard,

morning.

verily that Pra^apati, consisting of six-

who

the year,

is

this.

is

the

same

as a

His wealth constitutes the

Self the sixteenth digit.

He

is

man

fifteen

increased

and decreased by that wealth. His Self is the nave,
his wealth the felly.
Therefore even if he loses
everything, if he lives but with his Self, people say,
he lost the felly (which can be restored again).
16.

Next there are

verily three worlds, the world

of men, the world of the Fathers, the world of the

The

Devas.

world of

^

Meant

for

2

When

he

men

can be gained by a son

nychthemera.
is

just invisible at the

new moon.

:

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

96

by any other work. By sacrifice the world
of the Fathers, by knowledge the world of the Devas
The world of the Devas is the best of
is gained.

only, not

worlds, therefore they praise knowledge.
1

Next follows the handing over.

7.

When

a

man

going to depart, he says to his son
thinks he
Thou art Brahman (the Veda, so far as acquired by
the father); thou art the sacrifice (so far as performed
by the father) thou art the world.' The son answers
is

:

'

;

'

I

am Brahman,

am

I

Whatever has been
as one,

is

I

am

the world.'

learnt (by the father) that, taken

Whatever

Brahman.

they, taken as

the sacrifice,

one,

sacrifices there are,

Whatever

are the sacrifice.

worlds there are, they, taken as one, are the world.
Verily here ends this (what has to be done by a
father, viz. study, sacrifice, &c.) 'He (the son), being
this,

all

do

me from

this worlds' thus

a son

who

he

instructed

Therefore they call
a world-son (lokya), and therefore

thinks.
(to

preserved

is

all this),

they instruct him.

When

a father

who knows

this,

departs this world,

then he enters into his son together with his own
If there is
spirits (with speech, mind, and breath).
anything done amiss by the father, of all that the son
delivers him, and therefore he is called Putra, son 2.
help of his son the father stands firm in this
world 2. Then these divine immortal spirits (speech,

By

mind, and breath) enter into him.
^

Roer seems

ma

etan
^

sarvawz

to have read sawnaya, all this multitude.'
sann ayam ito 'bhuna^ad iti.

The Comm.

'

derives putra from

deliver, a deliverer

who

gap.

Others derive

Manu

IX, 138.

'

'

it

fills

pu

the holes

from put, a

The manushya-loka,

(pur), to

fill,

and

I read,

tra (tra), to

by the father, a stopand tra, to protect; cf.

left

hell,

not the pitr/-loka and deva-loka.'

Comm.

;

ADHYAYA,

I

From

18.

BRAHMAA^A, 21.

5

the earth and from

And

enters into him.

divine speech

fire,

verily that

97

divine speech

is

whereby, whatever he says, comes to be.

From heaven and

19.

And

into him.

he becomes

mind enters
mind whereby

the sun, divine

verily that

is

divine

and grieves no more.
From water and the moon, divine breath

20.

joyful,

And

enters into him.

(spirit)

verily that

divine

is

breath which, whether moving or not moving, does

and therefore does not perish.
knows this, becomes the Self of all beings.
not

tire,

deity (Hira;2yagarbha)

as

all

beings honour him

Whatever

As

so does he become.

beings honour that deity (with

all

so do

is,

He who

grief these

And

sacrifice, &c.),

who knows

creatures

that

this.

suffer,

that

is

one^ (and therefore disappears). Only what is
good approaches him verily, evil does not approach
all

;

the Devas.

Next

21.

ances ^

Pra^^pati created the actions (active

When

senses).

among

follows the consideration of the observ-

(acts).

they had been created, they strove

Voice held,

themselves.

eye held,

I

shall

see

;

I

shall

the ear held,

and thus the other actions

too,

I

speak

;

the

shall hear

each according to

its

own

act.
Death, having become weariness, took
them and seized them. Having seized them, death
held them back (from their work).
Therefore
speech grows weary, the eye grows weary, the ear
grows weary. But death did not seize the central
breath.
Then the others tried to know him, and

^

'

Individuals suffer, because one causes grief to another.

in the universal soul,

are neutralised.'
^

The upasana
[15]

where

all

But

individuals are one, their sufferings

Comm.
or meditative worship.

H

:

Bi?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

98
said

Verily, he

'

:

moving or

the best of us, he who, whether

is

and does not perish.
Thereupon
Well, let all of us assume his form.'
they all assumed his form, and therefore they are
called after him breaths (spirits).
In whatever family there is a man who knows
And he
this, they call that family after his name.
who strives with one who knows this, withers away
and finally dies. So far with regard to the body.
not, does not tire

'

'

Now

22.

Agni
held,
I

I

with regard to the

(fire)

held,

shall

warm

shall shine

shall burn
Aditya (the sun)
A'andramas (the moon) held,

I

;

;

and thus

;

according to the deity.

among

central breath

deities,

also the other deities, each

And

as

it

the breaths,

was with the
so it was with

Vayu, the wind among those deities.
The other
deities fade, not Vayu.
Vayu is the deity that
never sets.
23.
'

And

He

here there

from

whom

is

this ^'loka

the sun

sets' (he verily rises

rises,

and

into

whom

from the breath, and sets

it

in

the breath)
'

Him

the

Devas made the

and he to-morrow

also'

he only

law,

is

to-day,

(whatever these Devas de-

termined then, that they perform to-day also ^).
Therefore let a man perform one observance only,
let

him breathe up and

may

the evil death

performs
tains

it,

let

through

it

him

let

him breathe down, that

not reach him.
try to finish

it.

And when

he

Then he

ob-

union and oneness with that deity

(with pra?za).

^

The

pra«a-vrata and vayu-vrata.

Comm.

I

ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA,

99

3.

Sixth BRAHMAiVA^
1.

Of

Verily this

is

a triad, name, form, and work.

these names, that which

is

called

Speech

is

the

Uktha (hymn, supposed to mean also origin), for
from it all names arise. It is their Saman {song,
supposed to mean also sameness), for it is the same
as all names. It is their Brahman (prayer, supposed
to mean also support), for it supports all names.
2. Next, of the forms, that which is called Eye is
It is
the Uktha (hymn), for from it all forms arise.
their Saman (song), for it is the same as all forms. It
is their Brahman (prayer), for it supports all forms.
3. Next, of the works, that which is called Body is
It is
the Uktha (hymn), for from it all works arise.
their Saman (song), for it is the same as all works. It
is their Brahman (prayer), for it supports all works.
That being a triad is one, viz. this Self; and the
This is the immortal,
Self, being one, is that triad.
covered by the true. Verily breath is the immortal,
name and form are the true, and by them the immortal

is

covered.

^

Madhyandina

H

text, p.

2

1058.

Bi?/HADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

lOO

SECOND ADHYAYAi,
First BRAHMAivA-.
1.

There" was formerly the proud Gargya

man

a

He

of great reading.

Balaki'*,

said to A^atai'atru of

you Brahman ?' A^ata^atru said:
'We give a thousand (cows) for that speech (of
yours), for verily all people run away, saying, (S^anaka
Kas'i, 'Shall I tell

(the king of Mithila)

Gargya

2.

said

'
:

is

our father (patron)

The

person that

^'

in the sun^,

is

A^dta^-atru said to him
that I adore as Brahman.'
Do not speak to me on this. I adore him
No, no
:

'

!

Madhyandina text, p. 1058.
Whatever has been taught to

^
2

the

end of the third (according
first) Adhyaya, refers to

the counting of the Upanishad, the

to

avidya, ignorance.

Now, however,

vidya, the highest knowledge,

by a dialogue between
the former, though a
Brahma;za, representing the imperfect, the latter, though a Kshatriya,
While Gargya worships the
the perfect knowledge of Brahman.
Brahman as the sun, the moon, &c., as limited, as active and passive,
is

to be taught,

and

this is

done,

first

of

all,

Gargya Dr/ptabalaki and king A^atajatru,

A^ata^atru knows the

Compare

'

upanishad,

Brahman

Adhyaya of

Sacred Books of the East,

Philosophy of the Upanishads,

Son of Balaka, of

*

as the Self.

with this the fourth

known

vol.

i,

the Kaushitakip.

30c;

Gough,

p. 144.

the race of the Gargyas.

and liberal king. There is a play
name, which means father, and is understood in the sense
The meaning is obscure and
of patron, or of teacher of wisdom.
in the Kaush. Up. IV. i, the construction is still more difiicult.
What is intended seems to be that A^ata^atru is willing to offer
any reward to a really wise man, because all the wise men are
^

on

G^anaka,

as a wise

his

;

running
"

after

that the
is

settling at his court.

on all these answers and brings
harmony with Vedanta doctrines. Thus he adds
person in the sun is at the same time the person in the eye,

them more

who

Ganaka and

The commentator

expatiates

into

both active and passive in the heart, &c.

ADHYAYA,

II

BRAHMAiVA,

I

verily as the supreme, the

Whoso

king.

the head of
3.

(and

on

'

:

him

said to

this.

all

beings, the

beings, a king.'

said

The

the mind), that

in

ta-S"atru

lOI

adores him thus, becomes supreme,

all

Gargya

head of

6.

*
:

person that

is

in the

A^a-

adore as Brahman.'

I

No, no

Do

!

moon

not speak to

me

adore him verily as the great, clad in
Whoso adores

I

white raiment, as Soma, the king.'

him thus. Soma is poured out and poured forth for
him day by day, and his food does not fail \
The person that is in the light4. Gargya said
'

:

ning (and

in

the heart), that

A^atai'atru said to

me on
Whoso

him

adore as Brahman.'

I

No, no

'
:

Do

!

not speak to

adore him verily as the luminous.'
adores him thus, becomes luminous, and his

this.

I

becomes luminous.
Gargya said: 'The person that

is

in the ether of the heart), that

adore as Brah-

offspring
5.

(and
man.'

A^ata^atru said to him

speak to

me on

and quiescent'
filled

this.

:

I

No, no

!

Do

adore him as what

I

Whoso

with offspring and

'

in the ether

adores him thus,

cattle,

and

not

is full,

becomes

his offspring does

not cease from this world.
6.

Gargya

said

'
:

The person

that

is

in

the wind

(and in the breath), that I adore as Brahman.' A^aDo not speak to me
No, no
tajatru said to him
Vaiku;^//^a, as the
Indra
on this. I adore him as
unconquerable army (of the Maruts).' Whoso adores
'

:

him

thus,

becomes

!

victorious, unconquerable, con-

quering his enemies.

We miss the annasyatma, the Self of food, mentioned in the
Kaush. Up., and evidently referred to in the last sentence of our
paragraph.
Suta and prasuta, poured out and poured forth, are
explained as referring to the principal and the secondary sacrifices.
^

BR/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

102

Gargya

7.

said

The person that

'
:

in the heart), that

in the fire

is

adore as Brahman/

I

(and

A^ata^atru

No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I
him
adore him as powerful/ Whoso adores him thus, becomes powerful, and his offspring becomes powerful.
The person that is in the water
8. Gargya said
(in seed, and in the heart), that I adore as Brahman.'
Do not speak
No, no
A^ata^atru said to him
Whoso
I adore him as likeness.'
to me on this.
likely
(or
what
is
adores him thus, to him comes
proper), not what is improper; what is born from
said to

'

:

'

:

'

:

him,
9.

like

is

Gargya

unto
said

!

him\
The person
'

:

I adore as Brahman.'
Do not speak
'No, no

mirror, that

him

to
I

:

!

adore him verily as the

him

brilliant.'

that

is

in

the

A^ata^atru said

me on this.
Whoso adores

to

he becomes brilliant, his offspring becomes
and with whomsoever he comes together,

thus,

brilliant,

he outshines them.
The sound that follows a man
10. Gargya said
while he moves, that I adore as Brahman.' A^ataDo not speak to me
No, no
^atru said to him
on this. I adore him verily as life.' Whoso adores
him thus, he reaches his full age in this world, breath
does not leave him before the time.
11. Gargya said: 'The person that is in space,
'

:

'

:

that

I

adore as Brahman.'

!

A^ata^atru said to him

:

Do not speak to me on this. I adore
No, no
him verily as the second who never leaves us.'
'

!

Kaush. Up. has the Self of the name, instead of
The commentator thinks that they both mean
the same thing, because a name is the likeness of a thing. Another
Pratirupa in
text of the Kaush. Up. gives here the Self of light.
the sense of likeness comes in later in the Kaush. Up., §11.
^

Here

the

pratu-upa, likeness.

II

Whoso

ADHYAYA,

Gargya

shadow, that

him

to
I

I

IO3

5.

adores him thus, becomes possessed of a

second, his party
12.

BRAHMAiVA,

I

'

:

is

said

I

:

not cut off from him.

'The person that

adore as Brahman.'

No, no

Do

!

consists of the

A^dta^-atru said

not speak to

Whoso

adore him verily as death.'

me on

this.

adores him

he reaches his whole age in this world, death
does not approach him before the time.
thus,

body^
him
'No, no! Do not speak to me on this. I adore him
verily as embodied.' Whoso adores him thus, becomes
embodied, and his offspring becomes embodied ^.
Then Gargya became silent.
Thus far only?' 'Thus far
14. A^'atai-atru said
Gargya said: 'The person that

13.

that

adore as Brahman.'

I

is

in

the

A^ata^-atru said to

:

'

:

only,'

he

to

suffice

replied
15.

replied.

'

:

A^ata^atru said

know it (the true
Then let me come to

A^ata^atru said:

'

'

:

This does not

Brahman).'

Gargya

you, as a pupil.'

Verily,

it is

unnatural that

come to a Kshatriya, hoping
him
the Brahman. However, I
that he should tell
shall make you know him clearly,' thus saying he
took him by the hand and rose.
And the two together came to a person who was
He called him by these names, Thou,
asleep.
great one, clad in white raiment, Soma, KingV He
a Brahma;^a should

'

^

'

In the Atman, in Pra§-apati, in the Buddhi, and in the heart.'

Comm.
2

It is difficult to

know what

is

meant here by atman and atman-

In the Kaush. Up. A^ata^atru refers to Pra^apati, and the
commentator here does the same, adding, however, buddhi and
Gough translates atmanvin by 'having peace of mind.'
hn'd.

vin.

Deussen,
^

p. 195,

passes

it

over.

These names are given here

upanishad, not

as

in

as they occur in the Kaushitaki-

the Br^Tiadarawyaka-upanishad, where

the

I04

ERZ-HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

Then rubbing him with
did not rise.
woke him, and he arose.

'When

A^ataj-atru said:

16.

man was

this

he

his hand,

thus

where was then the person (purusha), the in? and from whence did he thus come back?'

asleep,

telhgent

Gargya did not know
1 7.

this

A^ata-yatru said

?

When

'
:

man was

this

having

asleep, then the intelligent person (purusha),

through the intelligence of the senses
sorbed within himself
ether,

which

all

(pra;/as) ab-

intelligence, lies

When

in the heart ^

is

kept

is

eye

is

18.

man

sleeps (svapiti)

speech

in,

kept

in,

kept

is

the mind

But when

is

^.

he moves

rises,

as

it

is,

as

in his

about

in

He

And

falls.

own

subjects,

in

the

in,

(and

sleep

is,

as

were,

it

;

he

and move about,

own domain,

endowed with

intel-

the various senses (pra/^as) and

move

thus does that person (who

keep

kept

as a great king

according to his pleasure, within his
ligence)

said

it is

the breath

were, a great Brahma72a

it

were, and he

might keep

is

in

in.

dream), then these are his worlds.
a great king; he

Then

the ear

in,

kept

the

in

he takes

these different kinds of intelligence, then
that the

thus

is

about, according to his pleasure, within his

own body

(while dreaming).
19.

first

Next, when he

name was

atish//za^

is

in

profound sleep, and knows

sarvesham bhfttanam murdha ra^a.

This

throws an important Hght on the composition of the Upanishads.
^ The ether in the
come to himself, to his
^

heart

is

meant

for the real Self.

Self, i.e. to the true

Svapiti, he sleeps,

is

He

has

Brahman.

explained as sva, his

own

Self,

and

apiti for apyeti, he goes towards, so that 'he sleeps' must be

meaning he comes to his Self.' In another passage
it is explained by svam apito bhavati.
See ^ahkara's Commentary
on the Brih. Ar. Up, vol. p. 372.
interpreted as

'

i,

II

yVDHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA,

2.

I05

nothing, there are the seventy-two thousand arteries
called Hita,

which from the heart spread through

the body^ Through them he moves forth and rests
in the surrounding body. And as a young man, or a

great king, or a great Brahma;^a, having reached the

summit of happiness, might rest, so does he then rest.
20. As the spider comes out with its thread, or as
small sparks come forth from fire, thus do all senses,
all worlds, all Devas, all beings come forth from that
The Upanishad (the true name and doctrine)
Self.
Verily the
of that Self is the True of the True.'
senses are the true, and he is the true of the true.
'

Second BRAHMAiVA^.
1. Verily he who knows the babe^ with his place*,
his chamber ^ his post ^ and his rope \ he keeps off
Verily by the
the seven relatives ^ who hate him.
young is meant the inner life, by his place this
(body)^ by his chamber this (head), by his post the
vital breath, by his rope the food.
2.

Then

the seven imperishable ones^'' approach

There are the red lines in the eye, and by
them Rudra clings to him. There is the water

him.

^

2
^

five

Not the pericardium only, but the whole body.' Comm.
Madhyandina text, p. 1061.
The lihgatman, or subtle body which has entered this body
'

ways.

in

Comm.
The

The

vital breath.

*

The

^

Food, which binds the subtle to the coarse body.
The seven organs of the head through which man perceives

^

'

body.

head.

'^

and becomes attached to the world.
^
The commentator remarks that while saying this, the body
and the head are pointed out by touching them with the hand
(pa?iipeshapratibodhanena).

See before,

I, 5, i,

2.

They

are called imperishable, because

they produce imperishableness by supplying food for the pra«a,
here called the babe.

Bi^JHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

I06

and by it Par^anya clings to him. There
is the pupil, and by it Aditya (sun) clings to him.
There is the dark iris, and by it Agni clings to him.
There is the white eye-ball, and by it Indra clings to

in the eye,

eye-lash the earth, with the

With the lower

him.

upper eye-lash the heaven

knows
3.

this, his

On

He who

clings to him.

food does never perish.

this there

is

this

^loka

:

There ^ is a cup having its mouth below and its
bottom above. Manifold glory has been placed into
'

On

lip sit the seven 7?/shis, the tongue as
with Brahman.' What is
communicates
the eiohth
called the cup having its mouth below and its bottom
above is this head, for its mouth (the mouth) is
it.

below,

its

its

bottom (the

skull)

is

above.

When

it

is

said that manifold glory has been placed into it,
the senses verily are manifold glory, and he therefore

means the

When

senses.

he says that the

on its lip, the /?/shis are verily the
he means the senses. And
and
(active) senses,
when he says that the tongue as the eighth com-

seven Ri'sKis

sit

municates with Brahman,

is

it

because the tongue,

as the eighth, does communicate with Brahman.

These two (the two ears) are the 7?/shis Gautama and Bharadva/a the right Gautama, the left
Bharadvd^a. These two (the eyes) are the y?/shis
Viwamitra and (S'amadagni the right Vi^vamitra,
These two (the nostrils) are
the left 6^amadagni.
the right Vathe Rishis Vasish//^a and Ka^yapa
4.

;

;

;

sish//za,

the

left

Ka^-yapa.

The tongue

is

Atri, for

and Atri is meant for
becomes an eater
Atti, eating.
of everything, and everything becomes his food.

with the tongue food

is

eaten,

He who knows

^

this,

Cf. Atharva-veda-sa/;/h.

X,

8, 9.

II

ADIIYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA,

lOj

6,

Third BRAHMAiVA^
1. There are two forms of Brahman, the material
and the immaterial, the mortal and the immortal, the
solid and the fluid, sat (being) and tya (that), (i.e.

sat-tya, true)^.
2.

Everything except

mortal,

which
which

solid,

is

air

material, which

is

definite

is

is

and sky

The

definite.

is

is

is

material,

is

essence of that

mortal, which

Is

the sun that shines, for he

solid,
is

the

essence of sat (the definite).

and sky are immaterial, are immortal,
are fluid, are indefinite.
The essence of that which
is immaterial, which is immortal, which is fluid, which
3.

is

he

But

air

indefinite
is

the person in the disk of the sun, for

is

the essence of tyad (the indefinite).

So

far

with

regard to the Devas.
4.

Now

with

regard to the body.

Everything

except the breath and the ether within the body is
The essence
material, is mortal, is solid, is definite.
of that which
solid,

which

is

is

material,

definite

is

which

is

the Eye, for

mortal, which
it is

is

the essence

of sat (the definite).
5.

But breath and the ether within the body are
are indefinite.

immaterial, are immortal, are

fluid,

The

immaterial, which

essence of that which

immortal, which

person

in

is

fluid,

is

which

the right eye, for he

Is

Is

indefinite

is

is

the

the essence of tyad

(the Indefinite).
6.

And what

Like a

the appearance of that person ?
saflron-coloured raiment, like white wool,
is

^

Madhyandina

2

Sat

is

text, p.

1062.

explained by definite, tya or tyad by indefinite.

Bi?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

I08

like cochineal, like the flame of

fire,

like the

white

He who knows
lotus, like sudden lightning.
his glory is like unto sudden lightning.
Next

follows the teaching (of

for there

no\'

one says)

It

'

:

this,

Brahman) by No,

is

nothing else higher than this

is

not

Then comes

so.'

the

(if

name

True of the True,' the senses being the True,
and he (the Brahman) the True of them.
'

the

Fourth Brahmaata^.
1.

Now when

Ya^/2avalkya was going to enter

Maitreyi^ verily I am
house (into the forest*).
Forsooth, let me make a settlement between thee
and that K^tyiyani (my other wife).'
My Lord, if this whole earth,
2. Maitreyt said
full of wealth, belonged to me, tell me, should I be

upon another state, he
going away from this

said

'

:

my

'

:

immortal by

it^ ?'

26

'

See

2

Madhyandina

III, 9,

;

IV,

2,

text, p.

4

;

IV,

1062.

22

4,

To

;

the

IV,

5, 15.

end of the

third

Brahma«a

been taught does not yet impart
the highest knowledge, the identity of the personal and the true Self,
In the fourth Brahmawa, in which the knowledge
the Brahman.
of the true Brahman is to be set forth, the Sawmydsa, the retiring
from the world, is enjoined, when all desires cease, and no duties
of the second Adhyaya,

all

that has

are to be performed (Sa?«nyasa, parivr%ya).

with slight variations in the

The

story

is

told again

Br/hadara;/yaka-upanishad IV,

5,

The

added here, marked
with B. There are besides the various readings of the Madhyandinajakha of the 6'atapatha-brahma;/a. See alsoDeussen,Vedanta,p.i85.
^ In Br/h.Up. IV,
5, the story begins Ya^ftavalkya had two wives,
Of these Maitreyi was conversant with
Maitreyi and Katyayani.
Brahman, but Katyayani possessed such knowledge only as women

more important variations, occurring

in IV, 5, are

:

possess.
*

Instead of udyasyan, B. gives

pravra^ishyan,

technical term.
^

Should

I

be immortal by

it,

or no

?

B.

the

more

II

No/

'

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

replied Ya^;^avalkya

people

be thy

will

'
;

like the life of rich

But there

life.

IO9

5.

is

no hope of

immortality by wealth.'

And

3.

Maitreyi said

'

:

What

should

do not become immortal

do with

I

What my

?
by which I
Lord knoweth (of immortality), tell that to me\'
Thou who art truly dear
4. Ya^wavalkya replied
Come, sit down,
to me, thou speakest dear words ^
well
what I say.'
mark
I will explain it to thee, and
'Verily, a husband is not dear, that
5. And he said
you may love the husband but that you may love
the Self, therefore a husband is dear.
Verily, a wife is not dear, that you may love the

that

'

:

:

;

'

wife; but that you

wife

may

love the Self, therefore a

dear,

is

'Verily, sons are not dear, that

the sons

;

but that you

may

you may love

love the Self, therefore

sons are dear.

not dear, that you may love
but that you may love the Self, therefore

'Verily, wealth

wealth
wealth
'

;

is

is

dear^

Verily, the Brahman-class

may love

the Brahman-class

;

not dear, that you
but that you may love
is

the Self, therefore the Brahman-class is dear.
'Verily, the Kshatra-class is not dear, that you
may love the Kshatra-class but that you may love
;

the Self, therefore the Kshatra-class is dear.
'Verily, the worlds are not dear, that you

love the worlds; but that you
therefore the worlds are dear.
1

Tell that clearly to me.

2

Thou who

me
^

in this).

art dear to

may

love the Self,

B.

me, thou hast increased what

B.

B. adds, Verily,

cattle are

may

not dear, &c.

is

dear (to

no

B2?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

Devas are not dear, that you may
but that you may love the Self,
love the Devas
therefore the Devas are dear\
'Verily, the

;

*

you may love

Verily, creatures are not dear, that

the creatures

;

but that you

may love

the Self, there-

fore are creatures dear.
'

Verily, everything

everything

;

is

not dear that you

may

but that you

fore everything

is

may

love

love the Self, there-

dear.

'Verily, the Self is to be seen, to be heard, to
When
be perceived, to be marked, O Maitreyi
we see, hear, perceive, and know the Self^, then
!

this is

all

6.

known.

Whosoever looks

'

where than

in the

Brahman-class.

for the Brahman-class else-

was^ abandoned by the

Self,

Whosoever looks

class elsewhere than in the Self,

for the Kshatra-

was abandoned by

Whosoever looks for the worlds
Self, was abandoned by the
worlds. Whosoever looks for the Devas elsewhere
than in the Self, was abandoned by the Devas ^.
Whosoever looks for creatures elsewhere than in the
Whosoever
Self, was abandoned by the creatures.
the Kshatra-class.

elsewhere than in the

looks for anything elsewhere than in the Self, was

This Brahman-class,

abandoned by everything.
Kshatra-class, these

7.

'

Now

as'^

Devas ^, these

worlds, these

creatures, this everything,

all

is

B. inserts, Verily, the

2

When

^

The commentator

Vedas are not

when

Whosoever looks

*

B. inserts,

^

B. adds, these Vedas.

'

I construe

sa yatha with

'

beaten,

dear, &c.

the Self has been seen, heard, perceived,
translates,

"^

that Self.

the sounds of a drum,

^

this

and known. B.

should be abandoned.'

for the
"

Vedas, &c.

B. has,

evam

all

vai in

these creatures.

§ 12,

looking upon

;

II

;

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

\

Ill

12.

cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the

sound

is

of the

drum

8.

'

seized,

And

when

as the

the

drum

is

seized or the beater

sounds of a conch-shell, when

blown, cannot be seized externally (by themselves),

but the sound

is

seized,

the blower of the shell
'

9.

And

when

the shell

is

seized or

;

as the sounds of a lute,

when

played,

cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the
sound is seized, when the lute is seized or the
player of the lute
10.

'As clouds of smoke proceed by themselves

out of a lighted

O

verily,

fire

damp

kindled with

fuel, thus,

Maitreyi, has been breathed forth from

Being what we have as 7?/g-veda, Ya^urveda, Sama-veda, Atharvangirasas, Itihasa (legends),
Pura;^a (cosmogonies), Vidya (knowledge), the Upa-

this great

nishads, ^'lokas (verses), Sutras (prose rules),

Anu-

vyakhyanas (glosses), Vyakhyanas (commentaries)
From him alone all these were breathed forth.
11.

'As

waters find their centre in the sea,

all

touches in the skin,

all

smells in the nose,
in the ear, all

the heart,
the

feet,

all

and

all

all

tastes in the tongue, all

colours in the eye,

percepts in the mind,
actions in the hands,
all

all

all

all

sounds

knowledge

in

movements

in

the Vedas in speech,

As a lump of salt^ when thrown into water,
becomes dissolved into water, and could not be taken
12.

§ II as

'

probably a

later insertion.

The

sa

is

not the pronoun, but

a particle, as in sa yadi, sa ket, &c.
^
B. adds, what is sacrificed, what is poured
world and the other world, and all creatures.

2

See A'Mnd.Up.VI, 13.

out, food, drink, this

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

112

we

out again, but wherever
salt,

thus verily,

O

taste (the water)

endless, unlimited, consisting of nothing but
ledge^, rise
in them.

it

is

Maitreyi, does this great Being,

know-

from out these elements, and vanish again
When he has departed, there is no more

knowledge (name),

I

O

say,

Thus spoke

Maitreyi.'

Ya^;/avalkya.

Then

13.

Maitreyi

'Here thou hast be-

said:

when thou sayest that having
no more knowledge 2.'
But Ya^?^avalkya replied 'O Maitreyi, I say nothing
that is bewildering.
This is enough, O beloved, for

wildered

me.

Sir,

departed, there

is

:

wisdom ^
For when there
*

is

as

were

it

duality, then

one

sees the other, one smells the other, one hears the

one salutes the other ^ one perceives the
other ^, one knows the other but when the Self only
is all this, how should he smell another^, how should
he see^ another^, how should he hear^*^ another, how
should he salute ^^ another, how should he perceive
another ^^, how should he know another ?
How
should he know Him by whom he knows all this ?

other"*,

;

As

^

a

mass of salt has neither

inside nor outside, but

is

altogether

a mass of taste, thus indeed has that Self neither inside nor outside,

but

is

^

I

'

altogether a

Here,

Sir,

mass of knowledge.

thou hast landed

do not understand him.'
^

Verily, beloved, that

structible nature.
*

me

B.

in utter

bewilderment. Indeed,

B.
Self

is

imperishable, and of an

B.

B. inserts, one tastes the other.

^

B. inserts, one hears the other.

"

B. inserts, one touches the other.

**

Smell, B.

Salute, B.

^^

B. inserts,

"^

"

" Hear, B.

how

See, B.

B. inserts taste.

should he touch another

.?

inde-

ADHYAYA,

II

How,

O

5 BRAHMAJVA,

II 3

2.

he know (himself), the

beloved, should

Knower^?'

Fifth Brahmajva

^.

This earth is the honey ^ (madhu, the effect) of
all beings, and all beings are the honey (madhu, the
effect) of this earth.
Likewise this bright, immortal
person in this earth, and that bright immortal person
incorporated in the body (both are madhu).
He
indeed is the same as that Self, that Immortal, that
Brahman, that All.
2. This water is the honey of all beings, and all
1.

beings are the honey of this water.
bright,

immortal person

in

this

Likewise

this

and that
body
the same as that
water,

bright, immortal person, existing as seed in the

He

(both are madhu).
Self, that

^

indeed

is

Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

Instead of the last

line,

be described by No, no
be comprehended

he

;

is

5, 15): 'That Self is to
incomprehensible, for he cannot

B. adds (IV,

He

!

is

imperishable, for he cannot perish

;

he

is

unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfettered, he does

not

suffer,

Knower?
far

he does not

Thus,

O

fail.

How,

]\Iaitreyi,

goes immortality.'

O

beloved, should he

Having

said so, Ya^*iavalkya

See also ^/zand. Up.

(into the forest). 15.

know the
Thus

thou hast been instructed.

went away

A^II, 24, i.

Madhyandina text, p. 1064.
Madhu, honey, seems to be taken here as an instance of something which is both cause and effect, or rather of things which are
mutually dependent on each other, or cannot exist without one
other.
As the bees make the honey, and the honey makes or
supports the bees, bees and honey are both cause and effect,
or at all events are mutually dependent on one other. In the same
way the earth and all living beings are looked upon as mutually
"^

^

dependent, living

beings presupposing the earth, and the earth

presupposing living beings.
general idea of what

is

which Dadhya/^ communicated
['5]

at all events seems to be the
Madhuvidya, the science of honey,

This

called the

to the Ajvins.
I

Bi?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

114
3.

This

fire

the honey of

is

all

beings, and

all

beings are the honey of this

fire.

Likewise this

bright, immortal person in this

fire,

and that bright,
body (both

immortal person, existing as speech in the
are madhu).

He

indeed

is

the

same as

that Self,

that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.
4.

This

honey of
honey of this

air is the

beings are

the

all

air.

beings, and

Likewise

all

this

and that bright,
body (both
He indeed is the same as that Self,
are madhu).
that Immortal, that Brahman, that AIL
5. This sun is the honey of all beings, and all
Likewise this
beings are the honey of this sun.
bright, immortal person in this sun, and that bright,
immortal person existing as the eye in the body
He indeed is the same as that
(both are madhu).
Brahman, that All.
that
Immortal,
Self, that
6. This space (dii-a/^, the quarters) is the honey of
all beings, and all beings are the honey of this
bright,

immortal person

in this air,

immortal person existing as breath in the

Likewise this bright, immortal person in this
space, and that bright, immortal person existing as
He indeed
the ear in the body (both are madhu).
space.

is

the

same

as that Self, that Immortal, that Brah-

man, that All.
7. This moon is the honey of all beings, and all
Likewise this
beings are the honey of this moon.
and
that bright,
moon,
this
bright, immortal person in
immortal person existing as mind in the body (both
He indeed is the same as that Self,
are madhu).
that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.
8. This lightning is the honey of all beings, and
Likewise
all beings are the honey of this lightning.
lightning,
and
this
this bright, immortal person in

II

ADHYAYA,

5

BRAHMAA^A,

II5

I 3.

that bright, Immortal person existing as Hght in the

He

body (both are madhu).

indeed

same

the

is

as

that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

This thunder 1

9.

is

the honey of

beings, and

all

beings are the honey of this thunder.

immortal person

bright,

in

Likewise

all

this

thunder, and that

this

immortal person existing as sound and voice
He indeed is the
same as that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman,
bright,

body (both are madhu).

in the

that All.

This ether

10.

is

the honey of

beings,

all

beings are the honey of this ether.

and

Likewise

all

this

bright, immortal person in this ether, and that bright,
immortal person existing as heart-ether in the body

(both are madhu).
Self, that

indeed

This law (dharma/^)

1 1.

and

He

all

same as

the

is

the honey of

is

all

beings are the honey of this law.

immortal person

this bright,

this law,

in

beings,

Likewise

and that

bright, immortal person existing as law in the

(both are madhu).
Self, that

He

indeed

all

is

same

the

body

as that

Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

This true^ (satyam)

12.

and

that

Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

is

the honey of

all

beings are the honey of this true.

this bright,

immortal person

in

what

is

beings,

Likewise

true,

and that

bright, immortal person existing as the true in the

He

body (both are madhu).

indeed

the

is

same

as

that Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.
3.

1

all

1

This mankind

is

the honey of

all

beings are the honey of this mankind.
Stanayitnu,

thunder,

is

explained by

the

beings,

and

Likewise

commentator

as

Par^anya.
"^

Satyam, the

true, the real, not, as

truth.
I

2

it is

generally translated, the

:

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

Il6

mankind, and that

bright, immortal person in

this

man

bright, immortal person existing as

(both are madhu).

He

indeed

body

same as

the

is

in the

that

Self, that Immortal, that Brahman, that All.

14.

This Self

is

the honey of

beings,

all

and

all

Self.

Likewise this

bright, immortal person in this Self,

and that bright,

beings are the honey of this

He

immortal person, the Self (both are madhu).
indeed

is

same as that

the

Brahman, that

And

15.

Immortal, that

All.

verily this Self

the king of

Self, that

beings.

all

the lord of

is

And

as

all

all

beings,

spokes are con-

tained in the axle and in the felly of a wheel,
beings, and

all

all

those selfs (of the earth, water, &c.)

are contained in that Self.

Verily Dadhya/^ Atharvawa proclaimed this

16.

madhu-vidyi) to the two A^vins, and a

honey

(the

7?/shi,

seeing

this, said

*0 ye two heroes
fearful

(Rv.

I,

(Ai'vins),

make manifest

^

that

for the

makes manifest the

The honey (madhu-vidya) which Dadhya/^

rain.

Atharva;m proclaimed
a horse,'

.

.

honey

said (Rv.

you through the head of

Dadhya/6 Atharva;^a^ proclaimed

two

to the
I, 1

to

.

17. Verily

O

I

deed of yours (which you performed)

sake of gain ^ like as thunder

'

116, 12)

Ai'vins,

and a

7?/shi,

seeing

this
this,

17, 22):

AsTvins,

Dadhya/^, and

you

head on Atharva;^a
be true (to his promise),

fixed a horse's

he, wishing to

^

The

^

Tanyatu, here explained as Par_§-anya.

^

^afikara distinguishes here between Atharva«a and Atharva«a,

translation here follows the

if the text is correct.

commentary.

II

ADHYAYA,

BRAHMAA^A,

5

1

II 7

9.

proclaimed to you the honey, both that of Tvash/r/'
and that which is to be your secret, O ye strong
ones.'
18.

honey
said
*

Verily Dadhya/^' Atharva;m proclaimed
to the

two

A-rvins,

and a

seeing

i?/shi,

this
this,

:

He

(the Lord)

made bodies

made bodies with two feet, he
Having first become
feet.

with four

a bird, he entered the bodies as purusha (as the
person).'
saya., i.e.

called

This very purusha is in all bodies the purihe who lies in the body (and is therefore

purusha).

There

is

nothing

covered by him, nothing that

is

not

that
filled

not

is

by him.

A

19.

honey

Verily Dadhya/^ Atharva;^a proclaimed this
to the

two

Ai-vins,

and a

Rish'i,

seeing

this,

said (Rv. VI, 47,18):
*

He

(the Lord)

became

unto every form 2, and

like

form of him (the
Atman). Indra (the Lord) appears multiform through
this

the

is

meant

May^s

to reveal the (true)

(appearances), for his horses (senses) are

yoked, hundreds and

ten.'

This (Atman) is the horses, this (Atman) is the
This is
ten, and the thousands, many and endless.
witheffect,
without
and
cause
without
Brahman,
the
out anything inside or outside this Self is Brahman,
omnipresent and omniscient. This is the teaching
;

(of the Upanishads).

^
6'ahkara explains Tvash//7 as the sun, and the sun as the head
of the sacrifice which, having been cut off, was to be replaced by
The knowledge of this rite forms the honey
the pravargya rite.

of Tvash//-/.

The

other honey which

is

to

be kept secret

is

the

knowledge of the Self, as taught before in the Madhu-brahmawa.
^ He assumed all forms, and such forms, as two-footed or fourfooted animals, remained permanent. Comm.

:

Il8

Bi?7HADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

Sixth BRAHMAiVA.

Now

follows the stem

^

1.

Pautimashya from Gaupavana,

2.

Gaupavana from Pautimashya,

3.

Pautimashya from Gaupavana,

4.

Gaupavana from

Kaui"ika,

5.

Kaui-ika from Kau;^^inya,

6.

Kau;/^inya from

7.

Sand'ilys.

8.

Gautama

^'a^f^ilya,

from Kaui'ika and Gautama,

A

from Agnive^'ya,
9. Agnive^ya from Sa7td[\ya. and Anabhimlata,
10. Sand'Aya. and Anabhimlata from Anabhimlata,
11. Anabhimlata from Anabhimlata,
A

Anabhimlata from Gautama,
Gautama from Saitava and Pra/^inayogya,
Saitava and Pra-^inayogya from Para6"arya,
Parai^arya from Bharadva^a,
Bharadva^a from Bharadva^a and Gautama,
Gautama from Bharadvaj^a,

12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
1 7.

^

The

of teachers and pupils by

line

(the fourth Brahma;;a)

was handed down.

begins with ourselves, then

i.

whom

the INIadhukawf/a

The Aladhyandina-Zakha

^'aurpa^ayya,

2.

Gautama,

3.

Vatsya,

Bharadva^a, 6. Audavahi and Sandilya, 7. Vai^avapa and Gautama, 8. Vai^avapayana
and Vaish/apureya, 9. Sa7idi\y3. and Rauhiwayana, 10. -Saunaka,
Atreya, and Raibhya, 1 1. Pautimashyaya;/a and Kauwrt'inyayana,
12. K^midinya, 13. Kauw^inya, 14. Kau;/r/inya and Agnivejya,
4.

Vatsya and Para^-arya,

5.

Sankr/tya and

15. Saitava, 16. Para^arya, 17. (9atukar«ya, 18.

radva^a, Asurayawa, and

yana.

Then

the

same

Gautama,

20.

Bharadva^a, 19. Bha-

Bharadva^a, 21. Vai^avapa-

as the Ka;/vas to 6r'atukar«ya,

who

learns

from Bharadva^-a, who learns from Bharadva^a, Asurayawa, and
Yaska.

Then

Traiva?H &c. as in the Ka«va-va?«ja.

9

II

18.

ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA,

Bharadva^a from

II

3.

Para^-arya,

19. Parai-arya from Vai^avapayana,

20.

Vai^avapayana from Kaiuikayani,

2i\ Kaimkayaiii

from Gh?'2takau^ika,
22.

Ghrz'takaiuika from Pdrai"aryaya;^a,

23.

Para5'aryaya?2a from Parai^arya,

24.

Para^-arya from G"atukar;^ya ^,

25.

from Asuraya;/a and Yaska
Asuraya;/a and Yaska from Traiva/zi,
Traivam from Aupa^andhani,
A
Aupa^andhani from Asuri,
A
Asuri from Bharadva^a,
A
Bharadvac^a from Atreya,
Atreya from Manfi,
Maufi from Gautama,
Gautama from Gautama,
Gautama from Vatsya,

A

26.

27.

6^at<ikar;^ya

^,

^

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
2)

J.

34.

Vatsya from SAndilya,
from Kaii'orya Kapya,
36.
T^y.
Kai^orya Kapya from Kumaraharita,
38. Kumaraharita from Galava,
39. Galava from Vidarbhi-kau/^rt'inya,
40. Vidarbhi - kau;2^inya from Vatsanapat
35.

Sa.7idi\ya.

Ba-

bhrava,
41.
42.

Vatsanapat Babhrava from Pathi Saubhara,
A
Pathi Saubhara from Ayasya Aiigirasa,
A
A
Ayasya Aiigirasa from Abhuti Tvash/ra,
Abhuti Tvash/ra from Vi^varupa Tvash/ra,
^

43.
44.

45. Vii-varlJLpa
^

IV,

From

here the

Tvash/ra from A^-vinau,

Vaw^a

agrees with the

Vaw^a

at the

end of

6.

2

Bharadva^a, in Madhyandina

3

Bharadva§-a,

A su ray a;/ a,

text.

and Yaska,

in

Madhyandina

text.

1

20

BiS/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.
A

A^vinau from Dadhya^ Atharva/za,
47. Dadhya-^ Atharva;za from Atharvan Daiva,
48. Atharvan Daiva from Mrityu Pr^dhva;;2sana,
49. Mrityu Pradhva;;2sana from Pradhva;;2sana,
46.

50.

Pradhva;;/sana from Ekarshi,

51.

Ekarshi from

Vipra/^itti

^,

from Vyash/i,
53. Vyash/i from Sanaru,
54. Sanaru from Sanatana,

52. Vipra/^itti

55.

Sanatana from Sanaga,

56.

Sanaga from Paramesh^'/nn,
Paramesh//^in from Brahman,
Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent.

57.
58.

Adoration to Brahman
Madhyandina

^.

^

Viprag'itti, in

-

Similar genealogies are found Brih. Ar.

text.

Up. IV,

6,

and VI,

5.

!

ADHYAYA,

Ill

I

BRAHMAJSTA,

121

2.

THIRD ADHYAyA.
First BRAHMAiVA ^
Adoration to the Highest Self (Paramatman)
1. C'anaka Vaideha (the king of the Videhas) sacri-

which many presents were
Brdhma;^as
of the Kurus and the Pa;7/'alas had come thither,
and kanaka Vaideha wished to know, which of those
Brahma;^as was the best read. So he enclosed a
thousand cows, and ten padas (of gold) - were fastened
to each pair of horns.
ficed with a sacrifice at

offered to the priests of(the Ai-vamedha).

And

6^anaka spoke to them
Ye venerable
Brahma;eas, he who among you is the wisest, let
2.

'

:

him drive away these

Then

those Brahma/^as durst not, but Ya^;^avalkya

said to his pupil

He

cows,'

replied

'

:

'
:

O

Drive them away,
glory of the

my

Saman

^,'

dear,'

and drove

them away.

The Brahma;/as became angry and
could he

call

said

himself the wisest amonof us

Now there was A^-vala, the
He asked him:

^

Madhyandina

^

Pala/^aturbhaga/z pada// suvamasya.

'

One

expects

iti

How

?'

Hotrz priest of 6^anaka
'Are you indeed the

Vaideha.

text, p.

'

:

1067.

after

Comm.

uda^a, but Samairavas

Ya^Tiavalkya, and not to the pupil.

is

applied to

Ya^wavalkya, as the com-

mentator observes, was properly a teacher of the Ya^ur-veda, but
as the pupil calls him Sama^ravas, he shows that Ya^wavalkya

knew

all

the four Vedas, because the

Rig-veda, and the Atharva-veda

Vedas.
'

toi

Regnaud, however,

is

refers

qui apprends le Sama-veda.'

Samans

are taken from the

contained in the other three
it

to the pupil,

and

translates,

B7?7HADARAiVVAKA-UPANISHAD.

122

among

wisest

bow
but

us,

O

Ya^v'^avalkya

?'

He

replied

'
:

I

before the wisest (the best knower of Brahman),

wish indeed to have these cows.'

I

Then

Hotr^

A^vala, the

priest,

undertook

to

question him.
3.

'

Ya^/lavalkya,' he said,

'

everything here (con-

sacrifice) is reached by death, everyovercome by death. By what means then
?'
is the sacrificer freed beyond the reach of death
By the Hotri priest, who is
Ya^?1avalkya said
Agni (fire), who is speech. For speech is the Hotri
of the sacrifice (or the sacrificer), and speech is
This constitutes freeAgni, and he is the Hot/x
dom, and perfect freedom (from death).'
everything here is
Ya^7lavalkya,' he said,
4.
reached by day and night, everything is overcome by
day and night. By what means then is the sacrificer
freed beyond the reach of day and night ?'
Yaf;Iavalkya said By the Adhvaryu priest, who
For the eye is
is the eye, who is Aditya (the sun)\
the Adhvaryu of the sacrifice, and the eye is the sun,
and he is the Adhvaryu. This constitutes freedom,
and perfect freedom.'
everything here is
Ya^;/avalkya,' he said,
5.
reached by the waxing and waning of the moon,
everything is overcome by the waxing and waning
By what means then is the sacrificer
of the moon.
freed beyond the reach of the waxing and waning
of the moon?'
By the Udgatr2 priest, who
Ya^;/avalkya said
For the
is Vayu (the wind), who is the breath.

nected with the
thing

is

'

:

'

'

'

:

'

'

'

:

^

One

but see

expects adityena /^akshusha, instead of X'akshusliadityena,

§ 6.

ADHYAYA,

Ill

breath

BRAHMAxVA,

12 J

8.

the Udgatre of the sacrifice, and the breath

is

the wind, and he

is

I

This constitutes

the Udgatri.

is

freedom, and perfect freedom.'
6.

'

Ya^;^avalkya,' he said,

without an

does the

this

'

sky

as

is,

it

were,

By what approach
approach the Svarga world?'

ascent (staircase.)

sacrificer

Ya^;/avalkya said

By the Brahman priest, who
who is the moon. For the

'

:

mind (manas),
mind is the Brahman of the sacrifice, and the mind
This constiis the moon, and he is the Brahman.
freedom.
These
are the
and
perfect
tutes freedom,
the

is

complete deliverances (from death).'
Next follow the achievements.
7.

'

Ya^;7avalkya,' he said,

'

how many

J^ik verses

will the Hotr/ priest employ to-day at this sacrifice?'
*

Three,' replied Ya^/Iavalkya.

'

And what

'

Those which are

are these three?'
called

Puronuvakya, Ya^ya, and,

\'

thirdly, ^'asya
'

What

'

All whatsoever has breath.'

8.

'

does he gain by them

Ya^/^avalkya,' he said,

(ahuti) will the

Adhvaryu

'

?'

how many

oblations

priest employ to-day at

this sacrifice?'
'

Three,' replied Ya^;'^avalkya.

'And what

are these three?'

'Those which, when offered, flame up those which,
when offered, make an excessive noise and those
;

;

which,
^

when

The Puronuvakyas

sacrifice, the

^

hymns employed

before the actual

sacrifice, the 6'asyas are

used

All three are called Stotriyas.

These oblations

flesh,

are

down

Ya^yas accompany the

for the 6'astra.

of

offered, sink

-.'

wood and
when thrown on

are explained as consisting of

oil,

The

the

and of milk and Soma.

first,

'

'

'

B2^7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

124

'What does he gain by them?'
By those which, when offered, flame up, he gains
the Deva (god) world, for the Deva world flames
By those which, when offered, make
up, as it were.
*

an excessive noise, he gains the F'ltrz (father) world,
By those
for the Fitrz world is excessively (noisy) ^
which, when offered, sink down, he gains the Manushya (man) world, for the Manushya world is, as it

down

were,
'

9.

below.'

Ya^;7avalkya,' he said,

does the Brahman
this sacrifice
*

*

*

'

with

how many

deities

on the right protect to-day

priest

?

By one,' replied Ya^;1avalkya.
And which is it?'
The mind alone for the mind
;

is

endless,

and the

Vi^vedevas are endless, and he thereby gains the
endless world.'
10.

*

hymns

Yaf;/avalkya,' he
will the

sacrifice

Udgatre

said,

priest

'

how many

Stotriya

employ to-day

at this

?

'

Three,' replied Ya^?Iavalkya.

*

And what

'

Those which are

are these three
called

?

Puronuvakya, Ya^ya, and,

thirdly, KS'asya.'
'

And what

are these with regard to the

body

?'

(adhyatmam)
The Puronuvakya
'

Yafyi
Vyana

the

Pra;^a (up-breathing), the

(down-breathing), the 6'asya the

(back-breathing).'

flame up.

fire,

Apana

is

The second, when thrown on the fire, make a
The third, consisting of milk, Soma, &c., sink

loud hissing noise.

down
^

of

into the earth.

On

it.

account of the cries of those who wish to be delivered out

Comni.

'

'

ADHYAYA,

Ill

'What does he

He

'

2

BRAHMAiVA,

gain by them

I

7.

25

?'

gains the earth by the PuronuvAkyd, the sky

by the Ya^ya, heaven by the ^'asya.'
After that A^vala held his peace.

Second BRAHMAiVA^
A

Then Caratkdrava Artabh^ga^ asked. Ya^v/avalkya,' he said, 'how many Grahas are there, and
how many Atigrahas " ?
1.

'

Eight Grahas,' he repHed, and eight Atigrahas.'
And what are these eidit Grahas and eicrht
Atigrahas ?
'

'

'

2.

Pra;/a (breath)

'

one Graha, and that is seized
as the Atigrdha \ for one

is

by Apana (down-breathing)
smells with the Apana.'

Speech (va/^) is one Graha, and that is seized
by name (naman) as the Atigraha, for with speech
one pronounces names.'
The tongue is one Graha, and that is seized
4.
by taste as the Atigraha, for with the tongue one
'

3.

'

perceives tastes.'
5.

'The eye

is

one Graha, and that

is

seized

by form

as the Atigraha, for with the eye one sees forms.'

'The ear

one Graha, and that is seized by sound
as the Atigraha, for with the ear one hears sounds.'
The mind is one Graha, and that is seized by
7.
6.

is

'

^

Madhyandina

^

A

'

text, p. 1069.
descendant of 7?/tal3haga of the family of G^aratkaru.
Graha is probably meant originally in its usual sacrificial sense,

as a vessel for offering oblations.
in

which

it

is

here taken,

sense, while atigraha

is

is

Here the

a

is

its

secondary meaning,

intended for that which

object of sense.
*

But

a taker, a grasper,

long, -^/^andasatvat.

is

i.

e.

an organ of

grasped,

i.

e.

an

B/27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISnAD.

126

desire as the Atigraha, for with the

mhid one

desires

desires.'

The arms are one Graha, and these are seized
by work as the Atigraha, for with the arms one
works work.'
The skin is one Graha, and that is seized by
9.
touch as the Atigraha, for with the skin one perceives touch.
These are the eight Grahas and the
8.

'

'

eight Atigrahas.'
10.

Ya^/^avalkya,' he said,

'

of death.

What

then

is

'

everything

is

whom

the deity to

the food

death

is

food?'

and that is the food of water.
conquered again,'
Ya^;7avalkya,' he said, 'when such a person

F'ire (agni) is death,

'

Death
11.

is
'

do the

(a sage) dies,

of him or no

No,' repHed Ya^;'zavalkya

'

in

him, he swells, he

dead

'

out

is

they are gathered up

'
;

and thus

inflated,

inflated the

lies at rest.'

1 2.

dies,

move

vital breaths (prawas)

?'

'

Ya^/^avalkya,' he

said,

'

what does not leave him

The

name,' he replied

'
;

when such

a

man

?'

for the

the Vi^vedevas are endless, and by

name
it

is

endless,

he gains the

endless world.'
1 3.

this
air,

'

Ya^/7avalkya,' he said,

'

when

the speech of

dead person enters into the fire^ breath into the
the eye into the sun, the mind into the moon,

the hearing into space, into the earth the body, into

the ether the

self,

into the shrubs the hairs of the

body, into the trees the hairs of the head,

when

the

^
The commentator explains purusha here by asamyagdar^in,
one who does not know the whole truth. See also Deussen,
Vedanta, p. 405, and p. 399, note.

:

Ill

ADIIYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA,

blood and the seed are deposited

I

in the water,

where

27

?'

then that person

is

2.

Take my hand, my friend.
We two alone shall know of this let this question
of ours not be (discussed) in public'
Then these
Ya^;2avalkya said

'

:

;

two went out and argued, and what they said was
karman (work), what they praised was karman \
viz. that a man becomes good by good work, and
bad by bad w^ork. After that 6"aratkarava Artabhaga held his peace.

Third Brahmajva^.

Then Bhu^^yu Lahyayani asked.

1.

'

Ya^;1avalkya,'

'we wandered about as students ^ and came to
the house of Pata///§ala Kapya.
He had a daughter

he

said,

who was possessed by a Gandharva.

Who art thou

We

asked

and he (the Gandharva) replied
A
Sudhanvan, the Angirasa.' And when we
asked him about the ends of the world, we said to
him, Where were the Parikshitas * ? Where then
were the Parikshitas, I ask thee, Ya^;Iavalkya, where
were the Parikshitas ?'
him,
'

'

?

'

am

I

'

2.

Ya^7lavalkya said

that they

'

:

He

said to thee,

I

suppose,

went where those go v/ho have performed

a horse-sacrifice.'

He

said

:

'And where do they go who have

formed a horse-sacrifice
^

What

is

intended

is

karman, while karman by

per-

?'

that the sa;«sara continues
itself

by means of

never leads to moksha.

Madhyandina text, p. 1070.
The commentator explains

^araka/; as adhyayanartha?^/ vrata-

^3.ranak X-araka/^, adhvaryavo va.

See Professor R. G. Bhandarkar,

^
^

in

Indian Antiquary, 1883, p. 145.
*

An

old royal race, supposed to have vanished from the earth.

Bi?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

128

Ya^;/avalkya replied
car of the sun

on every

it

is

'
:

Thirty-two journeys of the

The

earth surrounds

large,

and the ocean

this world.

twice

side,

as

surrounds this earth on every

Now

there

is

side, twice as large.

between^ them a space as large as the

edge of a razor or the wing of a mosquito. Indra,
having become a bird, handed them (through the
space) to Vayu (the air), and Vayu (the air), holding
them within himself, conveyed them to where they
dwell who have performed a horse-sacrifice.
Some-

what
fore
all

in this

Vayu

way

did he praise

(air) is

everything by

things together.

death.'

After

Vayu

that

Thereand Vayu is

indeed.

itself,

He who knows

this,

conquers

Bhu^yu Lahyayani held

his

peace.

Fourth BRAHMAiVA

2.

Then Ushasta A'akraya;^a asked.
Ya^;/avalkya,' he said, tell me the Brahman which is visible,
not invisible^, the Self (atman), who is within all.'
This, thy Self, who is
Ya^;/avalkya replied
'

I,

'

'

:

within

all.'

'Which Self, O Ya^;7avalkya, is within all ?'
Ya^wavalkya replied
He who breathes in the
up-breathing, he is thy Self, and within all. He who
breathes in the down-breathing, he is thy Self, and
*

:

within

he

is

all.

He who

breathes in the on-breathing,

thy Self, and within

all.

He who

breathes in

^ The commentator explains that this small space or hole is
between the two halves of the mundane egg.
2 Madhyandina text, p. 1071.
It follows after what is here

Brahma«a, treating of Kahoda. Kaushitakeya,
p. 163, translates, 'das immanente, nicht
transcendente Brahman,' which is right, but too modern.
the

^

fifth

Deussen, Vedanta,

Ill

ADHYAYA,

the out-breathing, he

This
2.

this

is

thy

Self,

who

5 BRAHMAi\rA,

thy

is

a cow, this

is

visible,

all.

'As one might

:

say,

a horse, thus has this been

me

Tell

not invisible, the Self,

Ya^;/avalkya
within

is

29

all.'

Ushasta Aakraya;2a said

explained by thee.

1

and within

Self,

within

is

I.

replied

'

:

the

who

Brahman which
is

within

thy

This,

is

all.'

who

Self,

is

all.'

'Which

Self,

O

Ya^;'2avalkya,

Ya^;'Zavalkya replied

'

:

Thou

within

is

all ?'

couldst not see the

thou couldst not hear the (true)
hearer of hearing, nor perceive the perceiver of perThis
ception, nor know the knower of knowledge.
(true) seer of sight,

is

thy

Self,

who

is

within

all.

Everything also

is

of

After that Ushasta A"akraya;^a held his peace.

evil.'

Fifth Brahmajva^
Kahola Kaushttakeya asked.
I. Then
valkya,' he said, 'tell me the Brahman which
not invisible, the Self (atman),

Ya^/Iavalkya
within

who

is

'This, thy

replied:

'

is

within
Self,

Y^^/1avisible,
all.'

who

is

all.'

'Which

Self,

O Ya^/'^avalkya,

is

within

all ?'

He who

overcomes hunger
age, and death.
and
When Brahmawas know that Self, and have risen
above the desire for sons 2, wealth, and (new) worlds ^,
they wander about as mendicants. For a desire for
Ya^;1avalkya replied
thirst,

sons

is

sorrow,

'

:

passion,

old

desire for wealth, a desire for wealth

for worlds.

Both these are indeed

desires.

is

desire

There-

fore let a Brahma;/a, after he has done with learning,
'

2
^

Madhyandina text,p. 1071, standing before the fourth Brahmawa.
See Brih. Ar. Up. IV, 4, 22.
Life in the world of the Fathers, or in the world of the Gods.

[15]

K

1

B2?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

30

he has done
with that strength and learning, he becomes a Muni
and after he has done with what is not
(a Yogin)
the knowledge of a Muni, and with what is the
knowledge of a Muni, he is a Brahma^a. By whatever means he has become a Brahma/za, he is such
wish to Stand by real strength

^

;

after

;

Everything else
Kahola Kaushitakeya held

indeed

of

is

2.

After that

evil.'

his peace.

Sixth BRAHMAiVA^
I.

Then Gargi

she said,

'

Va/'aknavi asked.

everything here

What

woof, in water.

is

then

is

'

woven,

Yaf?1avalkya,'
like

warp and

that in which water

is

woven, like warp and woof?'

O

Gargi,' he replied.

*

In

*

In what then

'

In the worlds of the sky,

'

In what then are the worlds of the sky woven,

like
*

air,

is

air

woven,

like

O

warp and woof?'

Girgi,' he replied.

warp and woof?'
In the worlds of the Gandharvas,

O

Gargi,'

he

replied.
^

Knowledge of

the Self, which enables us to dispense with

all

other knowledge.
^

Mr. Gough proposes as an alternative

Brahmawa renounce learning and become

rendering

as

a child

;

Let a
and after
'

:

renouncing learning and a childlike mind, let him become a
quietist
and when he has made an end of quietism and non;

quietism,

he

shall

Deussen takes a
of babes'

is

become

a

Brahmawa, a Brahma«a indeed.'
knowledge

similar view, but I doubt whether 'the

not a Christian rather than an Indian idea, in spite of

on Ved. Sutra, III, 4, 50, which are strangely at
commentary here. Possibly the text may be cor-

6'ahkara's remarks

variance with his

rupt, for tish/Z^aset too is a very peculiar form.

balyena, as

we have abalyam,

in IV, 4,

i.

We might conjecture
In Kaush. Up.

abalyam stands for abalyam, possibly for abalyam.
tion of kena syad yena syat tenedrzVa eva, however,
^

Madhyandina

text, p.

1072.

The
is

well

Ill, 3,

construc-

known.

''

Ill

'

ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA,

I31

I.

In what then are the worlds of the Gandharvas

woven, hke warp and woof?'
In the worlds of Aditya (sun), O Gargi,' he replied.
In what then are the worlds of Aditya (sun)
woven, like warp and woof?'
'

'

'

O

In the worlds of A^andra (moon),

Gargi,'

he

replied.

In what then are the worlds of A'andra (moon)
woven, like warp and woof ?
'

*

he

In the worlds of the Nakshatras

(stars),

O

Gargi,'

replied.
*

In what then are the worlds of the Nakshatras

woven, like warp and woof?'
In the worlds of the Devas (gods),

(stars)
*

O

Gargi,' he

replied.
'

In what then are the worlds of the

woven,

like

Devas

(gods)

warp and woof ?

O

he

'

In the worlds of Indra,

*

In what then are the worlds of Indra woven, like

Gargi,'

replied.

warp and woof?'
In the worlds of Pra^apati,

O

he replied.
In what then are the worlds of Pra^apati woven,
like warp and woof?'
'In the worlds of Brahman, O Gargi,' he replied.
In what then are the worlds of Brahman woven,
like warp and woof?'
Ya^;7avalkya said
O Gargi, Do not ask too
much, lest thy head should fall off. Thou askest
too much about a deity about which we are not to
'

Gargi,'

*

'

'

:

much \ Do not ask too much, O Gargi.'
After that Gargi Va/^aknavi held her peace.

ask too

According to the commentator questions about Brahman are
be answered from the Scriptures only, and not to be settled byargument.
^

to

K

2

:

BRZHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISH AD.

132

Seventh Brahmajva^

Then Uddalaka Aru;^!^ asked. Ya^77avalkya/
he said, we dwelt among the Madras in the houses
*

I.

'

of Pata;K^ala Kapya,

studying the

sacrifice.

His

was possessed of a Gandharva, and we asked
" Who art thou ?"
He answered " I am
Kabandha Atharva;^a." And he said to Pata;2/'ala
Kapya and to (us) students " Dost thou know, Kapya,
that thread by which this world and the other world,
and all beings are strung together?" And Pata;H'ala
Kapya replied " I do not know it. Sir." He said
again to Pata;K'ala K^pya and to (us) students:
" Dost thou know, Kapya, that puller (ruler) within
(antaryimin), who within pulls (rules) this world and
And Pata;7/C'ala
the other world and all beings?"
"
Kapya replied: I do not know it. Sir." He said
again to Pata?'^/^ala Kapya and to (us) students
" He, O Kapya, who knows that thread and him who
pulls (it) within, he knows Brahman, he knows the
worlds, he knows the Devas, he knows the Vedas,
he knows the Bhiitas (creatures), he knows the Self,
he knows everything." Thus did he (the Gandharva)
say to them, and I know it. If thou, O Ya^?7avalkya,
without knowing that string and the puller within,
drivest away those Brahma-cows (the cows offered
as a prize to him who best knows Brahman), thy
head will fall off.'
Ya^?'2avalkya said
O Gautama, I believe I know
puller
within/
that thread and the

wife

him

:

:

:

:

'

:

^

INIadhyandina

*

Afterwards addressed as Gautama

text, p.

1072.
;

see before, p.

i,

note.

ADHYAYA,

Ill

The

Other said

'

:

7 BRAHMAiVA,

Anybody may

say,

33

1

7.

I

know,

I

Tell what thou knowest/
said: 'Vayu (air) is that thread,
Ya^;^avalkya
2.
Gautama. By air, as by a thread, O Gautama,

know.

O

world and the other world, and

this

all

creatures are

Therefore, O Gautama, people say
his limbs have become unstrung;
that
person
of a dead
for by air, as by a thread, O Gautama, they were

strung together.

strung together.'

The other
now (who is)

said

'

:

So

Ya^/Iavalkya said

3.

it is,

O

Tell

Yaf;/avalkya.

the puller within.'
:

'He who

dwells in the earth,

and within the earth \ whom the earth does not
know, whose body the earth is, and who pulls (rules)
the earth within, he

is

thy

Self,

the puller (ruler)

within, the immortal'

He who dwells in the water, and within the
water, whom the water does not know, whose body
'

4.

the water

he

is
5.

and who

is,

'

the

does not know, whose body the fire
pulls (rules) the fire within, he is thy

fire

and who

Self, the puller (ruler) within, the
6.

sky,

sky

water within,

thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.'
He who dwells in the fire, and within the fire,

whom
is,

pulls (rules) the

He who
whom the
'

is,

and who

immortal'

dwells in the sky, and within the
sky does not know, whose body the
pulls (rules) the

sky within, he

Self, the puller (ruler) within, the

is

thy

immortal'

He who dwells in the air (vayu), and within the
7.
air, whom the air does not know, whose body the
'

^

who

I translate

explains

antara by
it

it

within,'

according to the commentator,
I must confess that I should

by abhyantara, but

prefer to translate
particularly as

'

it

by

'

different from,' as

governs an ablative.

Deussen does,

1.

c.

p. 160,

BiJ/HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

134
air

and who

is,

pulls (rules) the air within,

he

is

thy

the puller (ruler) within, the immortal/

Self,
8.

'

He who dwells in the heaven (dyu), and within
whom the heaven does not know, whose

the heaven,

body the heaven
within, he

is

is,

and who

pulls (rules) the

heaven

Self, the puller (ruler) within, the

thy

immortal.*
9.

the

He who dwells in the sun (aditya), and within
sun, whom the sun does not know, whose body
'

the sun
is

is,

and who

pulls (rules) the sun within,

he

thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.'

'He who

and
within the space, whom the space does not know,
whose body the space is, and who pulls (rules) the
space within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within,
10.

dwells

in

the

space

(dija//),

the immortal.'
11.

'He who

moon and stars (/^anmoon and stars, whom

dwells in the

dra-t^rakam), and within the

moon and stars do not know, whose body the
moon and stars are, and who pulls (rules) the moon
the

and

stars within,

he

thy Self, the puller (ruler)

is

within, the immortal.'
12.

'He who

dwells

within the ether,

whom

w^hose body the ether

ether within, he

is

in

the

ether (akaja), and

the ether does not know,
is,

and who

pulls (rules) the

thy Self, the puller (ruler) within,

the immortal.'
13.

'

He who

dwells in the darkness (tamas), and

within the darkness,

whom

the darkness does not

know, whose body the darkness is, and who pulls
(rules) the darkness within, he is thy Self, the puller
(ruler) within, the immortal.'
14.

the

'He who

light,

dwells in the light (te^as), and within

whom

the

light

does not' know, whose

;

ADHYAYA,

Ill

body the

light

he

within,

7 BRAHMAiVA, 2

and who

is,

I35

I.

pulls (rules) the light

thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the

is

immortal.'

So

gods (adhidaivatam)

far with respect to the

now with respect to beings (adhibhutam).
15. Ya^;}avalkya said: 'He who dwells in
beings, and within

all

not know, whose body

beings,

all

beings are, and

all

(rules) all beings within,

whom

he

thy

is

all

beings do

who

pulls

puller

Self, the

(ruler) within, the immortal.'

dwells in the breath (pra/^a), and

'He who

16.

whom

within the breath,

whose body the breath
breath within, he

is

thy

the breath does not know,

is,

and who

Self,

pulls (rules) the

the puller (ruler) within,

the immortal.'

'He who

17.

dwells

within the tongue,

In

whom

whose body the tongue
tongue within, he Is thy

the

tongue

(va/^),

and

the tongue does not know,

Is,

and who

Self,

pulls (rules) the

the puller (ruler) within,

the Immortal.'

eye,

eye

dwells In the eye, and within the

'He who

18.

whom
Is,

the eye does not know,

and who

pulls (rules) the

Self, the puller (ruler) within,

'He

19.
ear,

ear

whom
is,

whose body the

eye within, he

is

thy

the immortal.'

who dwells In the ear, and within the
the ear does not know, whose body the

and who

pulls (rules) the ear within,

he

is

thy

Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal.'

20.

mind,

He who dwells
whom the mind
'

the mind

he

is

21.

skin,

thy

is,

and who

in the

mind, and within the

does not know, whose body
pulls (rules) the

Self, the puller (ruler) within,

'He who

whom

mind

within,

the Immortal.'

dwells In the skin, and within the

the skin does not know, whose body the

B2?/HADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

1-^6
•0

skin

and who

Is,

pulls (rules) the skin within,

'He who

22.

he

is

immortal'

Self, the puller (ruler) within, the

thy

dwells in knowledge \ and within

whom

knowledge does not know, whose
body knowledge is, and who pulls (rules) knowledge
within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the

knowledge,

immortal/

He who
seed, whom

and within
the
the seed does not know, whose
body the seed is, and who pulls (rules) the seed
within, he is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within,
dwells

23.

immortal

the

In

the seed,

unseen, but seeing

;

;

unheard, but

unknown, but
no other seer but he, there
is no other hearer but he, there is no other perceiver but he, there is no other knower but he.
This is thy Self, the ruler within, the immortal.
Everything else is of evil.' After that Uddalaka

hearing

;

knowing.

Arum

unperceived, but perceiving

There

;

is

held his peace.

Eighth BRAHMAiVA^
1.
I

Then Va/('aknavi ^

shall

said

:

'Venerable Brahma;2as,

ask him two questions.

them, none of you,

I

think, will

answer
defeat him in any
If

he

will

argument concerning Brahman.'
Ya^;1avalkya said
2.

She

said

*

:

O

'
:

Ask,

O

Gdrgi.'

Ya^;^avalkya, as the son of a

warrior from the Ka^is or Videhas might string his

loosened bow, take two pointed foe-piercing arrows
in his
*

hand and

rise to

Self, i.e. the individual

Self,

do

battle,

have

risen to

according to the Madhyandina

school; see Deussen, p. 161.
^

Madhyandina

^

Gargt, not the wife of Ya^Ttavalkya.

text, p.

I

1075.

'

ADHYAYA, 8 BRAHMAiVA,

Ill

1

Answer me

two questions.

fight thee with

8.

37

these

questions/

Ya^;7avalkya said

She

3.

say that

said

it is

'
:

O

Ask,

*
:

O

Gargi/

Ya^;7avalkya, that of which they

above the heavens, beneath the

earth;,

embracing heaven and earth ^ past, present, and future,
?
tell me in what is it woven, like warp and woof
That of which they say
4. Ya^;2avalkya said
that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth,
embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and
future, that is woven, like warp and woof, in the
'

:

ether (aka^a).'

She

5.

said

'

:

me

hast solved

I

bow

to thee,

that question.

O

Ya^;Iavalkya,

who

Get thee ready

for

the second/
Ya^^;1avalkya said

^

Ask,

'
:

O

Gargi/

O Yafi/avalkya, that of which they
above the heavens, beneath the earth,
embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and future,
tell me in what is it woven, like warp and woof?'
That of which they say
7. Ya/^^avalkya said
that it is above the heavens, beneath the earth,
embracing heaven and earth, past, present, and future,
that is woven, like warp and woof, in the ether/
In what then is the ether woven, like
Garei said
She

6.

say that

said

'

:

it is

'

:

*

:

warp and woof?'
8.

He

said

*
:

O

Gargi, the

the Akshara (the imperishable).
fine,

nor

fluid (like water)

;

out darkness, without

that
*

call this

It is neither

coarse

neither short nor long, neither red (like

nor

^

Brahmawas

Deussen,

p. 143,

it

is

air,

translates,

fire)

without shadow, withwithout ether, without

'between heaven and

earth,'

would be the antariksha.
This repetition does not occur in the Madhyandina

text.

but

B72/HADARAA'YAKA-UPANISHAD.

138

attachment ^ without taste, without smell, without
eyes, without ears, without speech, without mind,
without light (vigour), without breath, without a

mouth (or door), without measure, having no within
and no without, it devours nothing, and no one
devours
9.

it.'

By

'

the

perishable),

By

the

O

command

of that Akshara (the im-

Gargi, sun and

command

of

that

moon

stand apart ^

Akshara,

O

Gargi,

heaven and earth stand apart. By the command of
that Akshara, O Gargi, what are called moments
(nimesha), hours (muhurta), days and nights, halfmonths,

By

months,

seasons,

command

the

rivers flow to the

years,

all

of that Akshara,

O

stand

apart.

some

Gargi,

East from the white mountains,

others to the West, or to any other quarter.

command of
who give,

the

those

that Akshara,

O

Gargi,

men

By

praise

the gods follow the sacrificer, the

fathers the Darvi-offering.'

'Whosoever, O Gargi, without knowing that
Akshara (the imperishable), offers oblations in this
world, sacrifices, and performs penance for a thousand years, his work will have an end. Whosoever,
O Gargi, without knowing this Akshara, departs this
world, he is miserable (like a slave) ^.
But he, O
Gargi, who departs this world, knowing this Akshara,
he is a Brahma;/a.'
11. 'That Brahman,' O Gargi, 'is unseen, but
10.

seeing; unheard, but hearing; unperceived, but perceiving

;

unknown, but knowing.

There

is

Not adhering to anything, like lac or gum.
Each follows its own course.
^
He stores up the effects from work, like a miser
Roer.
He is helpless,' Gough.

nothing

^

^

'

'

his riches,'

Ill

that sees but

ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAiVA,

I.

I

nothing that hears but

it,

that perceives but

it,

nothing that knows but

it,

39

nothing
In

it.

Akshara then, O Gargi, the ether is woven,
Hke warp and woof.'
Then said Gargi Venerable Brahmans, you
1 2.
may consider it a great thing, if you get off by bowing
that

'

:

No

before him.

one,

I

beHeve,

will defeat

any argument concerning Brahman.'

him

After

in

that

Vay('aknavi held her peace.

Ninth BRAHMAivA^
I

.

Then Vidagdha ^^akalya asked him ^

:
'

How many

He replied with
gods are there, O Ya^/Iavalkya ?'
this very Nivid^: 'As many as are mentioned in the
Nivid of the hymn of praise addressed to the Vii"vedevas, viz. three and three hundred, three and
three thousands'
'

Yes,'

are there
'

^

he

and asked again

said,

really,

O

Ya^/lavalkya

'

:

How many gods

.'*'

Thirty-three,' he said.

Madhyandina

text, p.

1076.

This disputation between Y%«avalkya and Vidagdha ^akalya
occurs in a simpler form in the -Satapatha-brahmawa, XI, p. 873.
2

He is
whom

here represented as the

first

who

defies Ya^?Iavalkya,

and

Ya^wavalkya asks at once, whether the other Brahmans
had made him the uhiiukavakshayawa, the cat's paw, literally one
who has to take a burning piece of wood out of the fire (ardhadagdhakash//^am ulmukam; tasya vahirnirasanam avakshaya«a?;z
The end, however, is different, for on asking the nature
of the one god, the Pra«a, he is told by Ya^?iavalkya that he has

vinaja//).

asked

for

what he ought not to

and thieves
3

will carry

Nivid, old

and

away

ask,

and

that therefore he will die

his bones.

short invocations of the gods

;

devatasahkhya-

va^akani mantrapadani kani-^id vai^vadeve ^astre j-asyante.

and Dvivedaganga.
* This would make 3306 devatas.

6'ankara

'

Bi2/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

140

he

Yes,'

'

O

are there really,
'

Six,'

'

Yes,'

and asked again

said,

'

:

he said.
he said, and asked again

O Yd^;/avalkya

are there really,

How many gods

Yi^?^avalkya?'

:
'

How many gods

?

Three,' he said.

'

he

Yes,'

*

O

'

Two,' he

'

Yes,' he said,

One and
he

'Yes,'

'How many

gods

and asked again

How many

gods

'
:

O Ya^^Iavalkya?'

a half (adhyardha),' he said.

and asked again

said,

O Y^^;7avalkya

are there really,
*

:

Ya^/zavalkya?'

said.

are there really,
'

and asked again

said,

are there really,

:

'How many gods

?

One,' he said.

he said, and asked: 'Who are these three
and three hundred, three and three thousand?'
'Yes,'

2.

Ya/?'^avalkya

replied

'

:

They

are

only the

various powers of them, in reality there are only
thirty-three

^'

gods

Who are those thirty-three?'
asked
Ya^7^avalkya replied 'The eight Vasus, the eleven
He

'

:

:

They make thirty-one,
make the thirty-three V

Rudras, the twelve Adityas.

and Indra and Pra^apati
3.

He

asked

'
:

are the Vasus.'

replied:

Yaf;'2avalkya

Vayu

Who

'

Agni

(fire),

Pmhivi

Antariksha (sky), Aditya (sun),
Dyu (heaven), iTandramas (moon), the Nakshatras
(stars), these are the Vasus, for in them all that
and therefore they are
dwells (this world) ^ rests
(earth),

(air),

;

called Vasus.'

The

glories of these are three

^

'

^

Trayastri;«jau,

^

The

i.

and

e. trayastri»/jata^

Gough,

thirty.'

p.

172.

pura^^au.

etymological explanation of Vasu

is

not quite clear, and

'

Ill

He

4.

ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAA'A,

asked

'Who

:

are the Rudras

Ya^^lavalkya replied

'

:

I4I

8.

?'

These ten

vital breaths

the five ^?7anendriyas, and
the five karmendriyas), and Atman\ as the eleventh.
When they depart from this mortal body, they make
senses,

(pra;^as, the

i.

e.

us cry (rodayanti), and because they
they are called Rudras.'

He

5.

asked

*

:

Who

make

are the Adityas

us cry,

?'

The

twelve months of the
they move along
because
year, and they are Adityas,
Because
(yanti), taking up everything ^ (adadana/^).

Ya^;^avalkya replied

they

move

'

:

along, taking

up everything, therefore

they are called Adityas.'
6. He asked: 'And who

Prai^apati ?
Ya^;7avalkya replied
is

the

is

Indra

:

'

Indra,

is

and who

is

thunder, Pra^apati

sacrifice.'

He

asked 'And what is the thunder?'
Ya^;7avalkya replied 'The thunderbolt.'
:

:

He

asked

:

'And what

Yaf-;1avalkya replied

is
'

:

'Who

the sacrifice?'

The

(sacrificial) animals.'

?'
asked
Ya^;^avalkya replied Agni (fire), Pmhivi (earth),
Vdyu (air), Antariksha (sky), Aditya (sun), Dyu
(heaven), they are the six, for they are alP this,

He

7.

:

are the six

:

the

six.'

8.

the

'

He

asked

:

'Who

are the three gods?'

commentator hardly explains our

text.

Perhaps vasu

The more

is

meant

usual explanation

world or the dwellers therein.
vasayante
occurs in the 6'atap. Brah. p. 1077, ete hidaw sarvaz«
tadyad idam sarvawi vasayante tasmad vasava iti or on p. 874,

for the

;

yad idaw sarvam &c.
here explained as manas, the

where we read
^

2
3

te

Atman is
The life of men, and the
They are the thirty-three

fruits

gods.

common

of their work.

sensory.

Bi2/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

142

Ya^;7avalkya replied

them

these grods

all

He

asked

:

'Who

asked

:

'Who

are the two gods?'

9.

like

'
:

Food and

breath.'

the one god and a half?'

is

Ya^?/avalkya replied

Here they say

for in

exist.'

Yd^?^avalkya replied

He

These three worlds,

*
:

'
:

He that blows.'
How is it that he who
'

:

blows

one only, should be called one and a half (adhyarAnd the answer is 'Because, when the wind

dha)?'

:

was blowing, everything grew (adhyardhnot).'
He asked 'Who is the one god ?'
Ya^;Iavalkya replied: 'Breath (pra;^a), and he is
Brahman (the Sutratman), and they call him That
:

(tyad).'

^'akalya said^:

10.

'Whosoever knows

whose dwelling (body) is the earth, whose
the prinis fire^ whose mind is light,

(or god)

sight (world)

^

I prefer to attribute this to -Sakalya,

and not Ya^?iavalkya
in this,

or in the

each speaker.

;

but

I

am

who

is still

am

right

subsequent distribution of the parts, assigned to

If -Sakalya

is

the questioner, then the sentence, veda

belong to Ya^wavalkya, because he

refers to the

Lastly, the sentence vadaiva has to

to .Sakalya.

the questioner,

not quite satisfied that I

va aha»z tam purushawz sarvasyatmana^^ paraya«a»z
speaker.

that person

The commentator remarks

yam

attha,

must

words of another

be taken as addressed

that,

he being the ques-

But Ya^iTavalkya
one expects -^nkkh^i instead of vada.
may also be supposed to turn round on 6'akalya and ask him a
question in turn, more difficult than the question addressed by
6'akalya to Ya^fiavalkya, and in that case the last sentence must
tioner,

be taken as an answer, though an imperfect one, of ^S'akalya's.
The commentator seems to think that after Y%favalkya told
-S'akalya to ask this question, 6'akalya was frightened and asked
it,

and
"^

that then Ya^?Iavalkya

The

answered

in turn.

]\Iadhyandina text varies considerably.

time, /lashur loka/^ for agnir loka/?.
tion throughout, taking

mano

I

keep

gyoixh, not as

agnir loko yasya, as a sentence,

i.

e,

mano

It

has the

first

same construca compound, but like

to the

^yotir yasya.

'

ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAiVA,

Ill

ciple of

O

every

I

he indeed

(living) self,

3.

1

43

a teacher,

is

Yaf^?1avalkya.'

Ya^/'lavalkya said
ciple of

every

'

of

self,

know

I

:

whom

that person, the prin-

thou speakest

corporeal (material, earthy) person,
tell

me^

"

he

is

he."

This
But

who is his devata^ (deity)?'
replied
The Immortals'

^'akalya,

vSakalya

'

:

'Whosoever knows that person
whose dwelling is love (a body capable of sensual
love), whose sight is the heart, whose mind is light,
11.

6'akalya said

:

the principle of every

O

he indeed

self,

is

a teacher,

Ya^77avalkya.'

Ya^/Iavalkya replied

'

:

know

I

that person, the

principle of every self, of whom thou speakest.

love-made (loving) person,
6'akalya, who is his devata
^'akalya replied

*
:

"

he

is

This
But tell me,

he."

?

The women

*.'

'Whosoever knows that person
whose dwelling are the colours, whose sight is the
the principle of every self,
eye, whose mind is light,
he indeed is a teacher, O Ya^;zavalkya.'
12.

^'akalya said

:

Ya^;'^avalkya replied
principle of every

in the sun, "

who

his devata

is

vSakalya replied
13.

I

know

that person, the

of whom thou speakest.

self,

person

'
:

he

is

he."

But

tell

That

me, ^'ikalya,

?'
'
:

.Sakalya said

The True
'

:

^.'

Whosoever knows

that person

Comm.

^

Ask me.

^

That from which he

is

produced, that

is

his devata.

Comm.

According to the commentator, the essence of food, which
produces blood, from which the germ receives life and becomes an
^

embryo and a

living being.

*

Because they excite the

^

The commentator

the sun

owes

its

fire

of love.

Comm.

explains satya, the true, by the eye, because

origin to the eye.

BiLTHADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

144

whose dwelling is ether, whose sight is the ear, whose
mind is light, the principle of every self, he indeed

is

a teacher,

O Ya^^avalkya.'

Ya^;7avalkya replied
principle of every

person who
tell

me, ^'akalya,

light,

*
:

of

shadowy

"

is

But

that person
is

the heart,
self,

he

he

know

I

whom

But

he."

that person, the

thou speakest.
tell

The

me, 6'akalya,

his devata?'

is

6'akalya replied

Death.'

'

:

15. ^'akalya said

Whosoever knows that person
(bright) colours, whose sight is
'

:

whose dwelling are
the eye, whose mind
he indeed

is light,

:

principle of every self, of

person

'

—the principle of every

O

a teacher,

is

Ya^/^avalkya replied

me,

The

Ya^;^avalkya.'

self,

person,

he."

is

his devati?'

principle of every

self,

he

—the principle of every

O

a teacher,

Ya^;'2avalkya replied

who

"

darkness, whose sight

whose mind

^

thou speakest.

Whosoever knows

'

is

is

is

:

whose dwelling
indeed

whom

that person, the

Space.'

'
:

14. ^'akalya said

know

I

and answers,

^

who

vSakalya replied

is

of

self,

hears

'

:

I

whom

the looking-glass,

in

KS'akalya,

who

^S'akalya replied

"

that person, the

thou speakest. The
he is he." But tell

his devata?'

is
:

Ya^;'^avalkya.'

know

'Vital breath' (asu).

Whosoever knows that person
whose dwelling is water, whose sight is the heart,
whose mind is light, the principle of every self, he
1

6.

^Sakalya said

'

:

indeed

is

a teacher,

^

Read

^

Shadow,

O Ya^;^avalkya.'

^rautra instead of xrotra
/^//aya,

is

by ^riana, knowledge.

;

see Brih. Ar.

Up.

II, 5, 6.

explained here by a^ilana, ignorance, not

'

ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAiVA,

Ill

Ya^;'^avalkya replied
principle of every

in the water, "

person

who

self,

is

'

I

:

of

he

know

whom

is

I

9.

45

that person, the

thou speakest.

But

he."

1

tell

The

me, 6'akalya,

his devata?'

6akalya replied

Varu;?a.'

*
:

'Whosoever knows that person
17. ^Sakalya said
whose dwelling is seed, whose sight is the heart,
whose mind is light, the principle of every self, he
:

indeed

is

a teacher,

O Ya^;'2avalkya.'

Yac^;7avalkya replied
principle of every
filial

"

person,

his devata

is

he

self,

'

that person, the

But

tell

me, .Sakalya,

The
who

?

kS'akalya replied

*
:

Pra^apati.'

Ya^^lavalkya said:

18.

know

of whom thou speakest.

he."

is

I

:

'

^'akalya, did those Brah-

ma;^as (who themselves shrank from the contest)

make

thee the victim^?'

^Sakalya said

'
:

Ya^;Iavalkya, because thou hast

decried the Brahma/?as of the Kuru-Pa;//{'alas, what

^

Brahman dost thou know?'
1

9.

Ya^;^avalkya said

their deities

^

'
:

I

know

the quarters with

and their abodes,'

Ahgaravakshayawa

is

explained as a vessel in which coals are

extinguished, and Anandagiri adds that Ya^«avalkya, in saying that
6'akalya was made an ahgaravakshayawa by his fellow Brahmans,
meant that he was given up by them as a victim, in fact that
he was being burnt or consumed by Ya^?Tavalkya. I should prefer
to take ahgaravakshayawa in the sense of ulmukavakshayawa, an

instrument with which one takes burning coals from the
extinguish them, a pair of tongs.

Read sandaw/^a

fire

to

instead of sandesa.

We should call
to remove, to take away.
an ahgaravakshayawa a cat's paw. The Brahmawas used ^Sakalya
as a cat's paw.
* It seems better to take kim as the interrogative pronoun than
Kshi with ava means

as an interrogative particle.
"

[^3]

L

B/J/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

146

If thou knowest the quarters with
and their abodes,
20. 'Which is thy deity in the Eastern quarter?'
A
Ya^^^avalkya said
Aditya (the sun).'
A
KS'akalya said
In what does that Aditya abide?'

^'akalya said

'

:

their deities

*

:

*

:

Ya^?Iavalkya said
.Sakalya said

'In the eye.'

:

In what does the eye abide?'

'

:

Ya^/^avalkya said:

'In the colours, for with the

eye he sees the colours.'

'And

^'akalya said:

what then do the colours

in

abide?'

Ya^;1avalkya said: 'In the hearty for
colours

by the

^Sakalya said

'

:

21. ^'akalya

So

'
:

'
:

O Ya^i^avalkya.'
thy deity in the

'

:

Yama

abide?'

'In the sacrifice.'

:

In what does the sacrifice abide?'

Ya^;/avalkya said

'In the Dakshi^^a (the gifts to

:

to the priests).'

^'akalya said

'

:

In what does the Dakshiwa abide

Ya^;1avalkya said

man

is

Yama.'
In what does that

Ya.f^'iavalkya said

be given

'Which

?'

Ya^/lavalkya said

vSakalya said

indeed,

it is

said:

Southern quarter
.S'akalya said

we know

heart, for colours abide in the heart ^.'

In ^'raddha

'

:

(faith), for

believes, then he gives Dakshi?^a,

if

?'

a

and Daksh'ma.

truly abides in faith.'

6'akalya said

:

'And

in

what then does

faith abide?'

Ya^?2avalkya said: 'In the heart, for by the heart
faith

knows, and therefore

K^akalya said

:

'So

^

Heart stands here

^

In the

sentence

is

text,
left

^anatij hrz'daye

for

it is

faith abides in the heart.'

indeed,

O Ya^ylavalkya.'

buddhi and manas together.

Comm.

published by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica, a
out, viz. hr/daya ity uva/^a,

hy eva rupa«i

hn'dayena hi rupawi

pratishZ/ntani bhavantity.

'

Ill

ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAiVA,

Yac^;Iavalkya said
:

Yd^;Iavalkya said

;

In the water.'

*
:

'

:

'And

Ya^;7avalkya said

heart

Varu^^a.'

'

:

?'

In the seed.'

in

what does the seed abide?'

And

In the heart.

'
:

who

also they say of a son

seems as

thy deity in the

is

In what does the water abide

*
:

.5'akalya said:

47

what does that Varu;^a abide?'

*In

Ya^/^avalkya said
..9akalya said

1

?

Western quarter
6'akalya said

'Which

said:

22. 6'akalya

24.

is

therefore

like his father, that

he

from his heart, or made from his

if slipt

for the seed abides in the heart.'

.Sakalya said

So

'
:

23. ^'akalya

Northern quarter?'
Ya^;^avalkya said
6'akalya said

'Which

:

:

thy deity in the

is

Soma.'

'
:

In what does that

'

Ya^/^avalkya said
^'akalya said

O Ya^;/avalkya.'

indeed,

it is

said:

'
:

Soma

In the Diksha

abide?'

^'

what does the Diksha abide?'

'In

Ya^;'^avalkya said: 'In the True; and therefore

who has performed

they say to one

Speak what is
Diksha abides.'
^'akalya said

true, for

:

'And

Ya^;^avalkya said

do we know what
the

True

in
'

:

is

in

the

the Diksha,

True indeed the

what does the True abide?'

In the heart, for with the heart
true,

and

in the heart

indeed

abides.'

^'akalya said
24. 6'akalya

:

'So
said

it is
'
:

indeed,

Which

O Ya^;'/avalkya.'

is

thy deity in the

zenith?'
^

Diksha

is

sacrificed with

the initiatory rite for the

Soma which

Soma

sacrifice.

Having

has to be bought, the sacrificer becomes

endowed with wisdom, and wanders
quarter of Soma.

L

2

to the North,

which

is

the

B2?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

148

Ya^;'2avalkya said: 'Agni.'
^'akalya said

what does that Agni

'In

:

Ya^;^avalkya said

^akalya said

'In speech.'

:

'And

:

Yaf;^avalkya said

abide.'

in

?'

what does speech abide

'In the heart/

:

'And

what does the heart abide?'
25. Ya^;?avalkya said: 'O AhalHka \ when you
think the heart could be anywhere else away from
us, if it were away from us, the dogs might eat it,
.Sakalya said

:

or the birds tear

in

it.'

'And

26. 6'akalya said:

what dost thou (thy

in

body) and the Self (thy heart) abide?'
Ya^/^avalkya said: 'In the Pra;2a (breath).'
vS'akalya said 'In what does the Pra;^a abide

?'

:

Yaf/2avalkya
breathing)

said

:

'In

Apana

the

(down-

^'

^'akalya said

:

'In what does the

Apana

abide?'

Yaf?'2avalkya said: In theVyana (back-breathing)^.'
'

K^akalya said

'

:

Vyana abide ?'
Udana (the out-breath-

In what does the

Ya^/'Zavalkya said:

'

In the

ing)^'

K^akalya said

:

'In

what does the Udana abide

Ya^;/avalkya said: 'In the

^

A

liyate,
^

term of reproach,
it

it

may be

Samana^

?'

That Self

a ghost or preta, because ahani

disappears by day.

Because the prawa would run away,

if it

were not held back by

the apana.
^ Because the apana would run down, and the pra«a up, if they
were not held back by the vyana.
* Because all three, the
prawa, apana, and vyana, would run

away
^

in all directions, if they

The Samana can

were not fastened

to the udana.

hardly be meant here for one of the

five

prawas, generally mentioned before the udana, but, as explained by

Dvivedagahga, stands for the Sutratman.
in the Antaryamin,

and

this

in the

This Sutratman abides

Brahman

(Kij/astha),

which

is

(atman)

Ill

ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAiVA,

to

be described by No,

is

noM

comprehensible, for he cannot be

hended he
is

(is

He

is

in-

not) compre-

imperishable, for he cannot perish; he

is

;

I49

28.

unattached, for he does not attach himself; unfet-

he does not

tered,
*

eight worlds

(fire,

He who

fail.'

(the earth, &c.), the

gods (the immortal

persons (the

corporeal, &c.)

and uniting these persons ^,
Samana), that person, taught in

after dividing

went beyond
If

he does not

&c.), the eight

eight

food, &c.), the

the

suffer,

These are the eight abodes

(the

Upanishads, I now ask thee (to teach me).
thou shalt not explain him to me, thy head

will

fall.'

KS'akalya did

know

away

thieves took

something

not

him, and his head

his bones, mistaking

fell,

nay,

them

for

else.

Reverend BrahThen Ya^;lavalkya said
ma??as, whosoever among you desires to do so, may
now question me. Or question me, all of you. Or
whosoever among you desires it, I shall question
*

2 7.

:

him, or

I

shall question all of you.

But those Brahma;/as durst not (say anything).
28. Then Ya^'-^lavalkya questioned them with
these .Slokas
1.

:

'As a mighty tree

man,

his

hairs

in the forest, so in truth is

are the leaves, his

outer skin

is

the bark.
2.

'

From

the skin (of the tree)
therefore described next.

IV,
1
2

flows forth blood, sap from

his skin
;

and thus from the wounded

Could Samana be here the same as

in

3, 7 ?

See before, II, 3, 6 also IV, 2, 4 IV, 4, 22 IV, 5, 15.
Dividing them according to the different abodes, worlds, and

persons, and uniting

;

them

;

at last in the heart.

;

BiJZHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

150

man^ comes

forth

from a tree that

blood, as

is

struck.
'

3.

The lumps

of his flesh are (in the tree) the

layers of wood, the fibre

dons

2.

'

strong like the ten-

The bones are the (hard) wood within, the
made like the marrow of the tree.
But, while the tree, when felled, grows up

marrow
4.

is

is

again more young from the root, from what root,

me, does a mortal grow up, after he has been

tell

by death ?

felled
5.

from

Do

'

clearly
6.

'

*

is produced
from a grain,

not say, "from seed," for seed

the living^; but a tree, springing
rises

again after death

If a tree

is

^.

pulled up with the root,

it

will

not

grow again from what root then, tell me, does a
mortal grow up, after he has been felled by death ?
Once born, he is not born (again) for who
7.
should create him again^?'
;

*

^

;

In the Madhyandina-jakha,

p.

io8o, tasmat tadatunnat, instead

of tasmat tadatrz>/«at.

^ahkara seems to have read snavavat, instead of snava tat
we read in both 6'akhas.
* Here the Madhyandinas
(p. 1080) add, ^ata eva na^ayate, ko
nv en2im ^anayet puna^^, which the Kawvas place later.
* Instead of aw^asa, the Madhyandinas have anyata/^.
^ The Madhyandinas have dhanaruha u vai, which is better than
2

sthiram, as

own

iva vai, the iva being, according to 6'ahkara's

confession, use-

The thread of the argument does not seem to have been
less.
What the poet wants to
clearly perceived by the commentators.
say is, that a man, struck down by death, does not come to life
again from seed, because human seed comes from the living only,
while trees, springing from grain, are seen to
tree (which yielded the grain or the seed)

bhava, Uke pretya-bhava, means

life

*

This

line too is

to him,

to

dead.

after death,

bhava, as an adjective, means coming to

According

come

is

life after

life

after the

Pretya-sam-

and pretyasamdeath.

taken in a different sense by the commentator.

it

would mean

:

'

If

you

say,

He

has been born

Ill

-''

ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAA^A,

I5I

28.

'Brahman, who is knowledge and bHss, he is the
principle, both to him who gives gifts ^ and also to
him who stands firm, and knows.'
is an end of
and the question is.

No

questioning), I say,

(and there

all

again,

How ?'

This

is

much too

;

he

is

artificial.

born

The

on the
what
root
question,
From
the
naturally
to
whole, leading up more
?'
death
been
felled
by
has
he
up,
after
mortal
grow
does
a
then
When the Brahmans cannot answer, Ya^navalkya answers, or the
iSruti declares, that the root from whence a mortal springs again,
after death, is Brahman.
order of the verses in the Madhyandina-^akha

is

better

'

^

6'ahkara explains ratir datu/i as rater datu/2, a reading adopted

by the Madhyandinas.

Brahman
life,

He

then arrives

at

who

both for those

practise

works and

for those

relinquished works, stand firm in knowledge.
translates

:

the statement

the principle or the last source, also the root of a

is

'

C'est

richesse, le but

Brahma

(qui

supreme de

celui qui reside (en

lui),

that

new

who, having

Regnaud (H,

est) I'intelligence,

le

p. 138)
bonheur, la

celui qui offre (des sacrifices), et

de celui qui connait/

de

B2?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

152

FOURTH ADHYAYA.
First BRAHMAivA.

When

1.

6'anaka Vaideha was sitting

(to

approached, and

audience), Ya^;7avalkya

Ya^;^avalkya, for
Vaideha said
you come, wishing for cattle, or
'

:

give

6^anaka

what object did
for subtle ques-

tions^?'

For both, Your Majesty
2. 'Let us hear what anybody may have told you.'
6^itvan ^'ailini told me
G^anaka Vaideha replied

Ya^/lavalkya replied

'

:

;

'

:

that speech (yak)

is

of a good) father,
did

^'ailini

^

tell

Brahman.'

'As one who had (the benefit
mother, and teacher might tell, so

Ya^;1avalkya said

:

you, that speech

is

Brahman

;

for

what is the use of a dumb person ? But did he tell
you the body (ayatana) and the resting-place (pratish/M) of that Brahman?'
G'anaka Vaideha said
He did not tell me.'
Ya^;2avalkya said
Your Majesty, this (Brahman)
stands on one leg only^.'
6^anaka Vaideha said 'Then tell me, Ya^;^avalkya.'
'

:

'

:

:

^

A«v-anta, formed like Sutranta, Siddhanta, and probably Ve-

means subtle questions.
Roer and Foley give here

danta,
^
1

^'ailina;

Weber

also (pp.

1080 and

081) has twice 6'ailina (6'ilinasyapatyam).
' This seems to mean that Gitvan's explanation of Brahman

is

lame or imperfect, because there are four padas of that Brahman,
and he taught one only. The other three are its body, its place,
and its form of worship (pra^?Ietiyam upanishad brahma^^ai- /^aturthay^ pada/^).

See also Maitr. Up. VII,

p.

221.

'

IV

ADHYAYA,

BRAHMAA^A,

I

I

3.

53

Ya^;/avalkya said: The tongue is its body, ether
its place, and one should worship it as knowledge.'
'

6^anaka Vaideha said

knowledge

'

:

What

is

the nature of that

?

Yac^/^avalkya replied: 'Your Majesty, speech itself
(is

For through speech, Your Majesty,
known (to be a friend), and likewise the

knowledge).

a friend

is

/?2g-veda, Ya^ur-veda, Sama-veda, the Atharvahgirasas, the

Pura;2a-vidya (know-

Itihasa (tradition),

ledge of the past), the Upanishads, ^Slokas (verses),

Anuvyakhyanas and Vyakhyanas
what is sacrificed, what is
(commentaries \ &c.)
poured out, what is (to be) eaten and drunk, this
By
world and the other world, and all creatures.
speech alone. Your Majesty, Brahman is known, speech
indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Speech
does not desert him who worships that (Brahman)
Sutras

(rules),

;

with such knowledge,

all

creatures approach him,

and having become a god, he goes to the gods.'
shall give you (for
I
6'anaka Vaideha said
this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an
'

:

elephant.'

Ya^;'2avalkya said:

'My

father

was of opinion that

one should not accept a reward without having fully
instructed a pupil.'
3.

Ya^;1avalkya said

may have

:

'

Let us hear what anybody

told you.'

6^anaka Vaideha replied
told

me

that

life

'

:

(pra;/a)^ is

Ya^/'Zavalkya said: 'As one

Udahka 6'aulbayana

Brahman.'

who had

(the benefit of

a good) father, mother, and teacher might

^

See before,

2

See Taitt. Up.

II, 4,

10; and afterwards, IV,

Ill, 3.

tell,

5, 11.

so did

Bi?7H ADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

154

Udahka

^'aulbayana

you that

tell

life

is

Brahman

;

But

what is the use of a person without
did he tell you the body and the resting-place of
that Brahman?'
He did not tell me.'
6^anaka Vaideha said
Ya^;^avalkya said: Your Majesty, this (Brahman)
life ?

for

*

:

'

stands on one leg only.'

6^anaka Vaideha said

Then

'

:

tell

me, Yagns.-

valkya.'

Breath is Its body, ether
Ya^/^avalkya said
place, and one should worship it as what is dear.'
'

:

6^anaka Vaideha said: 'What

is

its

the nature of that

'

which is dear ?
Ya^T^avalkya replied: 'Your Majesty, life itself
(is that which is dear);' because for the sake of life,
Your Majesty, a man sacrifices even for him who is
unworthy of sacrifice, he accepts presents from him
who is not worthy to bestow presents, nay, he goes
to a country,

even when there

for the sake of

Brahman.

Life,

life.

O

is

fear of being hurt ^

King,

Life does not desert

is

the Highest

him who worships

that (Brahman) with such knowledge,

approach him, and having become

all

creatures

a god, he goes to

the gods.'

you (for this)
a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.'
My father was of opinion that
Ya^/zavalkya said
one should not accept a reward without having fully
6^anaka Vaideha said

*

:

shall give

I

'

:

instructed a pupil.'
4.

Ya^;/avalkya said

may have
*

Or

it

'
:

Let us hear what anybody

told you.'

may mean, he

is

afraid of

being hurt, to whatever country

he goes, for the sake of a livelihood.

'

'

ADHyAyA,

IV

kanaka Vaideha

BRAHMAiVA,

I

replied

that sight (/^akshus)

I

5.

'Barku Varsh;/a told

:

55

me

Brahman.'

is

As one who had (the benefit
Ya^7/avalkya said
of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so
'

:

did Barku Varsh;/a

what is
But did he

for

of that

is Brahman
who cannot see ?

you that sight

tell

the use of a person

;

you the body and the resting-place

tell

Brahman

?

6^anaka Vaideha said

Ya^;7avalkya said:

'
:

He

did not

Your Majesty,

'

stands on one leg only.'
6^anaka Vaideha said

:

*

Then

me.'

tell

this

tell

(Brahman)

me, Ya^;1a-

valkya.'

Ya^;'^avalkya said

'

:

The eye

is its

body, ether

its

place, and one should worship it as what is true.'
What is the nature of that
(S^anaka Vaideha said
?
true
which is
'

:

Ya^;7avalkya replied
(is

that which

sees with

is

true)

his eye, "

saw," then

it is

'
:

for

;

Your Majesty,
if

Didst thou see ?"
Sight,

true.

sight itself

they say to a

O

man who

and he

King,

is

says, "

I

the Highest

Brahman. Sight does not desert him who worships
that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures
approach him, and having become a god, he goes to
the gods.'
I shall give you (for this)
6^anaka Vaideha said
as big as an elephant.'
bull
a thousand cows with a
'

:

Yaf7/avalkya said 'My father was of opinion that
one should not accept a reward without having fully
:

instructed a pupil.'
5.

Ya^/Iavalkya said

may have

:

'Let us hear what anybody

told you.'

Gardabhivibhita Bha6^anaka Vaideha replied
radva^a told me that hearing (^rotra) is Brahman.'
'

:

'

Bi27HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

156

As one who had (the benefit
of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so
Ya^/'Zavalkya said

'

:

did Gardabhivibhlta Bharadva^a

tell you that hearBrahman; for what is the use of a person who
cannot hear ? But did he tell you the body and the
resting-place of that Brahman?'
6^anaka Vaideha said
He did not tell me.'
Ya^?/avalkya said
Your Majesty, this (Brahman)
stands on one leg only.'
6^anaka Vaideha said
Then tell me, Ya^?«a-

ing

is

'

:

'

:

*

:

valkya.'

Ya^^avalkya said
The ear is its body, ether its
place, and we should worship it as what is endless.'
6^anaka Vaideha said 'What is the nature of that
which is endless ?
*

:

:

Ya^;^avalkya

replied

'
:

Your

space

Majesty,

that which is endless), and therefore
whatever space (quarter) he goes, he never comes
to the end of it. For space is endless. Space indeed,

{disa./i) itself (is

to

O

King,

is

hearing^, and hearing indeed,

O

King,

is

the Highest Brahman.

Hearing does not desert
knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become
a god, he goes to the gods.'
(kanaka Vaideha said
I shall give you (for this)
a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant'
Ya^;^avalkya said
My father was of opinion that
one should not accept a reward without having fully

him who worships

that (Brahman) with such

'

:

'

:

instructed a pupil.'
6.

Ya^;/avalkya said

may have
^

'
:

Let us hear what anybody

told you.'

Dvivedagahga

states,

digbhago

na/i j-rotram ity uXyate, atas tayor

hi parthivadhish/Zzanava/^/^/nn-

ekatvam.

'

ADHYAYA,

IV

BRAHMAiVA,

I

6^anaka Vaideha replied

me

that

mind

^

(manas)

Ya^vlavalkya said

'
:

Satyakama 6^abala

told

Brahman.'

is

As one who had

'

:

157

7.

(the benefit

of a good) father, mother, and teacher might

tell,

so

Satyakama 6^abala tell you that mind is Brahman for what is the use of a person without mind ?
But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of
that Brahman ?'
He did not tell me.'
6^anaka Vaideha said
Ya^;mvalkya said 'Your Majesty, this (Brahman)

did

;

'

:

:

stands on one leg only.'

6^anaka Vaideha said: 'Then

Ya^;7avalkya said
its place,

Mind

'

:

tell

and we should worship
:

6^anaka Vaideha said

'

me, Ya^;7avalkya.'

itself is its
it

as

body, ether

bliss.'

What is the nature

of bliss

?

Your Majesty, mind itself;
man
desire a woman, and
mind
does
a
for with the
a like son is born of her, and he is bliss. Mind
Mind
indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman.
does not desert him who worships that (Brahman)
with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and
having become a god, he goes to the gods.'
I shall give you (for this)
6^anaka Vaideha said
Yac'v'^avalkya replied:

'

'

:

a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.'
Yaf//avalkya said: 'My father was of opinion that

one should not accept a reward without having

fully

instructed a pupil.'
7.

Ya^//avalkya said

may have

'
:

Let us hear what anybody

told you.'

6'anaka Vaideha replied: 'Vidagdha 6'akalya told
me that the heart (hrz'daya) is Brahman.'

Ya^/Iavalkya said

'

:

As one who had

See also Taitt. Up.

Ill, 4.

(the benefit

'

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

158

of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so
did Vidagdha ^'akalya tell you that the heart is

Brahman
heart

for what is the use of a person without a
But did he tell you the body and the resting-

?

;

place of that

Brahman

?'

C'anaka Vaideha said

Ya^;1avalkya said

'
:

He

did not

Your Majesty,

*

:

me.'

tell

this

(Brahman)

stands on one leg only.'

6^anaka Vaideha said

Ya^;7avalkya said
ether

place,

its

Then tell me, Ya^^avalkya.'
The heart itself is its body,
'

:

'

:

and we should worship

it

as certainty

(sthiti).'

(kanaka Vaideha said
certainty

'
:

Ya^;^avalkya replied

'
:

all things,

the heart

for in the heart,

indeed,

the nature of

is

Your Majesty,

for the heart indeed,

itself;

What

?

O

O

King,

Is

O

King,

is

the heart

the

the resting-place of

King,

all

things rest.

body of

all

things,

The

heart

the Highest Brahman.

is

The

heart does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach
him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.'
I shall give you (for this)
C'anaka Vaideha said
'

:

a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.'

Yaf;/avalkya said

*
:

My

father

was of opinion

that one should not accept a reward without having
fully instructed a pupil.'

Second BRAHMAiVA.
I.

said:

C'anaka Vaideha, descending from his throne,
'

I

bow

to you,

Ya^;1avalkya said
wishes to

O Ya^/'^avalkya,
'

:

make a long

teach me.*

Your Majesty,

as a

man who

journey, would furnish him-

self with a chariot or a ship, thus

is

your mind well

'

IV

2 BRAHMAiVA,

ADHYAYA,

You

furnished by these Upanishads^

I

3.

59

are honour-

and weakhy, you have learnt the Vedas and
been told the Upanishads. Whither then will you
go when departing hence ?
(kanaka Vaideha said: 'Sir, I do not know whither

able,

I

shall

go/

Yaf;'2avalkya said

whither you

Then

'

:

6^anaka Vaideha said
Ya^;'^avalkya said

2.

right eye ^

they

call

what

is

3.

*

I

shall tell

he

is

called

'

:

Tell

it,

this,

Sir.'

That person who
Indha, and him who
'

:

=^

mysterious, and dislike what

is

is

in the

Indha
the gods love

indeed Indra mysteriously, for

Now

you

will go.'

is

evident.

that which in the shape of a person

is

in

Their meetingthe right eye, is his wife, Vira^^
place 5 is the ether within the heart, and their food
Again, their
the red lump within the heart.
covering ^ is that which is like net-work within the

and the road on which they move (from sleep
to waking) is the artery that rises upwards from the
heart. Like a hair divided into a thousand parts, so
are the veins of it, which are called Hita^ placed
heart,

*

This

refers to the preceding doctrines

nicated to G^anaka by

of

Brahman

other teachers,

and

which had been commuupasanas

particularly to the

as knowledge, dear, true, endless, bliss,

2

See also Maitr. Up. VII,

3

The Madhyandinas

and

certainty.

p. 216.

read paroksheweva, but the commentator

Ait. Up. I, 3, 14.
by the commentator Vai^vanara, and his wife
Vira^. This couple, in a waking state, is Vi^va in sleep, Tai^asa.
^ Sa»/stava, lit. the place where they sing praises together, that

explains iva by eva.
*

Indra

is

See also

called

;

is,

where they meet.
^

Pravara;za

'

Hita, a

may

name

A'/zand.

Up. VI,

Up. VI,

16.

also mean hiding-place, retreat.
frequently given to these na^fis; see IV,

5, 3,

comm.; Kaush.Up. IV,

20.

See also

3,

20;

KaMa

;

;

;

l6o

;

Bi^/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

Through these indeed

firmly within the heart.

it

that

on flowing, and he (the Tai^asa) receives

(food) flows

as

;

were purer food^ than the corporeal Self (the

Vaii'vanara).

*His (the Tai^asa's) Eastern quarter are the

4.

which go to the East
His Southern quarter are the pra;2as which go
to the South
His Western quarter are the pra/^as which go to

pra;/as (breath)
*

*

West

the

;

'His Northern quarter are the pra;^as which go to
the North

His Upper (Zenith) quarter are the
go upward
His Lower (Nadir) quarter are the
downward
go
'

pra;^as

which

'

pra;2as

which

;

'All the quarters are

Atman

all

the pra;/as.

And

he (the

by No^,
he cannot be com-

in that state) can only be described

no
He is incomprehensible, for
prehended he is undecaying, for he cannot decay
he is not attached, for he does not attach himself;
he is unbound, he does not suffer, he does not perish.
O 6"anaka, you have indeed reached fearlessness,'
!

;

thus said Ya^;1avalkya.

Then

6^anaka said

'
:

May

you also who teachest us

to

you.

Here

are

come

that fearlessness
fearlessness.

the Videhas, and here

I

am

bow
I

to

(thy

slave).'

^

all

Dvivedagahga explains that food, when it is eaten, is first of
changed into the coarse food, which goes away downward, and

into the subtler food.

This subtler food

is

middle juice that feeds the body, and the
the red lump.
^

See Brih. Up.

II, 3,

6; IV,

9,

26.

again divided into the
finest,

which

is

called

IV

ADHYAYA,

3

BRAHMAiVA,

161

I.

Third BRAHMAiVA.
I.

Ya^/lavalkya came to 6'anaka Vaideha, and he

mean

did not

The

^

to

speak with hini\ But when formerly

introduction to this

Brahma^a has a very pecuhar

interest,

as showing the close coherence of the different portions which

together form the historical groundwork of the Upanishads. G^anaka

Vaideha and Ya§-?lavalkya are leading characters

in the Brz'hada-

rawyaka-upanishad, and whenever they meet they seem to converse

though each retains

quite freely,

own character, and Yzgna.much as (kanaka honours

his

valkya honours Ganaka as king quite as

Ya^ilavalkya as a Brahma«a.

Now

in

our chapter we read that

Ya^fiavalkya did not wish to enter on a discussion, but that G^anaka

was

the

first

to address

him (purvam papray^Ma).

This was

dently considered not quite correct, and an explanation
that 6^anaka took this liberty because

evi-

given,

is

on a former occasion Yagna,-

valkya had granted him permission to address questions to him,
whenever he liked. It might be objected that such an explanation

an after-thought, and we find indeed that

looks very

much

like

India

some

of the later commentators tried to avoid the

culty

itself

by dividing the words sa mene na vadishya

vadishya
to

iti,

so that

we should have to

Ganaka intending

Comm.

to

translate,

speak with him.'

'

iti,

into

in

diffi-

sam enena

Ya^wavalkya came

(See Dvivedaganga's

no doubt, a very ingenious conjecture,
which might well rouse the envy of European scholars. But it is
no more. The accents decide nothing, because they are changed
by different writers, according to their different views of what the
Pada text ought to be. What made me prefer the reading which
is

p.

1

141.)

This

is,

supported by .Sahkara and Dvivedagahga, though the

alludes to the other padaM/^eda,

is

that the

vadishye, does not occur again, while sa

mene

tmesis,
is

a

latter

sam enena

common

phrase.

But the most interesting point, as I remarked before, is that this
former disputation between Ganaka and Ya^ilavalkya and the permission granted to the King to ask any question he liked, is not a
mere invention to account for the apparent rudeness by which
Ya^Tiavalkya

is

forced to enter on a discussion against his

but actually occurs in a former chapter.

we read

:

[15]

In 6'atap. Br. XI,

6,

will,

2,10,

tasmai ha Ya^^ilavalkyo varaw dadau ; sa hova-^a, kama-

M

;

Bi?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

l62

6^anaka Vaideha and Ya^;lavalkya had a disputation
on the Agnihotra, Ya^;/avalkya had granted him a
boon, and he chose
free

a boon) that he might be

(for

ask him any question he Hked.

to

valkya granted

it,

ask him a question.
Yac^^avalkya/ he
2.

said,

'

man

Ya^;7a-

and thus the King was the
'

what

is

first

to

the light of

^?'

Yaf^'^avalkya repHed

'

:

The

O

King for,
man sits, moves

sun,

having the sun alone for his light,
about, does his work, and returns.'
So indeed
6^anaka Vaideha said
'

:

;

it is,

O

Ya^^a-

valkya.'

6^anaka Vaideha said

3.

O

Yac*'?'^avalkya,

what

light
sits,

for,

;

moves

When

the sun has

set,

then the light of man?'

is

'The moon indeed

Ya^;'^avalkya replied:

having the

'

:

moon

alone for his

is

light,

his

man

about, does his work, and returns.'

6^anaka Vaideha said

So indeed

'

:

it is,

O

Yag-jia.-

valkya.'

C'anaka Vaideha said

4.

O

Ya^?/avalkya, and the

man

light of

'

:

When

moon

has

the sun has set,
set,

what

is

the

?'

Ya^;}avalkya replied

:

'

Fire indeed

is

his light

me tvayi Ya^wavalkyasad iti, tato brahma kanaka asa.
This would show that Ganaka was considered almost like a Brahma«a, or at all events enjoyed certain privileges which were sup-

prai-«a eva

posed

to

belong to the

toire

de

la

first

caste only.

See, for a different view,

203 Regnaud (Matdriaux pour servir a I'hisphilosophic de I'lnde), Errata; and Sacred Books of

Deussen, Vedanta,
the East, vol.

i,

p.

;

p. Ixxiii.

Read kiw^yotir as a Bahuvrihi. Purusha is difficult to transIt means man, but also the true essence of man, the soul,
late.
as we should say, or something more abstract still, the person, as
^

I generally translate

it,

though a person beyond the Ego.

;

IV

having

for,

ADHYAYA,

fire

3 BRAIIMAiVA, 8.

alone for his

man

light,

1

sits,

63

moves

about, does his work, and returns.'
5.

'When
moon has

the sun has

When

the sun has

set,

and the

fire

(kanaka Vaideha said:

O

Yac^;2avalkya,

is

gone

set,

set, and the fire
and the
what is then the light of man?'
Sound indeed is his light
Ya^;^avalkya replied
for, having sound alone for his light, man sits, moves
Therefore, O
about, does his work, and returns.
King, when one cannot see even one's own hand,
yet when a sound is raised, one goes towards it.'
6'anaka Vaideha said: 'So indeed it is, O Yd^;la-

out,

'

:

valkya.'
6.

(kanaka Vaideha said

*
:

O

Ya^;^avalkya, and the

is

gone

out,

and the sound hushed, what

light of

man

?'

Ya^^lavalkya said

*
:

moon has

The

set,

Self indeed

is

having the Self alone as his light,
about, does his work, and returns.'

for,

then the

is

his light;

man

sits,

moves
7.

C'anaka Vaideha said

of

by the

light, consisting

Who

is

'He who

Ya^;^avalkya replied:
heart, surrounded

'

:

that Self?'
is

within the

Pra/^as^ (senses), the person

of knowledge.

He, remaining the

same, wanders along the two worlds 2, as if^ thinking,
During sleep (in dream) he tranas if moving.
scends this world and
falls
8.

^

all

the forms of death

(all

that

under the sway of death, all that is perishable).
On being born that person, assuming his body,
'

See Brih. Up. IV,

Samipyalaksha?;a saptami, Dvivedagahga.

4, 22.
2

In this world, while awake or dreaming

;

in the other world,

while in deep sleep.
2

The world

thinks that he thinks, but in reality he does not, he

only witnesses the acts of buddhi, or thought.

M

2

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

164

becomes united with
he leaves

dies,

And

'

9.

all evils

all evils

;

when he

departs and

behind.

there are two states for that person, the

one here in this world, the other in the other world,
and as a third ^ an intermediate state, the state of
When in that intermediate state, he sees
sleep.
both those states together, the one here in this
world, and the other in the other world. Now whatever his admission to the other world may be,
having gained that admission, he sees both the evils
and the blessings ^.
'And when he falls asleep, then after having
taken away with him the material from the whole
world, destroying^ and building it up again, he
sleeps (dreams)

person
10.

is

by

his

There are no

'

own

In that state the

light.

self-illuminated.
(real) chariots in that state,

no

horses, no roads, but he himself sends forth (creates)

and roads. There are no blessings
no happiness, no joys, but he himself sends
forth (creates) blessings, happiness, and joys. There
chariots, horses,

there,

^

There are

really

two sthanas or

states only

;

the place where

they meet, like the place where two villages meet, belongs to both,

but

it

may

be distinguished as a

third.

Dvivedagahga

(p.

1141)

uses a curious argument in support of the existence of another

In early childhood, he says, our dreams consist of the

world.

impressions of a former world, later on they are

filled

with the

impressions of our senses, and in old age they contain visions of a

world to come.
^

By

things
*

;

works, by knowledge, and
see Brih.

Up. IV,

Dividing and separating

received from this world.

portion
'

of the

Destroying

less,

and

'

'

by remembrance of former

4, 2,

the

material,

The commentator

impressions

'

to the

e.

the impressions

explains matra as a

which are taken away into

he refers to the body, which

building up

i.

in sleep

sleep.

becomes sense-

imaginations of dreams.

;:

IV

ADHYAYA,

3 BRAHMAiVA,

4.

1

I

65

are no tanks there, no lakes, no rivers, but he himself sends

forth

He

is

indeed

11.

'

On

and

tanks, lakes,

(creates)

rivers.

the maker.

this there are these verses

by sleep

'After having subdued

:

that belongs

all

the body, he, not asleep himself, looks

to

upon the sleeping
he goes again to

Having assumed

(senses).

his place, the

down
light,

golden person \ the

lonely bird, (i)

'Guarding with the breath (prawa,

12.

life)

the

lower nest, the immortal moves away from the nest
that immortal one goes wherever he likes, the golden

person, the lonely bird. (2)

Going up and down in his dream, the god
makes manifold shapes for himself, either rejoicing
together with women, or laughing (with his friends),
1

3.

'

or seeing terrible sights. (3)
People may see his playground
14.
'

no one ever

wake a man suddenly,
if

for

it is

but himself

^,

Therefore they say,

sees.

"

Let no one

not easy to remedy,

he does not get back (rightly to his body)."
'Here some people (object and) say: "No,

(sleep) is the

same

this

what

as the place of waking, for

he sees while awake, that only he sees when asleep^."
*

The Madhyandinas

read paurusha, as an adjective to ekaharasa,
synonym of purusha,

but Dvivedagahga explains paurusha as a

which

'

is

the reading of the Ka;?vas.

2

Cf Sujrutalll,

3

I

7,1.

have translated

Therefore the Self

this
is

say the state of waking
is

is

no other intermediate

other world.

then

is

.

.

this Self

.

And

if

according to the commentator,

self-illuminated during sleep.

who says

But others

there
indeed the same for him as sleep
place, different from this and from the

sleep

;

is

the

same

as the state of waking,

not separate, not cause and

effect,

them, and the Self therefore not self-illuminated.

but mixed with

What he means

1

66

B227HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

No, here

we

(in sleep)

the person

is

self-illuminated (as

explained before).'

6^anakaVaideha said 'I give you, Sir, a thousand.
Speak on for the sake of (my) emancipation/
That (person) having en15. Ya^?^avalkya said
joyed himself in that state of bliss (samprasada, deep
sleep), having moved about and seen both good and
evil, hastens back again as he came, to the place
from which he started (the place of sleep), to dream \
And whatever he may have seen there, he is not
:

'

:

followed

(affected)

by

for

it,

that

person

is

not

attached to anything.'

C'anaka Vaideha said
is

:

'

So

it

is

indeed, Ya^;7a-

that others, in order to disprove the self-illumination, say that this

sleep

we

the

is

same

as the state of waking, giving as their reason that

dreams exactly what we see in waking. But
wrong, because the senses have stopped, and only when the

see in sleep or in

this is

senses have stopped does one see dreams.

Therefore there

is

no

necessity for admitting another light in sleep, but only the light

inherent in the
Dr.

This has been proved by

Self.

Roer takes

the

same view

all

went before.'
Deussen (Ve-

that

in his translation, but

danta, p. 205) takes an independent view, and translates
fore

it

is

said

:

It (sleep)

what he sees waking, the
serves there

for

his

own

:

'

There-

him a place of waking only, for
same he sees in sleep. Thus this spirit
is

to

light.'

Though

the interpretations of

and Dvivedagahga sound artificial, still Dr. Deussen's
version does not remove all difficulties.
If the purusha saw in
sleep no more than what he had seen before in waking, then the
whole argument in favour of the independent action, or the independent light of the purusha, would go anyhow it would be no
argument on Y%7lavalkya's side. See also note to paragraph 9,
vS'ahkara

;

before.

The Madhyandinas speak

only of his return from svapnanta
from sleep to waking, instead of his going from
samprasada (deep sleep) to svapna (dream), from svapna to buddhanta, and from buddhanta again to svapnanta, as the Kawvas
have it.
In § 18 the Ka??vas also mention svapnanta and buddhanta
*

to buddhanta,

only, but the next paragraph refers to sushupti.

IV

valkya.

I

ADHYAYA,

give you,

BRAHMAiVA, 20.

3

Speak on

a thousand.

Sir,

1

67
for

the sake of emancipation.'

Ya^^^avalkya said

16.

That

'
:

(person) having en-

joyed himself in that sleep (dream), having moved
about and seen both good and evil, hastens back
again as he came, to the place from which he started,
And whatever he may have seen
to be awake.

he

there,

is

not followed (affected) by

it,

for that

is not attached to anything.'
So it is indeed, Ya^;7aG'anaka Vaideha said
Speak on for
valkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand.

person

'

:

the sake of emancipation.'
17. Ya^;'2avalkya said:

'That (person) having en-

joyed himself in that state of waking, having moved
about and seen both good and evil, hastens back
again as he came, to the place from which he started,
to the state of sleeping (dream).
18.

'

In

fact,

as a large fish

moves along the two

and the left, so does that
person move along these two states, the state of
sleeping and the state of waking.
19. 'And as a falcon, or any other (swift) bird,
after he has roamed about here in the air, becomes

banks of a

tired,

river, the right

and folding

his

wings

is

carried to his nest, so

does that person hasten to that state where, when
asleep, he desires no more desires, and dreams no

more dreams.
There are
20.
'

in his

body the veins

called Hita,

which are as small as a hair divided a thousandfold,
full

of white, blue, yellow, green, and red^

Now

Dvivedagahga explains that if phlegm predominates, qualified
by wind and bile, the juice in the veins is white if wind predomiif bile predominates,
nates, qualified by phlegm and bile, it is blue
if wind and phlegm
qualified by wind and phlegm, it is yellow
1

;

;

;

1

Bi^7HADARA7VYAKA-UPANISHAD.

68

when, as it were, they kill him, when, as it were,
they overcome him, when, as it were, an elephant
chases him, when, as it were, he falls into a well,
he fancies, through ignorance, that danger which he
(commonly) sees in waking. But when he fancies
that he is, as it were, a god, or that he is, as it
were, a king \ or "

highest world

am

I

this altogether," that

his

is

^.

'This indeed is his (true) form, free from
from evil, free from fear ^ Now as a
man, when embraced by a beloved wife, knows
nothing that is without, nothing that is within, thus
21.

desires, free

this person, when
Self,

embraced by the intelligent (pra^^^a)
knows nothing that is without, nothing that is
This indeed

within.
his

wishes are

predominate, with

little

ments are equal,

it

Su^'ruta
clear,

quoted.

is

bile only,

Why

which the Self (only)
green

it is

;

and

if

is

the three ele-

See also Anandagiri's gloss, where

red.

is

which

his (true) form, in

is

fulfilled, in

this

should be inserted here,

except that in sleep the purusha

is

is

not quite

supposed to move about

in the veins.
^

Here, again, the commentator seems to be

pretation does violence to the context.
sees in his sleep are represented as

idea of being of

(aham evedaw
is

god

sarva^,

i.

e. ida.?n

new sentence

with

sarvam, see .S'ankara,

aham

a

mere imaginations, so

or a king, while the idea that he

represented as the highest and real

begin a

right, but his inter-

The dangers which

state.

But

it is

is

all

by

his
this

p. 873, 1. 11)
impossible to

eveda/« sarvam, and though

true that all the preceding fancies are qualified

man

is

it

is

iva, I prefer to

take deva and ra^an as steps leading to the sarvatmatva.
^

The Madhyandinas

to pajyati,

The

repeat here the sentence from yatra supto

from the end of

§ 19.

Ka;/va text reads

apahatapapma.
.Safikara
and excuses it as svadhyayadharma/z Tpa/Zm/i.
The Madhyandinas read atiM//ando, but place
the whole sentence where the Ka?2vas put aptakamam &c., at the
end of § 21.
^

explains

atiy('X'//anda

by

ati-^X'/;anda

atiX'/C'//andam,

ADHYAYA,

IV

his wish, in

3 BRAHMAiVA, 23.

which no wish

left,

is

1

69

from any

free

sorrow ^
22.

'

Then

a father

not a father, a mother not

is

a mother, the worlds not worlds, the gods not gods,

Then

Vedas not Vedas.

the

a thief

is

not a

thief,

a

murderer not a murderer^, a J^andald.^ not a Kandala.,
a Paulkasa* not a Paulkasa, a Sramana.^ not a 6rataa.n3.,

He

a Tapasa*^ not a Tapasa.

is

not followed

by good, not followed by evil, for he has then overcome all the sorrows of the heart \
23.

'And when

(it

is

said

that)

there

the

(in

Sushupti) he does not see, yet he is seeing, though
he does not see ^. For sight is inseparable from the
'

The Ka«vas

read jokantaram, the Madhyandinas a^okantaram,

but the commentators arrive at the same result, namely, that

means

i'okaj'unyam, free from grief.

6'ankara says

:

ityeta/^, ^//okamadhyaman iti va
Dvivedaganga says
na vidyate soko
madhye yasya tad aj-okantaraw (ra, Weber) ^okajunyam.

sok2.kk/i[dra.f?i

jokajianyam

vathapy a^okam.

:

^

Bhru;/ahan, varish//;abrahmahanta.

^

The son
The son

*

of a -5udra father and a

A

^

A Vanaprastha,

sar-

'ntare

Brahma«a mother.

mendicant.

who performs penances.

have translated as

I

;

of a -Sudra father and a Kshatriya mother.

^

'^

it

jokantarawz

ananvagata// papena.

if

We

the text were ananvagata/^ pu;/yena

find anvagata

used

in a similar

way

in

But the Ka7/vas read ananvagatam pu;^yena ananvagatam papena, and 6'ankara explains the neuter by referring it

§§ 15, 16, &c.

rupam (rupaparatvan napu;«sakalihgam). The Madhyandinas, if
we may trust Weber's edition, read ananvagata/^ puwyenanvagata/z papena.
The second anvagata/^ may be a mere misprint, but
to

Dvivedaganga seems to have read ananvagatam, like the Ka^^vas,
for he says ananvagatam iti riapavishayo napu/;/sakanirdeja//.
^ This is the old Upanishad argument that the true sense is the
:

Self,

and not the eye. Although therefore in the
where the eye and the other senses rest,

sleep,

that the purusha does not see, yet he

he does not see with the eye.

The

is

a seer

all

state of
it

profound

might be said

the time, though

seer cannot lose his character

1

BiJ/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

70

seer,

because

it

But there is then
different from him that he

cannot perish.

no second, nothing

else

could see.
24.

'

And when

(it

is

said

he does not

For smelling

smell.

the smeller, because

it

there (in

that)

Sushupti) he does not smell, yet he

is

the

smelling, though

is

inseparable from

cannot perish.

then no second, nothing else different

But there is
from him that

he could smell.
25.

'And when

(it

is

said

that) there

Sushupti) he does not taste, yet he

(in

the

tasting, though
he does not taste. For tasting is inseparable from
the taster, because it cannot perish. But there is
then no second, nothing else different from him that
he could taste.
26.

'

And when

(it

is

said

is

that)

there (in

Sushupti) he does not speak, yet he

is

the

speaking,

though he does not speak. For speaking is inseparable from the speaker, because it cannot perish.
But there is then no second, nothing else different
from him that he could speak.
27.

'And when

(It

is

said

that) there

Sushupti) he does not hear, yet he

he does not hear.

For hearing

is

is

(in

the

hearing, though

inseparable from

the hearer, because

it cannot perish.
But there is
then no second, nothing else different from him that
he could hear.

28.

'And when

(it

is

said

that)

there (in

the

Sushupti) he does not think, yet he is thinking,
though he does not think. For thinking is inseparable from the thinker, because it cannot perish.
of seeing, as

long as

it is

where there

little
fire.

is

as the

The

fire

can lose

Self sees

by

its

its

character of burning, so

own

no second, no object but the

light, like the sun,

Self, that

even

could be seen.

IV

ADHYAYA,

3

BRAHMAiVA, ^^.

But there is then no second, nothing
from him that he could think.
29.

And when

*

is

(it

said

that)

I7I

else different

there

(in

the

Sushupti) he does not touch, yet he is touching,
though he does not touch. For touching is inseparable from the toucher, because it cannot perish.
But there is then no second, nothing else different
from him that he could think.
30.

'And when

is

(it

said

that) there (in

the

Sushupti) he does not know, yet he is knowing,
though he does not know. For knowing is inseparable from the knower, because it cannot perish.
But there is then no second, nothing else different
from him that he could know.
31. 'When (in waking and dreaming) there is, as
it were, another, then can one see the other, then
can one smell the other, then can one speak to the
other, then can one hear the other, then can one
think the other, then can one touch the other, then

know the other.
'An ocean is that one

can one
32.

^

seer,

without any

Brahma-world '\ O King.' Thus
This is his highest
did Ya^;7avalkya teach him.

duality

this is the

;

goal, this

is

world, this

his highest bliss.

on a small portion of that

live

SS-

'

others,

^

is

his highest success, this

his highest

All other creatures
bliss.

If a man is healthy, wealthy, and lord of
surrounded by all human enjoyments, that

Salila is explained as salilavat, like the ocean, the seer

ocean, which

is

a locative, and translates

it

one

is

like the

one only.
'

In

Dr. Deussen takes

dem Gewoge,'

being

salila as

referring to ^SVeta-

jvatara-upanishad VI, 15.
2

Or

this

Brahman.

seer is the

Brahma-world, dwells

in

Brahman, or

is

B/?7HADARAJVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

172

the hiofhest blessinsf of men.

is

Now

a hundred

human blessings make one blessing of the
who have conquered the world (of the fathers).
A hundred blessings of the fathers who have conquered this world make one blessing in the Gan-

of these
fathers

dharva world.

A hundred blessings in the Gandharva

make one blessing of the Devas by
(work, sacrifice), who obtain their godhead by

world

merit
merit.

A

hundred blessings of the Devas by merit make
one blessing of the Devas by birth, also (of) a
K^rotriya^ who is without sin, and not overcome by
desire. A hundred blessings of the Devas by birth
make one blessing in the world of Pra^apati, also
(of) a .Srotriya who is without sin, and not overcome
by desire. A hundred blessings in the world of
Pra^apati make one blessing in the world of Brahman, also (of) a K^rotriya who is without sin, and
And this is the highest
not overcome by desire.
blessing 2.
'

This

is

the Brahma-world,

O

king,' thus

spake

Ya^;^avalkya.

6^anaka Vaideha said

Speak on

'

:

for the sake of

I

give you,

Sir,

a thousand.

(my) emancipation.'

Then Ya^;^avalkya was afraid lest the King,
having become full of understanding, should drive
him from all his positions ^
34. And Yaf/^avalkya said: 'That (person), having
enjoyed himself in that state of sleeping (dream),
^

An

accomplished student of the Veda.

Taitt. Up. II, 8, p. 59; A'/^and. Up.VIII, 2,1-10; Kaush.
3-5 Regnaud, II, p. 33 seq.
^ ^ankara
explains that Ya^?lavalkya was not afraid that his
own knowledge might prove imperfect, but that the king, having
the right to ask him any question he liked, might get all his knowledge from him.
^

Up.

See
I,

;

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

IV

I.

I

73

having moved about and seen both good and bad,
hastens back again as he came, to the place from
which he started, to the state of waking \
35.

Now

'

moves along
mounted by
move along groaning, when a

as a heavy-laden carriage

groaning, thus does this corporeal Self,
the intelligent Self,

man

thus going to expire

is

2)6.

^.

'And when

(the body) grows weak through
becomes weak through illness, at that

old age, or

time that person, after separating himself from his

Amra

members, as an

Udumbara

(mango), or

(fig),

is separated from the stalk, hastens
back again as he came, to the place from which he
started, to (new) life.

or Pippala-fruit

37.

*

And

policemen, magistrates, equerries,

as

and governors wait for a king who is coming back,
with food and drink, saying, "He comes back, he
approaches," thus do all the elements wait on him
who knows this, saying, " That Brahman comes, that

Brahman approaches."
38. 'And as policemen,

magistrates, equerries,

governors gather round a king
thus do

all

who

is

and

departing,

the senses (pra72as) gather round the Self

at the time of death,

when a man

is

thus going to

expire.'

Fourth Brahmaa^a.
Ya^7/avalkya continued
Now when that Self,
having sunk into weakness ^, sinks, as it were, into
I.

'

:

^

See

^

-S'ahkara

§ 17, before.

seems to take

yatraitad bhavati

;

etad

iti

\xkkh\a.?,\

as

a

noun.

He

writes:

kriyavijcshawam urdhvo/^/^/?vasi yatror-

dhv0/^/^'/2vasitvam asya bhavati tyartha^^.
^

In the

Kaush. Up.

Ill,

3,

we read

yatraitat

purusha arto

B227HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

174

unconsciousness, then gather those senses (pra;zas)

around him, and he, taking with him those elements
When that person
in the eye
turns away, then he ceases to know any

of Hght, descends into the heart.
^

forms.

He has become one," they say, " he does not
see^." " He has become one," they say, "he does
not smell." " He has become one," they say, " he
does not taste." "He has become one," they say,
"he does not speak." " He has become one," they
say, " he does not hear." " He has become one," they
say, "he does not think."
"He has become one,"
they say, " he does not touch." " He has become
2.

'"

one," they say," he does not know."

The

point of his

heart ^ becomes lighted up, and by that light the Self
departs, either through the
skull

^,

eye*, or through

or through other places of the body.

when he

thus departs,

after him,

and when

life

life

the

And

(the chief pra/m) departs

thus departs,

all

the other

marishyan abalyam etya sammohati. Here abalyam should certainly be abalyam, as in the commentary
but should it not be
;

abalyam, as here.

See also Br/h. Up. Ill, 5, i, note.
^
-^akshusha purusha is explained as that portion of the sun
which is in the eye, while it is active, but which, at the time of
death, returns to the sun.
2

is

Ekibhavati

is

probably a familiar expression for dying, but

it

here explained by ^Sahkara, and probably was so intended, as

meaning

that the

Self (lihgatman).
Ill, 3,
^

The

When

®

thoughts are found in the Kaush. Up.

pra«a ekadha bhavati.

*

sun.

organs of the body have become one with the

The same

point where the natfis or veins go out from the heart.
his

knowledge and deeds qualify him

to proceed to the

iL^ahkara.

When

his

Brahma-world.

knowledge and deeds

qualify

him

to

proceed

to the

:

IV

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMA2VA,
depart after

vital Spirits (pra;zas)

He

it.

I

4.

is

75

conscious,

and being conscious he follows and departs.
Then both his knowledge and his work take hold
of him, and his acquaintance with former things ^.'
^

'

3. 'And as a caterpillar, after having reached the
end of a blade of grass, and after having made another
approach (to another blade) ^, draws itself together
towards it, thus does this Self, after having thrown
off this body * and dispelled all ignorance, and after
making another approach (to another body), draw

himself together towards
'

4.

turns

And
it

it.

as a goldsmith, taking a piece of gold,

newer and more beautiful shape,
having thrown off this body

into another,

so does this

Self, after

^ This
is an obscure passage, and the different text of the
Madhyandinas shows that the obscurity was felt at an early time.
The Madhyandinas read Sa?«^wanam anvavakramati sa esha gn2ji
savi^jiano bhavati.
This would mean, 'Consciousness departs
after. He the knowing (Self) is self-conscious.' The Ka«vas read:
Savi^fiano bhavati, savi_^jlanam evanvavakramati. Roer translates
'It is endowed with knowledge, endowed with knowledge it departs ;'
and he explains, with 6'ahkara, that the knowledge here intended is
such knowledge as one has in a dream, a knowledge of impressions
referring to their respective objects, a knowledge which is the
effect of actions, and not inherent in the self.
Deussen translates
'Sie (die Seele) ist von Erkenntnissart, und was von Erkenntnissart
:

:

ziehet ihr nach.'

ist,

The

Persian translator evidently thought that

self-consciousness was implied, for he writes

addictionem sumat ....
^

in illo

corpore

This acquaintance with former things

the peculiar talents or deficiencies which

The

'
:

aham
is

Cum

quovis corpore

est, id est,

ego sum.'

necessary to explain

we observe

in children.

words vidya, karman, and purvapra^?la often go together (see 6'ankara on Brz'h. Up. IV, 3, 9).
Deussen's conjecture,
three

apurvapra_§-fta,
^

See

Brzli.

is

not called

Up. IV,

would be always to
same words in English
See

Brz'h.

Up. IV,

a passage which shows

translate the

it

*

for.

3, 9,

;

how

see also Brahmopanishad, p. 245.

3, 9,

and IV,

difficult

same Sanskrit words by the
3, 13.


1

Bi^HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

76

and dispelled all ignorance, make unto himself another, newer and more beautiful shape, whether it be
like the Fathers, or like the Gandharvas, or like the
Devas, or like Pra^apati, or like Brahman, or like
other beings.
5.

That Self

'

is

knowledge, mind,

indeed Brahman, consisting of
earth, water,

sight, hearing,

life,

and no desire,
wind, ether, light
anger and no anger, right or wrong, and all things.

and no

Now

man

as a

is

light, desire

like this or like that \

according as

and according as he behaves, so will he be
a man of good acts will become good, a man of bad
He becomes pure by pure deeds, bad by
acts, bad.

he

acts

:

bad deeds.
'

And

desires.

here they say that a person consists of

And as

his will, so

is

is

his

and as is
and whatever deed he does,

his desire, so

deed

;

is

his will

;

that he will reap.

'And here there is
object a man's own mind
6.

this verse:

"To whatever

is

attached, to that he goes

strenuously together with

deed; and having
results) of whatever deed

obtained the end (the last

his

he does here on earth, he returns again from that
world (which is the temporary reward of his deed) to
this world of action."
'So much for the man who desires. But as to

man who

the

freed from

does not desire, who, not desiring,

desires,

is

in

satisfied

desires,

his

or

desires the Self only, his vital spirits do not depart

elsewhere,
7.

^

that
p.

'

On

The iti
a new

loi and

— being Brahman, he goes
this there is this verse
after

adomaya

is

"
:

to

Brahman.

When

not clear to me, but

all

it is

desires

quite clear

sentence begins with tadyadetat, which Regnaud,
p.

139, has not observed.

II,

IV

ADHYAYA, 4 ERAHMAiVA,

II.

I

77

which once entered his heart are undone, then does
become immortal, then he obtains Brahman."
the mortal

And

*

as the slough of a snake lies on an ant-hill,

dead and cast away, thus lies this body but that disembodied immortal spirit (pra//a, life) is Brahman
;

only,

only light'

is

6^anaka Vaideha said:
8

^.

On

'

'Sir,

give you a thousand.'

I

this there are these verses

:

'The small, old path stretching far away^ has been
found by me. On it sages who know Brahman move
on to the Svarga-loka (heaven), and thence higher
on, as entirely free
9.

'

On

^.

that path they say that there

is

white, or

was found
by Brahman, and on it goes whoever knows Brahman,
and who has done good, and obtained splendour.
10. 'All who worship what is not knowledge
blue, or yellow, or green, or red

^

;

that path

(avidya) enter into blind darkness

knowledge, enter, as

in

11.

^

the
^

'There are

This

^

it

:

those

who

delight

were, into greater darkness^.

indeed those unblessed worlds,

may be independent

matter, or

may be

placed again into

mouth of Ya^wavalkya.
Instead of

which perhaps seemed to be in contradiction
Madhyandina reading vitara, probably intended

vitata//,

with a«u, there

is

a

mean

originally

to

spnsh/a

cannot explain,

maya

I

leading across.

The

other

^ahkara explains

it

by

adjective ma;«-

maw

spr/sh/a//,

labdha//.

^ That
this is the true meaning, is indicated by the various
readings of the Madhyandinas, tena dhira apiyanti brahmavida

utkramya svarga^w lokam ito vimukta//. The road is not to lead
to Svarga only, but beyond.
* See the colours of the veins as
given before, IV, 3, 20.
^ See Va^. Up.
6'ahkara in our place explains avidya by
9.
works, and vidya by the Veda, excepting the Upanishads.
« See Va^o^. Up.
Ka//^a Up. I, 3.
3
;

[15]

N

I

B2?7HADAR.\iVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

78

covered with blind darkness.

and not enlightened go
12.

If a

'

man

Men who

are ignorant

after death to those worlds.
Self, saying, "

understands the

am

I

He," what could he wish or desire that he should

body^
'Whoever has found and understood the Self

pine after the
13.

that has entered into this patched-together hidingplace ^ he indeed is the creator, for he is the maker

of everything, his

is

the world, and he

is

the world

itself ^

While we are here, we may know this if not,
Those
I am ignorant*, and there is great destruction.
who know it, become immortal, but others suffer pain
14.

'

;

indeed.
15.

'

If a

man

and as the lord of
no more afraid.
days,

all

that

'He behind whom

16.

God,

clearly beholds this Self as
is

and

will be,

then he

is

the year revolves with the

him the gods worship as the

light of lights, as

immortal time.
17.
rest,

'

He

in

whom

him alone

I

the five beings^ and the ether

believe to be the Self,

I

who

That he should be willing to suflFer once, more the pains
The Madhyandinas read jariram anu
inherent in the body.
1

saw/^aret, instead of saT^^varet.
2 The body is meant, and is called deha from the root dih, to
knead together. Roer gives sa/wdehye gahane, which ^ahkara
Foley has sa7«deghe, which is the right
explains by sa;«dehe.
read sai^zdehe. Gahane might
Madhyandinas
The
reading.
Kawva

be taken as an adjective

also, referring to sa;?zdehe.

^

.Sahkara takes loka, world, for atma,

*

I have followed -S'ahkara in translating avedi/i

self.

by ignorant, but

the text seems corrupt.
^

The

five

^anas,

i.

e.

the Gandharvas, Pitr/s, Devas, Asuras,

and

Rakshas; or the four castes with the Nishadas; or breath, eye,
ear, food, and mind.

IV ADIIYAYA,

know, believe him
mortal, believe
t8.

*

to

him

to

4 BRAHMA7VA,

be Brahman
be immortal.

They who know

the

life

of

2 2.

I

;

life,

I

who am

79

im-

the eye of the

mind of the mind, they

eye, the ear of the ear, the

have comprehended the ancient, primeval Brahman \
19. 'By the mind alone it is to be perceived^,
there is in it no diversity. He who perceives therein
any diversity, goes from death to death.
20.
This eternal being that can never be proved,
is to be perceived in one way only
it is spotless,
beyond the ether, the unborn Self, great and eternal.
21.
Let a wise Brahma7^a, after he has discovered
him, practise wisdom^. Let him not seek after many
words, for that is mere weariness of the tongue.
22. 'And he is that great unborn Self, who consists
of knowledge, is surrounded by the Pra;^as, the ether
'

;

'

within the hearth
the lord of

all,

In

it

there reposes the ruler of

the king of

all.

He

all,

does not become

greater by good works, nor smaller by evil works.

He

is

the lord of

all,

the king of

tector of all things.

He

so that these worlds

may

all

things, the pro-

a bank^ and a boundary,

is

not be confounded.

Brah-

know him by the study of

the Veda, by
by penance, by fasting, and he who
knows him, becomes a Muni.
Wishing for that
world (for Brahman) only, mendicants leave their

ma;^as seek to
sacrifice,

by

gifts,

homes.
'

Knowing

offspring.

this,

the people of old did not wish for

What shall we do

with offspring, they said,

2

See Talavak. Up. I, 2.
See Ka/^a Up. IV, lo-ii.

'

Let him practise abstinence, patience,

^

&c.,

which are the means

of knowledge.
*

See Brfh. Up. IV,

^

3, 7.

N

2

See ^/^and. Up.VIII,

4.

1

Bie/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

8o

we who have

and this world (of Brahman)^ ?
And they, having risen above the desire for sons,
wealth, and new worlds, wander about as mendicants.
For desire for sons is desire for wealth, and desire
for wealth is desire for worlds. Both these are indeed
desires only. He, the Self, is to be described by No,
no^ He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be comprehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot perish
he is unattached, for he does not attach himself;
unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not fail. Him
(who knows), these two do not overcome, whether
he says that for some reason he has done evil, or for
some reason he has done good he overcomes both,
and neither what he has done, nor what he has
this Self

!

;

omitted to do, burns

(affects)

him.

This has been told by a verse {Rik) " This
eternal greatness of the Brahma;^a does not grow
Let man
larger by work, nor does it grow smaller.
try to find (know) its trace, for having found (known)
23.

he

it,
'

'

is

He

:

not sullied by any evil deed."
therefore that

knows

it,

after

having become

and

collected ^ sees

quiet, subdued, satisfied, patient,
self in Self, sees all as Self.

Evil does not overcome

Evil does not burn him,
all evil.
Free from evil, free from spots,
he burns all evil.
free from doubt, he becomes a (true) Brahmawa this
thus spoke Ykgud.is the Brahma-world, O King,'

him, he overcomes

;

valkya.
Sir, I give you the Videhas,
(kanaka Valdeha said
and also myself, to be together your slaves.'
:

'

24.

This

*

indeed

Up.

is

1

Cf. Brz'h.

^

See Deussen, Vedanta,

*

As

Ill, 5, 1.

the great, the unborn Self, the
2

See B/Vh. Up.

Ill, 9,

26

;

IV,

2, 4.

p. 85.

described in the dialogue between (kanaka and Ya^favalkya.

IV

ADHYAYA,

ERAHMAiVA,

5

Strong ^ the giver of wealth.
obtains wealth.

5.

181

He who knows

this

This great, unborn Self, undecaying, undying,
immortal, fearless, is indeed Brahman.
Fearless is
Brahman, and he who knows this becomes verily the
fearless Brahman.
25.

Fifth BRAHMAiVA^.

had

two wives, Maitreyi and
Katyayani.
Of these Maitreyi was conversant with
Brahman, but Katyayani possessed such knowledge
Ya^;7avalkya

1.

women

only as

And

possess.

Ya^?eavalkya,

when

he wished to get ready for another state of life (when
he wished to give up the state of a householder, and
retire into the forest),

Said, 'Maitreyi, verily

2.

my

this

make
3.

house

am

going away from
Forsooth,

let

me

a settlement between thee and that Katyayani.'
Maitreyi said

'

:

My

Lord,

of wealth, belonged to me,

full

immortal by
'

I

(into the forest).

it,

or no

be thy

will

tell

?'

No,' replied Ya^;7avalkya,

people

whole earth,
me, should I be

if this

'

like the life of rich

But there

life.

is

no hope of

immortality by wealth.'
4.

that

my

And

by which I
Lord knoweth

What

do with
do not become immortal? What

Maitreyi said

^

'

:

should

I

(of immortality), tell that clearly

to me.'
5.

Ya^;^avalkya replied: 'Thou

to me, thou hast increased
^

Annada

is

here explained as

food which they

all

'

what

who
is

dwelling in

dear (to

all

eat.'

'^

See before,

II, 4.

^

The Kawva

text has vettha instead of veda.

art truly dear

beings,

me

in

and eating

1

82

Bi?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

you like, Lady, I will explain it
to thee, and mark well what I say.'
Verily, a husband is not dear,
6. And he said
that you may love the husband but that you may
love the Self, therefore a husband is dear.
Verily, a wife is not dear, that you may love the
wife
but that you may love the Self, therefore a
Therefore,

thee)^

if

'

:

;

*

;

wife

dear.

is

Verily, sons are not dear, that

'

sons

but that you

;

may

you may love the

love the Self, therefore sons

are dear.
Verily, wealth

'

wealth
wealth
'

but that you

;

is

;

may

may

love

love the Self, therefore

dear.

Verily, cattle

cattle

not dear, that you

is

^

are not dear, that you

but that you

may

may

love

love the Self, therefore

cattle are dear.

Verily, the Brahman-class

'

may

love the Brahman-class

is

not dear, that you

but that you

;

the Self, therefore the Brahman-class
*

Verily, the Kshatra-class

may

love the Kshatra-class

is

;

but that you

love

not dear, that you

is

may

may

love

dear.

Verily, the worlds are not dear, that

love the worlds

may

dear.

but that you

;

the Self, therefore the Kshatra-class
*

is

you may

love the Self,

therefore the worlds are dear.

Devas are not dear, that you may
Devas but that you may love the Self,
therefore the Devas are dear.
'Verily, the

love the

^

;

The Ka«va

text

has avr/dhat, which 6'ankara explains by

vardhitavati nirdharitavaty asi.

The Madhyandinas

read avr/tat,

which the commentator explains by avartayat, vartitavaty
^

up

Though
in § 6.

this is

added

here,

it

is

not included in the

asi.

summing

ADHYAYA,

IV

5

BRAHMAiVA,

l^T,

8.

Vedas are not dear, that you may
but that you may love the Self,
love the Vedas
therefore the Vedas are dear.
'Verily, the

;

Verily, creatures are not dear, that

'

the creatures

;

but that you

may

you may love

love the Self, there-

fore are creatures dear.
Verily, everything

*

everything

;

but that

fore everything

is

is

not dear, that you

you may

may

love

love the Self, there-

dear.

be seen, to be heard, to be
When the
perceived, to be marked, O Maitreyi
known,
and
perceived,
Self has been seen, heard,
'

Verily, the Self

is

to

!

then

all
'

7.

this

is

known.'

Whosoever looks

for the

Brahman-class

else-

was abandoned by the
Brahman-class. Whosoever looks for the Kshatraclass elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by
the Kshatra-class. Whosoever looks for the worlds
elsewhere than in the Self, was abandoned by the
worlds. Whosoever looks for the Devas elsewhere
than in the Self, was abandoned by the Devas.
Whosoever looks for the Vedas elsewhere than in
the Self, was abandoned by the Vedas. Whosoever

where than

in

the

Self,

looks for the creatures elsewhere than in the Self,
was abandoned by the creatures. Whosoever looks
for

anything elsewhere than

in the Self,

was aban-

doned by anything.
'This

Brahman-class, this

Kshatra-class,

worlds, these Devas, these Vedas,

all

these

these beings,

this everything, all is that Self.

as the sounds of a drum, when beaten,
cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the
sound is seized, when the drum is seized, or the
8.

'Now

beater of the

drum

;

;

1

B/?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

84

9. 'And as the sounds of a conch-shell, when blown,
cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the

sound

is

seized, when the shell

of the shell
10.

is

seized, or the

blower

;

'And as the sounds of a

lute,

when

played,

cannot be seized externally (by themselves), but the

sound

is

seized,

when

the lute

is

seized, or the player

of the lute
11.

'As clouds of smoke proceed by themselves

out of lighted
verily,

O

fire

damp

kindled with

fuel,

thus

Maitreyi, has been breathed forth from

Being what we have as J^ig-veda., Ya^urveda, Sama-veda, Atharvaiigirasas, Itihasa, Pura?/a,
Vidya, the Upanishads, ^'lokas, Sutras, Anuvyakhyanas, Vyakhyanas, what is sacrificed, what is
poured out, food, drink S this world and the other
world, and all creatures.
From him alone all these
were breathed forth.
this great

12.

'As

all

waters find their centre in the sea,

touches in the skin,

all

smells in the nose,

all

all

tastes in the tongue, all

the heart,
the

feet,

13.

all

and

is

all

all

movements

in

the Vedas in speech,

'As a mass of

outside, but

mind,

actions in the hands,
all

all sounds
knowledge in

colours in the eye,

in the ear, all percepts in the

salt

has neither inside nor

altogether a mass of taste, thus indeed

has that Self neither inside nor outside, but is altogether a mass of knowledge and having risen from
out these elements, vanishes again in them. When
;

he has departed, there
I

say,

O

no more knowledge (name),
Maitreyi,'— thus spoke Ya^;7avalkya.
is

Explained by annadananimittam and peyadananimittaw dharSee before, IV, i, 2.

mao^atam.

:

IV

Then

14.

landed

me

ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA,

Maltreyi said

'
:

Here,

bewilderment.

in utter

I.

85

1

Sir,

thou hast

Indeed,

I

do not

understand him.'

But he replied
bewildering.

'
:

O

Maitreyi,

I

say nothing that

Verily, beloved, that Self

and of an indestructible nature.
15. 'For when there is as it were

is

is

imperish-

able,

duality, then

one sees the other, one smells the other, one tastes
the other, one salutes the other, one hears the other,
one perceives the other, one touches the other, one

knows the other

but when the Self only is all this,
should he see another, how should he smell
another, how should he taste another, how should
;

how

he salute another, how should he hear another, how
should he touch another, how should he know

How

know Him by whom he
knows all this ? That Self is to be described by No,
no ^
He is incomprehensible, for he cannot be
comprehended; he is imperishable, for he cannot
another

?

should he

!

perish

he

unattached, for he does

not attach
himself; unfettered, he does not suffer, he does not

How,

fail.

Thus,
far

;

O

is

O beloved, should

he know the Knower

Maitreyi, thou hast been instructed.

goes immortality.'

went away

Having

?

Thus

said so, Ya^;^avalkya

(into the forest).

Sixth BRAHMAiVA.

Now

I.

1.

follows the stem

^

(We) from Pautimashya,

2.

Pautimashya from Gaupavana,

3.

Gaupavana from Pautimashya,

^

See Bnh. Up.

^

The

line

Ill, 9, 26; IV, 2, 4; IV, 4, 22.
of teachers and pupils by whom the Y%fiavalkya-

.

1

86

BiLTHADARAiVVAKA-UPANISHAD.

4.

Paiitimashya from Gaupavana,

5.

Gaupavana from Kaimka,

6.

Kaui"ika from Kaiu^^inya,

7.

Kauz/rt'inya

8.

from ^a;z^ilya,
SAndi\y3. from Kaujika and Gautama,

9.

Gautama

from Agnivei"ya,
Agnlve^ya from Gargya,
1 1
Gargya from Gargya,
12. Gargya from Gautama,
13. Gautama from Saitava,
14. Saitava from Para^aryaya;/a,
15. Para5"aryaya;^a from Gargyaya;^a,
16. Gargyaya;^a from Uddalakayana,
17. Uddalakayana from (7abalayana,
18. 6^abalayana from Madhyandinayana,
19. Madhyandinayana from Saukaraya;2a,
20. Saukaraya;^a from Kashaya;^a,
21. Kashaya;^a from Sayakayana,
22. Sayakayana from Kaujikayani ^,

2.

10.

23.

Kaui'ikayani

from Ghr/takau-S'ika,
Ghmakau>?ika from Parai'aryaya;^a,

3.

24.

kandz was handed down. From i-io the Ya.?nsa. agrees with the
Yamss. at the end of II, 6.
The Madhyandina text beghis with vayam, we, and proceeds to
I. .Saurpawayya, 2. Gautama, 3. Vatsya, 4. Parajarya, &c., as in the
Madhuka«(5?a, p. 118, except in 10, where it gives Gaivantayana for
Atreya. Then after 12. Kauwrt'inyayana, it gives 13. 14. the two
Kauwtfmyas, 15. the Aurwavabhas,
18.

Kau«</mya and Agnivejya,

16. Kau7K/inya, 17.

Kauw/mya,

19. Saitava, 20. Parajarya, 21. (?atu-

kar«ya, 22. Bharadva^a, 23. Bharadva^a, Asuraya^a, and Gautama,
24.

Bharadva^a, 25. Valakakauj'ika, 26. Kashayawa, 27. Saukara-

ya«a, 28. Traivawi, 29. Aupa^andhani, 30. Sayakayana, 31. Kau^ikayani, &c., as in the
^

of

From

II, 6.

Ka«va

text,

from No. 22

to

Brahman.

here the Yamsa. agrees again with that given at the end

IV

ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA,

3.

I

25.

Parai"aryaya;/a from Parai^arya,

26.

Paramrya from

27.

29.

from Asiiraya;^a and Yaska\
A
Asuraya;^a from Trava;^i,
Travam from Aupa^andhani,

30.

Aupa^andhanl from

31.

Asuri from Bharadvafa,

32.

Bharadva^a from Atreya,
Atreya from Maufi,
Manfi from Gautama,
Gautama from Gautama,
Gautama from Vatsya,
Vatsya from Sandilya.,
Saud'ilySi from Kaii"orya Kapya,
Kai^orya Kapya from Kumaraharita,
Kumaraharita from Galava,
Galava from Vidarbhi-kau/^^T^inya,
Vidarbhi - kau;^<i;'inya from Vatsanapat

28.

87

6^atukar;2ya,

GsituksLruya.

A

Asiiri,

A

33.

34.
35.
36.
2,7.

2)8.

39.
40.

41.
42.

Ba-

bhrava,

Babhrava from Pathi Saubhara,
Ayasya Aiigirasa,
Ayasya Aiigirasa from Abhuti Tvash/ra,
Abhitti Tvash/ra from Vii-varupa Tvash/ra,
Vi^varupa Tvash/ra from Ai-vinau,
A^vinau from Dadhya/^ Atharva?^a,
Dadhya/^ Atharva;/a from Atharvan Daiva,
Atharvan Daiva from Mmyu Pradhva;;^sana,
Mrityu Pradhva;;^sana from Pradhva?;2sana,
Pradhva;;2sana from Ekarshi,
Ekarshi from Vipra/^itti ^,
Vipra/^itti from Vyash/i,

43. Vatsanapat

44. Pathi Saubhara from

45.
46.

47.

A

48.
49.
50.

51.
52.

53.
54.
^

The Madhyandina

text has,

Asuraya«a, and Yaska.
2

Viprao-itti,

Madhyandina

text.

i.

Bharadvag'a,

2.

Bharadva^a,

1

88

B/?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

55.

Vyash^i from Sanaru,

56.

59.

Sanaru from Sanatana,
Sanatana from Sanaga,
Sanaga from Paramesh^'/^In,
ParameshMin from Brahman,

60.

Brahman

57.

58.

is

Svayambhu,

Adoration to Brahman.

self-existent.

V ADHYAYA,

2 BRAHMAA^A,

2.

1

89

FIFTH ADHYAYA.
First BRAHMAiVA\
I.

That (the invisible Brahman) is
Brahman) is full
This full

visible

^.

man) proceeds from that

On

Om

ether,

(is)

that

is left

(is)

this (the

(visible

(invisible

full

grasping the fulness of this

man) there

full,

Brah-

Brahman).

full (visible

Brah-

Brahman) ^
There is the old

full (invisible

Brahman ^

'

ether (the invisible), and the (visible) ether of the

atmosphere,' thus
(the

Om)

the

is

Kauravyaya;aputra.

said

Veda

(the

thus the Brahma;/as know.
all

This

means of knowledge),
One knows through it

that has to be known.

Second Braiimajva.
1.

The

threefold descendants of Pra^apati, gods,

men, and Asuras

dwelt as Brahma/('a-

(evil spirits),

Having

rins (students) with their father Pra^apati.

finished their studentship the gods said

Then he

^

did

^

i.e.

Full

and

invisible

said to

means of

him

have understood.'
:

'Tell us something,

supplementary chapter, treating of

arriving at a

knowledge of Brahman.

filling, infinite.

On perceiving
is

men

called a Khila, or

is

there

:

the

various auxiliary
^

'

:

'Yes,' he said, 'you

Then

This

Sir.'

said

subdued.'
2.

Tell us

He told them the syllable Da.
Did you understand ?' They said
understand.
You told us "Damyata," Be

(something),

'We

'
:

the true nature of the visible world, there remains,

perceived at once, as underlying

world or Brahman.

it,

or as being

it,

the

This and the following paragraph

are called Mantras.
*

This

ether,

is

and

explained by -Safikara as meaning.

called

Om,

i.

e.

Om

and Kha

Brahman

are predicates of

is Kha, the
Brahman.

:

Bi?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

190

He

them the same
'Did you understand ?'

Sir.'

said

:

told

You

understand.

syllable

Da.

They

said

Then he
:

told us, " Datta," Give.'

*

'We

did

Yes,'

he

you have understood.'
the Asuras said to him
Tell us some3.
He told them the same syllable Da.
thing, Sir.'
Did you understand ?' They said
Then he said
said,

'

Then

'

:

'

:

'We

:

You

did understand.

merciful.'

The

'

Yes,' he said,

told us,
'

"Dayadham," Be

you have understood.'

divine voice of thunder repeats the same,

Da Da

Da, that is. Be subdued, Give, Be merciful.
Therefore let that triad be taught, Subduing, Giving,
and Mercy.

Third BRAHMAiVA.
I.

The

Pra^apati

is

the heart,

is

this

Brahman,

syllable

is

hrz,

and

to

him who knows

people and others bring offerings \
da,

is all this.

heart, h;Vdaya, consists of three syllables.

and

to

him who knows

others bring

knows

this,

gifts.

One

this, his

One
own

One syllable is
own people and
yam, and he who

this, his

syllable

is

goes to heaven (svarga) as his world.

Fourth Brahmaa^a.
I.

This (heart) indeed is even that, it was indeed
^ (Brahman).
And whosoever knows this

the true

great glorious first-born as the true Brahman, he

conquers these worlds, and conquered likewise may
that (enemy) be^! yes, whosoever knows this great
^

-Sankara explains that with regard to the heart,

own

i.

e.

buddhi, the

and the objects of the senses 'the others.'
^ The true, not the truth
the truly existing.
The commentator
explains it as it was explained in II, 3, i, as sat and tya, containing
both sides of the Brahman.
^ An
elliptical expression, as explained by the commentator
INIay that one (his enemy) be conquered, just as that one was
senses are

'its

people,'

;

'

V ADHYAYA,

5

BRAHMAJVA,

glorious first-born as the true
is

191

2.

Brahman;

for

Brahman

the true.

Fifth Brahma^va.
In

beginning

was water.
Water produced the true ^ and the true is Brahman.
Brahman produced Pra^apati^ Pra^apati the Devas
(gods).
The Devas adore the true (satyam) alone.
1.

the

this

This satyam consists of three
lable

and

sa,

is

another

(world)

One
The

syllables.

the third

t(i),

^

yam.

sylfirst

middle there is the
This untrue is on both sides enclosed by
the true, and thus the true preponderates.
The
untrue does not hurt him who knows this.
last syllables are true, in the

untrue ^

2.

Now

what

is

the true, that

is the Aditya (the
yonder orb, and the
These two rest on each

sun), the person that dwells in

person

in the right eye.

other, the former resting with his rays in the latter,
the latter with his pra;2as (senses) in the former.

When

the latter is on the point of departing this life,
he sees that orb as white only, and those rays (of the
sun) do not return to him.
conquered by Brahman.

more

his

enemy

!'

It

If

he conquers the world,

would be

better,

however,

if

how much

we could take

we could then go
on with ya evaw veda.
^ Here explainedby
thecommentatorasPutratmakaHirawyagarbha.
2 Here explained as Vira^.
' Satyam is often pronounced satiam, as trisyllabic,
^'ahkara, how-

^ita in the sense of vajikr/ta or danta, because

second syllable as t only, and explains the i after it as
an anubandha. The Ka«va text gives the three syllables as sa, ti, am,
which seems preferable; cf. A7/and. Up. VIII, 3, 5; Taitt. Up. II, 6.

ever, takes the

*

This

is

explained by a mere play on the

having nothing

in

common

letters,

with mntyu, death, whereas

sa
t

and ya

occurs in

anrz'ta.
Dvivedagahga takes sa and am as true, because they occur in satya and amrz'ta, and not in mr/tyu, while ti
is untrue, because the t occurs in mn'tyu and an/7'ta.

mrilyn and

B/27HADARAiVYAKA-lIPANISHAD.

192

Now

3.

of the person in that (solar) orb

BhM

is

the head, for the head

is one, and that syllable is
one Bhuva/^ the two arms, for the arms are two,
and these syllables are two Svar the foot, for the
Its
feet are two, and these syllables are two^
secret name is Ahar (day), and he who knows this,
destroys (hanti) evil and leaves (^ahati) it.
;

;

4.

Of the

person

the right eye Bhu/^

in

the head,

is

head is one, and that syllable is one; Bhuva/^
the two arms, for the arms are two, and these syllables are two; Svar the foot, for the feet are two, and

for the

these syllables are two.
(ego),

Its secret

and he who knows

and leaves

(^ahati)

name

is

Aham

destroys (hanti) evil

this,

it.

Sixth BRAHMAiVA.
I.

That person, under the form of mind (manas),

being light indeed

is

-,

within the heart, small like a

He

grain of rice or barley.
lord of

all

—he rules

all this,

is

the ruler of

whatsoever

all,

the

exists.

Seventh BRAnMAiVA.
I.

They

lightning
(vidanat)^

say that lightning
(vidyut)

is

called

is

so

Brahman, because
from cutting off

Whosoever knows this, that lightning
(that Brahman) cuts off from evil,

Brahman, him

is

for lightning indeed

is

Brahman.

^

Svar has to be pronounced suvar.

^

Bha//satya must be taken as one word, as the commentator

says,

bha eva

satya/;z

sadbhava// svarupaw yasya so 'yam bha/^satyo

bhasvara>^.
^

From

do, avakha7/<^/ane, to cut

;

the lightning cutting through the

darkness of the clouds, as Brahman,
the darkness of ignorance.

when known,

cuts through

V ADHYAYA, lO BRAHMAiVA,

I.

1

93

Eighth BRAHMAiVA.
Let him meditate on speech as a cow. Her
four udders are the words Svaha, Vasha/', Hanta,
and Svadha ^ The gods Hve on two of her udders,
I.

men on
The bull

the Svaha and the Vasha/,

on the Svadha.

fathers

the Hanta, the
of that

cow

is

breath (pra/m), the calf the mind.

Ninth
Agnl Vai^vanara

I.

which the food that
Its noise is that

When

ears.

he

is

BRAiiMAivA.
the

is

eaten

within

fire

cooked,

i.e.

man by
digested.

which one hears, if one covers one's
is on the point of departing this

he does not hear that

life,

is

noise.

Tenth BRAHMAiVA.

When

I.

the person goes

he comes to the wind.
for

him, like

the

hole

away from this world,
the wind makes room

Then

of a

carriage wheel, and

He comes to the sun.
he mounts hia-her.
o
Then the sun makes room for him, like the hole
of a Lambara '\ and through it he mounts higher.
He comes to the moon. Then the moon makes
room for him, like the hole of a drum, and through
it he mounts higher, and arrives at the world where

through
o

there

is

it

no sorrow, no snow ^

There he dwells

eternal years.
^ There are two udders, the Svaha and Vasha/, on which the
gods feed, i. e. words with which oblations are given to the gods.
With Hanta they are given to men, with Svadha to the fathers.

2

A

musical instrument.

The commentator explains hima by
much more characteristic.
^

[^5]

O

bodily pain, but

snow

is

;

Ei?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

194

Eleventh BRAHMAiVA.
I.

laid

This is indeed the highest penance, if a man,
up with sickness, suffers pain^ He who knows

conquers the highest world.
This is indeed the highest penance, if they carry
a dead person into the forest 2. He who knows this,
conquers the highest world.
This is indeed the highest penance, if they place a
dead person on the fire^. He who knows this, conthis,

quers the highest world.

Twelfth BRAHMAiVA.
I.

Some

so, for

say that food

food decays without

that

life (pra;za) is

dries

up without

and

is

life),

Brahman, but this is not
Others say

life (pra;/a).

Brahman, but

food.

Then

this is

not

so, for life

these two deities (food

when they have become

one, reach that

Thereupon Pratrzds. said to his father
Shall I be able to do any
good to one who knows this, or shall I be able to do
him any harm*.?' The father said to him, beckoning
with his hand
Not so, O Pratr/da for who could
highest state

(i.e.

are Brahman).
'

:

*

:

;

reach the highest state,

if

oneness of these two

He

^

The meaning

?'

that, while

is

he

he has only got to the
then said to him
Vi

is

'

:

suffering pain

should think that he was performing penance.

from

If

illness,

he does

he

that,

he obtains the same reward

for his sickness which he would have
obtained for similar pain inflicted on himself for the sake of per-

forming penance.
^

This

is

like the

penance of leaving the

village

and

living in

the forest.
^

This

is like

That
harm him
*

is,
?

is

the

penance of entering

he not so perfect

in

into the

knowledge

fire.

that nothing

can

.

V ADHYAYA,
verily,

on

food

is

He

food.'

I

3

BRAHMAiVA,

4.

I

95

Vi, for all these beings rest (vish/ani)

then said

'

:

Ram

;

verily, life

Ram,

is

for all these beings delight (ramante) in

life.

beings rest on him,

him who

knows

beings delight

all

in

All

this.'

Thirteenth BRAHMAivA.
Next

Uktha \ Verily, breath {pra;m)
is Uktha, for breath raises up (utthapayati) all this.
From him who knows this, there is raised a wise son,
knowing the Uktha he obtains union and oneness
1

follows the

;

with the Uktha.

Next

2.

the

follows

Ya^us, for

all

Ya^us.

Verily,

breath

is

these beings are joined in breath-.

For him who knows

this, all

procure his excellence

;

beings are joined to

he obtains union and one-

ness with the Ya^us.

Next

Saman. Verily, breath is the
Saman, for all these beings meet in breath. For him
who knows this, all beings meet to procure his excellence he obtains union and oneness with the Saman.
Verily, breath is
4. Next follows the Kshatra.
3.

follows the

;

the Kshatra, for breath
tects

(trayate)

He who knows

Kshatra,

is

breath pro-

i.e.

him from being hurt
this,

(ksha/7ito/^).

obtains Kshatra (power), which

requires no protection

;

he obtains union and one-

ness with Kshatra^
^

Meditation on the

hymn

The

fore
'

Kaush.Up.

the uktha, as the

Ill, 3

;

Ait. Ar. II,

i

,

2.

uktha, ya^us, saman, &c. are here represented as forms under

which
2

On

called uktha.

principal part in the Mahavrata, see

pra;/a or

Without
life is

life,

life

and

indirectly

Brahman,

is

to

called ya^us, as

it

i.

e.

the

there-

Madhyan-

Kshatramatram, which Dvivedagahga explains
-

;

were yu^us.

Instead of Kshatram atram, another -Sakha,

dina, reads

be meditated on.

or breath nothing can join anything else

O

2

as,

he

BiWHADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

196

Fourteenth Brahmaa^a.
1. The words Bhumi (earth), Antariksha (sky), and
Dyu^ (heaven) form eight syllables. One foot of the

Gayatri consists of eight syllables.
of

it is

knows

that

(i.

e.

the three worlds).

that foot of

it,

This (one foot)
he who thus

And

conquers as far as the three

worlds extend.

The J^iksLS, the Ya^u;;?shi, and the Samani form
One foot (the second) of the Gayatri

2.

eight syllables.

consists of eight syllables.

that

(i.e.

and Sama-veda).
of

This (one

foot) of

it

is

the three Vedas, the i^/g-veda, Ya^ur-veda,

And

he who thus knows that foot

conquers as far as that threefold knowledge

it,

extends.
3.

The

Pra;^a (the up-breathing), the

down-breathing), and the

form eight

Vyana

One

syllables.

it is

thus

that

knows

(i.

e.

of the

This (one foot)
And he who

the three vital breaths).

that foot of

it,

anything that breathes.

is

(the

(the back-breathing)

foot (the third)

Gayatri consists of eight syllables.
of

Apana

or speech) this indeed

is

conquers as far as there

And

of that (Gayatri,

the fourth

(turiya), the

bright (darjata) foot, shining high above the skies ^.

What

is

/^aturtha

here called turiya (the fourth)
(the

fourth)

padam
as
is

;

what

is

called

is

meant

for

dar^atam
him who is

(the bright foot) is meant for
were seen (the person in the sun) and what
called parora^^as (he who shines high above the
it

;

obtains the nature of the Kshatra, or he obtains the Kshatra which
protects (Kshatram atram).
^

^

viz.

Dyu, nom. Dyaus, must be pronounced Diyaus.
Parora_^as, masc, should be taken as one word,
he who is beyond all ra^as, all visible skies.

like

paroksha,

V ADHYAYA,
skies)

is

meant

for

above every sky.

1

4 BRAHMAiVA,

5.

1

97

him who shines higher and higher
And he who thus knows that foot

of the Gayatrt, shines thus himself also with happiness and glory.

That Gayatri

4.

(as described before with its three

on that fourth foot, the bright one, high
above the sky. And that again rests on the True (satyam), and the True is the eye, for the eye is (known
to be) true. And therefore even now, if two persons
come disputing, the one saying, I saw, the other,
I heard, then we should trust the one who says, I
And the True again rests on force (balam),
saw.
and force is life (pra/^a), and that (the True) rests on
feet) rests

Therefore they say, force is stronger than the
True. Thus does that Gayatri rest with respect to
That Gayatri protects (tatre) the
the self (as life).
the gayas are the pra/^as
(gayas)
breaths
vital

life^

;

(vital breaths),

and

it

protects them.

And

because

it

protects (tatre) the vital breaths (gayas), therefore

it

is

called Gayatri.

And

the teacher teaches ^ that
indirectly the Gayatri)

;

that Savitri verse which

is it

(the

life,

the pra;2a, and

and whomsoever he teaches,

he protects his vital breaths.
teach that Savitri as an Anush/ubh^ verse,
saying that speech is Anush/ubh, and that we teach
5.

^

Some

6'ahkara understood the True (satyam) by tad, not the balam,

the force.

who is brought to him when
making him repeat each word,
and each half verse, till he knows the whole, and by teaching him
that Savitri, he is supposed to teach him really the pra«a, the life,
2

The

teacher teaches his pupil,

eight years old, the Savitri verse,

as the self of the world.
^

The
Tat

verse would be, Rig-veda V, 82,1:
savitur

Sresh//ia.?ti

vrzwimahe

vaya?;/

devasya bho^anam

sarvadhatama/?z turam bhagasya dhimahi.

:

B2?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

198

let him teach
one who knows
this receives what seems to be much as his reward
(as a teacher), yet this is not equal to one foot of the

Let no one do

that speech.

but

this,

And even

the Gayatri as Savitri^

if

Gayatri.

man

If a

6.

these three worlds
that

first

were

(a teacher)
full

of

to receive as his fee

things,

all

foot of the Gayatri.

And

he would obtain
a man were to

if

receive as his fee everything as far as this threefold

knowledge extends, he would obtain that second
foot of the Gayatri.
And if a man were to receive
as his fee everything whatsoever breathes, he would
obtain that third foot of the Gayatri. But 'that fourth
bright foot, shining high above the skies ^', cannot
be obtained by anybody
whence then could one

receive such a fee

The

7.
*

O

feet,

?

adoration^ of that (Gayatri)

Gayatri, thou hast one foot, two feet, three

Thou

four feet^

known.

Worship

the skies.'

If^

art footless, for thou art not

to thy fourth

one (who knows

^
Because Gayatri represents
he learns the Gayatri.

^

See before,

§ 2.

^

Upasthana

is

Angehen, with

the act

life,

bright foot above
this)

hates

and the pupil receives

of approaching the gods,

a view of obtaining a request.

Here

some

life

when

npoa-Kiivrja-is,

the application

of two kinds, abhiMrika, imprecatory against another, and
abhyudayika, auspicious for oneself. The former has two formulas,

is

An upasthana
connected with the Gayatri.

the latter one.

*

here represented as effective,

I

have translated

from ^ahkara.

The

and the fourth
this

foot, as described before.

paragraph very

question

is,

freely,

the

and

whether dvishyat with

words should be construed.

differently

iti can be
do not see
The expression yasma upa-

used in the sense of abhiHra, or imprecation.

how

if

Consisting of the three worlds, the threefold knowledge, the

threefold vital breaths,
®

is

If not, I

!

V ADHYAYA,

one and says,

'

May

I

BRAHMAiVA,

5

he not obtain

I99

2.

this,'

or

'

May

this

wish not be accomphshed to him,' then that wish is
not accomphshed to him against whom he thus prays,
or if he says, May I obtain this.'
8. And thus 6^anaka Vaideha spoke on this point
'

to Bu^ila A^vatara^vi

M 'How

is

it

who

that thou

spokest thus as knowing the Gayatri, hast become
an elephant and earnest me ?' He answered 'Your
:

Majesty,

I

did not

know

its

mouth.

Agni,

fire,

is

indeed its mouth and if people pile even what seems
much (wood) on the fire, it consumes it all. And
thus a man who knows this, even if he commits what
seems much evil, consumes it all and becomes pure,
clean, and free from decay and death.'
;

Fifteenth BRAHMAiVA.
1.

2

The

face of the

with a golden disk^.

may
2.

True

Open

(the

Brahman)

that,

O

is

covered

PCishan^ that

we

see the nature of the True^.

O

Piishan, only seer,

Yama (judge), Surya

(sun),

son of Pra^apati^ spread thy rays and gather them
tish///ate

rightly explained

is

by Dvivedagahga, yadartham evam

upatish/z^ate.
^

Ajvatarasyajvasyapatyam, .Sahkara.

2

These

text, are

They

verses,

found

in the Madhyandina
end of the Va^asaneyi-iipanishad 15-18.
be a prayer addressed to Aditya by a dying

which are omitted here

at the

are supposed to

person.

Mahidhara on verse 17:' The face of the true (purusha in the
^ankara explains here mukha,
is covered by a golden disk.'
face, by mukhyaw svarupam, the principal form or nature.
* Pushan is here explained as a name of Savitr/, the sun
likewise all the names in the next verse.
« Cf. Maitr. Up. VI,
35.
^

sun)

;

"

Of

Ijvara or Hirawyagarbha.

!

200

The

B7?7HADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

which

light

what he
3.

!

is (viz.

Breath to

my body

ends

Remember

thy fairest form,

is

I

see

it.

I

am

the person in the sun).
air

and

in

to the immortal

Om

ashes.

thy deeds

!

!

Then

!

this

Mind, remember

Mind, remember

Remem-

!

ber thy deeds^
4.

Agni, lead us on to wealth (beatitude) by a good

path^ thou, O God, who knowest all things! Keep
from us crooked evil, and we shall offer thee the

far

fullest praise

^

!

(Rv.

I,

The Va^asaneyi-saOThita

189,

reads

i.)

:

Om,

krato smara,

k/z'be

smara,

Uva/a holds that Agni, fire, who has been worshipped in youth and manhood, is here invoked in the form of
mind, or that kratu is meant for sacrifice. 'Agni, remember me!
'kriiam smara.

Think of the world! Remember my deeds!' K//be is explained
by Mahidhara as a dative of k/;p, k//p meaning loka, world, what
is

made to be enjoyed (kalpyate bhogaya).
Not by the Southern path, the dark, from which
"^

fresh return to

life.

there

is

a

ADHYAYA,

VI

I

BRAIIMAA^A,

20I

5.

SIXTH ADHYAYA.
First BRAHMAiVA^

He who knows

Om.

first and
and the best
among his people. Breath is indeed the first and
He who knows this, becomes the first
the best.
and the best among his people, and among whom-

Harl/^,

1.

the best, becomes himself the

soever he wishes to be

He who knows

2.

the richest

among

the

first

so.

the richest^ becomes himself

his people.

Speech

is

the richest.

this, becomes the richest among his
among whomsoever he wishes to be so.
3. He who knows the firm rest, becomes himself
The eye indeed
firm on even and uneven ground.
is the firm rest, for by means of the eye a man
He who
stands firm on even and uneven ground.
knows this, stands firm on even and uneven ground.
4. He who knows success, whatever desire he
desires, it succeeds to him. The ear indeed is suc-

He who knows

people, and

cess.

He

For in the ear are all these Vedas
who knows this, whatever desire he

successful.
desires,

it

succeeds to him.

He who knows

5.

of his
^

1.

own

people, a

of

all

men.

(p.

occurs in the INIadhyandina-^akha

XIV,

compared with the AVzandogya-upanishad V,
the East, vol.
Ill,
2

10 10,

This Brahma«a, also called a Khila

8),

3

;

i,

p.

72);

vasish///a.

1.

i

8
It

9, 2.

;

p.

1029,

should be

(Sacred Books of

also with the Ait. Ar. II, 4

and the Prajwa Up.

Here used

home
The mind

the home, becomes a

home

;

Kaush. Up.

II, 3.

as a feminine, while in the

-Oand. Up. V,

i, it is

:

202

Bi?/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

He who knows
own people and a home

the home.

becomes
men.
6. He who knows generation \ becomes rich in
offspring- and cattle. Seed indeed is generation.
He
who knows this, becomes rich in offspring and cattle.
7. These Pra/^as (senses), when quarrelling together as to who was the best, went to Brahman^
and said
Who is the richest of us ?' He replied
He by whose departure this body seems worst, he
indeed

a

is

home

of his

this,

of

all

'

:

:

*

the richest.'

is

8. The tongue (speech) departed, and having
been absent for a year, it came back and said
How have you been able to live without me ?'
They replied
Like unto people, not speaking with
'

'

:

the tongue, but breathing with breath, seeing with
the eye, hearing with the ear, knowing with the

Thus we have lived.'
Then speech entered in.
9. The eye (sight) departed, and having been
absent for a year, it came back and said
How
?'
have you been able to live without me
They remind, generating with seed.

'

:

Like blind people, not seeing with the eye,
but breathing with the breath, speaking with the
plied

'

:

tongue, hearing with

the

mind, generating with seed.

Then

the eye entered

The

10.

knowing with the
Thus we have lived.'

ear,

in.

ear (hearing) departed, and having been

absent for a year,

it

came back and

^

'

:

This

is

How

'

wanting in the ^//and. Up. Roer and Foley read Pra^apati

MS. I. O. 375 has pra^ati, MS. I. O. 1973 pra^apati.
Here we have Pra^apati, instead of Brahman, in the ^/^and.

for pra^ati,
^

Up.

*
:

to live without me ?
They reLike deaf people, not hearing with the ear,

have you been able
plied

said

;

also siesh/Aa. instead of vasish//;a.

:
:

ADHYAYA,

VI

BRAHMAiVA,

I

1

2O3

4.

but breathing with the breath, speaking with the
tongue, seeing with the eye, knowing with the mind,

Thus we have

generating with seed.
the ear entered

The mind

11.

for a year,

been able
fools,

to

departed, and having been absent

came back and

it

Then

Hved.'

in.

Hve without

me

How

have you
They repHed 'Like

said
?'

'

:

:

not knowing with their mind, but breathing

with the breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with

Thus we have

the ear, generating with seed.

Then
12.

the

mind entered

The

for a year,

In.

seed departed, and having been absent

came back and

it

been able
'

lived.'

to

live

said

me

without

'

:

?
'

How

have you

They

replied

Like Impotent people, not generating with seed,

but breathing with the breath, seeing with the eye,
hearingf with the ear, knowinor with the mind. Thus

we have lived.' Then the seed entered in.
13. The (vital) breath, when on the point

of de-

up these senses, as a great, excellent
horse of the Sindhu country might tare up the pegs
Sir,
They said to him
to which he is tethered.
do not depart. We shall not be able to live without
He said
Then make me an offering.'
thee.'
They said
Let it be so.'
parting, tore

'

:

'

:

'

:

14.

Then

the tongue said:

'

then thou art the richest by
'

If

am

I

firm rest

If

I

it'

am

the richest,

The

eye said

the firm rest, then thou art possessed of

by

It'

The

ear said

'
:

If

then thou art possessed of success by
said
it.'

*
:

If

The

I

am

the home, thou

seed said

'
:

If

I

possessed of generation by

be food, what

shall

am
it.'

be dress

am

I

success,

The mind
the home by

It.'

art

generation, thou art

He

for

said

me

?'

'
:

What

shall

^

;'

B;27HADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

204

They
worms,

replied:

2,

Whatever there

and birds \ that

insects,

He who

thy dress.
breath)

'

thus

by him nothing

food, nothing

is

knows
is

even unto dogs,

the food of

eaten that

received that

(Vedic theologians)

6'rotriyas

is,

thy food, and water

is

is

Ana

(the

not (proper)

not (proper) food.

is

who know

this, rinse

mouth with water when they are going to eat, and
mouth with water after they have eaten,

the

rinse the

thinking that thereby they

make

the breath dressed

(with water).'

Second Brahmaa^a'.
6Vetaketu Aru/^eya went to the settlement of
the Pa;K'alas.
He came near to Pravaha;^a Ga.i1.

who was walking about (surrounded by

vali^,

As

men).
'

My

boy

Then

soon as he (the king) saw him, he said

!'

^'vetaketu replied

the king said

your father

his

!
*

'

'
:

'

:

:

!'

Sir

Have you been

taught by

Yes,' he replied.

Do you know how men, when
they depart from here, separate from each other ?
No,' he replied.
The

2.

king said

'

:

'

Do

you know how they come
world?'
No,' he replied
'

back to

this

'

^

may mean,

It

worms,

insects,

every kind of food, such as

and

is

eaten by dogs,

birds.

We

must read, with MS. I.O. 375, anasyannam, not annasyanI.O. 1973, Roer, and Foley read. Weber has the right
reading, which is clearly suggested by J^/iand. Up. V, 2, i.
' See ^/;and. Up. V,
Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, I, 433
3
Deussen,Vedanta, p. 390. The commentator treats this chapter as
^

nam,

as

MS.

;

a supplement, to explain the ways that lead to the pitr/loka and
the devaloka.

The

O. 375 and 1973 give Gaivali, others Gaibali.
who appears also in A7/and. Up. I, 8, i, as
silencing Brahmawas.
*

He

^

is

]MSS.

I.

a Kshatriya sage,

The same

question

is

repeated in Roer's edition, only substi-

ADHYAYA,

VI

2

BRAHMAiVA,

205

4.

Do

you know how that world does never become
with the many who again and again depart

'

full

thither?'

'

No,' he replied.

Do you know

'

at the offering of

which libation

the waters become endowed with a human voice
No,' he replied.
and speak ?'
access
to the path leading to
the
know
Do you
the Devas and to the path leading to the Fathers,
i.e. by what deeds men gain access to the path lead-

and

rise

'

'

to the Devas or to that leadins^ to the Fathers ?
For we have heard even the saying of a 7?/shi " I
heard of two paths for men, one leading to the
inor

:

Fathers, the other leading to the Devas.

On

those

all that lives moves on, whatever there is between father (sky) and mother (earth)."
I do not know even one of all
^Svetaketu said

paths

'

'

:

these questions.'

Then

3.

the king invited him to stay and accept

But the boy, not caring for hospitality, ran away, went back to his father, and said
!'
Thus then you called me formerly well-instructed
What then, you sage ?' The son
The father said
replied
That fellow of a Ra^anya asked me five
questions, and I did not know one of them.'

his hospitality.

:

'

'

:

'

:

'

'

What were

they

These were

?
'

said the father.

the son replied, mentioning

they,'

the different heads.
4.

The

whatever

go

thither,
*

father said
I

know,

You know me,

told you.

and dwell there as

You may

child,

But come, we

that
shall

students.'

go. Sir,' the son replied.

sampadyante
do not support this.

tuting

I

'

:

for apadyante.

The MSS.

I.

O. 375 and 1973

'

206

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISIIAD.

Then Gautama went where

(the place of) Prava-

and the king offered him a seat,
ordered water for him, and gave him the proper
offerings.
Then he said to him
Sir, we offer a
boon to Gautama.'
That boon is promised to
5. Gautama said
me tell me the same speech which you made in
ha;^a (9aivah was,

'

:

'

:

;

the presence of

my

boy.'

6. He said
'That belongs
one of the human boons.'
:

7.

He

said

'
:

You know

to divine boons,

well that

name

have plenty of
and
have already in

I

gold, plenty of cows, horses, slaves, attendants,

do not heap on me what I
and superabundance.'
The king said
Gautama, do you wish
struction from me) in the proper way ?

apparel

'

;

plenty, in abundance,
*

:

(for in-

Gautama replied
I come to you as a pupil.'
In word only have former sages (though Brahmans) come as pupils (to people of lower rank), but
Gautama actually dwelt as a pupil (of Pravaha/^a,
who was a Ra^anya) in order to obtain the fame of
'

:

having respectfully served his master

2.

Abhyavadanya is explained as niggardly, or unwilling to
and derived from vadanya, liberal, a-vadanya, illiberal, and
'

towards.

This,

Vadanya means

however,
liberal,

derived from avadana,

lit.

give,

abhi,

is
an impossible form in Sanskrit.
and stands for avadanya, this being
what is cut off, then a morsel, a gift. In

abhyavadanya the original a reappears, so that abhyavadanya
means, not niggardly, but on the contrary, liberal, i. e. giving more
than

is required.
Avadanya has never been met with in the sense
of niggardly, and though a rule of Pacini sanctions the formation of
a-vadanya, it does not say in what sense.
Abhyavada in the sense

of cutting off in addition occurs in 6'atap. Br.

II, 5, 2,

40

;

avadanaw/

making a present, occurs Maitr. Up. VI, 33.
The commentator takes the opposite view. In times of

karoti, in the sense of
2

distress,

he says, former sages, belonging to a higher caste, have

VI

The

8.

ADHYAYA,

king said

*
:

BRAHMAA^A,

2

Do

207

II.

not be offended with us,

neither you nor your forefathers, because this know-

now never dwelt with any BrahBut I shall tell it to you, for who could
refuse you when you speak thus ?
The altar (fire), O Gautama, is that world
9.
(heaven)'-; the fuel is the sun itself, the smoke his
ledge has before

ma;/a ^

'

rays, the light the day, the coals the quarters, the

sparks the
the

that

altar

offer the i'raddha libation (consisting of

From

water ^).

On

intermediate quarters.

Devas

that oblation rises

Soma, the king

(the moon).
10.

The

'

of rain)

;

altar,

the fuel

O

Gautama,

is

the year

is

Par^anya (the god

itself,

smoke the

the

clouds, the light the lightning, the coals the thunder-

Devas

On

sparks the thunderings.

bolt, the

Soma, the king

offer

that altar the

From

that

world'*;

the

(the moon).

oblation rises rain.
11.

fuel

is

'The

altar,

the earth

O

Gautama,

itself,

is

this

smoke the

the

fire,

the light

the night, the coals the moon, the sparks the stars.

On

that

Devas

the

altar

From

offer rain.

that

oblation rises food.
submitted to become pupils to teachers of a lower caste, not, howorder to learn, but simply in order to

ever, in

Gautama
against

VII,
^

I,

becomes a pupil

also

all

law

to

my

otherwise.

act

ed. Stenzler;

Here, too,

in

translated

translation

by
is

name

Therefore

live.

only, for

it

would be

See Gautama, Dharma-sutras
Biihler, p. 209.

hypothetical,

and

differs

widely

from 6'ahkara.
2

Cf. Z/^and.

^

Deussen

Up. V,

translates

4.
:

'

In diesem Feuer opfern die Gotter den

Glauben.'
*

Here a

distinction is

przthivi, earth, while

asau loka the heaven.

made between

in the

ayara loka, this world,

AV^and. Up. aya;« loka

is

and

the earth,

Bi2/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

2o8

'The

12.

O

altar,

Gautama,

is

man; the

fuel the

opened mouth, the smoke the breath, the

light the

tongue, the coals the eye, the sparks the ear.
that altar the

Devas

offer food.

O

Gautama,

From

On

that oblation

rises seed.

'The altar,
Devas

13.

altar

the

rises

man.

He

offer

seed.

is woman ^
On that
From that oblation

lives so long as

when he dies,
14. 'They take him

he

lives,

to the fire (the funeral pile),

and then the altar-fire is indeed fire, the
the smoke smoke, the light light, the coals

fuel fuel,
coals, the

Devas

In that very altar-fire the

sparks sparks.
offer

and then

man, and from that oblation man

rises, brilliant

in colour.
15.

'

Those who thus know

this (even Grzhasthas),

and those who in the forest worship faith and the
True ^ (Brahman Hira??yagarbha), go to light (ar^Is), from light to day, from day to the increasing
half, from the increasing half to the six months
when the sun goes to the north, from those six
months to the world of the Devas (Devaloka), from
the world of the Devas to the sun, from the sun to the
place of lightning. When they have thus reached the
place of lightning a spirit^ comes near them, and leads
them to the worlds of the (conditioned) Brahmian.

Brahman they dwell

In these worlds of
ages.
^

There

is

no returning

Tasya upastha eva

samil,

for

exalted for

them.

lomani dhumo, yonir

ar/^ir,

yad

anta^karoti te 'hgara, abhinanda visphulihga/;.
^

and

6'ahkara translates,
this

seems

'

those

who

with faith worship the True,'

better.

^
A person Hving in the Brahma-world, sent
by Brahman, by the mind,' ^ahkara. •' Der
'

Mensch,' Deussen,

p.

392.

forth,
ist

i.

e.

nicht

created,

wie ein

VI

ADHYAYA,

3 BRAHMAiVA,

209

I.

But they who conquer the worlds (future
by means of sacrifice, charity, and austerity,
go to smoke, from smoke to night, from night to the
decreasing half of the moon, from the decreasing
half of the moon to the six months when the sun
goes to the south, from these months to the world
of the fathers, from the world of the fathers to the
moon. Having reached the moon, they become food,
and then the Devas feed on them there, as sacrificers
feed on Soma, as it increases and decreases ^
But
when this (the result of their good works on earth)
ceases, they return again to that ether, from ether
16.

'

states)

from the air to rain, from rain to the
they have reached the earth, they
become food, they are offered again in the altar-fire,
which is man (see § ii), and thence are born in the
fire of woman. Thus they rise up towards the worlds,
and go the same round as before.
Those, however, who know neither of these two
paths, become worms, birds, and creeping things.'
to the
earth.

air,

And when

'

Third BRAHMAivA
T.

If a

man

performing

^

wishes to reach greatness (wealth for

sacrifices),

during twelve days

^ (i.

he performs the upasad rule
he lives on small quantities

e.

of milk), beginning on an auspicious day of the light
half of the

moon during the northern

sun, collecting at the

same time

in

progress of the

a cup or a dish

^
See note 4 on ^/^and. Up.V, 10, and Deussen,Vedanta, p. 393.
.Sankara guards against taking apyayasvapakshiyasva as a IMantra.

A similar construction is^ayasva mr/yasva, see AVmnd. Up. V, 10,
2

Up.
*

Madhyandina

text, p,

1103

;

cf.

A'y^and.

Up. V,

2,

4-8

;

8.

Kaush.

II, 3.

Yasmin puwye

ham evarabhya
[15]

'nukijle 'hni

karma

/^ikirshati tatay^

dvadai'aham upasadvrati.

P

prak puwya-

:

Bi27HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

2IO

made
ing

of

Udumbara wood

He

fruits.

all

sweeps the

avasathya), sprinkles

altar,

sorts of herbs, includ-

the house-

floor (near
it,

lays the

fire,

spreads

according to rule ^ prepares the clarigrass round
fied butter (afya), and on a day, presided over by a
it

male star (nakshatra),

Mantha^

the

he
'

pours a^ya Into the

honey, &c.),
fire),

saying

"'

G^atavedas, whatever adverse gods there are in

thee,

who

this

portion

with

all desires.'

'

having properly mixed

(the herbs, fruits, milk,

sacrifices (he

O

after

That

them

defeat the desires of men, to

may

;

I

offer

me

they, being pleased, please

Svaha

cross deity

!

who

lies

down

^,

thinking that

all things are kept asunder by her, I worship thee
Svaha
as propitious with this stream of ghee.'
!

2.

He

then says, Svaha to the First, Svaha to

the Best, pours ghee into the

remains into the

He

then says,

is the richest,

fire,

and throws what

Mantha (mortar).
Svaha to Breath, Svaha

pours ghee into the

fire,

to her

who

and throws

Mantha (mortar).
to Speech, Svaha to the
Svaha
He then says,
Support, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what
remains into the Mantha (mortar).
He then says, Svaha to the Eye, Svaha to Success,
pours ghee into the fire, and throws what rem.ains
into the Mantha (mortar).
He then says, Svaha to the Ear, Svaha to the

what remains

^

As

into the

the whole act

is

considered smarta, not jrauta, the order to

that of the sthalipaka.

be observed
^ Dravadravye prakshipta mathita/z saktava//
of Mantha, given in (7aimin. N. M.V. p. 406.
(avr/t)

^

These verses

is

are

The Madhyandinas

the explanation

not explained by 6'ahkara, and they are

absent in the ^>^and. Up. V,
*

is

2, 6, 4.

read nipadyase.

VI

ADHYAYA,

3

BRAHMAA^A,

211

3.

Home, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what
remains into the Mantha (mortar).
He then says, Svaha to the Mind, Svaha to Offspring, pours ghee into the fire, and throws what
remains into the Mantha (mortar).
He then says, Svaha to Seed, pours ghee into the fire,
and throws what remains into the Mantha (mortar).
3.

He

into

the

Mantha

He
the

then says, Svaha to Agni
fire,

(fire),

pours ghee

and throws what remains

into

the

(mortar).

then says, Svaha to Soma, pours ghee into
and throws what remains into the Mantha

fire,

(mortar).

He

then says, Bhu// (earth), Svaha, pours ghee
fire, and throws what remains into the

the

into

Mantha

(mortar).

He

then says, Bhuva/^ (sky), Svaha, pours ghee
into the fire, and throws what remains into the

Mantha

He
into

(mortar).

then says, Sva/i (heaven), Svaha, pours ghee
fire, and throws what remains into the

the

Mantha

(mortar).

He

then says, Bhiir, Bhuva/^, Sva/i, Svaha, pours
ghee into the fire, and throws what remains into the

Mantha

He

(mortar).

then says, Svaha to Brahman (the priesthood),

pours ghee into the
into the

Mantha

fire,

and throws what remains

(mortar).

He then says, Svaha to Kshatra (the knighthood),
pours ghee into the fire, and throws what remxains
into the Mantha (mortar).
He

then says, Svaha to the Past, pours ghee into
the fire, and throws what remains into the Mantha
(mortar).
p 2

2

Bi2JIIADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

2

I

He
into

then says, Svaha to the Future, pours ghee

the

Mantha

He

the

into

then says, Svaha to the Universe, pours ghee

into the

He

and throws what remains

fire,

Mantha
the

and throws what remains

fire,

(mortar).

into

the

ghee

into

(mortar).

then says, Svaha to

all

things, pours

and throws what remains

fire,

Mantha

into the

(mortar).

He
into

then says, Svaha to Pra^apati, pours ghee

the

Mantha
4.

and throws what remains

fire,

touches

it

(the

Mantha, which

is

dedi-

Thou art fleet (as
Thou art full
Brahman). Thou art firm (as the sky). Thou
the abode of all (as the earth). Thou hast been

cated to Pra;za, breath), saying

(as

the

(mortar).

Then he

breath).

art

into

Thou

Hin

saluted with

by the

art

burning (as

(at the

prastotr?).

Thou

'

:

fire).

beginning of the
art saluted with

the middle of the sacrifice by the prastotrz").

sacrifice

Hih

(in

Thou

hast been sung (by the udgatrt at the beginning of

Thou

sung (by the udgatrz in the
Thou hast been celebrated
(by the adhvaryu at the beginning of the sacrifice).
Thou art celebrated again (by the agnidhra in the
middle of the sacrifice). Thou art bright in the wet
the sacrifice).

middle of the

art

sacrifice).

Thou

the eater).

Thou art powerful. Thou
Thou art light (as Agni, fire,
Thou art the end. Thou art the ab-

sorption (of

all

(cloud).

art great.

art food (as Soma).

'

things).'

5. Then he holds it (the Mantha) forth,
Thou knowest all, we know thy greatness.
^

^

saying

He

:

is

These curious words a ma7«si a mawhi te mahi are not
Anandagiri explains them as I have trans-

explained by vS'ahkara.

!

VI

72

Then he
^

ruler, the

make me

king, that ruler
6.

3 BRAHMAiVA,

ADHYAYA,

indeed a king, a

yam (We

:!

'

eats

it,

213

7.

highest lord.

May

that

the highest lord.'

'Tat savitur vare-

saying:

meditate on that adorable light)

— The

winds drop honey for the righteous, the rivers drop
Bhu/i
honey, may our plants be sweet as honey
!

Svaha

(earth)

Bhargo devasya dhimahi (of the divine
May the night be honey in the morning,
Savitr/)
may the air above the earth, may heaven, our father,
'

be honey

Bhuva/^ (sky) Svaha

!

'Dhiyo yo

!

pro/§odayat (who should rouse
our thoughts) May the tree be full of honey, may
the sun be full of honey, may our cows be sweet like
Sva/^ (heaven) Svaha
honey
He repeats the whole Savitri verse, and all the
verses about the honey, thinking. May I be all this
Having thus swalBhur, Bhuva/^, Sva//, Svaha
lowed all, he washes his hands, and sits down behind
In the
the altar, turning his head to the East.
morning he worships Aditya (the sun), with the
hymn, Thou art the best lotus of the four quarters,
may I become the best lotus among men.' Then
na./i

!

!

!

'

returning as he came, he

and

sits

recites the genealogical

down behind

the altar

list^.

7. Uddalaka Aru;^i told this (Mantha-doctrine) to
his pupil Va^asaneya Ya^/Iavalkya, and said: 'If
a man were to pour it on a dry stick, branches would
grow, and leaves spring forth.'

lated them.

They correspond

idam' in the jOand. Up. V,

amo
'

'sy

ama;«

to

'

amo namasy ama hi te sarvam
The Madhyandinas read

2, 6, 6.

hi te mayi, sa hi rag^, &c.

:

Dvivedagahga

translates

thou art the knower, thy knowledge extends to me.'
1

Rv.

^

This probably refers to the

Ill, 62, 10.
list

immediately following.

.

B/?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

2 14

V^^asaneya Ya^;1avalkya told the same to his
pupil Madhuka Pairigya, and said
If a man were to
pour it on a dry stick, branches would grow, and
8.

'

:

leaves spring forth,'
9.

Madhuka Paingya

told the

same

to his pupil

man were to pour
branches would grow, and leaves

A'ula Bhagavitti, and said: *If a

on a dry

it

stick,

spring forth.'
10.

6^anaki Ayasthii;^a, and said

pour

it

on a dry

leaves spring
1 1

stick,

'

:

it

to his pupil

man were

If a

to

branches would grow, and

forth.'

6^anaki Ayasthiuza told the

Satyakama
pour

same

A'ula Bhagavitti told the

6^abala,

on a dry

and said

stick,

'
:

same

If a

to his pupil

man were

to

branches would grow, and

leaves spring forth.'
1

2.

Satyakama (Cabala

told the

same

to his pupils,

and said: If a man were to pour it on a dry stick,
branches would grow, and leaves spring forth.'
Let no one tell this ^ to any one, except to a son
'

or to a pupil
13.

^.

Four things are made of the wood of the

Udumbara

tree, the sacrificial ladle (sruva), the

cup

and the two churning sticks.
There are ten kinds of village (cultivated) seeds,
viz. rice and barley (brihiyavas), sesamum and kidneybeans (tilamashas), millet and panic seed (a;^upriyahgavas), wheat (godhumas), lentils (masuras), pulse
(khalvas), and vetches (khalakulas ^).
After having
(/^amasa), the fuel,

^

The Mantha-doctrine

^

It

with the prawadarjana.
Comm,
probably means to no one except to one's own son and
to one's own disciple.
Cf. Svet. Up. VI, 22.
^ I have given the English names after Roer, who, living
in India,

had the best opportunity of identifying the various kinds of plants
The commentators do not help us much. ^Sahkara

here mentioned.

VI ADIIYAYA, 4 BRAMMAiVA,

215

2.

ground these he sprinkles them with curds (dadhi),
honey, and ghee, and then offers (the proper portions) of clarified butter

(a^ya).

^

Fourth Brahmaa^a^,

The

1.

water

is

earth

the essence of

is

these things,

all

the essence of the earth, plants of water,

man

flowers of plants, fruits of flowers,

of

fruits,

seed of man.

And

2.

for him,

Prafapati thought,

and he created a

me make

let

woman

an abode

(6'atarupa).

Ta.m^ sr/sh/vadha upasta, tasmat striyam adha
Sa etam prafi/cam grava/^am atmana eva
upasita.
samudaparayat, tenainam abhyasr/c-'at.
says that in

Kafigu

;

some

places Priyahgu (panic seed or millet)

that Khalva, pulse,

Khalakula, vetches,

Anu

is

called

is

also called

commonly

Kulattha.

is

called

Nishpava and Valla, and
Dvivedaganga adds that

Guzerat Moriya, Priyangu Kangu, Khalva, as

in

nishpava, Valla, and Khalakula Kulattha.
^

According

2

This Brahma«a

to the rules laid
is

down

inserted here

in the proper Gr/hya-sutras.

because there

is

supposed

be some similarity between the preparation of the .S'rimantha
and the Putramantha, or because a person who has performed the

to

6'rimantha
says

:

is

to

fit

perform the Putramantha.

Franadavsina/i jrimantha/?;

'dhikara/z.

Yada

karma

Thus

kr/tavata/z

^Safikara

putramantha

putramantha;;; ^'ikirshati tada j-rimantha;;; bVlva

ntukala;;; patnya/^ (brahma/^arye;2a) pratikshata

iti.

have given those portions of the text which did not admit of
It was not easy, however, to
translation into English, in Sanskrit.
^

I

Poley's text

determine always the text of the Ka;;va-sakha.
always correct, and Roer seems simply to repeat

mentary, which

is

meant

for the Ka;;va text,

towards the end of the Upanishad.

It is

it.

is

not

^ahkara's com-

becomes very short

quite sufficient for the pur-

pose of a translation, but by no means always for restoring a correct
text.
MS. Wilson 369, which has been assigned to theKa7;va-jakha,

and which our Catalogue attributes to the same school, gives the
Madhyandina text, and so does MS. Mill 108. I have therefore collated two MSS. of the India Office, which Dr. Rost had the kindness
to select for me, MS. 375 and MS. 1973, which I call A. and B.

i

I

B727HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

6

Tasyi vedir upastho, lomani barhij", y^armadhlshava;^e, samlddho ^ madhyatas, tau mushkau.
Sa yavan ha vai va^apeyena ya^amanasya loko
3.

bhavati tavan asya loko bhavati ya Qva.m vidvan
adhopahasa;?^ ^araty a sa^ strbiam sukritam vrnikte

ya idam avidvan adhopahasaw
sukr/taM vrmg-ate.

'tha

/^araty

asya

striya/^

Etad dha sma vai tadvldvan Uddalaka Aru;/ir
sma vai tadvidvan Nako Maudgalya ahaitad dha sma vai tadvidvan Kumaraharita aha, bahavo
marya brahma/^ayana^ nirindriya visukmo'smal lokat
prayanti* ya idam avidva;;2SO 'dhopahasa;// /^arantiti.
Bahu va^ idaw suptasya va^agrato va reta/^ skandati,
me
5. Tad abhimr/i^ed anu va mantrayeta yan
'dya reta// pmhivim askantsid yad oshadhir apy
asarad yad apa/^, idam aha;;^ tad reta adade punar
4.

ahaitad dha

mam

aitv indriyam

punas

punar bhaga/z, punar
agnayo " dhish;^ya yathasthanaw kalpantam, ity
anamikangushZ/^abhyam adayantare;/a stanau va
bhruvau va nimrzvZ^'^'at
te£3./i

'^.

6.

If a

man

see himself in the water ^ he should

^ Roer reads samidho, but
-S'ahkara and Dvivedaganga clearly
presuppose samiddho, which is in A. and B.
^ Roer has as^m sa stri;/am,
Foley, A. and B. have asa.m stri??am.

6'ahkara (MS. INIill 64) read a sa stri?zam, and later on asya striya/z,
though both Roer and Foley leave out the a here too (a asyeti k/ieddi/i).
^ Brahma/zayana^, the same
as brahmabandhava/^, i. e. Brahmans
by descent only, not by knowledge.
* NarakaOT ga/^^/^antityartha/z.
Dvivedaganga.
^

Bahu va svalpaw

va.

The Madhyandinatext

has agnayo, and Dvivedaganga explains
by dhishwya agnaya/2 jartrasthita//. Foley and Roer have punar
agnir dhishwya, and so have A. and B.
^

it

^

^

Nirm;7^yat, A.

nimrm^yat, B.
Dvivedaganga adds, retoyonav udake
;

yadarjane prayaj>^ittam aha.

reta/^si/J-as

tatra

svuMM-

VI

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

recite the following verse

May

'

:

21 7

lO.

there be in

me

splendour, strength, glory, wealth, virtue.'

She

women whose garments are
him approach a woman whose
and whose fame is pure, and

the best of

is

pure ^ Therefore
garments are pure,

let

address her.
him, as he likes, bribe
then do not give in,
she
her (with presents).
let him, as he likes, beat her with a stick or with his
If

7.

she do not give

in 2, let

And

if

hand, and overcome her^ saying: 'With manly
and
strength and glory I take away thy glory,'

thus she becomes unglorious
8.

If she give in,

and glory

he says

'
:

give thee glory,'

I

*.

With manly strength

— and

thus they both

become glorious.
artha;;^
9. Sa yam iH7/et kamayeta meti tasyam
nish/aya mukhena mukha??^ sandhayopastham asya
abhimrwya ^aped aiigadahgat sambhavasi hr/dayad
adhi ^^^ayase, sa tvam aiigakashayo ^ 'si digdhavid^

madayemam amum mayiti ^
Atha yam iM/ien na garbhaw dadhiteti^

dham'' iva
10.

yam arthaw

tas-

mukhena mukha/;^ sandhaya-

nish^aya

bhipra/zyapanyad indriye;^a te retasa reta adada

ity

areta^° eva bhavati.
^

Triralravrata;?z

2

Instead

explains

it

kmva

by

kamam

s

Nish/aya, A. B.

scil.

*

maithunaya.

Atikram,

;

nish/Zzaya,

Dvivedagahga

dadyat,

Vishalipta^araviddham

8

Madayeti

is

Bandhya durbhaga.

Roer, Foley; the same in

Sa tvam ahganawz kashayo raso

''

A. and B. read

with

yatha^akti.

3

*

-^aturtha 'hni snatam.

of connecting

mngim

'si.

iva.

the reading of the INIadhyandjna text.

madayemam amum

ivamum madiya?«

striyam

§ 10.

mayiti.

Foley, Roer,

Anandagiri has

me madaya madva^aw

mngim

kurv ityartha^.

Dvivedagahga explains madayeti.
s

Rupabhraz?ijayauvanahanibhayat.

Agarbhiwi.

:

2

8

I

Bii/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

Atha yam

11.

ikk/ied.

garbha?;^ dadhiteti tasyam

artham nish/aya mukhena mukha;;^ sandhayapanyabhipra;2yad indriye/za te retasa reta adadhamiti
garbhi;^y eva bhavati.

Now

a man's wife has a lover and
the husband hates him, let him (according to rule)^
12.

place

again,

if

by an unbaked jar, spread a layer of arrows

fire

in inverse order

^,

anoint these three arrow-heads

^

with butter in inverse order, and sacrifice, saying
Thou hast sacrificed in my fire, I take away thy up
'

and down breathing,
'

Thou

sons and
'

I

here

hast sacrificed in
cattle,

Thou

I

hast sacrificed in

Thou

hast sacrificed in

hope and expectation,

He whom

my

fire, I

take

away thy

my

fire, I

take

away thy

take

away thy

here.'

sacred and thy good works,
'

^.*

I

I

here.'

my

fire, I

here.'

a Brahma;<ja

who knows

this curses, de-

parts from this world without strength and without

good works.

Therefore

no one wish even for
who knows this, for
he who knows this, is a dangerous enemy.
1 3. When the monthly illness seizes his wife, she
let

sport with the wife of a ^'rotriya^

A

Avasathyagnlm eva pra^valya.
Paj/^imagraw. dakshiwagrara va yatha syat tatha.
Tisra/;
1

be made
tisra//

is left

out by Roer and Foley, by A. and B.

have translated according to the Ka;/va

As

out.

should be

viz.

it is

it

could

but natural that

out in the Kawva text.
It is found in the
because there the imprecations are only three in
the taking away of hope and expectation, of sons and

Madhyandina
number,

text, as far as

there are four imprecations,
left

text,

and of up and down breathing. Instead of asav iti, which is
sufficient, the Madhyandina text has asav iti nama gn'hnati, and both
Anandagiri and Dvivedagahga allow the alternative, atmana/i j-atror
va nama grthnati, though asau can really refer to the speaker only.
^ Roer reads dvarewa; Foley, A. and B. dare^a; the Madhyancattle,

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

VI

1

2ig

8.

should for three days not drink from a metal vessel,
and wear a fresh dress. Let no Vr/shala or Vrzshali
(a K^udra

man

or

the three days,

make her pound rice
if a man wishes

should
14.

woman) touch her. At the end of
when she has bathed, the husband

And

^
that a white son should

be born to him, and that he should know one Veda,
and live to his full age, then, after having prepared
boiled rice with milk and butter, they should both
eat, being fit to have offspring.
^
15. And if a man wishes that a reddish son with
tawny eyes should be born to him, and that he

know two Vedas, and

should

live to

his

full

age,

then, after having prepared boiled rice with coagu-

lated milk
to

•fit

butter, they should both eat, being

and

have

offspring.

16. And if a man wishes that a dark son should
be born to him with red eyes, and that he should
know three Vedas, and live to his full age, then, after
having prepared boiled rice with water and butter,
they should both eat, being fit to have offspring.
And if a man wishes that a learned daughter
I 7.

should be born to him, and that she should live to
full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice
with sesamum and butter, they should both eat,

her

being

fit

have

to

And

offspring.

man

wishes that a learned son should
be born to him, famous, a public man, a popular
speaker, that he should know all the Vedas, and that
18.

dinas ^ayaya.
it

seems

plural

if

a

6'ankara, according to Roer, interprets dvare^za, but

that darewa

is

used here in the singular, instead of the

See Paraskara Gn'hya-siitras

^

To

^

Kapilo

be used for
var/zata-^

I,

11.

the ceremony described

pihgala^ pihgaksha/?.

in § 14 seq.

2

20

Bi27HADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

he should hve to his full age, then, after having prepared boiled rice with meat and butter, they should
both eat, being fit to have offspring.
The meat
should be of a young or of an old
19.

And

bull.

then toward morning, after having, ac-

cording to the rule of the Sthalipaka (pot-boiling),

performed the preparation of the A^ya (clarified
butter^), he sacrifices from the Sthalipaka bit by bit,
saying

This

'
:

is

Svaha

for Agni,

!

This

is

for

Anu-

Svaha This is for the divine Sd^Mitri, the true
Svaha
Having sacrificed, he takes out the
rest of the rice and eats it, and after having eaten,
he gives it to his wife. Then he washes his hands,
fills
a water-jar, and sprinkles her thrice with it,
mati,

!

creator,

saying

!'

Rise hence,

'
:

blooming
20.

girl,

O

Vii-vavasu

2,

seek another

a wife with her husband.'

Then he embraces

her,

and says

:

T am Ama

Sa (speech) ^. Thou art Sa (speech),
I am the Saman, thou art the
thou art the earth. Come, let
together, that a male child may be

(breath), thou art

am Ama (breath).
Rik
I am the sky,
I

*.

us

strive

begotten
^

^'

K2iX\im jrapayitva.

Name of a Gandharva, as god of love. See Rig-veda X, 85, 22.
Dvivedagahga explains the verse differently, so that the last words
^

imply, I

come together with my own

wife.

Because speech is dependent on breath, as the wife
husband.
See AT-^and. Up. I, 6, i.
* Because the Sama-veda rests on the Rig-veda.
^ This is a verse which is often quoted and explained.
^

on the

It occurs
Atharva-veda XIV, 71, as amo 'ham asmi sa tva;;/, samaasmy rik tvaw, dyaur aham przthivi tvam; tav iha sam

in the

ham

is

'

bhavava pra^am a ^anayavahai.'

Here we have the opposition between ama^ and

sa,

while in

the Ait. Brahma;za VIII, 27, we have amo 'ham asmi sa tvam,
giving ama/^ in opposition to sa.
It seems not unlikely that tins

VI

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

221

23.

Athasya tirii vihdpayati, vi^ihithai?;^ dyavaprzthivi iti tasyam arthaw nish/aya mukhena miikha;;^
sandhaya trir enam anulomam ^ anumarsh/i, Vish;mr
yoni;;/ kalpayatu, Tvash/a rCipa;^i pi;;^i'atu, asm^atu
Garbhaw
Pra^apatir Dhata garbha;;^ dadhatu te.
2 1.

dhehi Sinivali, garbha;;^ dhehi pr/diush/uke, garbha;;2

devav adhattam pushkarasra^au.
Hlra/^mayi ara;2i yabhya?;^ nirmanthatam^

te Ai'vinau
22.

nau

te

ta;;2

^,

ai'vi-

havamahe ^ dai-ame masi

garhham

Yathagnigarbha pr/thivi, yatha dyaur invayur d[s3.77i yatha garbha eva;;^
garbha;;/ dadhami te 'sav iti \
23. Soshyantim^adbhirabhyukshati. Yatha vayu/^'^
pushkari/n?;/ sami;^^ayati sarvata/^, eva te garbha
Indrasyaya?;/ vragaA
e^atu sahavaitu ^arayu/^a.
stitave.

drena

garbhi;^!,

krita/i sirga/a/^

®

sapariiraya/^ ^ tarn

garbhe^^a savara;;^

indra nir^ahi

saheti.

was an old proverbial formula, and that it meant originally no more
But this meaning was soon forthan I am he, and thou art she.'
gotten.
In the A7/and. Up. I, 6, i, we find sa explained as earth,
ama as fire (Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 13). In the Ait.
Brahmawa sa is explained as J?/k, ama as Saman. I have therefore
in our passage also followed the interpretation of the commentary,
'

instead of rendering

and
^

^
*

I

am

it,

'

I

am

he,

and thou

art

she

thou

;

art she,

he.'

Anulomam, murdhanam arabhya padantam.
^ Ajvinau devau, Madhyandina text.
Nirmathitavantau.
Dadhamahe, INIadhyandina text. Instead of sutave, A. has

suyate, B. siataye.
^

Iti

nama

tasya>^.

g/7'h;/atiti

sav
«

*
®

aham

gn'hnati,

Madhyandina

Anandagiri says, asav

iti

text.

Dvivedagahga
svatmano nama gr/hwati, bharyaya

purvewa sambandha//.
iti

6'afikara says, asav

patyur va nirdesah

See Paraskara Gn'hya-sutra I, 16 seq.
Arga^/aya nirodhena saha vartamana-^
Saparijraya/2,

parijraye??a

;

tasya

iti

nama

says, ante bhartava.
'

sa.Tga.da/i,

Vata/^,

M.

Dvivedagahga.

parivesh/anena j^'arayuwa

sahita>^,

Dvivedagahga.
^"

Savaram

is

the reading

given by Foley, Roer, A, and B.

'

Bi27HADARAA^YAKA-UPANISHAD.

2 22

When

24 \

the child

is

born, he prepares the

fire,

and having poured

pri-

places the child on his lap,

shadi^ya,

i.

e.

dadhi (thick milk) mixed with ghrita,

(clarified butter) into a

metal jug, he sacrifices bit by

bit of that pr/shada^ya, saying

my

crease in this

never

fortune

Svaha

catde,
'

I

May

as

I,

house, nourish a thousand

in-

I

May

!

race, with offspring

in his

fail

and

!'

offer to thee in

my mind the vital

Svaha
Whatever ^ in my work

are in me,
'

'
:

breaths which

!

1

have done too much,

I have here done too little, may the wise
Agni Svish/akr/t make this right and proper for us,
!'
Svaha
25. Then putting his mouth near the child's

or whatever

right ear, he says thrice. Speech, speech
Anandagiri

explains

:

garbhani/^sarawanantara;;?

^

ya

After

!

ma?«sapei't

Dvivedagahga

(ed.

Weber)

writes: nirgamyamanama/z^sapei-i sa-avarajabdava/^ya,

taw

savara;«

ka.

nirgaH7?ati savara, tarn

^

3 seq.

sutras

nirgamayety

well as the preceding rules refer to matters generally

in the Gr^^lya-sutras
;

I,

zrtha./i.

nirgamaya.

These as

treated
1

ka.

see

;

Paraskara, Gr/hya-sutras

19 seq.

It is

Ajvalayana, Gr/hya-sutras
seq.

1, 1 1

;

curious, however, that Ai'valayana

Upanishad
matters were treated.

I,

-Sahkhayana, Gn'hyaI,

13, i,

where the pu;«savana
and similar
This shows that the Upanishads
were known before the composition of the Gr/hya-suiras, and
explains perhaps, at least partially, why the Upanishads were considered as rahasya.
Ajvalayana says, Conception, begetting of a
boy, and guarding the embryo are to be found in the Upanishad.
But if a man does not read the Upanishad, let him know that he

refers distinctly to the

as the place

'

should feed his
refers to

wife,'

&c.

Naraya;/a explains that Ai-valayanajiere

an Upanishad which does not

exist in his

own

iSakha, but

he objects to the conclusion that therefore the garbhadhana and
other ceremonies need not be performed, and adds that some hold
it should be performed, as prescribed by -Saunaka and others.
^

A^valayana, Gn'hya-stitra

^

Trayilakshawa vak tvayi pravi^atv

I,

10, 23.
iti

^apato

'bhipraya/^.

:

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAA^A,

VI

22 3

28.

that he pours together thick milk, honey, and claributter,

fied

and feeds the

pure gold ^ saying
Bhuva/^,

'

:

give thee Sva/^

I

child with (a ladle of)

give thee

I

BhCi/^, I

give thee

Bh6r, Bhuva/2, Sva/i,

^.

I

all ^'

give thee

Then he gives him his name, saying: 'Thou
Veda but this is his secret name^.
27. Then he hands the boy to his mother and
26"^.

;'

art

gives him her breast, saying
breast of thine which

*
:

O

Sarasvati, that

inexhaustible, delightful,

is

abundant, wealthy, generous, by which thou cherishest

all

28

'^.

make

blessings,

Then he

that to flow here".'

addresses the mother of the boy

Cf. Paraskara Gnliya-sutras

^

hitaya

;

Bhur bhuva//

^

I,

16, 4,

6'ahkhayana, Gr^liya-sutras
sva-^ are

I,

explained by Dvivedagafiga as the

They might

veda, Ya^ur-veda, and Sama-veda.

and heaven.

See vSaiikhayana, G/^liya-sutras

I,

i?z*g-

also be earth,

air,

24; Bhur n'gveddim

dadhami, &c.

tvayi
^

anamikaya suvar«antar-

24, pra^aye^ ^atarupe^za.

The Madhyandinas add

recites while

gold.

Thou

he strokes

my

art

his

here another verse, which the father

boy

Self, called

:

'

Be a

my

son

stone, be an axe, be pure
;

live

a hundred harvests.'

The same verse occurs in the A^valayana Grzliya-sutras I, 15, 3.
* The two ceremonies, here described, are the ayushya-karman
and the medha^anana. They are here treated rather confusedly.
Paraskara (Gr/hya-sutras

I,

16, 3) distinguishes the

medha^anana

and the ayushya. He treats the medh%anana first, which consists
in feeding the boy with honey and clarified butter, and saying to
him bhus tvayi dadhami, &c. The ayushya consists in repeating
In
certain verses in the boy's ear, wishing him a long life, &c.
Ajvalayana's Gnliya-siatras,
the medha^anana.

I,

15,

i

6'ankhayana also

contains the ayushya,
(I,

I,

24) treats the ayushya

15, 2
first,

and the medha^anana afterwards, and the same order prevails
the Madhyandina text of the Br/hadarawyaka-upanishad.
^ In the Madhyandina text these acts are differently arranged.
^
''

Rig-veda

I,

in

164, 49.

These verses

are differently explained

Anandagiri explains

i/a

as stutya, bhogya.

by various commentators.

He

derives Maitravarum

:

2

*

B/2/HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

24

Thou

art

I

hast born

Maitravaru;a

/a

thou

strongf children

who

thou strong

:

woman

Be thou blessed with

a strong boy.

me

hast blessed

with a

strongf child.'

And

they say of such a boy

*

:

Ah, thou

art better

than thy father ah, thou art better than thy grandfather. Truly he has reached the highest point in
happiness, praise, and Vedic glory who is born as
;

the son of a Brahma;^a that

knows

this.'

Fifth BRAHMAiVA.

Now

I.

I.

follows the stem

Pautimashiputra from Katyayaniputra,

from Maitravaru7za,
identifies her with

or

^

ifl'apatrt,

i.

e.

son of Mitravaruwau, and

Vasish//;a, the

Dvivedagafiga takes i^a as bhogya,

Arundhati.

or pn'thivirupa, and admits that she

Vire

Maitravaruwi, because born of Mitravaru;/au.

may be

called

righdy taken

is

as a vocative by Dvivedagahga, while Anandagiri explains

it

as a

mayi nimittabhiate. One expects a^i^ana/z instead of
a^iganat, which is the reading of A. and B.
The reading of the
Madhyandinas, agiganatha/i, is right grammatically, but it offends
against the metre, and is a theoretical rather than a real form.
locative,

we read

If

ag^ga.na./i,

we must

also read

^

The Madhyandinas begin

putra,

2.

Vatsima7;</aviputra,

rajari-kauw^miputra,
9.

Maushikiputra,

6.

10.

3.

akara^, unless

who

prepared to follow the commentator,

we

are

supplies bhavati.

with vayam, we, then

i.

Bharadva^i-

Parajariputra, 4. Gargiputra, 5. Pa-

Gargiputra,

7.

Gargiputra,

Harikarwiputra,

11.

8.

Baf/eyiputra,

Bharadva^iputra,

12.

Paihgiputra, 13. 6'aunakiputra, 14. Ka^'yapi-balakya-ma/Z/ariputra,
15. Kautsiputra, 16. Baudhiputra, 17. 6'alankayaniputra, iS.Varshaga7;iputra,

19.

Gautamiputra, 20. Atreyiputra, 21. Gautamiputra,

22. Vatsiputra,

23. Bharadva^iputra,

ru7/iputra; then

from No. 20 as

24. Paraj-ariputra, 25.

in the

Ka;zva

Varka-

text.

This stem is called by -Sahkara, Samastaprava^anava^wja//, and
Anandagiri adds, purvau vawz5-au purushavii'eshitau, tri'tiyas tu
striviseshita,^,

stripradhanyat.

Dvivedagahga

writes,

karma«a/i strisawskararthatvenoktatvat tatsannidhanad
stripradhanyeno-^yate.

putramanthaaya;/z \d.viszh

VI

ADHYAYA,

5 BRAHMAiVA, 2.

225

Kdtyayaniputra from Gotamiputra,
Gotamiputra from Bharadva^ipiitra,
Bharadva^iputra from Para^-ariputra,
Parai'ariputra from Aupasvattputra,
Aupasvatiputra from Parai'ariputra,
Para.<rariputra from Katyayaniputra,
Katyayaniputra from Kaui'ikiputra,
A
Kau^ikiputra from Alambiputra and Vaiya-

2.
3-

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

ghrapadiputra,
A

10.

Alambiputra

11.

Ka;^viputra from Kapiputra,

and Vaiyaghrapadiputra

from

Ka?;viputra,

Kapiputra
from Atreyiputra,
13. Atreyiputra from Gautamiputra,
14. Gautamiputra from Bharadva^iputra,
15. Bharadva^iputra from Para^ariputra,
16. Para^ariputra from Vatsiputra,
12.

1 7.

Vatsiputra from Para^ariputra,

18 \ Para^ariputra from Varkaru;^iputra,

20.

Varkarumputra from Varkaru;nputra,
Varkaru/ziputra from Artabhagiputra,

21.

Artabhagiputra from oauhgiputra,

1

9.

A

from Sarik7'/tiputra,
232. Saiikr/tiputra from Alambayaniputra,
A
A
24. Alambayaniputra from Alambiputra,
22. vSauhgiputra

Alambiputra from 6^ayantiputra,
26. 6^ayantiputra from Ma/z^ukayaniputra,
27. Ma;/<7'ukayaniputra from Ma;zrt'ukiputra,
28. Ma;z<2'ukiputra from ^'a/z^iliputra,
29. ^'a/z^iliputra from Rathitariputra,
30 ^ Rathitariputra from Bhalukiputra,

25.

^

M. has

^

only one.
^

[15]

Deest in

Q

'M. inverts

M.

23 and 24.

2

B/?7HADARAiVYAKA-UPANISHAD.

26
31.

Bhalukiputra from Krau;1/^ikiputrau,

32.

Kraiu^/'ikiputrau from Vai//abhatiputra

33. Vai//abhatipiitra from Kar^akeyiputra
34.

^,

^,

Kari^akeyiputra from Pra/('inayogiputra,

35. Pra/^inayogiputra from Sa%iviputra^,
36. Sa%iviputra from Prai'/nputra Asurivasin,
2)'].

Prai'^Iiputra

Asurivasin from Asuraya;m,
A

A

3.

2i^.

Asuraya;^a from Asuri,

39.

Asuri

from Ya^;'^avalkya,
40. Ya^;lavalkya from Uddalaka,
41. Uddalaka from Aru;^a,
42. Aru;2a from Upave5"i,
43. Upavei-i from Kum,
44. Kui-ri from Va^aj-ravas,
45. Va^ai'ravas from 6^ihvavat Vadhyoga,
46. 6^ihvavat Vadhyoga from Asita Varshaga;/a,
47. Asita Varshaga;^a from Harita Kai-yapa,
48. Harita Kai'yapa from ^'ilpa Kai^yapa,
49. ^ilpa Kai-yapa from Kai-yapa Naidhruvi,
50. Ka.<ryapa Naidhruvi from Va/§,
51. Va/6 from Ambhi;^i,
A
52. Ambhi;d from Aditya, the Sun.

As coming from

Ya^s

verses

Aditya, the Sun, these pure*

have been

proclaimed by Ya^v^a-

valkya Va^asaneya.

'

Vaidabhr/tiputra,

'

Kar^akeyiputra

*

They

2

]\I.

after

Bhalukiputra,

M.

35 in M.

are called juklani, white or pure, because they are not

mixed with Brahmawas, avyamijra«i brahma«ena (doshair asankir;/ani,

paurusheyatvadoshadvarabhavad

tayamani,

unimpaired.

Anandagiri

ityartha/^).

adds,

Or

Safi^iviputraparyanta?;/ (No. 36) Va^asaneyi^-akhasu

vzmsdi ityaha

samanam

iti.

they are aya-

Pra^apatim

Dvivedaganga says

:

arabh3'a

sarvasv

eko

Va^ijakhava-^/iv''in-

VI

4'.

The same

ADHYAYA,

BRAHMAiVA,

5

227

4.

as far as Sa;'/^iviputra (No. 36), then

36.

Sa;l^iviputra from Ma/^rt'iikayani,

'3,'].

Ma/^rt'ukayani from Ma;z(^avya,

45.

Ma;/^avya from Kaiitsa,
Kautsa from Mahltthi,
Mahitthi from Vamakakshaya/^a,
Vamakakshaya;^a from 6'a72rt'ilya,
KSa;^^ilya from Vatsya,
Vatsya from Kum,
Kui-ri from Ya^/^ava/'as Rafastambayana,
Ra^astambayana from Tura
Ya^;'^ava/('as

46.

Tura Kavasheya from

47.

Pra^apatl from Brahman,
Brahman is Svayambhu, self-existent.

^Z.

39.

40.

41.
42.
43.

44.

Kavasheya,

48.

Adoration to Brahman

Pra^apati,

!

Xi2xAm ya^usha?;? Surye^zopadish/atva^;^ Ya^Tiavalkyena praptatvam
^a puraweshu prasiddham.
^

This

last

paragraph

is

wanting

in the

Madhyandina

text,

very similar paragraph occurs in -S'atapatha-brahma7^a X,

where, however, Vatsya comes before Saw^ilya.

Q

2

but a

6, 5, 9,

5VETA5VATARAUPANISHAD.

5VETA5VATARAUPANISHAD.
FIRST ADHYAYA.
The Brahma-students say Is Brahman the
cause ? Whence are we born ? Whereby do we
O ye who know
live, and whither do we go ?
command
we abide,
Brahman, (tell us) at whose
I.

:

^

whether

in

pain or in pleasure

?

This translation seems the one which ^ankara himself prefers,
p. 277, when recapitulating, he says, kim brahma kara;/am
ahosvit kaladi.
In comparing former translations, whether by
^

for

on

Weber, Roer, Gough, and others, it will be seen that my own differs
considerably from every one of them, and differs equally from
5ahkara's interpretation. It would occupy too much space to criticise

former translations, nor would

long ago they were made, and

how

it

seem

which were then accessible. All I wish
is that, if I differ from my predecessors,
fully

examined

their renderings.

fair,

considering

how

imperfect were the materials

my
I

readers to understand

do so

after

having care-

Unfortunately, Roer's edition of

text and the commentary is often far from correct.
Thus in the very first verse of the .Svetaj-vatara-upanishad, I think
we ought to read sampratish///a/z, instead of sampratish///ita/^. In
the commentary the reading is right. Vyavasyam is a misprint for
vyavastham. In the second verse we must separate kala// and
Yad/7/l'X'/2a, no very unusual word, meaning chance,
svabhava//.
was formerly taken for a name of the moon! Instead of na tvatmabhavat, both sense and metre require that we should read

both the

anatmabhavat, though the commentators take a different view.
They say, because there is a seff, and then go on to say that even

would not suffice. Such matters, however, belong to a critical
commentary on the Upanishads rather than to a translation, and I
can refer to them in cases of absolute necessity only, and where the
readings of the two MSS., A. and B, seem to offer some help.

that

;

5VETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

232

Should time, or nature^, or necessity, or chance,

2.

or the elements be considered as the cause, or he

who

is

called the person (purusha,

vi^Mnatma)

cannot be their union either, because that
dependent^, and the self also
there
evil

is

It

?

not

is

self-

powerless, because

is

(independent of him) a cause of good and

^.

The

3.

tration,

and concen-

sages, devoted to meditation

have seen the power belonging

himself*, hidden in

own

its

being one, superintends

qualities

to

God
He,

(gu?/a).

those causes, time,

all

self,

and the rest^
4^.

one

We

felly

meditate on him

with three

who

(like

a wheel) has

sixteen ends,

tires,

spokes,

fifty

with twenty counter-spokes, and six sets of eight
^

"^

^

Svabhava, their

own

nature or independent character.

Union presupposes a uniter.
Atma is explained by -Sahkara

as that living self

is

as the

g'i'V2ih,

in his present state

the living

self,

and

determined by karman,

work belonging

to a former existence, it cannot be thought of as
an independent cause.
* Devatmarakti is a very important term, differently explained
by the commentators, but meaning a power belonging to the Deva,

the Ij-vara, the Lord, not independent of him, as the Safikhyas

Herein
between Vedanta and Sahkhya.

represent Prakrzti or nature.

^

lies

the important distinction

Kalatmabhyaw yuktani, kalapurushasaw/yuktani svabhavadini.
is here taken as synonymous with purusha in verse 2.
It is difficult to say whether this verse was written as a summing

Atman
•^

up of certain

technicalities recognised in systems of philosophy exist-

ing at the time, or whether

it

is

a mere play of fancy.

I

prefer the

former view, and subjoin the explanation given by A^ahkara, though
it is

quite possible that

uvara or deva

would seem

to

fold, or rather
felly,

is

on

certain points he

represented as a wheel

be the phenomenal world.
having three

tires,

may be

mistaken.

with one

felly,

The

which

It is called trivr/t, three-

three bands or hoops to bind the

these tires being intended for the three gu«as of the prakr^'ti,

the Sattva, Ra^as, and

Tamas.

In the Brahmopanishad (Bibl. Ind.

:

ADHYAYA,

I

233

4.

whose one rope is manifold, who proceeds on three
different roads, and whose illusion arises from two
causes.
p.

251) the

tvivri't

sutram

ending in the sixteen.

They may be meant
or organs (the

manas, the

for

mentioned. Next follows sho</ajantam,
These sixteen are differently explained.
the five elements and the eleven indriyas
is

five receptive

common

and the

sensory)

;

five active senses,

together with

or for the sixteen kalas, mentioned

Then follows a new intermay be meant for the chaos, the unde-

in the Prajiiopanishad, VI, i, p. 283.

pretation.

The one

felly

veloped state of things, and the sixteen would then be the two
products in a general form, the Vira^ and the Sutratman, while the

remaining fourteen would be the individual products, the bhuvanas

BhM.

or worlds beginning with

Next follows jatardharam, having fifty spokes. These fifty
spokes are supposed to produce the motion of the mundane wheel,
and are explained by
1.

The

five

^Safikara as follows

Viparyayas, misconceptions, different kinds of igno-

rance or doubt,

viz.

Tamas, Moha, Mahamoha, Tamisra, Andhata-

misra, or, according to Patarl^ali, ignorance, self-love, love, hatred,

and
2.

fear (Yoga-sutras

The twenty-eight

I,

8

;

II, 2

;

Sahkhya-siltras III, 37).

Ajaktis, disabilities, causes of misconception.

(See Sahkhya-sutras III, 38.)
3.

The

nine inversions of the Tush/is, satisfactions. (Sahkhya-

sfitras III, 39.)
4.

The

eight inversions of the Siddhis, perfections.

(Sahkhya-

siitras III, 40.)

These are afterwards explained singly. There are 8 kinds of
Tamas, 8 kinds of Moha, 10 kinds of Mahamoha, 18 kinds of
Tamisra, and 18 kinds of Andhatamisra, making 62 in all. More
information on the A^aktis, the Tush/is, and Siddhis may be found
in the Sahkhya-sutras III, 37-45; Sahkhya-karika 47 seq.; Yogasutras II, 2 seq.

Then

follow the 20 pratyaras, the counter-spokes, or

strengthen the spokes,

The

viz.

six ash/akas or

Prakrz'ti,

of substances

the 10 senses

and

their

wedges

to

10 objects.

ogdoads are explained as the ogdoads of
(dhatu), of powers (aijvarya), of states

(bhava), of gods (deva), of virtues (atmaguwa).

The

one, though manifold cord,

is

of food, children, heaven or anything

The

love or desire,

Kama, whether

else.

three paths are explained as righteousness, unrighteousness,

5VETA^VATARA-UPANISHAD.

2 34

We

5\

meditate on the river whose water con-

sists

of the five streams, which

with

its five

wild and winding

is

springs, whose waves are the five vital
whose fountain head is the mind, the course

breaths,

of the five kinds of perceptions.
pools,

has five whirl-

It

rapids are the five pains

its

it

;

has

kinds

fifty

of suffering, and five branches.
In that vast Brahma-wheel, in which

6.

and

live

thinks that the self (in him)

mover

(the

all

things

the bird flutters about, so long as he

rest,

god,

the

When

lord).

from the
he has been

different

is

by him, then he gains immortality 2.
But what is praised (in the Upanishads)

blessed
7.

is

the

and knowledge, and the one deception arising from two causes is
ignorance of self, produced by good or bad works.
^
Here again, where the ii-vara is likened to a stream, the
minute coincidences are explained by 6'ankara in accordance with

The

certain systems of philosophy.

streams are the

five

recep-

tive organs, the five springs are the five elements, the five

waves

The head

are the five active organs.

common

five

five rapids are

growing

is

the manas, the mind, or

sensory, from which the perceptions of the five senses

The

spring.

five

growing

old,

radbhedam

whirlpools are the objects of the five senses, the

is

ill,

The

and dying.

He

not fully explained by 6'ankara.

their

number

is

raised to

fifty.

born,

next adjective pa?lM-

the five divisions of the klesz (see Yoga-sutras

show how

womb, being

the five pains of being in the

only mentions

II, 2),

Dr.

but does not

Roer proposes

to

read pafi/^akle^'a-bhedam, but that would not agree with the metre.

The
the

five
fifty

wheel

parvans or branches are not explained, and may refer to
kinds of suffering (kleja).
The whole river, like the

in the

preceding verse,

karawatmaka,

in the

is

meant

form of cause and

for the

Brahman

effect, as the

as karya-

phenomenal,

not the absolutely real world,
^

If

he has been blessed by the

I^-vara,

i,

e.

when he has been

accepted by the Lord, when he has discovered his

own

true self in

must be remembered, however, that both the Ijvara, the
Lord, and the purusha, the individual soul, are phenomenal only,
and that the Brahma-wheel is meant for the prapail-^-a, the manifest,
the Lord.

It

but unreal world.

ADHYAYA,

I

lO.

235

Highest Brahman, and in it there is the triads The
Highest Brahman is the safe support, it is imperishable. The Brahma-students^, when they have known
what is within this (world), are devoted and merged

Brahman, free from birth ^.
8. The Lord (i^a) supports all this together, the
perishable and the imperishable, the developed and
in the

The

the undeveloped.

being a

lord,

bound ^ because he has to enjoy (the fruits of
but when he has known the god (deva), he

is

works)
is

(living) self, not

;

freed from

all fetters.

There are two, one knowing

9.

(i^vara), the other

not-knowing (^iva), both unborn, one strong, the
other weak^; there is she, the unborn, through
whom each man receives the recompense of his
works ^ and there is the infinite Self (appearing)
under all forms, but himself inactive. When a man
;

finds out these three, that

That which

10.

(the
^

first),

The

Brahma'^.

is

perishable^

is

is

the

Pradhana^

the immortal and imperishable

is

Hara

^^

and the mover

subject (bhokt/-/), the object (bhogya),

(preritr/), see verse 12.
^
^
*

^

B. has Vedavido, those who know the Vedas.
Tasmin praUyate tv atma samadhi/^ sa udahr/'ta^.
Read badhyate for budhyate.

The form ijanuau

mam

for

«

Cf. ^'vet.

'

The

ruler

;

;

likewise brah-

Up. IV,

5,

bhuktabhogyam.
and
power of creation,

three are (i) the lord, the personal god, the creator

(2) the individual soul or souls

the devatma^akti of verse
see verses 7, 12.

tadvan

explained as /^^^andasa

is

brahma.

So

'pi

;

and

(3) the

All three are contained in

3.

Brahman

;

mayi parame^varo mayopadhisannidhes

iva.

*

See verse

®

The

8.

recognised

name

for Prakr/ti, or here Devatma^akti, in

the later Sahkhya philosophy.

Hara, one of the names of

»S"iva

or Rudra,

is

here explained as

:

2 ^6

^VETAS'VATARA-UPANISHAD.

The one god

rules the perishable (the pradhana)

o

From

the (living) self \

joining him, from becoming one with
further cessation of

When

him there

is

the end.

all illusion in

god

and

meditating on him, from

known, all fetters fall off,
and birth and death cease.
From meditating on him there arises, on the dissoTi.

that

is

sufferings are destroyed,

lution of the body, the third state, that of universal

who

lordship 2; but he only

is

alone,

is

satisfied -^

which rests eternally within the self,
should be known and beyond this not anything has
to be known. By knowing the enjoyer*, the enjoyed,
12. This,

;

and the

and

As

13.

everything has been declared to be

ruler,

threefold,

this is

the form

under-wood

^,

is

Brahman.
of

fire,

not seen, nor

while

for the

wards he

is

exists in the

seed destroyed,

He

avidyader harawat, taking away ignorance.

meant

it

its

is

would seem

taken for the true Brahman, and not for

be

to

uvara or deva, the one god, though immediately

after-

phenomenal

its

divine personification only.

The

^

self,

atman, used here, as before,

for

purusha, the indi-

vidual soul, or rather the individual souls.

A

^

blissful state in the

yet perfect freedom, but

Brahma-world, which, however,

may

lead on to

Thus

it.

it

is

is

not

said in the

6ivadharmottara

Dhyanad ai^varyam atulam

aii'varyat

sukham uttamam,

paritya^a videho muktim apnuyat.
This alone-ness, kevalatvam, is produced by the knowledge
Giia.nen2L tat

'

is one with the divine self, and that both the
and the divine self are only phenomenal forms of the
Self, the Brahman.
Bhokta, possibly for bhoktra, unless it is a AV^andasa form.

that the individual self

individual
true
*

It

was quoted before,

Bibl. Ind. p. 292,

purusha, the individual soul, the subject
nature, the object

god.
"*

I

take

;

and the

brahmam

This metaphor,

enjoyer

5.

;

the enjoyed

ruler is the ij-vara, that

etat in the

like

The

1.

same sense here

is,

is

is

the

prakmi,

Brahman, as

as in verse 9.

most philosophical metaphors

in Sanskrit,

ADHYAYA,

I

but

it

237

1 6.

has to be seized again and again by means of
it is in both cases,

the stick and the under-wood, so

and the Self has to be seized in the body by means
of the pra7^ava (the syllable Om).
14. By making his body the under-wood, and the
syllable Om the upper-wood, man, after repeating
the

drill

like the
15.

of meditation, will perceive the bright god,

spark hidden

As

oil in

in the

wood ^

seeds, as butter in cream, as water

in (dry) river-beds^, as fire in

seized within the

self, if

man

wood, so

looks for

is

the Self

him by

truth-

fulness and penance^;

he looks) for the Self that pervades everybutter is contained in milk, and the roots
thing,
o' as
whereof are self-knowledge and penance. That is
16.

the
is

(If

Brahman taught by

rather obscure at

first

the Upanishad.

sight,

but very exact

when once under-

produced by a fire drill, is compared to the Self.
its lihga
first, yet it must be there all the time
not
seen
at
is
It
or subtle body cannot have been destroyed, because as soon as the
stick, the indhana, is drilled in the under-wood, the yoni, the fire
becomes visible. In the same way the Self, though invisible during
stood.

Fire, as

;

a state of ignorance,
the body has been

is

there

drilled

all

the time,

by the Prawava,

stant repetition of the sacred syllable

Om,

and

is

perceived

when

by a conthe body has been subthat

is,

after,

dued, and the ecstatic vision of the Self has been achieved.

Indhana, the stick used for

which the

stick

is drilled,

drilling,

and yoni, the under-wood,

in

are the two arawis, the fire-sticks used for

fire.
See Tylor, Anthropology, p. 260.
Dhyanavindupan. verse 20; Brahmopanishad, p. 256.
^ Srotas, a stream, seems to mean here the dry bed of a stream,
which, if dug into, will yield water.
^ The construction is correct, if we remember that he who is
But the
seized is the same as he who looks for the hidden Self.

kindling
^

Cf.

metre would be much improved if we accepted the reading of the
Brahmopanishad, evam atma atmani griTiyate 'sau, which is conThe last line would be improved by reading, satyefirmed by B.
naina?;z

ye 'nupajyanti

d\ma./i.

fi'VETA^VATARA-UPANISHAD.

238

SECOND ADHYAYA.
1

^ Savitr/ (the sun), having

first

collected his

mind and expanded his thoughts, brought Agni (fire),
when he had discovered his light, above the earth.
2
With collected minds we are at the command of
2.

the divine Savitrz, that
^

The

we may

obtain blessedness.

seven introductory verses are taken from

to Savitr/ as the rising sun.

They have been

hymns addressed

so twisted by 6ankara,

make them applicable to the teachings of the Yoga
become almost nonsensical. I have given a few

in order to

philosophy, as to

specimens of 6'ahkara's renderings in the notes, but have translated
the verses, as

much

As

as possible, in their original character.

they are merely introductory, I do not understand

why

the collector

of the Upanishad should have seen in them anything but an invocation of

Savitr?'.

These verses are taken from various
prathamam is from Taitt. Sawh. IV,
see also

Br. VI, 3,

^S'at.

i,

The

12.

Sa/«hitas.
i,

1,1,1;

Both

first

V%.

yuii^ana/z

Sawh. XI,

i;

Taittiriya-text agrees with the

Upanishad, the Va^asaneyi-text has dhiyam for
for agnim.

The

dhiya/?,

and agne/z

texts take tatvaya as a participle of tan, while the

Upanishad reads

tattvaya, as a

translated the verse in

the Upanishad, translates

dative

natural sense.

its
:

'

of tattva, truth.

I

have

.Saiikara, in explaining

At the beginning of our meditation,

joining the mind with the Highest Self, also the other prawas, or

knowledge of outward things, for the sake of truth, Savitn,
of the knowledge of outward things, brought Agni, after
having discovered his brightness, above the earth, in this body.' He
explains it
May Savitr/, taking our thoughts away from outward
things, in order to concentrate them on the Highest Self, produce
in our speech and in our other senses that power which can lighten
all objects, which proceeds from Agni and from the other favourthe

out

:

able deities.'

'

He

adds that

'

by the favour of

Savitr/,

Yoga may

be obtained.'
^

XI,

The second verse is from Taitt. Sawh. IV, 1,1,1,3; ^^^- Sawih.
The Va^asaneyi-text has svargyaya for svargeyaya, and i'aktya

2.

for jaktyai.

vSahkara explains

:

'

With a mind

that has

been joined

ADHYAYA,

II

239

4.

3^ May SavItW, after he has reached with his
mind the gods as they rise up to the sky, and with
his thoughts (has reached) heaven, grant these

to

make a great hght to shine.
4-. The wise sages of the great sage

gods

collect their

mind and collect their thoughts. He who alone
knows the law (Savitr/) has ordered the invocations
;

great

the praise of the divine Savit/V.

is

by Savitr/

Highest

to the

Self,

we, with the sanction of that Savitr/,

devote ourselves to the work of meditation, which leads to the

obtainment of Svarga, according to
Svarga by Paramatman.

Saya«a

He

our power.'

in his

commentary on

explains

the Taitti-

riya-sawhita explains svargeyaya by svargaloke giyamanasyagne,^

sampadanaya

;

^Sankara, by svargapraptihetubhutaya dhyanakar-

^'aktyai

ma7/e.

Saya«a, by

marthyena.
^aktyai,

is

j-akta

and

I

explained by 6'ahkara by yathasamarthyam

Mahidhara explains

bhuyasma.

believe

that

that the

we must take

construed with a dative, like

The two

sun.

are under the

may
^

original
j'aktyai

dmaye

attracted datives

command

as

j-aktya

reading was

an

;

by

by svasasvargyaya

infinitive, like ityai,

siiryaya, for the seeing of the

would be governed by

save,

of Savitr/,' svargyaya jaktyai, 'that

'we

we

obtain svargya, Hfe in Svarga or blessedness.'

The third verse is from Taitt. Sarah. IV, 1,1, i, 2 Va^. Sa.?nh.
The Taittiriyas read yuktvaya manasa; the Va^asaneyins,
;

XI,

3.

Again he prays that Savitr/,
moving towards
Brahman, and which by knowledge are going to brighten up the
heavenly light of Brahman, may order them to do so that is, he
prays that, by the favour of Savitr/, our senses should be turned
away from outward things to Brahman or the Self.' Taking the
hymn as addressed to Savitr?', I have translated deva by gods, not
by senses, suvaryata// by rising to the sky, namely, in the morning.
The opposition between manasa and dhiya is the same here as in
verse i, and again in verse 4.

yuktvaya

savita.

vS'ankara translates

having directed the devas,

i.

e.

:

'

the senses, which are

;

^ This verse is from Taitt. Sa;;2h. IV, i, i, i,
4; i, 2, 13, i, i;
VcV- Sawh. V, 14; XI, 4; XXXVII, 2; Rig-veda V, 81, i; .S'at.
-S'aiikara explains this verse again in
Br. Ill, 5, 3, 11; VI, 3, I, 16.

the

same manner

as he did the former verses, while the 6'atapatha-

brahma;/a supplies two different

ritual explanations.

;

240

.SVETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

5^ Your old prayer has to be joined ^ with praises.
Let my song go forth like the path of the sun May
all the sons of the Immortal listen, they who have
!

reached their heavenly homes.
6.

Where

the

fire

checked, where the

rubbed ^ where the wind

is

Soma

flows over, there the

is

mind

born.

is

For

^

this verse, see Taitt.

Atharva-veda XVIII,
read

vi

jloka etu for

3,

vi

39

;

Sawh. IV,

i, i, 2, 1

Rig-vedaX,

jloka yanti

;

;

13, i.

Va^. Samh. XI, 5

The Va^asaneyins

sure/2 for sura/2

srmva.nlu for

;

and the Rig-veda agrees with them. The dual vam is
accounted for by the verse belonging to a hymn celebrating the
two jakatas, carts, bearing the offerings (havirdhane) most likely,
jrmvanti

;

;

however, the dual referred originally to the dual deities of heaven
and earth. I prefer the text of the Rig-veda and the Va^asaneyins

and have translated the verse accordingly.
In the Atharva-veda XVIII, 39, if we may trust the edition, the
verse begins with svasasthe bhavatam indave na/z, which is really
to that of the Taittiriyas,

the end of the next verse (Rv, X, 13,

2), while the second line is,
pathyeva sun/i srmvaniu visve amrz'tasa etat. I see no
sense in pathyeva sfira/^. 6'ahkara explains pathyeva by pathi san-

vi sloksL eti

marge, athava pathya

kirti//, while his later commentary, giving
suratmano hira«yagarbhasya, leads one to suppose that he read sure/2 J77>2vantu. Sayawa (Taitt. Sa.mh. IV, i, i,
2) explains pathya sura iva by girvawamarga antarikshe suryara-

j/-/«vantu

and

jmayo yatha

putra-^

prasaranti tadvat.

the Rig-veda (X, 13,

i),

The

same, when commenting on

says: pathya-iva sure/^, yatha stotu/^ sva-

bhuta pathya pari^zamasukhavahahutir

vij-van

gaWiati

Sa?«h.

tadvat.

INIahidhara

(paw^itasya) to shka/i,

(Va^.

devan
XI,

prati vividhaw
5)

refers

sure/^

and explains pathyeva by patho 'napeta

pathya ya^ilamargapravr/ttahuti/^.
^

Yu^e cannot stand

lators suppose, but

is

for yuolge, as all

a datival infinitive.

commentators and transNeither can yu?l^ate in

the following verse stand for yuhkte (see Boehtlingk,

explained as a subjunctive form.

rudhyate, with a marginal note abhinudyate.

whether in lighting the
or kept from it.
^

and

That

is,

stirred

fire

the

s. v.),

or be

A. reads adhirudhyate, B. abhiIt is difficult

to say

wind should be directed towards

it,

at the Soma sacrifice, after the fire has been kindled
by the wind, the poets, on partaking of the juice, are

II

ADHYAYA,

24I

lO.

Let US love the old Brahman by the grace of
Sa.vitri; if thou make thy dwelling there, the path
7.

will not hurt

thee \

If a wise

8.

man

hold his body with

its

three erect

and head) even 2, and turn his
senses with the mind towards the heart, he will then
in the boat of Brahman" cross all the torrents which
parts (chest, neck,

cause

fear.

9. Compressing his breathings let him, who has
subdued all motions, breathe forth through the nose
with gentle breath *.
Let the wise man without fail
restrain his mind, that chariot yoked with vicious

horses

^.

Let him perform his exercises

10.

in

a place

*^

new songs. 6'ankara, however, suggests another explamore appropriate for the Upanishad, namely, 'Where the

inspirited for

nation as
fire, i.e.

the Highest Self, which burns

(in the

body, where

it

all

ignorance, has been kindled

has been rubbed with the syllable

Om), and

where the breath has acted, e. has made the sound peculiar to the
In fact, what
initial stages of Yoga, there Brahman is produced.'
was intended to be taught was this, that we must begin with sacrii.

acts,

ficial

and

ledge,
^

We

then practise yoga, then reach samadhi, perfect knowlastly bliss.

must read

kr/;/avase, in the sense of

will hurt thee,' or, if

thou do

this,

'

do

this

and nothing

thy former deeds will no longer

hurt thee.
2 Cf. Bhagavadgita VI, 13.
Samam kayajirogrivaw dharayan.
^ahkara says: tri«y unnatany urogrivajira;«sy unnatani yasmin

jarire.
^

Explained by ^"ahkara as the syllable

Om.

Bhagavadgita V, 27. Pra?;apanau samau kr/tva nasabhyantara Hri?/au. See Telang's notes, Sacred Books of the East, vol viii,
*

p.

Cf.

68
^

seq.

A

similar

metaphor

in Ka//z.

Up.

Ill,

4-6

;

Sacred Books of

the East, vol. xv, p. 13.

The question is whether i-abda^ala^rayadibhi^^ should be referred
mano 'nukule, as I have translated it, or to vivar^ate, as ^ahkara

"

to

seems

to take

[15]

it,

because he renders jabda, sound, by noise, and

R

242

.SVETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

from pebbles,

level, pure, free

by

its

sounds,

the eye, and

its

full

fire, and dust, delightful
and bowers, not painful to
of shelters and caves.

water,

When Yoga

being performed, the forms
which come first, producing apparitions in Brahman,
are those of misty smoke, sun, fire, wind, fire-flies,
11.

and a

lightnings,
12.
arise,

When,
the

crystal

moon

\

as earth, water, light, heat, and ether

fivefold

then there

is

quality of

no longer

is

Yoga

illness,

takes

place ^

old age, or pain^ for

him who has obtained a body, produced by the

fire

of Yoga.
13.

The

first

results of

Yoga

they

call lightness,

good complexion, an easy
pronunciation, a sweet odour, and slight excretions.
14. As a metal disk (mirror), tarnished by dust,

healthiness, steadiness, a

shines bright again after

it has been
cleaned, so
the one incarnate person satisfied and free from

is

grief,

after

he has

seen the real nature of the

self*.

by mandapa, a booth. See Bhagavadgila VI, 11. In the
Up. VI, 30, Ramatirtha explains juiau dese by girinadipulinaguhadwuddhasthane. See also Asv. Grzliya-sutras III, 2, 2.
^
Or, it may be, a crystal and the moon.
a-sraya.

Maitr.

The Yogaguwa is described as the quality of each element,
smell of the earth, taste of water, &c.
It seems that the perception of these gu?zas is called yogapravr/tti. Thus by fixing the
^

i.

e.

thought on the tip of the nose, a perception of heavenly scent is
produced ; by fixing it on the tip of the tongue, a perception of
heavenly taste by fixing it on the point of the palate, a heavenly
colour by fixing it on the middle of the tongue, a heavenly touch
by fixing it on the roof of the tongue, a heavenly sound. By means
;

;

;

of these perceptions the mind
it is

is supposed to be steadied, because
no longer attracted by the outward objects themselves. See

Yoga-sutras

I,

^

Or no

*

Paresham

35.

death,

na mn'tyu/i, B.

paZ/^e tadvat sa tattvam

prasamikshya

dehiti.

!

II

ADHYAYA,

And when by means

15.

:

243

I 7.

of the real nature of his

self he sees, as by a lamp, the real nature of Brahman, then having known the unborn, eternal god,
who is beyond all natures \ he is freed from all
fetters.

He indeed is the god who

16.

he

is

He has been

the

womb.

He

stands behind

1

pervades

all

regions

the first-born (as Hira;2yagarbha), and he

7.

in the

world,

all

born, and he will be born^.

persons, looking everywhere.

be to that god, adoration

^

Sarvatattvair avidyatatkaryair vi^'uddham asawspr/sh/am.

^

This verse

is

found

in the

with slight modifications.

do A.

in

The god ^ who is in the fire, the god who is
water, the god who has entered into the whole
the god who is in plants, the god who is in

trees, adoration

I, 3,

is

B.) for esha hi

(A.B.) for^ana»?s.

;

Va^. Sawh. XXXII, 4 Taitt. Ar. X,
The Va^asaneyins read esho ha (so
;

sa eva ^ata// (A. B.) for sa vi^ata/z

The Ara^zyaka

;

^anas

has sa vi^ayamana/z for sa vi^ata^,

pratyanmukhas for pratyai'^^anaws, and vijvatomukha/z for sarvatoColebrooke (Essays, I, 57) gives a translation of it.
If we read ^ana>^, we must take it as a vocative,
^ B. (not A.) reads yo rudro yo 'gnau.
mukhaj^.

R

2

:

5VETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

244

THIRD ADHYAyA\
1.

who

The

snarer^

who

rules all the worlds

by

and the same, while things

who know

this are

For there

by

rules alone

his powers,

his powers,

and

arise

who

exist

=^,

is

one

—they

immortal.

one Rudra only, they do not allow
a second, who rules all the worlds by his powers.
He stands behind all persons^, and after having
2.

created

all

is

worlds he, the protector,

rolls

up

it

^

at

the end of time.
3 ^

That one god, having

his eyes, his face, his

arms, and his feet in every place,

when producing

heaven and earth, forges them together with
arms and his wings

his

'^.

This Adhyaya represents the Highest Self as the personified
ua, or Rudra, under the sway of his own creative
power, prakr/ti or maya.
^

deity, as the lord,

6'ahkara explains ^ala, snare, by maya.

2

corrected, according to -Sahkara's

The

verse must be

commentary

ya eko ^alavan uata ijanibhi/^
sarvan llokan uata i^anibhi/^.

Sambhava,

^

in the sense of

Vergehen,

perishing, rests

on no

authority.

Here again

*
^

I prefer

that

Rudra,

the

MSS.

A. B. read ^anas, as a vocative.

sa»/-^uko^'a to saf/ikukopa,

after

having created

which gives us the meaning

draws together, i. e.
back into himself, at the end of time. I have translated samsngysL by having created, because Boehtlingk and Roth
takes them

all

things,

all

give other instances of sawsr?^ with that sense.

mixed them together

again,'

Otherwise,

'

having

would seem more appropriate. A. and

B. read saw^uko^a.
* This is a very popular
verse, and occurs Rig-veda X, 8i, 3;
Yag. Samh. XVII, 19; Ath.-veda XIII, 2, 26; Taitt. Sawh. IV, 6,
2, 4; Taitt. Ar. X, i, 3.

'

joins

dhamati in the sense of saz/^yo^ayati,
with arms, birds with wings.

.S'ahkara takes

men

i.e.

he

!

!

ADHYAYA,

Ill

He\

4.

245

9.

the creator and supporter of the gods,

he who
to Hira/^yagarbha, may he

Rudra, the great seer, the lord of
formerly gave

birth

all,

endow us with good thoughts.

O

52.

Rudra, thou dweller

the mountains, look

in

most blessed form of thine which
upon
is auspicious, not terrible, and reveals no evil
6 ^ O lord of the mountains, make lucky that arrow
us with that

thy hand

to shoot.

mountains, boldest in

in the

which thou, a dweller

Do

Those who know beyond

7.

man

not hurt

or beast

this the

High Brah-

man, the vast, hidden in the bodies of all creatures,
and alone enveloping everything, as the Lord, they

become immortal

8^1 know

"*.

that great person (purusha) of sunlike

lustre

beyond the darkness ^

truly,

passes

over death

;

A man who knows him
there

no other path

is

to go'^.
9.

This whole universe

whom

(purusha), to

whom

there

filled

is

there

is

by

nothing different, than

is

1

See IV, 12.

2

See Y^g. Samh. XVI,

3

See Va^. Samh. XVI, 3

2
;

Samh. IV,
Sawh. IV, 5,

Taitt.

;

Taitt.

this

person

nothing superior, from

whom

there

is

5, i, i.
i, i

;

Nilarudropan.

p. 274.
*

The knowledge

I^a or that Ija
adjectives

is

consists in

is difficult.

The

knowing

But in

Brahman.

either that

either case the

Brahman

is

gender of the

-Sveta^yvatara-upanishad seems to use brz-

hanta as an adjective, instead of br/hat.

I

should prefer to translate

:

High Brahman, the vast. Those who know tsa,
the Lord, hidden in all things and embracing all things to be this
(Brahman), become immortal. See also Muir, Metrical Translations, p. 196, whose translation of these verses I have adopted with

Beyond

this is the

few exceptions.

XXX,

18

«

Cf. Va^o-. Sarah.

«

Cf. Bhagavadgita VIII,

;

9.

Taitt. Ar. Ill, 12, 7; III, 13,
'

Cf. ^vet.

Up. V],

i.

15.

5VETA5'VATARA-UPANISHAD.

246

nothing smaller or larger,

who

sky\
10. That which is beyond
form and without suffering.

stands alone, fixed

like a tree in the

this

world

is

without

They who know

it,

become immortal, but others suffer pain indeed^.
1 1. That Bhagavat ^ exists in the faces, the heads,
the necks of
of

all

all,

beings, he

omnipresent

he dwells
is

in

the cave (of the heart)

all-pervading, therefore he

is

the

6'iva.

That person (purusha) is the great lord; he
the mover of existence^, he possesses that purest
12.

is

power of reaching everything^, he

is

light,

he

is

undecaying.

The

13^.

person (purusha), not larger than a thumb,

Divi, the sky,

^

is

explained by .Sahkara as dyotanatmani sva-

mahimni.

The

^

3,

20

pain of

saz/zsara,

I feel doubtful

^

or transmigration.

See Brihad. Up. IV,

(p. 178).

whether the two names Bhagavat and

-Siva

should

here be preserved, or whether the former should be rendered by

by happy. The commentator explains Bhagavat by
samagrasya viryasya yasa.sa/i siiyak
Cilanavairagyayoj /caiva sha««am bhaga itirawa.
Wilson, in his Essay on the Religious Sects of the Hindus,
published in 1828, in the Asiatic Researches, XVI, p. 11, pointed
out that this verse and another {Svet. Up. II, 2) were cited by the
^aivas as Vedic authorities for their teaching.
He remarked that
these citations would scarcely have been made, if not authentic, and
holy, the latter

ai.rvaryasya

that they probably did occur in the Vedas.
this
*
^

In the new edition of

Essay by Dr. Rost, 1862, the references should have been added.
.Sahkara explains sattvasya by anta.^karawasya.
I

take prapti, like other terms occurring in this Upanishad, in

Prapti is one of the vibhutis or aijvaryas, viz.
power of touching anything at will, as touching the moon with

technical sense.

its

the

the tip of one's finger.

See Yoga-sutras, ed. Rajendralal Mitra,

p. 121.
«

Cf. Taitt. Ar.

above, p. 16.

X, 71 (Anuv. 38,

p. 858).

Ka//^.

Up. IV, 12-13;

Ill

ADIIYAYA,

1

247

8.

dwelling within, always dwelling in the heart of man,
is perceived by the heart, the thought^ the mind;

who know it become immortal.
14 ^ The person (purusha) with a thousand

they

heads,

a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, having compassed
the earth on every side, extends beyond it by ten
fingers' breadth.

That person alone (purusha) is all this, what
has been and what will be he is also the lord of
immortality he is whatever grows by food ^
16. Its^ hands and feet are everywhere, its eyes
and head are everywhere, its ears are everywhere,
15.

;

;

it

stands encompassing

Separate from

17.

the qualities of

of

all, it is

the senses, yet reflecting

the senses,

all

it is

the great refuge of

The embodied

18.

the worlds

all in

all

the lord and ruler

all.

within

spirit

town with

the

nine o-ates^ the bird, flutters outwards, the ruler of

The text has manvi^a, which Aifikara explains by gnanesa.
But Weber has conjectured rightly, I believe, that the original text
must have been manisha. The difficulty is to understand how so
common a word as manisha could have been changed into so un^

usual a
2

See IV, 20.
as manvira.
a famous verse of the Rig-veda, X, 90,

word

This

is

the Atharva-veda,

12,1.
says,

it

XIX,

6, i;

Va^. Sa/«h.

XXXI,

i;

i

;

repeated in

Taitt. Ar. Ill,

-Sahkara explains ten fingers' breadth by endless; or, he
may be meant for the heart, which is ten fingers above

the navel.
^

Saya7/a, in his

commentary on

gives another explanation,
mortals,

i.

e.

the Rig-veda
is

grow

to their

Taitt. Ar.,

all

the im-

exceeding state

Brahman,

frequently, according as the author thinks

or of

its

impersonation as I^a, Lord.

^

-Sahkara explains loka by nikaya, body.

«

Cf. Ka//;.

Up.V,

and the

also the lord of

for the sake of food.

The gender changes

either of the

he

the gods, because they

by means of food, or
'

viz.

i.

;

5'VETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

248

the whole world, of

that rests

all

and of

all

that

moves.
19. Grasping without hands, hasting without feet,
he sees without eyes, he hears without ears. He
knows what can be known, but no one knows him
they call him the first, the great person (purusha).
20^ The Self, smaller than small, greater than
great,

is

who has

hidden

A man

in the heart of the creature.

left all

grief behind, sees the majesty, the

Lord, the passionless, by the grace of the creator
(the Lord).

21^
of

I

know^

all things,

this

being

declare that in

undecaying, ancient one, the self
birth

all

They

and omnipresent.

infinite

him

is

stopped, for the

Brahma-students proclaim him to be eternal*.
^

Cf. Taitt. Ar.

p. II.

The

X, 12 (10),

translation

had

p.

to

6'vetai'vataras, as Taittiriyas, read

800; KaM. Up. II, 20; above,
be slightly altered, because the
akratum

for akratu/^,

for atmana,^.
-

Cf. Taitt. Ar. Ill, 13, i; III, 12, 7.

'

A. reads vedaru(///am, not B.

*

A. and B. read brahmavadino hi pravadanti.

and i^am

IV

ADHYAYA,

249

4.

FOURTH ADHYAYA.
He, the sun, without any colour, who with set
purpose^ by means of his power (^akti) produces
endless colours^, in whom all this comes together in
may
the beginning, and comes asunder in the end
thoughts
good
^
us
with
endow
he, the god,
2. That (Self) indeed is Agni (fire), it is Aditya
(sun), it is Vayu (wind), it is i^andramas (moon) the
same also is the starry firmament it is Brahman
1.

;

"*,

(Hira;/yagarbha),
3.

Thou

water,

woman, thou

art

thou art maiden
along on thy

it is

art

Pra^apati (Viraf).

man; thou

art youth,

thou, as an old man, totterest

;

staff;

it is

^

thou art born with thy face turned

everywhere.
4.

Thou

art the dark-blue bee,

Nihitartha, explained

^

nirapeksha/?.

This

agr/hitaprayo§-ana/;

any

definite

object,

thou art the green

by ^ahkara as grz'hitaprayo^ana-^ svartha-

may mean with set purpose, but if we read
it would mean the contrary, namely, without
This is posirrespective of his own objects.

and perhaps more in accordance with the idea of creation as
propounded by those to whom the devatmajakti is maya. Nihita
would then mean hidden.
sible,

is intended for qualities, differences, &c.
This verse has been translated very freely. As it stands, vi
/^aiti kinie vijvam adau sa deva/^, it does not construe, in spite of
What is intended
all attempts to the contrary, made by ^ahkara.

Colour

"^

^

yasminn

is

idara

sa?«

/^a

vi

/('aiti

sarvam (IV, 11); but how so
we read now, is

simple a line should have been changed into what
difficult to say.
*

This

Yoga

is

and probably that of the
But to take ^ukram for dipHirawyagarbha, and Pra^apati for

the explanation of ^"ahkara,

schools in India at his time.

timan nakshatradi, brahma for
Vira^ seems suggested by this verse only.
^

VaTi/^ayasi,

an exceptional form, instead of

va?1/^asi

(A. B.)

2

5VETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

SO

parrot with red eyes, thou art the thunder-cloud, the
seasons, the seas.
Thou art without beeinnine^.

because thou art

infinite,

thou from

whom

worlds

all

are born.

There

one unborn being (female), red, white,
and black, uniform, but producing manifold offspring.
There is one unborn being (male) who loves her
-.

5

and

by her

lies

while she
^

We

Is

is

there

;

another

is

what has

eatino^
o

to

who

leaves her.

be eaten,

see throughout the constant change from the masculine

to the neuter gender, in

addressing either the lord or his true

essence.

This

again one of the famous verses of our Upanishad,
formed for a long time a bone of contention between
Vedanta and Safikhya philosophers. The Sahkhyas admit two
'

because

is

it

principles, the

Purusha, the

absolute

generally translated by nature.

subject,

The Vedanta

and the

Prakr/ti,

philosophers admit

nothing but the one absolute subject, and look upon nature as due

The

to a

power inherent

who

are as anxious as the Vedantins to find authoritative passages

in that subject.

later

Sahkhyas

in the Veda, confirming their opinions, appeal to this

passages, to

power,

is

show

therefore,

and other

view of Prakr/ti, as an independent
supported by the Veda.
The whole question is fully
that their

discussed in the Vedanta-stitras

I, 4, 8.

Here we read

rohita-

kr/sh/za-juklam, which seems preferable to lohita-kr/sh«a-var«am,

from a Vedanta point of view, for the three colours, red,
and white, are explained as signifying either the three gu«as,
sattva, and tamas, or better (A'^and. Up. VI, 3, i), the three

at least

black,
ragusj

elements, teg^s

(fire),

rohitajuklakr/sh«am

;

ap (water), and anna
B. lohitajuklakrishwa

(earth).

(sic).

We

A. reads
also

find

A. and B. bhuktabhogam for bhuktabhogyam, but the latter
seems technically the more correct reading. It would be quite
wrong to imagine that a^a and a^a are meant here for he-goat
and she-goat. These words, in the sense of unborn, are recognised

in

hymns of

the Rig-veda, and they occurred in our
where the two a^as are mentioned in the same
sense as here.
But there is, no doubt, a play on the words, and
the poet wished to convey the second meaning of he-goat and
as early as the

Upanishad

I, 9,

she-goat, only not as the primary, but as the secondary intention.

1

ADHYAYA,

IV

Two

6 \

same

birds, inseparable

One

tree.

them

of

25

9.

the

friends, cling to

eats the s^veet fruit, the

other looks on without eating.

On

same tree man sits grieving, immersed,
bewildered, by his own impotence (an-ii-a).
But
7.

the

when he
knows his
8

sees the other lord

contented, and

glory, then his grief passes away.

He who

-.

(isa.)

know

does not

that indestructible

being of the i?zg-veda, that highest ether-like (Self)

wherein

the gods

all

Rig-vtda. to him

reside, of

what use

Those only who know

?

is

the

it,

rest

contented.
9.

forth

That from which the maker (mayin^) sends
all

this

— the

sacrifices, the

^

The same

^

It is

sacred verses, the ofterines. the

panaceas, the past, the future, and

verses occur in the 'Mufidakz

difficult

Taitt. At. II, 11, 6,

to see
it is

how

Up.
comes

all

Ill, i.

in here.
In the
quoted in connection with the syllable Om,

the Akshara, in which

all

this

the

verse

Vedas are comprehended.

It

is

used in the Nr/si7«ha-purva-tapani, IV, 2; V, 2. In our
passage, however, akshara is referred by 6'ahkara to the paramatman, and I have translated it accordingly. Riksik is explained as
similarly

a genitive singular, but

it

may

also be taken as a

nom.

plur.,

and

in

Veda and the gods are said to
reside in the Akshara. whether we take it for the Paramatman or
for the Om.
In the latter case, parame vyoman is explained by
that case both the verses of the

utkr/sh/e

and rakshake.

to maya and
means making, or art, but as all making or creating, so far as the Supreme Self is concerned, is phenomenal only
or mere illusion, maya conveys at the same time the sense of
illusion.
In the same manner mayin is the maker, the artist, but
^

It is

ma}'in.

impossible to find terms corresponding

ISIaya

also the magician or juggler,

^^'hat seems intended by our verse is
from the akshara. which corresponds to brahman, all proceeds,
whatever exists or seems to exist, but that the actual creator or the
author of all emanations is Ija, the Lord, who, as creator, is actina:
through maya or devatmajakti. Possibly, however, anya, the other,

that

may be meant

for the individual piurusha.

^'VETA^VATARA-UPANISHAD.

252

Vedas declare
up through that maya.
that the

10.

is filled

Mayin (maker)

is
;

bound

other

is

Maya

(art),

and

the whole world

with what are his members.

If

a

man

has discerned him,

only, rules over every
this

in that the

Know then Prakmi (nature)

the great Lord the

11.

germ

who being one

(cause), in

whom

all

comes together and comes asunder again, who

is the lord, the bestower of blessing, the adorable
god, then he passes for ever into that peace.

12 ^ He, the creator and supporter of the gods,
Rudra, the great seer, the lord of all, who saw ^
Hira/^yagarbha being born, may he endow us with

good thoughts.
13.

whom

He who
all

is

the sovereign of the gods, he in

the worlds

^

rest,

he who rules over

all

footed and four-footed beings, to that god'^
sacrifice
14.

two-

let

us

an oblation.

He who

has known him

who

is

more

subtile

than subtile, in the midst of chaos, creating all things,
having many forms, alone enveloping everything^,
the happy one (6^1 va), passes into peace for ever.
^

See before,

^

»Sankara does not explain this verse again, though

from
fies

III^ 4.

the

III, 4.
it

differs

Vi^/7anatman explains pai-yata by apajyata, and quali-

Atmanepada

as irregular.

*

B. reads yasmin deva//, not A.

*

I

read tasmai instead of kasmai, a various reading mentioned

by Vi^wanatman.

It was easy to change tasmai into kasmai,
because of the well-known line in the Rig-veda, kasmai devaya
havisha vidhema.
Those who read kasmai, explain it as a dative
of Ka, a name of Pra^apati, which in the dative should be kaya,

and not kasmai. It would be better to take kasmai as the dative
of the interrogative pronoun.
See M. M., History of Ancient
Sanskrit Literature, p. 433
'

Cf. Ill, 7.

;

and Vitana-sutras IV,

22.


IV

He

15.

also

was

world, the lord of

ADHYAYA,
in

all,

time

hidden

253

20.

the guardian of this

^

in all beings.

In him

the Brahmarshis and the deities are united ^ and he
who knows him cuts the fetters of death asunder.

He who knows

16.

vS'iva

(the blessed) hidden in

beines, like the subtile film that rises from out

all

the clarified butter ^ alone enveloping everything,

he who knows the god,
1

is

freed from

That god, the maker of

7.

all

all fetters.

things, the great

Self ^ always dwelling in the heart of man,

ceived by the heart, the soul, the mind^

know

it

the light has risen^ there

neither existence nor

night,

(the blessed) alone

the

— they who

is

there.

Is

no day, no

non-existence

That

adorable light of Savitr^^

wisdom

per-

become immortal.

When

18.

;

is

is

—and

"^
;

^'iva

the eternal,
the

ancient

proceeded thence.

No

one has grasped him above, or across, or
There is no image of him whose
in the middle \
name is Great Glory.
20. His form cannot be seen, no one perceives
him with the eye. Those ^^ who through heart and
19.

^

2

In former ages, .S'ahkara.
Because both the Brahmarshis, the holy seers, and the deities

find their true essence in
^

We

*

Or

5

See

Brahman.

should say, like cream from milk.
the high-minded.
III, 13.

Atamas, no darkness, i. e. light of knowledge.
^
See on the difficulty of translating sat and asat, r6 ov and r6 ^17
ov, the remarks in the Preface.
^
Referring to the Gayatri, Rig-veda III, 62, 10 ; see also Svet.
^

Up. V,

4.

See Muir, Metrical Translations, p. 198; Maitr. Up. VI, 17.
" B. reads hr/da manisha manasabhik/zpto, yat tad vidur;

9

A. hn'di hr/distham manasaya enam evam vidur.

!

2

5VETA,SVATARA-UPANISHAD.

54

mind know him thus abiding

in

the heart,

become

immortal.

'Thou

unborn/ with these words some
trembhng.
O Rudra, let
thy gracious face protect me for ever
2 2^. O Rudra! hurt us not in our offspring and
21.

art

one comes near

to thee,

^

descendants, hurt us not in our
cows, nor in our horses

thy wrath,

for,

!

Do

own

lives,

nor

not slay our

holding oblations,

we

call

in

our

men

in

on thee

always.
^

Dakshi«a

is

explained either as invigorating, exhilarating, or

turned towards the south,
^

See Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays,

Sawh. IV,

I,

p.

141; Rig-veda

I,

V%.

Samh. XVI, 16. The
various readings are curious.
Ayushi in the Svet Up., instead of
ayau in the Rig-veda, is supported by the Taitt. Sa»^h. and the
Va^. Sa;;^h.; but Vi^wanalman reads ayau. As to bhamito, it seems
114, 8;

Taitt.

5,

10, 3;

the right reading, being supported by the Rig-veda, the Taitt. Sawh.,
and the Svet. Up., while bhavito in Roer's edition is a misprint.
The Va^. Sa7«h. alone reads bhamino, which Mahidhara refers to

The last verse in the Rig-veda and Va^. Samh. is havishmansadam it tva havamahe in the Taitt. Sawh. havishmanto namasa
vidhema te. In the Svet. Up. havishmanta/2 sadasi tva havamahe, as
printed by Roer, seems to rest on ^ahkara's authority only.
The
other commentators, 6'aiikarananda and Vi^Tlanatman, read and
interpret sadam it.
viran.

ta;^

;

V ADHYAYA,

255

3.

FIFTH ADHYAYA.
and infinite Highest
Brahman \ wherein the two, knowledge and ignorance,
In

1.

imperishable

the

are hidden

knowledge,

2,

the one, ignorance, perishes ^ the other,

immortal

is

but he

;

knowledge and ignorance,
2. It is he who, being one
is

germ

(cause),

he who,

is

over

while he

controls both,

only, rules over every

forms, and over

all

germs

;

it

beginning, bears ^ in his thoughts

in the

the wise son, the

all

who

another*.

whom

fiery,

he wishes to look on^

is born"^.

which the god, after spreading
out one net after another in various ways, draws it
together again, the Lord, the great Se\P\ having
31

In that

field ^ in

^'^

^ankara explains Brahmapare by brahma?zo hirawyagarbhat
Y'lgna.pare, or by parasmin brahmawi, which comes to the same.
^

natman adds

As the termination e may
nom. dual, commentators
adjectives either to brahman or to

/C'Zandasa// paranipata/z.

belong- to the locative singular or to the

vary in referring

some of

the

^watum

a^akye, 6'ankarananda.

vidyavidye.
2
^

Gud/ie, lokair
iS'ankara

explains ksharam by sa;«SA7tikara«am, amr/tam by

mokshahetu/^.
*

6'ankara explains that he

sakshin, or witness.
i,

e.

is

different

from them, being only the
to have read Somya,

6'ahkarananda seems

Somavatpriyadar^ana, as

^

Like a mother, see

'

See on

I,

this verse the

if

6'vetajvatvara addressed his pupil.

9.

remarks made

^

Like a

father.

in the Introduction.

read yasmin for asmin, and patayas for yatayas,
which the commentator explains by patin.
^
The world, or the mulaprakrzti, the net being the sawsara.
^

"

The MSS.

6'ahkara explains ekaikam by pratyekam,

i.

e. for

every crea-

ture, such as gods, men, beasts, &c.

"

I

doubt whether mahatma should be translated by the great

i'VETA^'VATARA-UPANISHAD.

256

further created the lords ^ thus carries on his lord-

ship over

As

4.

all.

the car (of the sun) shines, lighting up

quarters, above, below,

and

all

across, thus does that

god, the holy, the adorable, being one, rule over

all

that has the nature of a germ^.

He, being one,

5.

6^.

ripens

its

^

Brahma (Hira?2yagarbha) knows

hidden

in the

The

or whether great would not be sufficient.

extremely
^

From

2

Cf.

MS.

*

This

Hira?/yagarbha to insects
1 1

;

V,

ancient gods

The whole

verse

is

or beginning with Mari/^i.

;

2.

B. has pra/tyan, and explains

name

which

difficult.

IV,

^

this,

Upanishads, which are hidden in

the Vedas, as the Brahma-germ.

Self,

nature, diversi-

natures that can be ripened^, and determines

fies all

all qualities

is

and everything,

rules over all

germ

so that the universal

is

again a very

it

difficult verse.

by purvotpannan.
I

have taken visvayonlk

Brahman, possessed of that devatma^akti which was
mentioned before, but I feel by no means satisfied. The commentators do not help, because they do not see the difficulty of the
construction.
If one might conjecture, I should prefer paiet for
paiati, and should write pariwamayed yat, and viniyo^ayed yat,
unless we changed yakka. into ya.s /^a.
^ This verse
admits of various translations, and requires also
as a

some

for

metrical emendations.

Thus Vi^ilanatman

hyopanishatsu very ingeniously by the Veda,

explains vedagu-

i.e. that part

of

it

which teaches sacrifices and their rewards; the Guhya, i.e. the
Arawyaka, which teaches the worship of Brahman under various
legendary aspects and theUpanishads, which teach the knowledge
of Brahman without qualities.
These three divisions would correspond to the karmaka«(fa, yogakaw^^a, and gnznakanda. ((zaimini,
Pataw^ali, Badarayawa). See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 20. Mr. Gough
and Dr. Roer take Brahmayoni as the source of the Veda,' or as
;

'

the source of Hirawyagarbha.

due

to a corruption of vedante.

The

irregular

form vedate may be

V ADHYAYA,

and poets who knew

II.

257

they became

it,

it

and were

immortal.

7^ But he who

is

endowed with

performs works that are to bear

reward of whatever he

the

fruit,

has

forms, led

all

and enjoys
migrates

done,

through his own works, the lord of

and

quahties,

life,

assuming

by the three Gu;/as, and following the

three paths ^.

8^ That lower one
but

not larger than a thumb,

also,

brilliant like the sun,

who

is

endowed with

per-

and thoughts, with the quality of mind and
the quality of body, is seen small even like the point
sonality

of a goad.
9. That living soul is to be known as part of the
hundredth part of the point of a hair*, divided a
hundred times, and yet it is to be infinite.
10. It is not woman, it is not man, nor is it

neuter

whatever body

;

it

takes,

with

that

is

it

joined^ (only).
1 1

^

By means

^

Here begins the

of thoughts, touching, seeing, and

description of what

as opposed to the tat (that),

i.

e.

is

called the

tvam

(thou),

the living soul, as opposed to the

Highest Brahman.
^
^

The paths of vice, virtue, and knowledge.
Both MSS. (A. and B.) read aragramatro hy avaro

'pi

dri-

sh/a//.
*

An

expression of frequent occurrence in Buddhist literature.

A. and B. read yu^yate. A. explains yu^yate by sambadhS'ahkara
yate. B. explains adyate bhakshyate tirobhuta/z kriyate.
explains rakshyate, sawrakshyate, tattaddharman atmany adhyasya^

bhimanyate.
^

The

INISS. vary considerably.

read homair.

Instead of mohair, A. and B.

They read grasambuvrz'sh/ya

atmavivrzddhi^anma, B. atmanivr/ddha^anma.

My

prapadye, B. abhisamprapadyate.

who seems
[=5]

to

/^atma.

A. reads

A, has abhisam-

translation follows -Sahkara,

have read atmavivn'ddhi^anma, taking the whole line
S

SVETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

258

passions the incarnate Self assumes successively in
various places various forms \ in accordance with his
deeds, just as the
are poured into
12.

That

body grows when food and drink

it.

incarnate

according to his

Self,

own

chooses (assumes) many shapes, coarse or
subtile, and having himself caused his union with
them, he is seen as another and another 2, through
qualities,

the qualities of his acts, and through the qualities of
his body.

13^ He who knows him who has no beginning
and no end, in the midst of'chaos, creating all things,
having many forms, alone enveloping everything, is
freed from all fetters.
14. Those who know him who is to be grasped

by the mind, who is not to be called the nest (the
body*), who makes existence and non-existence, the
an adverbial form. Vi^wanatman, however, differs
He reads homai/^, and explains homa as the act of
considerably.
throwing oblations into the fire, as in the Agnihotra. This action
as a simile

and

in

of the hands, he thinks, stands for
bers of the body.

all

actions of the various

Grasambuvr/fsh/i he takes to

mean

mem-

free distri-

bution of food and drink, and then explains the whole sentence by

'he whose self

is

born unto some

states or declines

from them
and

again, namely, according as he has showered food and drink,

has used his hands, eyes, feelings, and thoughts.'

6'ahkarananda

takes a similar view, only he construes sahkalpanam and spar^anam

atmagnau prakshepa homa>^
and then goes on, na kevalam etai-^, kiw tv asmin sthane jarire
grasambuvmh/ya ka.. He seems to read atmavivrz'ddha^anma, but
afterwards explains vivr/ddhi by vividha vn'ddhik.

as two dr?sh/is, te eva dr/sh/i, tayor

as high as Hirawyagarbha or as low as beasts.

^

Forms

^

Instead of aparo, B. reads avaro, but explains aparo.

2

Cf. Ill, 7;

*

Nida.

is

;

IV, 14, 16.

explained as the body, but ^Sankarananda reads anila-

khyam, who

is

called

breath of the breath.

the wind, as being prawasya pra«am, the

V ADHYAYA,

1 4.

259

happy one (vSiva), who also creates the elements ^
they have left the body.
^

5'ahkara explains kalasargakaram by he

who

creates the sixteen

mentioned by the Atharvawikas, beginning with pra^za, and
ending with naman see Prama Up. VI, 4. Vi^ftanatman suggests
two other explanations, 'he who creates by means of the kala,
i. e. his inherent
power
or he who creates the Vedas and other
kalas,

;

;

'

sciences.'

The

sixteen

'

kalas are,

according to

^S'ankarananda,

pra«a, jraddha, kha, vayu, gyohh, ap, pnthivi, indriya, mana,^, anna,
virya, tapa-^, mantra,

karman, kala

(?),

S 2

naman. See

also before,

I, 4.

;

;

5'VETA5VATARA-UPANISHAD.

2 6o

SIXTH ADHYAYA.
Somewise men, deluded, speak of Nature, and
Time (as the cause of everything^) but it

i\

others of

;

is

the greatness of

is

made
It

2.

God by which

this

Brahma-wheel

to turn.

the

at

Is

command

of him

who always

covers this world, the knower, the tirne of tlme^,

who assumes
his command

and all knowledge'*, it Is at
that this work (creation) unfolds itself,
which is called earth, water, fire, air, and ether
3 ^. He who, after he has done that work and
rested again, and after he has brought together one
qualities

essence (the self) with the other (matter), with one,
two, three, or eight, with time also and with the
subtile qualities of the mind,

Who,

works endowed with
(the three) qualities, can order all things, yet when,
in the absence of all these, he has caused the destruction of the work, goes on, being in truth ^
different (from all he has produced)
4.

after starting^ the

^

See Muir, Metrical Translations,

^

See before,

^

The

plains

it

p. 198.

I, 2.

destroyer of time. Vi^?lanatman reads kalakalo, and exby kalasya niyanta, upaharta. 6'ankarananda explains kala^

sarvavindxakari, tasyapi vindi-akara//.
*

Or

®

Instead

See also verse

16.

sarvavid ya/^

of vinivartya, Vi^nanatman and iS'ankarananda read

vinivr/tya.
A.

Aruhya for drabhya, iS'ahkarananda.
These two verses are again extremely obscure, and the explanations of the commentators throw little light on their real, original
"

"^

meaning.

same

To

as he at

begin with -S'ahkara, he assumes the subject to be the

whose command

this

work unfolds

itself,

and explains

1

VI

He

ADHYAYA,

26

5.

beginning,

the

producing the causes
which unite (the soul with the body), and, being
5.

is

tattvasya tattvena

As

sa?«gamayya.
ether,

sametya yogam by atmano bhumyadina yogam
the eight Tattvas he gives earth, water, fire, air,

mind, thought, personality, while the Atmaguwas

are,

to him, the affections of the mind, love, anger, &c. In the

according

second

verse,

however, 6'ahkara seems to assume a different subject.
If a man,'
he says, 'having done works, infected by qualities, should transfer
'

them on

I^vara, the Lord, there would be destruction of the works
formerly done by him, because there would be no more connection
with the self.' Something is left out, but that this is ^aiikara's idea,

appears from the verses which he quotes in support, and which are
show that Yogins, transferring all their acts, good,

intended to

bad, or indifferent, on Brahman, are no longer affected by them.

That

works being destroyed and
all things (tattva), from
all the results of ignorance, knowing himself to be Brahman.'
Or,' he adds, if we read anyad, it means, he goes to that Brahman
which is different from all things.'
'

person,' ^afikara continues,

his nature purified,

'

moves

'

his

on, different from

'

He

iSahkarananda takes a different view.

performed

and has
vain, and

sacrifices,

says

:

'

If a

man

finished them, or, has turned

has

away

from them again as
if he has obtained union with that
which is the real of the (apparently) real, &c.' The commentator
then asks what

which he obtains union, and replies,
i. e. right and wrong
the three,
i.e. the three colours, red, white, and black
and the eight, i. e. the five
elements, with mind, thought, and personality also with time, and
'

the one,

i.

e.

is

that with

ignorance

;

the two,

;

;

;

He

with the subtile affections of the mind.'

man,
all

then goes on,

'

If that

having begun qualified works, should take on himself

after

states (resulting

from ignorance),

yet,

when

these states cease,

end of the work, good or bad, done by him, and
when his work has come to an end, he abides in truth (according to
while the other, who differs from the Veda, is wrong.'
the Veda)
there would be an

;

-Sahkarananda, however, evidently feels that this
pretation,
'

and he suggests another,

determined these states (bhava),

He

be no end of sa;«sara.

viz.
it

is

a doubtful inter-

Lord himself,' he says,
would seem that there would
'

If the

therefore says, that

ignorance &c., cease, the work done by

man

when

these states,

and when the
work done ceases, the living soul gets free of sawsara, being in
truth another, i. e, different from ignorance and its products.'
Vi^jlanatman says
If a man, having done work, turns away
:

'

ceases

;

^VETA^'VATARA-UPANISHAD.

262

above the three kinds of time (past, present, future),
he is seen as without parts ^ after we have first wor-

who

shipped that adorable god,

and who

He

6.

the true source (of

is

is

beyond

is

the other, from

world moves round, when
it,

and obtains union of one

real tattva (the tat, or the
i.

e.

all things),

forms,

as dwelling

the forms of the tree

all

world) and of time, he

from

many

own mind.

our

in

has

the teaching of the

Lord)

Guru

;

^

(of the

whom

this

one has known him who

tattva (the tvam, or self) with the

— and how

the two,

;

^

i.

e.

?

By means

love of the

of the one,

Guru and of the

the eight,
i. e. hearing, remembering, and meditating
penance, postures, regulation of the breath, abstraction, devotion, contemplation, and meditation (Yoga-sutras II, 29);

Lord; the
i.

three,

;

e. restraint,

the right time for work by the qualities of the self, i. e.
by the subtile ones, i. e. the good dispositions for knowAnd this he exledge, then (we must supply) he becomes free.'
If, after having done qualified
plains more fully in the next verse.
works, i. e. works to please the Lord, a Yati discards all things,
and recognises the phenomenal character of all states, and traces
them back to their real source in Mulaprakr/ti and, in the end,
If they (the states) cease,
in the Sa/^/^idananda, he becomes free.
i. e. are known in their real source., the work done ceases also in its
effects, and when the work has been annihilated, he goes to freedom, being another in truth or, if we read anyat, he goes to what
or, he goes
is different from all these things, namely, to the Lord

by time,

pity, &c.

i.

e.

;

;

'

;

;

to a state of perfect lordship in truth, having discovered the highest
truth, the

oneness of the

I think that,

self

with the Highest

Self.'

judging from the context, the subject

is

really the

same
and

in both verses, viz. the Lord, as passing through different states,

knowing himself to be above them all. Yet, the other explanadefended, and if the subject were taken to be different
in each verse, some difficulties would disappear.
^ Vi^nanatman and -Sahkarananda read akalo 'pi, without parts,
and -Sahkara, too, presupposes that reading, though the text is

at last

tions

may be

corrupt in Roer's edition.
^

Explained as sawisaravrzTcsha, the world-tree, as described in

the Ka///a

Up. VI,

i.

seems possible to translate this verse in analogy with the
former, and without supplying the verb either from yati, in verse 4,
^

It

;

ADHYAYA,

VI

brings good and removes

dwelling within the
of

self,

263

II.

evil,

the lord of bliss, as

the immortal, the support

all.

Let us know that highest great lord of lords \
the highest deity of deities, the master of masters,
7.

the highest above, as god, the lord of the world, the
adorable.

There

8.

no

is

and no cause known of him,
unto him or better his high

effect

no one is seen like
power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting
as force and knowledge.
9. There is no master of his in the world, no ruler
He is the cause,
of his, not even a sign of him 2.
the lord of the lords of the organs ^ and there is of
;

him neither parent nor lord.
10. That only god who spontaneously covered
himself, like a spider, with threads drawn from
the

first

cause (pradhana), grant us entrance into

Brahman *.

He

IT.

is

the one God, hidden in

or from vidama, in verse
that,

he

is

seen as that,

The

7.

all

beings,

poet seems to have said, he

when one has worshipped him,

one has known him within

all-

or

is

when

oneself.

-Sankara thinks that the lords are Vaivasvata &c.; the deities,
Indra &c. ; the masters, the Pra^apatis. Vi^jlanatman explains the
1

Brahman, Vishwu, Rudra, &c.; the deities as Indra, &c.
^ahkarananda sees in the lords

lords as

the masters as Hira;/yagarbha, &c.

Hira;;yagarbha &c., in the deities Agni &c., in the masters the
Pra^apatis, such as Kai'yapa.
2

If

he could be inferred from a sign, there would be no neces-

sity for
^

the

Veda

to reveal him.

Kara«a, instrument,

is

of such organs would be

explained as organ of sense.
all

living beings,

and

The

lords

their lord the true

Lord.
*

brahmawy apyayam, ekibhavam,
brahmavyayam, e. brahma /^avyayaw /^a.

Besides brahmapyayam,

another reading

is

i.

e.

i.

^VETASVATARA-UPANISHAD.

264

pervading, the self within

works, dwelling in

all

all

beings, watching over

beings, the witness, the

all

perceiver ^ the only one, free from qualities.
12 2. He Is the one ruler of many who (seem to

but really do) not act ^ he makes the one seed
The wise who perceive him within their
manifold.
self, to them belongs eternal happiness, not to others.

act,

;

He

13 ^

of many.

He who

known

has

that cause which

he

discipline),

(religious

the desires

fulfils

Is

^'aiikhya (philosophy) and

be apprehended by

Yoga

eternals, the thinker

thinkers, who, though one,

among
to

among

the eternal

Is

freed

Is

from

all

fetters.

1

^

MSS. seem to read keta., not
See KaMa-upanishad V, 12-15.

All the

/^etta.

^
6'ankara explains that the acts of living beings are due to their
organs, but do not affect the Highest Self, which always remains

passive (nishkriya).
^

I

have formerly translated

nityo 'nityanaOT.

this verse,

This would be a true description of the Highest

eternal thoughts.

Self who, though himself eternal

man) non-eternal
of

y^etta,

correct view.
i.

e.

thoughts.

and

different,

and

6'ahkara says

as he possesses eternity

souls also

may

:

passive, has to think (^ivat-

took the

I

the second in the sense of

however, take a

according to the reading

/^etananam, the eternal thinker of non-

/;eta.na.s

it
'

may

He

first

/^etana/z in the

is

be,

sense

The commentators,

/^etana;?/.

from

their point, a

more

the eternal of the eternals,

among living souls (^ivas), these living
Or the eternals may be meant for
the same way he is the thinker among

claim eternity.

earth, water, &c.

And

in

thinkers.'

^'ankarananda says

'
:

He

is eternal,

among

eternal,

thinking

among

imperishable,

imperishable things, such as the ether, &c.

He

is

thinkers.'

The Highest Lord is the cause of eternity
Vi^nanatman says
in eternal things on earth, and the cause of thought in the thinkers
on earth.' But he allows another construction, namely, that he is
the eternal thinker of those who on earth are endowed with eternity and thought.
In the end all these interpretations come to
'

:

VI

ADHYAYA,

moon

shine there, nor the

The^ sun does not

14.

265

1 8.

and the stars, nor these Hghtnings, and much less
When he shines, everything shines after
this fire.

him

by

;

15.

he

hght all this
the one bird

his

He

is

the

is also (like)

A

the ocean.

over death
16.

^

lightened.

in the

midst of the world

He makes

;

(of the sun) that has set in

man who knows him

there

;

fire

is
^

truly,

passes

no other path to go.
he knows all, the self-caused,

is

all,

the knower*, the time of time (destroyer of time),
who assumes qualities and knows everything, the

master of nature and of man ^ the lord of the three
qualities (guiia.), the cause of the bondage, the existence, and the liberation of the world
*'.

7.

1

He who has become

that \ he is the immortal,
knower, the ever-present
world, who rules this world for ever,

remaining the lord, the
guardian of this

no one else is able to rule it.
18. Seeking for freedom I go for refuge

for

God who

is

the light of his

the same, viz. that there

from

whom

all

thought on earth
1
2

that
is

is

is

to that

own thoughts ^ he who

only one eternal, and only one thinker,

(or

seems

and

to be) eternal

all

that

is

derived.

See Ka//^. Up. V, 15 ; Mnnd. Up. II, 2, 10; Bhagavadgita XV, 6.
Ha;7zsa, frequently used for the Highest Self, is explained here

as hanty

avidyadibandhakara^am

iti

ha?;zsa^.

'

Cf. Ill, 8.

*

Again the MSS. read kalakalo, as

in verse 2.

They

also agree

in putting giiak before kalakalo, as in verse 2.
^

Pradhanam avyaktam, kshetra^wo vi^«anatma.

«

He binds, sustains, and dissolves worldly existence.
He who seems to exist for a time in the form of

''

kshetra^wa

and pradhana.
*

The MSS. vary between atmabuddhiprakaj-am and atmabuddhiThe former reading is here explained by ^ahkarananda

prasadam.

as svabuddhisakshi;/am.

266

S'VETA^'VATARA-UPANISHAD.

him

to

Brahman

creates

first

without parts, without actions, tran-

is

without

quil,

and delivers the Vedas

;

Who

19.

(m,)^

fault,

to immortality

without
a

like

taint^,

fire

the highest bridge

consumed

that has

its

fuel.

Only when men

20.

a hide,
has

shall

up the sky

roll

like

be an end of misery, unless God
been known ^
Through the power of his penance and
will there

first

21.

through the grace of God* has the wise ^'veta^vatara truly ^ proclaimed Brahman, the highest and
holiest,

the
'

^
^

the

to

best of

company of

as approved

ascetics'^,

by

7?/shis.

Explained as Hira?/yagarbha.
NirarJ^anaw nirlepam.
-Sahkarananda reads tada j-ivam avi^?1aya du//khasyanto bhavi-

shyati ; Vi^?ianatman retains

devam, but mentions jivam as a various
Both have anto, not antam, like Roer. iS'ankara seems
have found na before bhavishyati, or to have read du/zkhanto na

reading.
to

bhavishyati, for he explains that there will be

unless

God

has

first

been known.

no end of misery,

It is possible,

however, that the

same idea may be expressed in the text as we read it, so that it
should mean, Only when the impossible shall happen, such as the
sky being rolled up by men, will misery cease, unless God has been
discovered in the heart.
*

The MSS.

read devaprasadat, which

is

more

in

keeping with

the character of this Upanishad.
^

Samyak may be both adverb and

adjective in this sentence,

kakakshinyayena.
®

Atyaj-ramin

jTamibhya/2

;

is

/('akau, Ha;;2sa>^

y^aturvidha bhikshavaj

paramahaw/saj

(Indische Studien,

reading

explained by -Sankara as atyantam pu^yatama-

and he adds,
II,

kz.

yo

kz.

bahudakaku/i-

ya-^ paj/^at sa uttama>^.

Weber

109) has himself corrected his mistake of

antyajramibhya/^,

and

translating

it

by neighbouring

hermits.

These

four stages in the

life

of a Sannyasin are the same to-day as

they were in the time of the Upanishads, and

Dayananda

Sarasvati

:

VI

ADHYAYA,

267

23.

This highest mystery in the Vedanta, delivered
in a former age, should not be given to one whose
passions have not been subdued, nor to one who is
22.

not a son, or

who

man, who
his

Guru

they

will

describes
I.

not a pupil ^

is

23. If these truths

have been

feels the highest

told to a high-minded

devotion for God, and for
then

as for God, then they will shine forth,

shine forth indeed.

them

in his autobiography,

though

in a different

Ku/i/^aka, Uving in a hut, or in a desolate place,

order

and wearing a

red-ochre coloured garment, carrying a three-knotted bamboo rod,
and wearing the hair in the centre of the crown of the head, having

and devoting oneself to the contemplation of
Bahudaka, one who lives quite apart from his family
and the world, maintains himself on alms collected at seven houses,
and wears the same kind of reddish garment. 3. Ha;;2sa, the same
as in the preceding case, except the carrying of only a one-knotted

the sacred thread,

Parabrahma.

2.

but the ascetic
4. Paramaha7«sa, the same as the others
wears the sacred thread, and his hair and beard are quite long.
This is the highest of all orders. A Paramahawsa who shows him-

bamboo.

self
1

worthy

;

is

Cf. BnTi.

on the very threshold of becoming a Dikshita.
Maitr. Up. VI, 29.
3, 12

Up. VI,

;

PRA5A^A-UPANISHAD

.

P R A6'/i^A- U PA N I S

H A D.

First Question.

Highest Self! Hari/^, Om
Bharadva^a ^, and ^'aivya Satyakama,
and Sauryaya;^in 3 Gargya, and Kausalya* A^valayana, and Bhargava Vaidarbhi ^, and Kabandhin
Katyayana, these were devoted to Brahman, firm in
Brahman, seeking for the Highest Brahman. They
thought that the venerable Pippalada could tell them
all that, and they therefore took fuel in their hands
(like pupils), and approached him.
2. That J^zshi said to them
Stay here a year
longer, with penance, abstinence, and faith
then
you may ask questions according to your pleasure,
and if we know them, we shall tell you all.'
3. Then ^ Kabandhin Katyayana approached him
and asked
Sir, from whence may these creatures
be born ?'
Adoration

to the

Siikei-as

1

!

^

'

:

;

*

:

^

Sukejas seems better than. Sukejan, and he

sixth
2

in

MS.

are,

so called in the

6'aivya, Gargya, Ajvalayana, Bhargava, and Katyaaccording to -Sahkara, names of gotras or families.

S6ryasyapatya??z Saurya//, tadapatya?^ ^Sauryayawi//.

sulopa,?

ka.

y^/zandasa

iti

*

Kausalyo namata;^, kosalayam bhavo
Vaidarbhi

is

va.

explained as vidarbhe// prabhava//, or Vidarbheshu

Vidarbha, a country, south of the Vindhya mountains,

prabhava/z.

with Kundina. as

mentioned

Dirgha^

sa eva Sauryayawi.

^

its

Vaidarbha, a king of the Vidarbhas,

capital.

in the Ait.

of Vidarbha.
®

is

Mill 74.

Bharadvaga,

yana
^

Prama,

Brahm. VII,

See B. R.

s.

v.

After the year was over.

34.

Vaidarbhi

is

is

a patronymic

:

PRA^-iVA-UPANISHAD.

272

He

4.

replied: 'Pra^apati (the lord of creatures)

was desirous of creatures (pra^a/^). He performed
penance^, and having performed penance, he produces a pair, matter (rayi) and spirit (pra/^a), thinking that they together should produce creatures for

him

in

many ways.
The sun is

matter is the moon. All
has no body, is matter,
what
and
this, what has body
and therefore body indeed is matter.
6. Now Aditya, the sun, when he rises, goes
5

2.

spirit,

toward the East, and thus receives the Eastern
And when he illuminates the
spirits into his rays.
South, the West, the North, the Zenith, the Nadir,
the intermediate quarters, and everything, he thus
receives

all spirits

Thus he

7.

rises, as Vaii^vanara,

men,) assuming

has been said

into his rays.

all

forms, as

in the following

(belonging to
as

spirit,

all

This

fire.

verse

(They knew) him who assumes all forms, the
golden ^, who knows all things, who ascends highest,
alone in his splendour, and warms us the thousandrayed, who abides in a hundred places, the spirit of
8 ^

;

creatures, the Sun, rises.

all

The

9.

year indeed

is

Pra^apati, and there are

two paths thereof, the Southern and the Northern.
Now those who here believe in sacrifices and pious
gifts

as

work done, gain the moon only

as

their

^

Or he meditated;

2

5'ankara explains, or rather obscures, this by saying that the

sun

is

see Upanishads, vol.

i,

p.

238,

breath, or the eater, or Agni, while matter

rr.

is

3.

the food,

namely, Soma.
3

Cf. Maitr.

*

Hariwam

Up. VI,
is

8.

explained as ra^mimantam, or as harati sarvesham

prawinam ayuwshi bhauman va rasan
it

in the sense of yellow, or golden.

iti

hari«a/^.

I prefer to

take

:

QUESTION, 15.

I

and return again. Therefore the
go to the South, and

(future) world,

who

i?/shis

273

desire offspring,

that path of the Fathers

matter

is

(rayi).

But those who have sought the Self by
penance, abstinence, faith, and knowledge, gain by
the Northern path Aditya, the sun.
This is the
10.

home

of the

spirits,

the immortal, free from danger,

the highest.

From

thence they do not return, for

Thus

says the .Sloka

it is

the end.

Some

11.

seasons),

five

^

him the father with five feet (the
and with twelve shapes (the twelve

call

months), the giver of rain in the highest half of

heaven

;

others again say that the sage

the lower half, in the chariot

and

^

placed

is

in

with seven wheels

six spokes.

The month

12.

matter,

perform
other

sacrifice

spirit.

;

dark half

its

is

Therefore some i?/shis

bright half, others in the

in the

half.

13.
spirit,

Day and Night ^
its

night
14.

is

15.

it

is

in love

by

is

Hence proceeds

Pra^apati.

seed,

these creatures are born.

Those

*

Rig-veda

^

Sapta>^akre,

I,

who observe

therefore

down

them belongs

this

We

164, 12.
i.

e.

;

in § 13),

this

Brahma-world here *.

of

pair,

But

seven wheels are explained as the

or as half-years, seasons, months, half-

months, days, nights, and muhurtas.
^

Taken

*

In the moon, reached by the path of the Fathers.

as one, as a

rule

produce a

ought to read upare vi/^aksha«am.

The

rathe.

rays or horses of the sun

[T5l

day

its

;

unite in love

their spirit, but to unite

Pra^apati (as laid
to

Pra^dpati

Those who

right.

Food

and from

are

night matter.

by day waste

and

Pra^apati

is

bright half

its

Nychthemeron.

T

2

PRA^-iVA-UPANISHAD.

74

those

whom

in

penance,

dwell

abstinence,

and

truth,
1

To them

6.

belongs that pure Brahma-world,

to them, namely, in

nothing

whom

and no

false,

there

nothing crooked,

is

guile.'

Second Question.

Then Bhargava Vaidarbhi asked him:

1.

'Sir,

How many

gods^ keep what has thus been created,
how many manifest this ^, and who is the best of

them

*

?

He

2.

replied

:

'The ether

is

that god, the wind,

These,
fire, water, earth, speech, mind, eye, and ear.
when they have manifested (their power), contend

and say
keep it^

Then

*.

3

We

:

Pra/^a (breath, spirit,

said to

them

myself

fivefold,

4.

as

if

(each of us) support this

Be not

:

deceived,

life),
I

incredulous

;

^

Deva-^, powers, organs, senses.

^

Their respective power.

This

same

is

Thereupon,

which ba«a is taken to mean
But there seems to be no authority for

^afikara's explanation, in

as jarira, body.

such a meaning, and Anandagiri

tries in

vain to find an etymological

Bawa or Va«a generally means an arrow,
Brahmawa writings, a harp with many strings.

excuse for
cularly in

it.

so he, from pride, did

he were going out from above.

the

as the best,

alone, dividing

support this body and keep

They were

^

body and

it.

or, partiI

do not

how an arrow could be used as an appropriate simile here,
harp might, if we take avash/abhya in the setise of holding

see

but

a

the

frame of the instrument, and vidharayama^ in the sense of stretching and thereby modulating
*

p.

On

201

;

this dispute

it.

of the organs of sense, see Br/Ti. Up. VI,

K/iand. Up. V,

i (S.

B. E., vol.

i,

p. 72).

i,

:

QUESTION, lO.

II

as he went out,
returned,

when

queen

their

the others went out, and as he

all

the others returned.

all

275

As

and ear

returns, thus (did) speech, mind, eye,

being

he

and,

they praise Pra;/a, saying

Agni

is

;

he shines as Surya

(fire),

(sun),

Par^anya

is

Vayu

God

satisfied,

He

5.

bees go out

goes out, and return when she

^

(wind),

— he

is

(rain), the powerful (Indra), he is
he is the earth, he is matter, he is
what is and what is not, and what

immortal.

is

As

6.

spokes

in the

nave of a wheel, everything

fixed in Pra;^a, the verses of the i?/g-veda, Ya^ur-

is

veda, Sama-veda, the sacrifice, the Kshatriyas, and
the Brahmans.

As

7.

about

To

Pra^apati (lord of creatures) thou movest

in

the

womb, thou indeed

born again.

art

thee, the Pra;2a, these creatures bring offerings,

to thee

who

dwellest with the other pra;^as (the

organs of sense).

Thou

8.

art the best carrier for the

art the first offering

true

work of the

^

to the Fathers.

Gods, thou

Thou

art the

7?/shis ^ of the Atharvaiigiras.

9. O Frana, thou art Indra by thy light, thou art
Rudra, as a protector thou movest in the sky, thou
;

art the sun, the lord of lights.
10.

When thou showerest down rain, then,0 Prana.,

these creatures of thine are delighted
there will be food, as

much

^,

hoping that

as they desire.

^

In Sanskrit

^

When

^

Explained as the eye and the other organs of sense which the

it is

madhukarara^a, king of the bees.

a jraddha

chief Pra«a supports

is

;

offered to the Pitn's.

but

it is

probably an old verse, here applied

to a special purpose.
*

Another reading

is

pra;zate,

they breathe.

T

2

'

2

PRA5iVA-UPANISHAD.

76

Thou

1 1.

art a

Vratya \

O

Vrana,, the only J^zshi ^

We

the consumer of everything, the good lord.

are

the givers of what thou hast to consume, thou,

Matari^va

Make

12.

O

art our father.

^,

body of thine which

propitious that

dwells in speech, in the ear, in the eye, and which

pervades the mind
13. All this

exists

;

do not go away
power of Frana, whatever
!

in the

is

Protect us like

the three heavens.

in

mother her

sons,

a

and give us happiness and wisdom.'

Third Question.

Then Kausalya A^valayana

1.

Pra/^a (spirit) born

that

is

body

into this

And how

?

How

has divided itself?

does

it

within

support what

is

asked:

How

?

does

does

it

without *,

it

'Sir,

does

whence
come

it

abide, after

it

go out? How
and how what is

?

He

You ask questions more difficult,
but you are very fond of Brahman, therefore I shall
2.

tell it

replied

*

:

you.

Like
3. This Pra/2a (spirit) is born of the Self.
the shadow thrown on a man, this (the prana.) is
^

A person for whom the sawzskaras, the sacramental and initiatory

rites,
first

is

have not been performed.

6'ahkara says that, as he was the

born, there was no one to perform them for him, and that he

called Vratya, because

he was pure by nature.

This

is

all

very

doubtful.
^

Agni

'

Instead of the irregular vocative Matarijva, there

is

said to be the 7?/shi of the Atharvawas.
is

another

reading, Matarijvana/^, i.e. thou art the father of Matarijvan, the

wind, and therefore of the whole world.
*

All creatures

and

the gods.

1

QUESTION,

Ill

6.

277

By the work of
(the Brahman) ^
come into this body.
As a king commands officials, saying to them

Spread out over

it

the mind

it

4.

does

^

:

Rule these villages or those, so does that Pra;^a
(spirit)

dispose the

other

each for their

pra/^as,

separate work.

The Apana

5.

(the down-breathing) in the organs

the Pra;^a himself
and generation
eye and ear, passing through mouth and

of excretion

dwells in
In

nose.

breathing)

;

middle

the
it

;

carries

is

the

Samana^

what has been

(the

on-

sacrificed as

food equally (over the body), and the seven lights

proceed from
6.

The

arteries,

(smaller

it.

Self*

and

There are the 10
each of them there are a hundred
and for each of these branches

is

in

veins),

in the heart.

In these the

there are 72,000^.

Vyana

(the back-

breathing) moves.

^

Over Brahman,

the satya.

The

be unreal

(anri'ta).

^

i.

e.

the Self, the

pra/za being called a

parama purusha, the akshara,
shadow,

is

thereby implied to

-Sahkara.

It means the good
work of the mind.
the usual translation of Samana by on-breathing, though

Manokr/ta

is

explained as an arsha sandhi.

or evil deeds, which are the
^
it is

I

keep

to

here explained in a different sense.

Samana

is

here supposed

be between prawa and apana, and to distribute the food equally,
samam, over the body. The seven lights are explained as the two
to

two ears, the two nostrils, and the mouth.
Here the Lingatma or G^ivatma.
^ A hundred times loi would give us 10,100, and each multiplied
by 72,000 would give us a sum total of 727,200,000 veins, or, if we
add the principal veins, 727,210,201. Anandagiri makes the sum
total, 72 /^o/is, 72 lakshas, six thousands, two hundred and one,
where the six of the thousands seems to be a mistake for da^asahasram. In the Brzhadar. Upanishad II, i, 19, we read of 72,000
eyes, the
*

arteries, likewise in

Ya^jlavalkya

III, io8.

See also Bnh. Up. IV,

PRA^iVA-UPANISHAD.

278

Through one of them, the Udana (the outbreathing) leads (us) upwards to the good world by
good work, to the bad world by bad work, to the
world of men by both.
7.

The sun

8.

as the external Pra;^a, for

rises

assists the Pra;^a in the

the earth,

in

is

The

Samana

the

deity that exists

Apana

there in support of man's

is

(down-breathing).
earth)

The

eye \

it

(sun and

ether between

(on-breathing), the air

is

Vyana

(back-b reath ng).
i

Light

9.

fore he

is

the

whose

Udana

and there-

(out-breathing),

gone out comes

light has

to a

new

birth with his senses absorbed in the mind.

Whatever

10.

his

thought

(at the

time of death)

with that he goes back to Pra/^a, and the Pra^^a,
united with light^, together with the self (the ^ivatma)
leads on to the world, as deserved.

He

11.

who, thus knowing, knows

offspring does not perish,

Thus

says the 6'loka

He who

12.

Pra;2a,

his

and he becomes immortal.

:

has known the origin^, the entry,

the place, the fivefold distribution, and the internal
state

*

of the Pra;^a, obtains immortality, yes, obtains

immortality.'

K/i3.nd. Up. VI, 5, 3, comm.
Ka//za
Kaush. Up. IV, 20
3, 20
Up. VI, 16.
^ Without the sun the eye could not
see.
^ With Udana, the out-breathing.
^
This refers to the questions asked in verse i, and answered in
the verses which follow.
*

The adhyatma,

;

;

;

as

Ayati instead of ayati

opposed
is

to the vahya,

mentioned

in verse i.

explained by k/zandas3.m hrasvatvam.

'

IV QUESTION,

279

3.

Fourth Question.

Then Sauryayamn Gargya asked

1.

are they

that sleep in this

that are

awake

what do

all

He

2.

him

in

that sees dreams

?

Whose

?

these depend

replied

'

:

O

the happiness

is

Gargya,

As

all

it sets, are gathered up
and as they, when the sun

come

again,

so

forth,

gathered up

On

?

?

when

sun,
light,

What

:' Sir,

man, and what are they
What power (deva) is it

this

all

is

the rays of the
in that

and

senses)

the

(all

of

disc

rises again

highest faculty (deva) \ the mind.

in the

Therefore at that time that man does not hear, see,
smell, taste, touch, he does not speak, he does not
take, does not enjoy, does not evacuate, does not

move about He
3. The fires of
town

in that

patya

fire,

because
fire

is

sleeps, that

the pra/^as are, as

Vyana

for taking out^, therefore
fire

See note to verse

Prawayana, pra«iyate 'smad

*

The comparison between
As

not very clear.

^

5.

and
which

fire

fire,

;

is

the

We
iti

ought to read agnaya iva.
pra«ayano garhapatyo 'gn\A.

the pra;?as and the

placed in the South-west, the household
fire

commonly

is

fire,

is

fires

which

called the Dakshi;/a
to

the

or altars

is

the Garhapatya,
is

taken to the other

South, used chiefly for oblations
fire,

awake

^,

the Garha-

the Pra/^a

to the fires or altars, there

burning, from which the

Anvaharyapa/^ana,

say.

*.

^

Ahavaniya

is

the Anvaharyapa/^ana

^

the

were

taken out of the Garhapatya

it is

Ahavaniya

it

The Apana

(the body).

the

what people

is

always kept
altars.

fire,

The

placed in

forefathers.

The

placed in the East, and used for sacrifices to the

gods.

Now

the

Apana

is

identified with the

being given except afterwards, when
the

Ahavaniya

fire,

it

Garhapatya
is

fire,

no reason

said that the Pra?^a

is

being taken out of the Garhapatya, here called


2 8o

PRA^iVA-UPANISHAD.

Because

4.

it

two oblations,

carries equally these

the out-breathing and the in-breathing, the

he (the Hotrz

is

;

ficer,

Udana

the

The mind

priest) ^
is

is

Samana

the sacri-

the reward of the sacrifice, and

leads the sacrificer every day (in deep sleep) to

it

Brahman.
5. There that god^

What

greatness.

(the

mind) enjoys

has been seen, he

^

in sleep

sees again

;

what has been heard, he hears again what has been
enjoyed in different countries and quarters, he enjoys
again what has been seen and not seen, heard and
not heard, enjoyed and not enjoyed, he sees it all
;

;

being

he,

all,

sees.

And when he

overpowered by light ^, then
that god sees no dreams, and at that time that
6.

is

happiness arises in his body.

And,

7.

thus

O

friend, as birds

The

8.

and

earth and

elements, the air and
its

to a tree to roost,

its

subtile elements, the water

subtile elements, the light

its

and

go

the Highest Atman,

all this rests in

its

subtile

subtile elements, the ether

its

subtile elements

and

;

the eye and what can be

prawayana, in the same manner as the pra«a proceeds in sleep

from the apana. The Vyana is identified with the Dakshiwagni,
Southern fire, because it issues from the heart through an
aperture on the right.
the

of the Hotr/ priest must be supplied.
He is suptwo oblations equally to the Ahavaniya, and in the
same way the Vyana combines the two breathings, the in and out

The name

'

posed

to carry

breathings.
^

is

The ^ivatman under

the guise of manas.

deva, god, used in the sense

masculine.

The commentator

generally translate deva,

if

^

Sanskrit word

uses manodeva-^, p. 212,

used in

context required a masculine.

The

of an invisible power, but as a

this sense,

See verse

2,

In the state of profound sleep or sushupti.

by

faculty,

1.

5.

I

but the

'

V QUESTION,


1

28

2.

and what can be heard, the nose and
what can be smelled, the taste and what can be
tasted, the skin and what can be touched, the voice
and what can be spoken, the hands and what can
be grasped, the feet and what can be walked, the
mind and what can be perceived, intellect (buddhi)
and what can be conceived, personality and what
can be personified, thought and what can be thought,
light and what can be lighted up, the Pra/^a and
what is to be supported by it.
9. For he it is who sees, hears, smells, tastes,
perceives, conceives, acts, he whose essence is knowledge ^ the person, and he dwells in the highest,
seen, the ear

indestructible Self,
10.

He who knows that indestructible being, obtains

(what is) the highest and indestructible, he without
a shadow, without a body, without colour, bright,
yes,

O friend, he

becomes all.
11. He, O

who knows

On

it,

becomes all-knowing,

this there is this 6'loka

friend,

who knows

:

that indestructible

being wherein the true knower, the vital spirits
(pra?2as), together with all the powers (deva), and
the elements rest, he, being all-knowing, has penetrated

all.'

Fifth Question.

Then ^Saivya Satyakama asked him 'Sir, if some
one among men should meditate here until death
on the syllable Om, what would he obtain by it ?
2. He replied: 'O Satyakama, the syllable Om
1.

:

(AUM)
^

is

the highest and also the other

Buddhi and the

there

is

rest

Brahman

;

are the instruments of knowledge, but

the knower, the person, in the Highest Self.

282

PRA^'i^A-UPANISHAD.

who knows it arrives by the same
one of the two.
3. If he meditate on one Matra (the A)^, then,
being enhghtened by that only, he arrives quickly
therefore he

means

^

the

at

at

earth

^.

The

7?/i:-verses

lead

him

the

to

world of men, and being endowed there with penance,

and faith, he enjoys greatness.
he
meditate with* two Matras (A + U) he
4.
arrives at the Manas ^, and is led up by the Ya^usverses to the sky, to the Soma-world. Having enjoyed
greatness in the Soma-world, he returns again.

abstinence,
If

Again, he

5.

who

meditates with

this

syllable

AUM

of three Matras, on the Highest Person, he

comes

to light

and

And

to the sun.

as a snake

is

he freed from evil. He
Saman-verses
to the Brahmaup by the
world^; and from him, full of life (Hira;^yagarbha,
the lord of the Satya-lolca ^), he learns ^ to see the
And there are
all-pervading, the Highest Person.
these two 6'lokas
6. The three Matras (A-i-U-j-M), if employed
freed from

its

skin, so is

led

is

:

separate,

and only joined one to another, are mortal^;

A
^

Ayatanena, alambanena.

^

Dipikaya;« Va/^aspatinaivakaramatram ityeva vyakhyatatn.

^

Sampadyate prapnoti ^anmeti seshak.

*

^lutau tn'tiya dvitiyarthe.

mind, but here meant for the moon, as before.
dear that manasi belongs to sampadyate, not, as the Dipika
and Roer think, to dhyayita. Some take it for svapnabhimani
^

Literally the

It is

Hira«yagarbha>^.
^

The world

"

On

of Hira«yagarbha/i, called the Satyaloka.

a later addition, bringing in the

Matras and a

half, see

Weber, Ind. Stud.

*

Tadupade^eneti yavat.

^

Because

the Highest

in

their separate form,

Brahman.

Om

as consisting of three

I, p.

453; Roer,

p. 138.

A, U, M, they do not

mean

'

;

VI QUESTION, 4.

but in

acts,

28 J

external, internal, or

intermediate,

if

well performed, the sage trembles not ^

Through

7.

Rik-VQVS^s he arrives at this

the

world, through the Ya^us-verses at the sky, through

the Saman-verses at that which the poets teach,

by means of the Ohkara

arrives at this

arrives at that which

death, from fear,

is

— he

the wise

;

at rest, free from decay, from

— the Highest.'

Sixth Question.

Then

1.

'Sir,

Sukei^as

Bharadva^a asked him, saying:

Hira;^yanabha, the prince of Kosala^, came to

Do you know the
Bharadva^a ? I said to
the prince
I do not know him
if I knew him,
how should I not tell you ? Surely, he who speaks
what is untrue withers away to the very root
therefore I will not say what is untrue.
Then he
mounted his chariot and went away silently. Now
I ask you, where is that person ?
me and

asked

question

this

person of sixteen parts,
:

He

2.

:

O

;

replied

:

'Friend, that person

is

here within

whom these sixteen parts arise.
He reflected What is it by whose departure

the body, he in
3.
I

:

shall depart,

He

4.
^

The

sleep

They

;

and by whose staying

I

shall stay

sent forth (created) Pra;/a (spirit)

^

three acts are explained as waking, slumbering,

;

?

from

and deep

or as three kinds of pronunciation, tara-mandra-madhyama.
are probably

Matras of

Om

meant

Yoga exercises in which the three
one word, and as an emblem of the

for

are used as

Highest Brahman.

Kosalayam bhava>^. Anandasame explanation. Kosala is the capital, generally
called Ayodhya.
There is no authority for the palatal
^ vS'ahkara explains pra«a
by sarvaprawo Hirawyagarbha (sarva-

^Sahkara explains Kausalya by

tirtha gives the

i-.

pra?/ikara«adharam antaratmanam)..

:

!

PRASivA-UPANISHAD.

284

Pra/^a ^'raddha (faith) \ ether,
sense, mind, food

hymns,

name

sacrifice,

Hght, water, earth,

from food came vigour, penance,
the worlds, and in the worlds the
;

also.

As

5.

air,

these flowing rivers

go towards the

that

^

when they have reached the ocean, sink into
their name and form are broken, and people speak

ocean,
it,

of the ocean only, exactly thus these sixteen parts of

the spectator that go towards the person (purusha),
when they have reached the person, sink into him,
their

are broken, and people speak

name and form

of the person only, and he becomes without parts

and immortal.
6.

On

this there

That person who

these parts

rest, like

is

to

spokes

is

verse

this

be known, he in whom
nave of a wheel,

in the

you know him, lest death should hurt you.'
So far do
7. Then he (Pippalada) said to them
I
know this Highest Brahman, there is nothing
'

:

higher than
8.

And

it'

they praising him, said

our father, you

who

:
'

You, indeed, are

carry us from our ignorance to

the other shore.'

Adoration to the highest i?/shis
Adoration to the highest i^zshis

Tat

sat.

'

Faith

^

Nama

is

See before,
3

Cf.

Hari/^,

Om

!

supposed to make

all

beings act rightly.

stands here for namarupe,
p.

!

name

(concept) and form.

259.

Mund. Up. IV,

2,

8

;

A^/^and.

Up. VIII,

10.

MAITR AYAA^A-BRAH M AiVAUPANISHAD.

MAITRAYAyVA-BRAHMATWl

UPANISHAD.
First PRAPAr//AKA.

The

1.

fires

^

is

laying of the formerly-described sacrificial

indeed the sacrifice of Brahman.

the sacrificer, after he has laid those

let

Therefore
fires,

on the Self. Thus only does the
become complete and faultless.
tate

But who

to

is

be meditated on

Of him

called Pra;^a (breath).

there

?

is

medi-

sacrificer

He who
this story

is
:

A King, named Br/hadratha, having established

2.

went into the forest,
because he considered this body as transient, and
Having
had obtained freedom from all desires.
performed the highest penance, he stands there, with
At the end
uplifted arms, looking up to the sun.
his son in his sovereignty^,

of a thousand (days)

knew
^

the Self,

^,

the Saint ^'akayanya

*,

who

came near ^, burning with splendour,

The performance of all

the sacrifices, described in the Maitra-

knowledge of Brahman,
knowledge. See
Manu VI, 82 'All that has been declared (above) depends on meditation
for he who is not proficient in the knowledge of the Self

ya«a-brahma;/a,

is

to lead

by rendering a man

fit

up

in the

end

to a

for receiving the highest

:

;

reaps not the
^

else,

full

reward of the performance of

rites.'

Instead of vira^'c, a doubtful word, and occurring nowhere

m. reads

vaira^ye.

Or years, if we read sahasrasya instead of sahasrahasya.
* The descendant of -S'akayana.
Saint is perhaps too strong it
means a holy, venerable man, and is frequently applied to a Buddha.
^ Both M. and m. add mune/i before antikam, whereas the com^

;

mentary has ra^na^.

:

!

288

:

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAi^iTA-UPANISHAD.

a

like

without smoke.

fire

He

said to the Klnof

Choose a boon!'
King,
bowing before him, said
The
O Saint, I
know not the Self, thou knowest the essence (of the
Self).
We have heard so. Teach it us.'
.Sakayanya replied
This was achieved of yore
what
thou askest is difficult to obtain \
but
O
'Rise, rise!

*

:

*

:

;

Aikshvaka, choose other pleasures.'

The

King, touching the Saint's feet with his head,

Gatha

recited this

O

'

3.

Saint,

What

the use of the enjoyment of

is

—a

mere

flesh,

seed,

pleasures in this offensive, pithless body

mass of bones,
blood,

mucus,

and slime
pleasures

!

in

skin, sinews,

marrow 2,

phlegm, ordure, water ^ bile,
What is the use of the enjoyment of
this body which is assailed by lust,
tears,

hatred, greed, delusion, fear, anguish, jealousy, sepa-

what

ration from

is

loved, union with

what

Is

not

loved*, hunger, thirst, old age, death. Illness, grief,

and other

And we

4.
flies,

^

evils

gnats,

Though

du^j-akyam

see that

and other

the

etat

M. reads etad

all this Is

perishable, as these

Insects, as

herbs and trees ^

commentator must have read etad

pramam,
vrz'ttam

vr/'ttam purastad

yet prai'wam as a neuter

purastat,

dui'i'akama

is

very strange.

^r\kkh?i

pramam

;

m. reads etad viatam purastad a^akyam ma pr/X'/^a prai'9^am
aikshvaka, &c. This suggests the reading, etad vrntam purastad
du/^jakam ma ^rikkhz pramam, i. e. this was settled formerly, do
not ask a difficult or an impossible question.
* Read ma^^a.
^ M. adds vata before pitta
not m.
;

An expression that
also Manu VI, 62
'On
*

:

love,

and

their

often occurs in Buddhist literature.
their

union with those

separation from those

whom

they hate

;

on

whom

See
they

their strength

overpowered by old age, and their bodies racked with disease.'
' The Sandhi vanaspatayodbhijta for vanaspataya udbhfita
anomalous. M. reads vanaspatayo bhGtapradhvawzsina/^.

is

;

I

PRAPAr/^AKA,

289

4.

growing and decaying. And what of these ? There
are other great ones^ mighty wielders of bows, rulers
of empires, Sudyumna, Bhuridyumna, Indradyumna,
Kuvalayai'va, Yauvanai'va, Vadhryai'va, A^vapati ^
^aJ"abindu,
Harij^/^-andra,
Ambarisha^, Nahusha,
Ananata, ^Saryati, Yayati, Anara/^ya ^ Ukshasena*,
&c., and kings such as Marutta, Bharata (Daushyanti), and others, who before the eyes of their whole
family surrendered the greatest happiness, and
passed on from this world to that. And what of

There are other great ones. We see the
^ of Gandharvas, Asuras
^ Yakshas, Rakshasas, Bhutas, Ga72as, Pi.<ra/'as, snakes, and vampires.
And what of these ? There is the drying
up of other great oceans, the falling of mountains,
the moving of the pole-star, the cutting of the windropes (that hold the stars), the submergence of the
earth, and the departure of the gods (suras) from
their place.
In such a world as this, what is the
these

?

destruction

if

he who has

(to this

world) again

use of the enjoyment of pleasures,
fed

^

on them

seen^ to return

is

^

M.

^

After Ambarisha,

carries

on ajvapatijajabinduhari^^andrambarisha.

M.

reads Nabhushananutujayyatiyayatyanara-

Nahusha (Naghusha ?) is the father of iS'aryati
Nabhaga, the father of Ambarisha. These names are so carelessly written that even the commentator says that the text is
either Ma.nda.sa, or pramadika.
Ananata is a mere conjecture. It
wyakshasenadayo.

occurs as the

name of

a i?/shi in Rig-veda IX,

^

Anara77ya, mentioned in the Mahabharata,

*

M. reads anarawyakshasena.
M. and m. read nirodhanam.
M. and m. read amtasya, but

^

'

*

the

1 1 1.

I,

230.

M. adds Apsarasas.

commentator explains

aji-

tasya.
*

of

Here we have

dmyata

iti

;

M. and m. read
[15]

see

Maitrayawa Sandhi, dr/j-yata iti, instead
von Schroeder, Maitraya^?J Sawhita, p. xxviii.

the

dn'sya.ta..

V

MAITRAYAA^A-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

290

Deign therefore to take me out! In
am Hke a frog in a dry well. O Saint,

and again!
world

this

thou

art

I

my

way, thou art

my

way.'

Second PRAPAri^AKA.

Then

1.

the Saint .Sakayanya, well pleased, said

Great King Br/hadratha, thou banner
of the race of Ikshvaku, quickly obtaining a knowledge of Self, thou art happy, and art renowned by
This indeed is thy
the name of Marut, the wind \

King

to the

'

:

SelfV

Which \ O Saint,' said the King.
Then the Saint said to him
'

:

2.
He who, without stopping the out-breathing^,
proceeds upwards (from the sthula to the sukshma
^

'

^arira),

and who, modified (by impressions), and yet

not modified ^ drives away the darkness (of error),
he is the Self Thus said the Saint Maitri \' And
He who
^'akayanya said to the King BrzTiadratha
'

:

from this body (both from
the sthula and sukshma), and reaching the highest
perfect

in

^

rest,

Pnshada^va

storm gods.

rising

in the

Veda

is

another

Afterwards the king

is

called a Sutra

name

by the commentator to VI, 32.

2

This sentence

^

M. reads Kathaya me katamo bhavan
M. leaves out atha.
One might read avish/ambhanena, in

*
^

is

venting the departure of the

of the Maruts, the

called Marut, VI, 30.

iti.

the sense of while pre-

vital breath, as in the

BnJi. Ar. VI,

3,

praz/ena rakshann avaram kulayam.
*

M.
M.

reads vyathamano 'vyathamanas.

The commentator exmaitreya. In a later
maitrir
r/shir
apatyam
plains Maitrir by mitraya
passage (II, 3) M. reads Bhagavata Maitreya, likewise the Anubhiiti'

leaves out Maitri^-ity eva.m hyaha.

prakaja.

II

PRAPArFAKA,

29 I

4.

comes forth in his own form, he is the Self ^
(thus said 6akayanya)
this is the immortal, the
light ^

;

fearless, this is
'

3.

Now

then this

the science of
told us
*

We

Brahman.'
all

is

the science of Brahman, and

Upanishads,

by the Saint Maitri ^
hear

(in

I

O

King, which was

shall tell

it

to thee

:

the sacred records) that there were

once the Valakhilyas ^, who had left off all evil, who
were vigorous and passionless. They said to the Pra^apati Kratu " O Saint, this body is without intelligence, like a cart.
To what supernatural being
belongs this great power by which such a body has
been made intelligent ?
Or who is the driver ?
:

What

thou knowest,

O

answered and said

pati
4.

*

He who

in

the

Saint, tell us that ^"

'

Pra^a-

:

^S^ruti

called

is

"

Standing

above," like passionless ascetics*' amidst the objects
of the world, he, indeed, the pure, clean, undeveloped,
tranquil, breathless, bodiless \ endless, imperishable,
firm, everlasting,

unborn, independent one, stands

in

own greatness, and by him has this body been
made intelligent, and he is also the driver of it.'

his

^

M. adds svayawi ^yotir upasampadya.
M. reads esha for ity esha, which seems better.
* M. reads Maitrewa vyakhyata.
* M. M., Translation of Rig-veda, Preface,
p. xxxiv.
^ M. adds
briihiti te hoX'ur Bhagavan katham anena vasyaw
Bhagavan vetsy etad asmaka?^ bruhiti tan hova^-eti.
^

:

®

The commentator

yat

allows urdhvaretasasa/z to be taken as a

vocative also.
''

Niratma

is

explained by the commentator as thoughtless, with-

this

But atma is frequently used for body also, and
seems more appropriate here. M., however, reads anuatma,

and

this is the

out volition, &c.

ver. 60.

reading explained in the Anubhutipraka^a, p. 228,
This might mean the Atman which has not yet assumed

the quality of a personal god.

See VI, 28

U

2

;

VI, 31.

292

INI

They

AITRAYAiV'A-BR AHMAiVrA-UPANISHAD.

said:

'O

How

Saint,

made

has this been

inteUigent by such a being as this which has no

and how is he
them and said
That Self which
5,

desires'^,

He

driver?'

its

answered

:

is

'

very small,

invisible,

in-

own

compreliensible, called Purusha, dwells of his

man who is fast asleep
awakes of his own will ^ And this part (of the Self)
which is entirely intelligent, reflected in man (as the

will

here in part^; just as a

sun

in different vessels

believing^,

intelligent,

him, the intelligent,

and he

is

^,

and if he is the driver
answered them and said

He

6.

'In

beginning

the

^

on

Meditating^

alone.

The

reading anish//;ena

thereof,

is

how was

:

lord

of

had no happiness, when

himself, he

many

created

explained by the commentator as free

local habitation or attachment.

from any

has been

this

Pra^apati (the

He

creatures) stood alone.

if

as this, which has

desires,

it ?'

body made

this

the driver thereof.'

is

They said to him: 'O Saint
made intelligent by such a being
no

and

his conceiving, willing,

Pra^apati (lord of creatures), called

is

By

Vi^va.

of water), knowing the body

by

(kshetra^v^a), attested

He

mentions the

also

various readings anish/ena, free from wishes, and a;Hsh//;ena, the

M.

smallest.

reads

aniX'/^/^ena,

The Anubhutipraka^a
*

I read

purvam.
night,

and

this

seems better than anish/ena.

buddhipurvam, and again with
read

I also

be that a man,

to

and

reads likewise aniM/msyd..

this

'

if

a.??isenz
if

he

he

without

likes,

likes

'

is

iti,

IM. suptasyeva

as in

INI.

The

can wake himself

at

buddhi-

simile

seems

any time of

expressed by buddhipurvam.

See

Anubhutiprakara, vv. 67, 68.
^

M. reads

*

See

vibodhayati, atha.

INIaitr.

Up. V, 2; Cowell's Translation, pp. 246, 256;

Yedantaparibhasha, ed. A. Venis, in the Pandit, IV,
^

IM.

hova^a.
^

p.

no.

adds: bhagavann idwasya katham a/z/jena vartanam

M. reads abhidhyayan.

iti

tan

11

vratAthaka,

6.

29;

He looked on them and saw they were,
a stone, without understanding, and standing
like a lifeless post.
He had no happiness. He
creatures.

like

thought,

shall enter

I

^

may awake.

within, that they

Making himself

like air (vayu)
he entered within.
Being one, he could not do it. Then dividing himself fivefold, he is called Pra;/a, Apana, Samana,
Udana, Vyana. Now that^ air which rises upwards, is Pra;2a.
That which moves downwards,
is Apana.
That by which these two are supposed
to be held, is Vyana.
That which carries the
grosser material of food to the Apana, and brings
^

"^

the

subtler material to

each limb, has the name

Samana. [After these (Pra;/a, Apana, Samana) comes
the work of the Vyana, and between them (the Pra//a,
Apana, and Samana on one side and the V}'ana on
the other) comes the rising of the Udana.]
That
which brings up or carries down^ what has been
drunk and eaten, is the Udana ^.

Now

the

U pamsu-vessel

(or pra/m)

depends on

the Antaryama-vessel (apana) and the Antaryamaread with M. vuaniti.

^

It is better to

2

M. vayum iva.
M. reads yo 'ya;;^

^

y^ 'y^m.
dhatum annasyapane
sthapayaty a«ish//uw Hhge 'iige sawnayati esha vava sa samano
'tha yo 'yam.
Leaving out annam, this seems the right reading.
*

:

The whole
^

M.

-^i

&^^\^^

sthavish///am a.nnam

sentence from uttaram to udanasya

nigirati -^aisho

is left

vava sa udano 'tha yenaitas

out in ]M.

sira anuvj-apta

esha vava sa vyana/;.

The views

of these five kinds of wind differ considerably.
commentator explains that the pra«a and apana, the upbreathing and down-breathing, keep the bodily warmth alive, as
bellows keep up a fire.
The food cooked in it is distributed by
the Samana, so that the coarse material becomes ordure, the middle
flesh, the subtle material mind (manas).
The udana brings up
phlegm, &c., while the Vyana gives strength to the whole body.
*

Here

the

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

294

and
between these two the self-resplendent (Self) produced heat ^ This heat is the purusha (person),
and this purusha is Agni Vaii^vanara. And thus
it is said elsewhere ^
Agni Vai^'vanara is the fire
within man by which the food that is eaten is cooked,
i.e. digested.
Its noise is that which one hears, if
one covers one's ears. When a man is on the point
of departing this life, he does not hear that noise."
Now he ^, having divided himself fivefold, is
hidden in a secret place (buddhi), assuming the
nature of mind, having the pra;2as as his body, resplendent, having true concepts, and free like ether ^
Feeling even thus that he has not attained his object,
he thinks from within the interior of the heart
" Let me enjoy objects."
Therefore, having first
broken open these five apertures (of the senses), he
This
enjoys the objects by means of the five reins.
vessel (apana) on the Upa.;;2i"u-vessel^ (pra/^a),

*'

:

'^,

means

that

these

(tongue (for speaking), hands,

Driven by that

;

(ear,

skin,

the active organs

feet, anus,

generative

body his chariot, the mind
the whip being the temperament.
whip, this body goes round like the

organ) his horses
the charioteer,

organs

perceptive

eye, tongue, nose) are his reins

the

;

^
Two sacrificial vessels (graha) placed on either side of the stone
on which the Soma is squeezed, and here compared to the Pra«a
and Apana, between which the Self (/^aitanyatma) assumes heat.
-

M.

^

See Brzhacara«yaka Up. V, 9; J^Mnd. Up. Ill, 13, 8.
The Vaij-vanara or purusha, according to the commentator, but

*

reads tayor antara/e ^aush7;yam prasuvat.

originally the Pra^apati,

himself into
^

Thus

who had made

himself like

the

atma, with his

own

qualities

assumes, becomes a living being.
®

IM.

air,

and divided

five vital airs.

reads esho 'sya hn'dantare tish///ann.

and those which he

:

Ill

PRAPAr/7AKA,

295

I.

wheel driven by the potter. This body is made
intelligent, and he is the driver thereof.
This ^ is indeed the Self, who seeming to be filled
with desires, and seeming to be overcome ^ by bright
or dark fruits of action, wanders about in every
body (himself remaining free). Because he is not
manifest, because he

is

infinitely small,

because he

invisible, because he cannot be grasped, because
he is attached to nothing, therefore he, seeming to
be changing, an agent in that which is not (prakr/ti),
is in reality not an agent and unchanging.
He is
pure, firm, stable, undefiled^, unmoved, free from
is

desire,

remaining a spectator, resting

Having concealed himself

himself.

in the cloak of the three

he appears as the enjoyer of

qualities

in

r^'ta,

as the

enjoyer of rzta (of his good works).'

Third Fratathaka.

The

I.
*

O

Saint,

Valakhilyas
if

said

to

Pra^apati

Kratu

thou thus showest the greatness of that

who is that other different one, also called
who really overcome by bright and dark

then

Self,

Self^,
fruits

of action, enters on a good or bad birth

?

M. reads Sa va esha atmeti hojann

iva sitasitai/z. This seems
which hardly construes.
^ M. reads abhibhuyamanay iva, which again is better than anabhibhuta iva, for he seems to be overcome, but is not, just as he
seems to be an agent, but is not. See also III, i.
^

:

better than ujanti kavaya//,

^

M. has

alepo.

The pure

atma, brahma, /('inmatram, pra^iianaghawhat he had himself created, and no longer
distinguishing himself from the created things (bhuta), is called
Bhutatma.
*

nam,

Self, called

&c., after entering

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISH AD.

2 96

Downward

upward

and overcome
by the pairs (distinction between hot and cold, pleasure and pain, &c.) he roams about^.'
2. Pra^^apati Kratu replied: 'There is indeed that
or

is

his course \

other* different one, called the elemental Self (Bhu-

by bright and dark fruits of
on a good or bad birth downward or
course, and overcome by the pairs he

tatma), who, overcome
action, enters

:

upward is his
roams about. And this is his explanation
Tanmatras ^ (sound,^ touch, form, taste,
called Bhuta also the five Mahabhutas
;

Then

ments) are called Bhuta.

:

The

five

smell) are
(gross ele-

the aggregate^ of all

is called ^arira, body''.
And lastly he of whom
was said that he dwelt in the body'', he is called
Bhutatma, the elemental Self Thus his immortal
Self^ is like a drop of water on a lotus leaf ^, and
he himself is overcome by the qualities of nature.
Then^^, because he is thus overcome, he becomes
bewildered, and because he is bewildered, he saw

these

it

not

the

^

^

darkened

^
^

within

in his imaginations, unstable, fickle,

M. reads here and afterwards avakam urdhva?;z va gatidvandvai/z.
M. adds at the end, paribhramatiti katama esha iti, tan hova/^eti,

and leaves
^

holy Lord, abiding

Carried along by the waves of the quali-

himself
ties ^\

the

creator,

it

out at the end of §

M. here reads avara.
M. reads teshara samudayas

The commentator

2.
*

M. reads tanmatra«i.

ia/:^/ia.nram.

distinguishes between Hiiga-jarira, consisting

of prawas, indriyas, the anta/zkarawa, and the sukshmabhutas

;

and

the sthijla-j-arira, consisting of the five Mahabhutas.
^
^

®
^'^

M. reads
M. reads

j-ariram ity

It sticks to

M.

uktam,

athasti tasya/z bindur iva.
it,

yet

it

can easily run

oif again.

reads Ato, and the commentator explains atho by

kara«at, adding sandhi-^ -^/;andasa/z.

» See VI,

30.

ata>^

Ill

PRAPArJ^AKA,

297

3.

he enters into
mine^ ;" he binds

crippled, full of desires, vacillating,
belief,

believing "I

his Self

by

am

he," "this

is

and over-

his Self, as a bird with a net,

come afterwards by the fruits of what he has done,
he enters on a good and bad birth downward or
upward is his course, and overcome by the pairs he
;

roams

about.'

They asked
them
3.

acts,

'

:

Which

is

And

it ?'

he answered

:

This also has elsewhere been said He who
is the elemental Self; he who causes to act by
'

:

means of the organs^,

Now

sha).

come) by

is

the inner

man

(anta/qDuru-

as even a ball of iron, pervaded (over-

fire,

and hammered by smiths, becomes

manifold (assumes different forms, such as crooked,
round, large, small =^), thus the elemental Self, per-

vaded (overcome) by the inner man, and hammered
by the qualities, becomes manifold^. And the four
tribes (mammals, birds, &c.), the fourteen worlds

number of

(Bhiir, &;c,), with all the

plied eighty-four times ^,

And

ness.

man

all this

beings, multi-

appears as manifold-

those multiplied things are impelled by

(purusha) as the wheel by the potter ^

when

the ball of iron

overcome, so the (inner)
the elemental Self
itself (with

is

hammered, the

is

man

is

as

not

not overcome, but

overcome, because

it

has united

the elements).

mamedam.

^

M.

^

See commentary,

*

M. reads upety atha triguwaw /fatur^alam.
M. reads /C'aturajitilakshayonipariwatam. See

^

And

fire is

reads a.ha.m so

p. 48,

1.

^

M.

anta/^kara«aiA.

7.

also Anubhuti-

prakaja, ver. 118.
•^

Mr/tyava seems an impossible word, though the commentator

twice explains
preferable.

it

as kulala, potter.

Weber

M. reads

conjectures mr/tpa/5'a.

/v'akri;/eti,

which seems

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

298

This body
4. And it has been said elsewhere'
produced from marriage, and endowed with growth^
:

came forth by the urinary passage, was
up with bones, bedaubed with flesh, thatched
with skin, filled with ordure, urine, bile, slime, marrow, fat, oil'', and many impurities besides, like a
in darkness,

built

treasury
5.

ment,

it

fear,

sorrow,
delity,

of treasures ^

full

And

has been said elsewhere

grief,

hunger,

sleep,

ignorance,

carelessness,

sloth,

niggardliness,

thirst,

Bewilder-

:

envy, cruelty ^

decay,

wrath,

infi-

shameless-

folly,

ness, meanness^, pride, changeability^, these are the

results of the quality of darkness (tama/^)^.

^

Part of this passage has been before the

the Manava-dharmajastra,

when

mind of

writing, VI, 76, 77

:

the author of
asthisthuwa/?/

snayuyutam ma7«sajo«italepanam, >^armavanaddha?« durgandhi pur«am mutrapurishayo/i, ^ara^okasamavish/aw rogayatanam aturam
ra^asvalam anitya?« /?'a bhutavasam imaw tya^et. The same verses
occur in the Mahabharata XII, 12463-4, only with tya^a at the
end, instead of tya^et. The rendering of asthibhij- ^itam by asthisthimam shows that /(ita was understood to mean piled or built up,
i. e. supported by bones.
"^

^

Instead of sa/^zvrz'ddhyupetam

M. adds snayu

M.

reads sawzviddhyapetam.

and instead of amayai/^ reads malai/?.
would seem preferable, though Manu's roga-

after vasa,

This reading, malai//,

yatanam might be quoted in support of amayai/z. The exact
meaning of vasa is given in the Aryavidyasudhakara, p. 82, 1. 9.
*

Therefore should wise people not identify

the body.

M. reads

^

M. reads vaikaruwyam.

"

Instead of nirakrz'titvam

cidedly preferable.

opposed to
meaning of
"^

*

their true Self with

vasuneti.

We may

M. reads

nikn'tatvam, which

take

mean

it

to

uddhatatvam, overbearing,

or

either

is

de-

meanness, as

knavery,

usual

the

nikr/ti.

M. reads
M. reads

asatvam, possibly for asattvam.
tamasanvitai/^,

and afterwards

tr/sh«a instead of antastr^shwa.

ra^asanvitai/^

;

also

IV PRAPArZ^AKA, 2.

Inward

fondness,

299

passion,

covetousness,
imkindness, love, hatred, deceit^ jealousy, vain restthirst,

lessness, fickleness ^ unstableness, emulation, greed,

patronising of friends, family pride, aversion to dis-

agreeable objects, devotion

to

agreeable

objects,

whispering^, prodigality, these are the results of the
quality of passion (ra^as).

By these he is filled, by these he is overcome,
and therefore this elemental Self assumes manifold
forms, yes, manifold forms.'

Fourth PRAPAri^AKA.
1.

The

Valakhilyas,

approached him

we bow

Saint,

art the way,

process

is

full

whose passions were subdued,
of amazement and said
O
'

:

before thee

and there

is

teach thou, for thou

;

no other

What

for us.

there for the elemental Self, by which,

after leaving this (identity with the elemental body),

he obtains union ^ with the (true) Self?' Pra^apati
Kratu said to them
2.
It has been said elsewhere
Like the waves
in large rivers, that which has been done before, cannot be turned back, and, like the tide of the sea, the
approach of death is hard to stem.
Bound ^ by the
:

'

:

fetters of the fruits of

good and

without freedom, like a

man

fears, like

one standing before

^

M. reads vyavartatvam.

'

M.

*

Instead of the irregular sayo^yam,

^

It is

jectives

evil, like

in prison

^

It

;

Yama

a cripple

beset by

;

many

(the judge of

should be /^afi^alatvam.

reads mattasvaro.

not quite clear what
refer.

M.

reads

is

M. always reads sayu^yam.

the subject to which

baddho

for

all

these ad-

baddham, but afterwards

agrees with the text as published by Cowell.

;

A

-

*

.

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD,

300

intoxicated by the wine of illusion, like
one intoxicated by wine rushing about, like one
possessed by an evil spirit bitten by the world, like
one bitten by a great serpent darkened by passion,
like the night
illusory, like magic
false, like a
dream
pithless, like the inside of the Kadali
changing its dress in a moment, like an actor^ fair
in appearance, like a painted wall, thus they call
him and therefore it is said
Sound ^, touch, and other things are like nothings

the dead)

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

;

the elemental Self

if

is

attached to them,

remember the Highest Place ^.
3. This is indeed the remedy
Self:

it

will

not

for the elemental

Acquirement of the knowledge of the Veda,

performance of one's own duty, therefore conformity
on the part of each man to the order to which he
happens to belong. This* is indeed the rule for
one's

own

duty, other performances

Through

mere branches of a stem^.

the Highest above, otherwise one

Thus

is

one's

No

man does

and that he

is

an

*

M,
M.
M.
M.

^

The commentator

^

^
^

^
*

one obtains

downwards

his

own

law''.

And

if

people

not belong to any of the orders,

ascetic^, this

reads ye 'rtha anartha iva te

reads na smaret

is

wrong, though, on

sthita//,

esham.

paramam padam.

reads svadharma eva sarva?^ dhatte, stanibha^akhevetara;/i.

and

considers the other sacrificial performances

to be avoided.

M. reads anyathadha/i pataty, esha.
The rules of the order to which he

A

it

falls

reads na/avat.

as hurtful,
^

the

declared, which is to be found
one belongs truly to an order (a^ra-

ma) who transgresses
say, that a

like

own duty

the Vedas.

in

are

Tapasvin

is

free

from the

belongs.

restrictions of the preceding ajra-

IV PRAPAri/AKA, 4.

who is not an ascetic brings
works to perfection or obtains knowFor thus it is said
ledge of the Highest Self.
By ascetic penance goodness is obtained, from
goodness understanding is reached, from understanding the Self is obtained, and he who has obtained
the other hand, no one

his sacrificial

:

that,

does not return^.

one who knew the
this penance is the door
to Brahman, thus said one who by penance had
The syllable Om is the manicast off all sin.
fest greatness of Brahman, thus said one who
well grounded (in Brahman) always meditates on
Therefore by knowledge, by penance, and by
it.
Thus one goes
meditation is Brahman gained.
beyond'^ Brahman (Hirawyagarbha), and to a divinity
higher than the gods nay, he who knows this, and
worships Brahman by these three (by knowledge,

Brahman is," thus
and
science of Brahman
4.

"

said

;

;

penance, and meditation), obtains bliss imperishable,
infinite,

and unchangeable.

Then

freed from those

by which he
and overcome, a mere charioteer*, he

things (the senses of the body, &c.)

was

filled

obtains union with the

Self.'

mas, but he must have obeyed them

first,

before he can

become a

real Tapasvin.
^

jM.

ity,

etad apy

said that he only

who has

reads ajrameshv evavasthitas tapasvi ^ety U/^yata

uktam, &c.

This would mean, For
'

dwelt in the ajramas

is

it is

also called a Tapasvin, a real ascetic

;

and

has been said, that no one obtains self-knowledge except
an ascetic' This is not impossible, but the commentator follows
M. reads atma^ilanenadhigama-^,
the text as printed by Coweli.

this also

karmajuddhi.
2
^
*

M. reads manasa prapyate tv atma hy atmaptya na
M. reads pura eta, which may be right.
RathitaA

is

nivartata

a very strange word, but, like everything else,

it

iti.

is

302

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

The

5.

Valakhilyas said

'

:

teacher, thou art the teacher \

O

Saint, thou art the

What

thou hast said,
has been properly laid up in our mind. Now answer
us a further question
Agni, Vayu, Aditya, Time
(kala) which is Breath (pra?^^), Food (anna), Brahma ^
Rudra, Vish;m, thus do some meditate on one, some
:

on another.

He

Say which of these
them

said to

is

the best for

us.'

:

These are but the chief manifestations of the
highest, the immortal, the incorporeal Brahman. He
6.

'

who

devoted to one, rejoices here in his world
(presence), thus he said. Brahman indeed is all this,
is

and a man may meditate
those which

^

are

its

on, worship, or discard also

chief manifestations.

With these

he proceeds to higher and higher worlds,
and when all things perish, he becomes one with the
(deities)

Purusha, yes, with the Purusha.'
explained by the commentator,
prapita

iti

yavat.

viz. as

ratham prapito rathitvaw

Nevertheless the reading of M. seems to

ferable, viz. atha yai// paripur«o 'bhibhuto 'ya?^ tathaitaij

me
/^a,

kz.

pretai^

vimukta svatmany eva sayu^-yam upaiti. I should prefer
vimuktas tv atmany eva, and translate, 'But then, freed from all
those things by which he was filled and likewise was overcome by
them, he obtains union with the Self.'
sarvair

^

M. reads

the second time abhivady asmiti, which is no improvemight have been ativadyasiti.
M. reads Yama/z pra«o.
This is, of course, the personal Brahma of the Hindu triad. To

ment.
^
^

It

distinguish this personal

give his

name

in the

Brahman.
M. reads ya va

Brahma from

the impersonal, I

somedmes

nom. masc, Brahma, and not the grammatical

base,
*

vasayogya/z

which

is

;

asya.

The commentator

or ya va ya/z by

not quite

clear.

kaj-^it,

explains ya vasya/^ by

admitting a Vedic irregularity

V PRAPAr/ZAKA,

2.

303

Fifth PRApAr/fAKA^

Next

I.
'

Thou

follows Kutsayana's

hymn

Brahma, and thou

art

of praise

:

art Vish;/u, thou

art Rudra, thou Pra^apatl ^ thou art Agni, Varu/^a,

Vayu, thou

art Indra,

thou the Moon.

Thou art Anna ^ (the food or the eater), thou art
Yama, thou art the Earth, thou art All, thou art
the Imperishable.
In thee all things exist in many
forms, whether for their natural or for their own
(higher) ends.

Lord of the Universe, glory
the

Self of All, thou

enjoyer of All

Thou

to thee!

art the

maker of

art

All, the

thou art

all life, and the lord of all
Glory to thee, the tranquil, the
deeply hidden, the incomprehensible, the immeasurable, without beginning and without end.'

pleasure and

2.

'In the beginning' darkness (tamas) alone

this.
est, it

^

;

joy^

was
was in the Highest, and, moved by the Highbecomes uneven. Thus it becomes obscurity

It

At the beginning of the

-S'lokas

which

fifth

PrapaZ/^aka

in the printed edition are

found

my MS.
in

gives the

VI, 34,

p. 178,

Atreme jloka bhavanti, yatha nirindhano vahnir, &c., to nirvishayawz
smr/tam. Then follows as § 2, Atha yathedaw Kautsyayanistutis,
tvam, &c.
2

The commentator

explains

Brahma by Hirawyagarbha and

Pra^apati by Vir%.
^

M.

/^yuta/i,

reads tvam Manus, tvara

which

understand

how

commentary.

Yamaj

H tvam,

prz'thivi

so clearly the right reading that

it

is

tvam athadifficult

to

the mistakes arose which are presupposed by the

See Taitt. Up.

II, 2.

M. reads vij-vakri^/arati/i prabhu//, which seems better.
^ M. reads tamo va idam ekam asta tat
paro syat tat pare;zeritam.
may have been tat pare 'sthat.

*

It

is

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

304

Then
Thus

being moved, becomes
becomes goodness (sattva). Then
this goodness, being moved, the essence flowed forth ^.
This is that part (or state of Self) which is entirely
(ra^as)^

uneven.

this obscurity,
it

intelligent, reflected in

man

(as the

sun

is

in different

knowing the body (kshetra^;la),
attested by his conceiving, willing, and believing, it is
Pra^apati, called Vi^va.
His manifestations have
been declared before ^ Now that part of him which
belongs to darkness, that, O students ^, is he who is
called Rudra.
That part of him which belongs to
obscurity, that, O students, is he who is called
Brahma. That part of him which belongs to goodness, that, O students, is he who is called Vish;Ai.
He being one, becomes three, becomes eight ^, becomes eleven ^ becomes twelve, becomes infinite.
Because^ he thus came to be, he is the Being (neut),
he moves about, having entered all beings, he has
become the Lord of all beings.
He is the Self
within and without, yes, within and without.'
vessels of water)

^ M. reads etad vai ra^aso
rupam, which is better,
more in accordance with what follows.
^ M. reads sattvam everitarasas sa.m prasr/vat.

A

^

reference to Maitr. Up. II, 5, would have saved the

mentator

much

trouble.

M. has a

better text.

or vijvakhyas after pra^apati, which

on

:

It leaves

may be wrong,

com-

out vijveti

but then goes

brahma rudro vish?mr iti. In enuagryas tanava>^, however, M. is less consistent,

tasya prokta agryas tanavo

merating the three
for

or, at least,

it

begins with ra^as or Brahma, then goes on to tamas or

Rudra, and ends with sattva or Vish;m.

The Anubhutiprakaja,

verse 142, has the right succession.
*

This vocative, brahmaX-arino,

The
The

is

always

left

out in

M.

moon, and asterisms.
®
eleven organs of sense and action, which, by dividing
manas and buddhi, become twelve.
M. reads aparimitadha /('odbhutatvad bhutcshu ^arati pravish/a/5
°

five

prawas, the sun,

''

sarvabhutanam.

VI PRAPAr/TAKA,

305

I.

Sixth PRAPArflAKA^

He

two ways^ as
he who is Pra/^a (breath), and as he who is Aditya
Therefore there are two paths for him ^
(the sun).
within and without, and they both turn back in a
I.

day and
Self
is

is

(the Self) bears the Self in

The Sun

night.

is

the outer Self, the inner

Hence the motion of

Breath.

the inner Self

inferred from the motion of the outer Self*.

thus

it is

said

For

:

He who

knows, and has thrown off all evil, the
overseer of the senses^, the pure-minded, firmly
'

The commentator

^

describes the sixth and seventh chapters as

Khila, supplementary, and does not think that they are closely con-

nected with the chief object of the Upanishad. This chief object was

show that there is only one thinking Self (;^idatma) to be known,
and that the same is to be meditated on as manifested in the different
forms of Rudra, Brahma, Vish;m, &c. Thus the highest object of
those who wish for final liberation has been explained before, as

to

well as the proper

means of obtaining

that

liberation.

What

follows are statements of the greatness of the various manifestations

how to worship them. My MS, gives the
beginning of the sixth Prapa//;aka, but ends with the end of the
eighth paragraph. The verses in paragraph 34, as mentioned before,

of the Atman, and advice

end of the fourth Prapa//^aka. My
from the commentary. The text
My rule has been throughout
is obscure and not always correct.
to begin a new sentence with evaw hy aha, for thus it is said,'
which introduces proofs of what has been said before. The passages
thus quoted as proofs from the Veda are often difficult to underMy
stand, nor do they always consist of a complete sentence.
are given in

my MS.

at the

translation deviates considerably

'

translation therefore
^
^

is

often purely tentative,

M. reads dvitiya for dvidha.
M. reads dvau va etav asya pan/^adha namantar bahij

/^ahoratre

tau vyavartete.
*

While the sun goes round Meru

in a

day and a

night, the

breath performs 21,000 breathings, or, more exactly, 21,600.
reads bahiratmagatya.
^

M. reads adhyaksha, not akshadhyaksha.
[15]

X

M.

MAITRAYAA^A-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

306

grounded

the

(in

Self)

and looking away (from

Likewise the
earthly objects), he is the same.'
motion of the outer Self is inferred from the motion

all

For thus

of the inner Self.
'

He who within

the sun

is

it is

said

:

the golden person,

looks upon this earth from his golden place, he

same who,

who

is

the

after entering the inner lotus of the heart ^,

devours food (perceives sensuous objects, &c.)'

And

he who having entered the inner lotus of
the heart, devours food, the same, having gone to
the sky as the fire of the sun, called Time, and being
2.

invisible,

What

devours
is

Valakhilyas ask

That
quarters,

leaves

all

beings as his food.

that lotus

lotus

and of what

is

it

made

?

(the

-.)

is

the

same

as the ether; the four

and the four intermediate points are

its

^.

These

two, Breath and the Sun,

to each other (in the heart

and

move on near

in the ether).

Let

him worship these two, with the syllable Om, with
the Vyahrzt'i words (bhu>4, bhuva/^, svar), and with
the Savitri hymn.
3. There are two forms of Brahman ^ the material
(effect) and the immaterial (cause).
The material
That which is true
is false, the immaterial is true.
is Brahman, that which is Brahman is light, and that
which is light is the Sun'^ And this Sun became
the Self of that

Om.

^

M. reads

^

The commentator

sa esho 'nta/; pushkare hr/tpushkare va^rito.
ascribes the dialogue

still

to the Valakhilyas

and Pra^apati Kratu.
^

M.

*

See Bn'h. Up.

*

Professor Cowell, after giving the various readings of his MSS.,

says,

'

reads dalasawstha asur vagnik parata

etai/z

pra;/adityav eta.

II, 3, i.

the true reading

would seem to be yat satyaw tad brahma,

:

:

PRAPArFAKA,

VI

He

307

4.

divided himself direefold, for

Om

consists of

three letters, a + u + m. Through them all this is contained in him as warp and woof. For thus it is said
Meditate on that Sun as Om, join your Self (the
^

:

'

breath) with the (Self of the) Sun.'

And

4.

thus

has been said elsewhere

it

Udgltha (of the Sama-veda)
Rzg-veda), and the Pra;/ava

Sun

the

thus

Udgitha, and he

is

it is

the Pra;^ava^ (of the

is

is

the Udgitha, and thus

Pra;^ava or

is

The

:

Om.

For

said^

'The Udgitha, called Prawava, the leader (in the
performance of sacrifices), the bright ^ the sleepless,
from old age and death, three-footed'^, consisting
+ m), and likewise to be known

free

of three letters (a4-u

as fivefold (five pra/^as) placed in the cave.'

And

it

also said

is

'

The

three-footed

Brahman has

the branches are ether, wind,

its

fire,

root

upward ^\

water, earth, &c.

This one A^vattha'^ by name, the world, is Brahman,
and of it that is the light which is called the Sun,
and it is also the light of that syllable Om. Therefore let him for ever worship that (breath and sun,
as manifestations of Brahman) with the syllable Om.'
He alone enliohtens us. For thus it is said
:

yad brahma ta^ ^yotir, yad ^yotis sa
reading of
^

M. reads ^aivasminn

-

The

^

See A7^andogyopanishad

*

M. reads namarupam.
The three feet of the prawa

^

sleep

mystic syllable

This

is

exactly the

ity

evam hyaha.

Om.
I,

5

Maitr.

;

Up. VI,

25.

are waking, slumber, and deep

the three feet of the sun, the three worlds, hhu/i, bhuva^,

;

svar, as in

VII, 11,

See also I^Mnd. Up.

KaM.Up.VI,

'

Cf.

^

Ajvattha,

name

aditya/;.'

my own MS.

lit.

of the world.

Ill, 12.

I.

fig-tree,

then frequently used metaphorically as a

Here explained

X

as

2

'

it

will

not stand till to-morrow.'

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

308
'

This alone

highest syllable

whatever he

it

is

the

he who knows that syllable only,

;

desires,

And thus

5.
is

pure syllable, this alone

tlie

is

is

his\'

has been said elsewhere

the sound-endowed body of

:

Om^

This

him (Pra/^adityatman).

gender-endowed body, viz. feminine,
This is his light-endowed body,
This is his lord-endowed
viz. Agni, Vayu, Aditya.
body, viz. Brahma, Rudra, Vish/^u. This is his mouthendowed body, viz. Garhapatya, Dakshi/eagni, AhavaThis

his

is

masculine, neuter.

This is his knowledge-endowed body, viz. Ri/^,
Ya^us, Saman. This is his world-endowed body, viz.
Bhu/^, Bhuva/^, Svar. This is his time-endowed body,
viz. Past, Present, Future. This is his heat-endowed
This is his growthbody, viz. Breath, Fire, Sun.
endowed body, viz. Food, Water, Moon. This is
niya ^.

thought-endowed body, viz. intellect, mind, personality. This is his breath-endowed body, viz. Pra;^a,
his

Therefore by the aforesaid syllable
these here enumerated bodies praised and

Apana, Vyana.

Om are

all

identified (with the Pra;/adityatman).
is

For thus

it

said*:

Satyakama, the syllable Om is the high and
the low Brahman.'
Then forsooth
6. This^ (world) was unuttered*^.
Pra^apati, having brooded, uttered it in the words
Bhu/2, Bhuva/^, Svar.
This is the grossest body of
'

O

Of

that Pra^apati, consisting of the three worlds ^
that

body Svar
Up.

the head, Bhuva/^ the navel,
2

II, 16.

^

Ka///.

*

The

*

PrajfiaUp.V,

"

So

fires

is

on

far the

^

2.

prawava or

Om

5.

reads tanur

M.

reads atha vyattam.

has been explained;
of.

from vyahar, and means an utterance.
Cf.VI,

M.

iti.

the three altars.

the explanation of the Vyah;Ytis;

'

yom

BhM

VI,

2.

now

Vyahr/ti

is

follows

derived

:

VI

the

feet,

PRAPArFAKA,

For

the sun the eye.

309

7.

eye

in the

is

fixed

man's great measure, because with the eye he makes
measurements. The eye is truth (satyam), for
the person (purusha) dwelling in the eye proceeds to
Thereall things (knows all objects with certainty).
all

fore let a

man worship

with the Vy^hr/tis, Bhu/^,

Bhuva//, Svar, for thus Pra^apati, the Self of All,

worshipped as the (sun, the) Eye of All\
thus

it is

is

For

said

This (the sun) is Pra^apati's all-supporting body, for

'

in

this all^ is hid

it

all it

(the light)

is

(by the light of the sun); and in this

hid.

Therefore

this

is

worshipped^,'

Tat Savitur vare;/yam,
Here the Aditya
i.e.
this of Savitr?, to be chosen.'
(sun) is Savitr/, and the same is to be chosen by the
7.

(The

Savitri begins^:)

'

love(r) of Self, thus say the Brahma-teachers.

Bhargo
devasya dhimahi, i.e. 'the splendour of the god we
meditate on.' Here the god is Savitr?, and therefore
he who is called his splendour, him I meditate on,

(Then

follows the next foot in the Savitri)

:

thus say the Brahma-teachers.
^

]M. reads vijvata^^akshur.

2

Pra^apati, according to the commentator,

Satya, the

true, because

sat

means

Satyam before Pra^apati

Then he
is

at the

again,

if

Eshopasita

all,

is

He now

is

Aditya, the sun.

worshipped (by the vyahrztis) then, Hke the
Pra^apati also, the self of all, is worshipped.

the sun

is

We

impossible.

mentator, etam upasita, or with
*

the inser-

argues, as the eye has been called satya, and as the eye

sun, the eye of
^

with

beginning of the paragraph.

Aditya, therefore Pra^apati also, being Satya,

And

identified

Hence probably

bhuva-^, svar) are said to be his body.
tion of

is

the tliree worlds, and these (bhu/^,

M.

must

either read, with the

com-

eshopasiteti.

proceeds to explain the worship of the Savitri verse,

which had been mentioned in VI, 2, after the Om and the Vyahrztis,
as the third mode of worshipping Pra«a (breath) and Aditya (sun),
The Savitri
these being two correlative embodiments of the Self.
is

found in Rig-veda

philosophical sense.

III, 62, 10,

but

it

is

here explained in a purely

See also Brih. Up. VI,

3, 6.

O

3

:

MAITRAYAA^A-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISH AD.

I

(Then follows the last foot) Dhiyo yo na/^ pra/^oi.e. 'who should stir up our thoughts.'
Here
the dhiya/^ are thoughts, and he should stir these up
:

dayat,

for us, thus say the Brahma-teachers.

(He now explains the word bhargas). Now he
who is called bhargas is he who is placed in yonder
Aditya (sun), or he who is the pupil in the eye\

And

he

is

so called, because his going (gati)

rays (bhabhi//)

;

is

by

or because he parches (bhar^ayati)

and makes the world

Rudra

to shrivel up.

is

called

Bhargas, thus say the Brahma-teachers.
Or bha
that he lights up these worlds ra, that he

means

;

delights these beings, ga that these creatures go to
him and come from him therefore being a bha-ra-ga,
;

he

is

called BharQ^as.

Surya- (sun)

is

so called, because

tinually squeezed out (su).

because he brings forth
the

Savitr? (sun)

of man).

life

purifies (pu).

Pavana^

is

Apas, water,

is

is

is

scil.

con-

so called,

Aditya (sun)

(su).

because he takes up (ada,

called,

Soma

is

so

vapour, or

so called, because he
so called, because

it

nourishes (pya).

And

it is

said

Surely the Self (absorbed

which
Immortal ^ is the thinker, the perceiver, the
goer, the evacuator^ the delighter, the doer, the
'

in Pra;^a, breath),

called

is

speaker, the taster, the smeller, the seer, the hearer,

and he touches.

He

is

Vibhu

And

has entered into the body.'
^

M. reads tarake

^

Surya

is

*
^

said

who

:

'ksh«i.

which Soma

is

squeezed out as an offering.

M. reads pavamanat pavamana//.

M.
M.

it is

considered as the daily performer of the Prata/^savana,

&c., the sacrifice at
'^

(the pervader),

reads amrztakhyaj- /C'etakhyaJ ketL
reads ganta smh/a.


VI PRAPAriyAKA,

When the knowledge

*

jective), then

he hears,

(something), for

it is

is

8.

v")

twofold (subjective and ob-

and touches
knows everything.'

sees, smells, tastes,

the Self that

But when the knowledge

is

not twofold (subjective

and action \ without a
name, without a comparison, without a predicate ^
what is that ? It cannot be told^.
only), without effect, cause,

And

same Self is also called L^ana (lord),
^'ambhu, Bhava, Rudra (tamasa)
Pra^"apati (lord
8.

the

;

of creatures),

Satyam

garbha,
(ra^asa)
tvika)

(truth),

Ssstri

;

(ruler),

Pra;^a

all),

Hira;^ya-

(breath),

Vish;z:u,

Hamsa.

Naraya^za

(sat-

Arka, Savitr/, Dhatr/ (supporter), Vidha-

;

trz^ (creator),

Samra^

He

who warms,

is

of

Vi^-vasr^V (creator

also he

Indra, Indu (moon).

(^ii^g).

the Sun, hidden by the

by another.

thousand-eyed golden egg, as one

fire

He

be sought after.
having

is

be thought

to

Having
gone to

after,

said farewell to

he
all

to

is

living beings,

the forest, and having renounced

suous objects,

let

man

all

sen-

perceive the Self^ from his

own body.
'

who assumes all forms, the golden,
things, who ascends highest, alone in
and warms us the thousand-rayed,

(See him)^

who knows

all

his splendour,

;

^

M. reads karyakara^akarmavinirmuktam.

2

Nirupakhyam, rightly translated by Cowell by 'without a
and rendered by the commentator by apramaya, i. e. not

predicate,'

to be measured, not to be classed,

i.

e.

without a predicate.

accordance with a well-known passage,
quoted by the commentator from the Br/hadarawyaka, rather than
^

in

I

have translated

accordance with

this in

his

own

interpretation.

*

M.

^

Instead of the peculiar Maitrayawi reading, svafi jarirad,

leaves out vidhata.

reads sva^
®

M.

/^//arirad.

The oneness

of the

following verse of the

Sun and

the Breath

Prama Upanishad

I, 8.

is

proclaimed in the

MAITRAVAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

3T2

who

a hundred

abides in

creatures, the Sun, rises

places^ the spirit of all

^.'

Therefore he who by knowing this has become
the Self of both Breath and Sun, meditates (while
9.

meditating on them) on his
ficing to

Self, sacrifices (while sacri-

them) to his Self

thus absorbed in these acts,

this meditation, the
is

praised

by the

mind

wise.

Then let him purify the contamination of the mind
by the verse U/^i/^ish/opahatam, &c.^
Be it food
left, or food defiled by left food, be it food given by
a sinner, food coming from a dead person, or from
one impure from childbirth, may the purifying power
of Vasu, may Agni, and the rays of Savitrz, purify
it, and all my sin^.'
'

:

First (before eating) he surrounds (the

food) with water

Svaha to
Vyana, Svaha

(in

saying,
to

offers

rincing

his mouth*).

offered

Then

Svaha to Apana, Svaha
Samana, Svaha to Udana, he

Pra;^a,

to

(the food) with five

invocations (in the

fire

What is over, he eats in silence,
and then he surrounds (the food) once more afterwards with water (rincing the mouth after his meal).
Having washed let him, after sacrificing to himself,
meditate on his Self with these two verses, Pra;^o
*gm/i and Vi^vo 'si, viz. 'May the Highest Self as
of the mouth).

breath, as

fire

(digestive heat), as consisting of the

^
Here ends the M. manuscript, with the following title iti
j-riya^uwakhayam Maitraya«iyabrahma«opanishadi shashMa/z pra:

pa//;aka>^.
'^

•as

is represented
a sacrifice offered by the Self to the Self (atmaya^anariipam

bho^'anam,
^

Samapta.

In the following paragraphs the taking of food

p.

106,

I.

13).

Several words have

been inserted

metre.
*

See ^/^and. Up. V,

2.

in this verse, spoiling the

VI PRAPAr/fAKA, lO.

five vital

airs,

having entered (the body), himself

satisfied,

satisfy

art Vii-va

(all),

born
thee
to

is
;

he who protects

all,

thou art Vai^'vanara

upheld by thee

creatures live

He who

all.'

313

;

may

all

all/

'

(fire), all

Thou

that

is

offerings enter into

where thou grantest immortality

eats according to this rule, does

not in turn become food for others.

There

10.

something else to be known.

is

There

a further modification of this Self-sacrifice (the

is

and the eater thereof This
The thinking Purusha (person),
is the explanation.
when he abides within the Pradhana (nature), is the
feeder who feeds on the food supplied by Prak?^2ti
eating), namely, the food

(nature).

The

elemental Self^

maker being Pradhana
is composed of the three
but the person within
evidence

is

is

is

truly his food, his

(nature^).

Therefore what

qualities (gu/zas)

spring from seed, and as the seed
fore

it

is

And

the feeder.

supplied by the senses.

clear that

what

is

is

food

seed or cause of everything).

is

is

the food,

for this the

For animals
the food, there-

Pradhana (the

Therefore, as has

been said, the Purusha (person) is the eater, Prakrzti, the food
and abiding within it he feeds. All
begins
with
the Mahat^ (power of intellect) and
that
ends with the Vii-eshas (elements^), being developed
;

from the distinction of nature with its three qualities,
is the sign (that there must be a Purusha, an intel^

2

See before, III, 3.
This is very doubtful, in

fact, unintelligible.

The ccmmentator

says, asya bhutatmana/^ karta pradhana/^ purvokta^, so 'pi

bho^ya

ity artha^.
^

Technical terms, afterwards adopted by the Safikhya philo-

sophers.
*

Professor Cowell observes that the term vi^esha, as here applied

to the five gross elements, occurs in the Saiikhya-karika, ver. 38.

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAA^A-UPANISHAD.

314

And

ligent subject).

in this

manner the way with

fourteen steps has been explained ^

its

comprehended

(This

is

This world
is indeed the food, called pleasure, pain, and error
there is no laying
(the result of the three qualities)
in the following verse)

'

:

;

hold of the taste of the seed (cause), so long as there
is

no development

three stages also

its

the shape of

(in

And

effect).'

in

has the character of food, as

it

childhood, youth, and old age

;

are developed, therefore there

for,

because these

in

them the cha-

is

racter of food-.

And

in the following

manner does the perception
it has become

of Pradhana (nature) take place, after

manifest

:

Intellect

and the

such as determina-

rest,

tion, conception, consciousness, are for

Then

the effects of Pradhana).

the tasting (of

there are the five

(perceptive organs) intended for the (five) objects of

And

senses, for to taste them.

thus are

acts of

all

the five active organs, and the acts of the five Pra?^as
or vital airs (for the tasting of their corresponding

Thus what

objects).

and what

is

is

manifest (of nature)

not manifest

is

food.

The

food,

is

enjoyer of

it

without qualities, but because he has the quality

is

of being an enjoyer,

follows that he possesses

it

intelligence.

As Agni (fire) is
and Soma the food,
by Agni

(is

among

the food-eater

who knows

so he

not defiled by food, as

This elemental

the gods,

food

this eats

little

as Agni, the

Self, called

Soma

sacrificial

fire).

(food), is

also called Agni, as having undeveloped

nature for

its

mouth

enjoying through nature,

(as

and being independent of
^

Five receptive,

^

Its

five active

it),

because

it is

said,

'

The

organs, and four kinds of consciousness.

very development proves

it

to

be food.

Cowell.

VI PRAPAr/ZAKA,

315

I 3.

Purusha (person) enjoys nature with its three quaHby the mouth of undeveloped nature.' He who
knows this, is an ascetic, a yogin, he is a performer
of the Self-sacrifice (see before).^ And he who does
ties,

when they intrude

not touch the objects of the senses

on him, as no one would touch women intruding into
an empty house, he is an ascetic, a yogin, a performer
of the Self-sacrifice.

This

11.

the highest form of Self, viz. food, for

is

this Pra;^a (this
not,

it

and

it

'If
it

body) subsists on food.

loses the vital airs^
it

eats,

then

For thus

'

thus

From

earth

;

said

it is

said

taste,
:

airs,

taste, smell, see.'

:

food are born

all

creatures that live on

afterwards they live on food, and in the end

(when they

die)

And

thus

12.

it is

eats

it

possession of the vital

in full

can perceive, hear, touch, speak,

And

If

cannot perceive, hear, touch, see, smell,

they return to
it is

it-.'

said elsewhere: Surely

all

these

creatures run about day and night, wishing to catch

The sun

food.

he

takes food with his rays, and by

These

shines.

vital airs digest,

when

sprinkled

Fire flares up by food, and by

with food.

it

Brahma

(Pra^apati), desirous of food, has all this been made.

Therefore
thus

it is

a

let

said

man worship

For

food as his Self,

:

From food creatures are born, by food they grow
when born because it is eaten and because it eats
'

;

creatures, therefore
13.

And

thus

it

it is

Is

called food (annam).'

said elsewhere: This food

is

the body of the blessed Vlsh/m, called Yisvahhrtt
(all-sustaining).

Breath

is

the essence of food,

mind

of breath, knowledge of mind, joy of knowledge.
1

JCMnd. Up. VII,

9, I.

2

Taitt.

Up.

II, 2.

He

6

MAITRA VAiVA-BRAHMAA^A-UPANISHAD.

31

who knows

this is

possessed of food, breath, mind,

Whatever creatures here on
food, abiding in them he, who knows this,
Food has been called undecaying, food has

knowledge, and joy.
earth eat
eats food.

been called worshipful; food is the breath of animals,
is the oldest, food has been called the physician.
Food
14. And thus it has been said elsewhere
is the cause of all this, time of food, and the sun is
The (visible) form of time is
the cause of time\
the year, consisting of twelve months, made up of

food

:

Nimeshas (twinklings) and other measures. Of the
moves northward)
belongs to Agni, the other to Varu;^a (when the
That which belongs to
sun moves southward).
Ao;ni begfins with the asterism of Mas^ha and ends
year one half (when the sun

with half of the asterism of Sravish^M, the sun
stepping

Soma

down northward.

That which belongs

to

(instead of Varu^^a) begins with the asterism

(of A^lesha), sacred to the Serpents,

and ends with

half of the asterism of K^ravishZ/^a, the sun stepping

up southward. And then there (are the months)
one by one, belonging to the year, each consisting
of nine-fourths of asterisms (two asterisms and a
quarter being the twelfth part of the passage of the
the twenty-seven Nakshatras), each
determined by the sun moving together with the

sun through
asterisms.

Because time

is

imperceptible by sense,

therefore this (the progress of the sun, &c.)

is its

evidence, and by it alone is time proved to exist.
Without proof there is no apprehension of what is
to be proved but even what is to be proved can
become proof, for the sake of making itself known,
;

^ As food
depends on time, therefore time is praised, which again
depends on the sun, which is a form of the Self.

;

VI PRApAri^AKA,

if

1

317

6.

the parts (the twinkhngs, &c.) can be distinguished

from the whole (time^). For thus it is said:
*As many portions of time as there are, through
them the sun proceeds he who worships time as
Brahman, from him time moves away very far.' And
:

thus

it is

said

From

'

:

time

beings flow, from time they grow

all

time they obtain rest

in

;

time

is

;

and

visible (sun)

A

invisible (moments).'

There are two forms of Brahman, time and
That which was before the (existence of
non-time.
That which
the) sun is non-time and has no parts.
time
and has
sun
is
the
from
beginning
had its
15.

parts.

Of

that which has parts, the year

year are born

form, and from the

when produced by

is

the

creatures

all

the year they grow, and go again

Therefore the year

to rest in the year.

pati, is time, is food, is

is

the nest of Brahman,

Thus it is said
Time ripens and dissolves all beings
Self, but he who knows into what time

Pra^ais

Self.

:

'

solved, he
16.

is

This

the

knower of the Veda.'

manifest

He who

creatures.

getter) dwells

in the great
itself is dis-

in

is

it,

time

is

the great ocean of

called SsLvhri (the sun, as be-

from whence the moon,

stars,

and the rest are begotten. From
all this, and thus, whatever of
comes
them again
good or evil is seen in this world, comes from them.
Therefore Brahman is the Self of the sun, and a

planets, the year,

man should worship the sun under the name of time.
Some say the sun is Brahman, and thus it is said
:

^

Thus, the commentator

proved by the

by what we

light of the

says, the existence of the

lamp can be

lamp, as the existence of time

see, the rising of the sun.

All this

is

is

proved

very obscure.

3

I

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

8

'

The

sacrificer,

the deity that enjoys the sacrifice,

the oblation, the hymn, the
pati, all this is

yonder

sacrifice, Vish7^u, Praj^a-

the Lord, the witness, that shines in

orb.'

17. In the beginning

was one, and

infinite

;

Brahman was

all

this\

He

infinite in the East, infinite in

the South, infinite in the West, infinite in the North,

above and below and everywhere infinite. East and
the other regions do not exist for him, nor across, nor
below, nor above. The Highest Self is not to be
fixed, he is unlimited, unborn, not to be reasoned
He is like the ether
about, not to be conceived.
(everywhere), and at the destruction of the universe,
he alone is awake. Thus from that ether he wakes
all this world, which consists of thought only, and
by him alone is all this meditated on, and in him it
His is that luminous form which
is dissolved.
shines in the sun, and the manifold light in the
smokeless fire, and the heat which in the stomach

Thus it is said
fire, and he who is in the heart,
who
is
in
the
He
and he who is in the sun, they are one and the
digests the food.

:

'

same.'

He who knows

X

18.

This

is

tration of the

this

becomes one with the

the rule for achieving

it

(viz.

one.

concen-

mind on the object of meditation):

restraint of the breath, restraint of the senses, meditation, fixed attention, investigation, absorption, these

are called the sixfold
^

Brahman used

Yoga ^ When beholding by

as neuter, but immediately

followed by eko

'nanta.^, &c.

After having explained the form of what is to be meditated on
and the mode of meditation, the Upanishad now teaches the Yoga
which serves to keep our thoughts in subjection, and to fix our
thoughts on the object of meditation.
See Yoga-Sutras II, 29.
^

:

VI PRAPArffAKA, 20.

319

Yoga, he beholds the gold-coloured maker, the
lord, the person, Brahman, the cause, then the sage,
leaving behind good and evil, makes everything
(breath, organs of sense, body, &c.) to be one in
the Highest Indestructible (in the pratyagatman or
Brahman). And thus it is said
As birds and deer do not approach a burning
mountain, so sins never approach those who knowthis

:

'

Brahman/

And

19.

knows

thus

it is

said elsewhere

he is
and placed

has, while

his mind,

away from

still

And

When

he who

Pra;/a (breath), restrained

objects of the senses far

all

himself, then let

conceptions.

:

him remain without any

because the living person, called

Pra^^a (breath), has

been produced here on earth

from that which

not Pra^^a (the thinking Self),

is

therefore let this Pra;^a

what

in

is

'What

merge the

And

called the fourth^.

Pra;^a (himself)

thus

it is

said

without thought, though placed in the

is

what cannot be thought, the
hidden, the highest let a man merge his thought

centre

of thought,

there

then

:

attachment

And

20.

will this living

being

(liriga)

be without

^'

thus

it

has been said elsewhere

:

There

the superior fixed attention (dhara;^a) for him,

is

he presses the tip of the tongue down the
palate and restrains voice, mind, and breath, he sees

viz.

^

if

The

fourth stage

is

meant

for

stages being waking, slumbering,
^

the

and

thinking

Self,

the earher

sleep.

Professor Cowell offers two renderings of this difficult passage

'This which

by the

is

called prawa,

i.e.

:

the individual soul as characterised

no longer appear in its separate indifrom the absence of any conscious subject; or, this subtil

subtil body, will thus

viduality

body bearing
objects.'

the

name

of intellect will thus

become void of

all

MAITRAYAJVA-BRAHMAJVA-UPANISHAD.

3 20

Brahman by

discrimination

after the cessation of

And

(tarka).

mind\ he sees

his

when,

own

Self,

smaller than small, and shining, as the Highest Self^,

then having seen his Self as the

he becomes
Self-less, and because he is Self-less, he is without
limit, without cause, absorbed in thought.
This is
the highest mystery,
said

it is
'

viz. final

Self,

liberation.

And

thus

:

Through the serenity of the thought he kills all
good or bad his Self serene, abiding in the

actions,

;

Self, obtains

And

21.

imperishable

thus

artery, called

bliss.'

The

has been said elsewhere:

it

Sushumna, going upwards (from the

heart to the Brahmarandhra), serving as the passage
of the Pra/^a,
that artery,

is

divided within the palate.

when

Through

has been joined by the breath

it

(held in subjection), by the sacred syllable Om, and
by the mind (absorbed in the contemplation of Brahman), let him proceed upwards and after turning
^,

the tip of the tongue to the palate, without^ using

any of the organs of
greatness ^

From

sense, let greatness perceive

thence he goes to selflessness,

and through selflessness he ceases to be an enjoyer
of pleasure and pain, he obtains aloneness (kevalatva,

And

final deliverance).
^

The commentator remarks

thus

it is

said

that this process

yoga, and the state produced by

it

Unmani

or

:

is

called

Lambika-

Unmanibhava

amanibhava, in VI, 34, ver. 7.
^ I should have preferred to translate atmanam atmana
by 'he sees his Self by his Self,' but the commentator takes a
different view,

and says

itthambhave tmiya

:

;

;

see

pa>ryati

slightly

paramatmarupe;?a

pai-yati.
^

Cf. Ka//5a

*

If

lating
^

Up. VI, 16

;

Prama Up.

we read sa;«yo^ya we must
by

'

Ill, 6 (p. 277).

follow the

commentator

in trans-

uniting the senses with the pra?za and the manas.'

Let the Self perceive the

Self.

PRAPAr^AKA,

VI

'

Having

successively fixed the breath, after

been restrained,
the limit (the
the

to

^21

2 2.

had

thence having crossed

in the palate,

him join himself afterwards
(Brahman) in the crown of the
let

life),

limitless

it

head.'

And

Two

thus

it

has been said elsewhere:

Brahmans have

to

be meditated on, the word and

22.

the non-word.

By

word alone is the non-word
is
the word Om.
Movine
(where all words and all what is meant

Now

revealed.

the

there

upward by it
by them ceases), he

arrives

non-word (Brahman).
immortal, this

is

absorption in the

at

This is the way, this is the
and this is bliss. And as

union,

moving upward by the

the spider,

space, thus also he

who

thread, gains free

moving upward
by the syllable Om, gains independence.
Other teachers of the word (as Brahman) think
otherwise.
They listen to the sound of the ether
meditates,

within the heart while they stop the ears with the

They compare

thumbs.
rivers,

like

a

like

bell,

wheels of a carriage,

it

to

seven noises, like

a brazen vessel, like the

like the

croaking of frogs, like

and as if a man speaks in a cavern. Having
passed beyond this variously apprehended sound, and
having settled in the supreme, soundless (non-word),
unmanifested Brahman, they become undistinguished
and undistinguishable, as various flavours of the
rain,

And

flowers are lost in the taste of honey.
it

is
'

said

Two Brahmans

man and

are to be known, the word-Brah-

the highest

Brahman

;

he who

the word-Brahman attains the highest
^

Cf.

is

perfect in

Brahman \'

Mahabharata XII, 8540; Sarvadar^'ana-sahgraha,

Cowell's Translation, p. 271.
[15]

thus

:

Y

p.

147;

:

:

'

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

32 2

And

23.

syllable

thus

Om

has been said elsewhere

It

what

is

is

And

called the word.

:

its

The
end

the silent, the soundless, fearless, sorrowless, joy-

is

unwavering, immortal, immovable,

ful, satisfied, firm,

Let him worship

certain (Brahman), called Vish;^u.

may

these two, that he

everything

obtain what

is

higher than

For thus

(final deliverance).

it is

said

'He who is the high and the highest god^, by
name Om-kara, he is soundless and free from all
distinctions
therefore let a man dwell on him in
:

the crown of his head.'

And

24.

thus

has been said elsewhere

it

body

is

the bow, the syllable

point

is

the mind.

Having

Om

:

The

the arrow,

is

its

cut through the dark-

ness, which consists of ignorance ^, it approaches that
which is not covered by darkness ^ Then having
cut through that which was covered (the personal
soul), he saw Brahman, flashing like a wheel on fire,

bright like the sun, vigorous, beyond

all

darkness,

that which shines forth in yonder sun, in the moon,
in the

in

fire,

the

And having seen
And thus it has been

lightning^.

him, he obtains immortality.
said
'

Meditation

(Brahman)

Om, mind)
comes

within,
;

the

highest

Belnof

and (before) to the objects (body,

distinct.

the works of the

The commentator

against

to

thence the indistinct understanding be-

And when
^

directed

is

it

;

mind are

dissolved,

takes deva as deva//, though the accent

see Schroeder,

Uber

die Maitrayawi Sawhita, p. 9,

mark

1.

is

1 1.

2

Should

^

Atamavish/a, explained as an irregular compound, atama-avish-

it

not be,

'

darkness

/am, tama-avejanarahitam.
*

Cf.

BhagavadgitaXV,

12.

is

the

?

:

PRAPA^FAKA,

VI

26.

323

then that bHss which requires no other witness, that
is Brahman (Atman), the immortal, the brilHant, that
the way, that

is

25.

And

the (true) world.'

is

thus

has been said elsewhere

it

:

He

who has

his senses hidden as in sleep, and who,
while in the cavern of his senses (his body), but no
longer ruled by them, sees, as in a dream, with the

purest intellect.

Him who

is

called Pra/2ava

(Om),

the leader ^ the bright, the sleepless, free from old

less,

from death, and sorrow, he is himself also
and becomes a leader, bright, sleepfree from old age, from death, and sorrow.

And

thus

age,

called Pra;/ava,

'

it is

Because

said

in

(breath), the

:

manner he

this

Om, and

forms, or because

this

joins

Universe

the

in its

Pra/^a

manifold

they join themselves (to him),

therefore this (process of meditation)

is

called

Yoga

(joining).

The oneness of breath, mind, and senses, and
then the surrendering of all conceptions, that is
called Yoea.'

And

has also been said elsewhere
a sportsman, after drawing out the denizens of
the waters with a net, offers them (as a sacrifice)
26.

thus

it

As

in the fire

of his stomach, thus are these Pra;^as

(vital airs), after

they have been drawn out with the

Om, offered in the faultless fire (Brahman) I
Hence he is like a heated vessel (full of clarified

syllable

butter)

;

for as

vessel lights up,

thus

does this being which

(Atman)

^

the clarified butter in the heated

when touched with

light up,

Cf. VI, 4.

is

called

when touched by
^

grass and sticks,

Not-breath

the Pra;^as (the

Cf. -Svetajvatara-upanishad III, lo.

Y

2

:

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

3 24

And

vital airs)^

that which flares up, that

manifest form of Brahman, that

of Vish;m2, that
dividing his

is

the highest place

the essence of Rudra,
endless ways,

Self in

And

worlds.

is

thus

fills

And
all

this,

these

said

is

it

the

is

*As the sparks from the fire, and as the rays from
the sun, thus do his Pra/^as and the rest in proper order
again and again proceed from him here on earth ^.'
27. And thus it has also been said elsewhere:
This is the heat of the highest, the immortal, the
incorporeal Brahman, viz. the warmth of the body.
And this body is the clarified butter (poured on it,
by which the heat of Brahman, otherwise invisible, is
lighted up).
Then, being manifest, it is placed in

Then by concentration

the ether (of the heart).

thus remove that ether which
that

its

light appears, as

it

is

they

within the heart, so

were*.

Therefore the

worshipper becomes identified with that light without

much

delay.

As

a ball of iron,

if

placed in the

becomes earth without much delay, and as,
has once become a clod of earth, fire and
smiths have nothing more to do with that ball of
earth,

when

it

iron, thus

does thought (without delay) disappear,

together with

its

support ^

And

thus

it is

said

:

As the fire which exists invisibly in a heated vessel becomes
when the heated vessel is touched with sticks dipped in
butter, thus the Atman in the body appears only when the Pra«as
*

visible

are diffused in

it.

Or, as the clarified butter, heated together with

up grass

comes in contact with it, so does this
by heating its two bodies which are
pervaded by the reflections of the thinker, light up everything
the vessel, lights

Atman

that

(called Not-breath),

brought in contact with

it,

viz.

the world.

2

See K^thx Up.

*

The light was always there, but it seems then only to appear.
The commentator explains this differently. He says that the

^

Ill, 9.

^

g^e VI, 31; Bnli. Up.

II, i, 10.


VI PRAPATfl-AKA, 28.

'

The

325

shrine which consists of the ether in the

heart, the bhssful, the highest retreat, that

own, that

our goal, and that

is

ness of the

fire

and the

is

is

our

the heat and bright-

sun.'

And

thus it has been said elsewhere After
behind the body, the organs of sense, and
the objects of sense (as no longer belonging to us),
28.

having

:

left

and havingf seized the bow whose stick is fortitude
and whose string is asceticism, having struck down
also with the arrow, which consists in freedom from
egotism, the
(for

If

man

first

guardian of the door of Brahman

looks at the world egotistically, then,

taking the diadem of passion, the earrings of greed

and envy, and the staff of sloth, sleep, and sin, and
having seized the bow whose string is anger, and
whose stick is lust, he destroys with the arrow
which consists of wishes, all beings) having therefore killed that guardian, he crosses by means of the

boat

Om

to the other side of the ether within the

and when the ether becomes revealed (as
Brahman), he enters slowly, as a miner seeking
minerals in a mine, Into the Hall of Brahman.
After that let him, by means of the doctrine of his
teacher, break through the shrine of Brahman, which
consists of the four nets (of food, breath, mind, know-

heart,

he reaches the last shrine, that of blessedness and identity with Brahman). Thenceforth pure,

ledge,

till

similes are intended to show how, as soon as the impediment is
removed, the worshipper obtains his true form, i.e. becomes Brahman. Afterwards he explains X'ittam, thought, by the individual

and declares that he vanishes together with the thought,
which forms the a^raya, the place, or the upadhi, the outward form.
Or again, he says that the /^itta, the mind, vanishes with its outward

thinker,

sign, viz. the thoughts

and imaginations.

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

326
clean,

undeveloped, tranquil, breathless^ bodiless,

unborn and
own greatness \ and

endless, imperishable, firm, everlasting,

independent, he stands on his

having seen (the Self), standing in his own greatness,
he looks on the wheel of the world as one (who has
alighted from a chariot) looks on its revolving wheel.

And
'

thus

it is

man

If a

said

:

practises

Yoga

for six

months and

is

thoroughly free (from the outer world), then the
perfect Yoga (union), which is endless, high, and
hidden,

But

is

accomplished.
a man, though well enlightened (by instruc-

if

tion), is still

pierced by (the gu;;as of) passion and

darkness, and attached to

Yoga

house, then perfect
29. After

is

his

children, wife,

and

never accomplished^.'

he had thus spoken

.Sakayanya, absorbed in thought,

(to

Br/hadratha),

bowed before him,

and said
O King, by means of this Brahma-knowledge have the sons of Pra^apati (the Valakhilyas)
gone to the road of Brahman. Through the practice
of Yoga a man obtains contentment, power to endure
good and evil, and tranquillity. Let no man preach
this most secret doctrine to any one who is not his
son or his pupil ^, and who is not of a serene mind.
To him alone who is devoted to his teacher only,
and endowed with all necessary qualities, may he
communicate it^
'

:

See Maitr. Up. II, 4 VI, 31.
This would seem to have been the end of the dialogue between
Pra^apati and the Valakhilyas, which, as related by 6"akayanya to
1

;

^

King

began in II, 3. See, however, VII, 8.
Up. VI, 22 (p. 267) Bnh. Up. VI, 3, 12.
* Here may have been the end of a chapter, but the
5'akayanya and Brzhadratha is continued to VI, 30.
2

Brzliadratha,

^vet.

;

story of

VI

30.

Om

PRArArHAKA,

Having

!

settled

327

30.

down

in

a pure place

him, being pure himself, and firm in goodness,
study the truth, speak the truth, think the truth,
and offer sacrifice to the truths Henceforth he has
let

become another

man

his fetters

by obtaining the reward of Brahare cut asunder, he knows no hope,
;

no fear from others as little as from himself, he
knows no desires and having attained imperishable,
infinite happiness, he stands blessed in the true
Brahman, who longs for a true man 2. Freedom
from desires is, as it were, the highest prize to be
For a
taken from the best treasure (Brahman).
man full of all desires, being possessed of will,
but he who is
imagination, and belief, is a slave
;

;

the opposite,

is

Here some

free.

say,

it is

the Gunsi^

(i.

e.

the so-called

Mahat, the principle of intellect which, according to
the Sahkhyas, is the result of the Gu;/as or qualities),
which, through the differences of nature (acquired in
the former states of existence), goes into bondage to
the will, and that deliverance takes place (for theGu;m)
when the fault of the will has been removed. (But this
is

not our view), because (call

it

gu;^a, intellect, buddhi,

it is not the mind
he sees by the mind (as his instrument), he hears by the mind; and all that we call

manas, mind, ahaiikara, egotism,
that acts, but)

^

The

truth

or the true are explained by, (i) the

bcok which

teaches the Highest Self; (2) by Brahman, who is to be spoken
about ; (3) by Brahman, who is to be meditated on (4) by Brah;

man, who
^

I

is

to

be worshipped in thought.

have translated

this

according to the commentary, but I should

prefer to read satyabhilashi?^.
^

The

mentary

passages within brackets had to be added from the comin order to

Ramatirtha's views.

make

the text intelligible, at least according to

:

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAA^A-UPANISHAD.

328

desire, imagination, doubt, belief, unbelief, certainty,

uncertainty, shame, thought, fear,

mind (manas).

is

but

Carried along by the waves of the

darkened

qualities,

that

all

fickle, crippled, full

in

his

imaginations,

unstable,

of desires, vacillating, he enters

into belief, believing

I

am

he, this

is

mine, and he

binds his Self by his Self, as a bird with a net^

Therefore a man, being possessed of will, imagination, and belief, is a slave, but he who is the opposite is free.

from

For

this

a

let

imagination, and belief

will,

man

this is the sign of

the opening of the door, and through

to the other shore of darkness.

And

fulfilled.

"
still

When

stand free

path that leads to Brahman, this

liberty, this is the
is

reason

for this they

it

he

will

go

All desires are there

quote a verse

the five instruments of knowledge stand

together with the mind, and

does not move, that

Having thus

is

when

the intellect

called the highest state ^."'

Sakayanya became absorbed

said,

in

Then Marut (i. e. the King Brzhadratha)^
having bowed before him and duly worshipped him,
thought.

went

full

of contentment to the Northern Path^ for

no way thither by any side-road. This is
Brahman.
Having burst open the
solar door, he rose on high and went away.
And
here they quote
There are endless rays (arteries) for the Self
who, like a lamp, dwells in the heart white and
black, brown and blue, tawny and reddish ^
there

the

is

path to

:

.'

:

^

See

^

See before,

*

See Prajwa Up.

^

III, 2.

1,

penance, abstinence,

Path Aditya, the
<*

See the same verse in Ka/^a Up. VI, 10.

II, i.

10,

'

faith,

But those who have sought the Self by
and knowledge, gain by the Northern

sun.'

SeeiOand. Up.VIII,

6,1.

VKAFATHAKA,

VI

One

329

1.

3

Sushumna) leads upwards,
by it, having stepped beyond
the world of Brahman, they go to the highest path.
The other hundred rays^ rise upwards also, and
on them the worshipper reaches the mansions beof them

(the

piercing the solar orb

:

longing to the different bodies of gods.

But the manifest rays of dim colour which lead
downwards, by them a man travels on and on helplessly, to

enjoy the

Therefore
the cause of

it

new

fruits of his actions here.'

said that the holy Aditya (sun)

is

of liberty (to those
31.

who do not worship
who worship him as a god),

births (to those

him), of heaven (to those

Some one

is

who worship him

as

Brahman) ^.

asks: 'Of what nature are those

organs of sense that go forth (towards their objects)

?

Who

sends them out here, or

who

holds

?'

them back
Another answers 'Their nature is the Self; the
also the
Self sends them out, or holds them back
and
(enticing
objects
of
sense),
the
solar
Apsaras
:

;

rays (and other deities presiding over the senses).'

Now the

Self devours the objects

(the organs of sense)

He who

who

then

;

independently by

his

him who has no

^

A

the Self

five rays
?

has been defined by the terms pure, clean,

who

undeveloped, tranquil^, &c.,
of

is

by the

own

signs,

is

to

be apprehended

peculiar signs.
is

like

That

sign

what the pervading

similar verse, but with characteristic variations, occurs in the

Up. VIII, 6, 6, and in the KaMa Up. VI, 16.
Here ends the story of -Sakayanya, which began I, 2, and was
carried on through chap. VI, though that chapter and the seventh
are called Khilas, or supplements, and though the MS. M. also ends,
Z'/^and.
^

as

we
^

saw, with the eighth paragraph of the sixth chapter.

See before,

II,

4

VI,!

-

:

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

330
heat

of

is

some\

fire,

the purest taste of water

thus say

speech, hearing, sight, mind, breath

It is

thus say others ^

intellect, retention,

It is

knowledge

bering,

;

;

Now all

thus say others ^

same sense

;

rememthese

which here
on earth shoots are the signs of seed, or smoke, light,
and sparks of fire. And for this they quote*
As the sparks from the fire, and as the rays from
the sun, thus do his Praf^as and the rest in proper
are signs of the Self in the

in

'

order again and again proceed from him here on
earth.'

From

32.

come

Vedas,
tion)^
fire

this

very

Self,

abiding within his Self,

forth all Pra;/as (speech, &c,), all worlds, all
all

is

gods, and

that

it is

all

beings

;

its

Upanishad

'the true of the true.'

(revela-

Now as from a

of greenwood, when kindled, clouds of smoke

forth

by themselves (though belonging

come

to the

fire),

thus from that grreat Beino- has been breathed forth

which is the /?/g-veda, the Ya^ir-veda, the
Sama-veda, the Atharvaiigirasas (Atharva-veda), the
all

this

Itihasa (legendary stories), the Pura;2a (accounts of

the creation, &c.), Vidya (ceremonial doctrines), the

Upanishads, the ^'lokas (verses interspersed

in the

Upanishads, &c,), the Sutras (compendious state-

Anuvyakhyanas (explanatory notes), the
Vyakhyanas (elucidations)^ all these things are his.
ments), the

^ See Ken. Up. 2.
Up. VI, 13,
Up. Ill, 2. Here we find dhr/ti (holding),
(remembering), pra^ilanam (knowledge), but not buddhi.
gn3.nam seems the right reading, and is supported by M.
^

See

6'vet.

'

See

Ait.

*

See before, VI, 26.

^

Revelation

yitr/tvat

is

^

Pra-

here the rendering of Upanishad, upanigama-

sakshadrahasyam, and the true (sattya)

the five elements,

sran'ti

and then by

See-Oand.Up.VI,

i.

that

The

which

is

is

explained

first

by

their real essence.

explanations given of these literary

;

VI PRAPArzfAKA,

n 1

This

].
00'

bricks

And

the year.

is

Garhapatya-fire)

(the

fire

331

^;^.

its

with

five

five bricks are spring,

summer, rainy season, autumn, winter and by them
the fire has a head, two sides, a centre, and a tail.
This earth (the Garhapatya-fire) here is the first
sacrificial pile for Pra^apati, who knows the Purusha
;

(the Vira^),

presented the sacrificer to

It

Vayu

by lifting him with the hands to the sky.
That Vayu is Pra//a (Hira;^yagarbha).
Pra/za is Agni (the Dakshi;/agni-fire), and its bricks
are the five vital breaths, Pra;m, Vyana, Apana,
Samana, Udana and by them the fire has a head,
two sides, a centre, and a tail.
This sky (the
(the wind)

;

Dakshi/^agni-fire) here
for

the second sacrificial pile

is

who knows

Pra^apati,

Purusha.

the

sented the sacrificer to Indra, by

lifting

That Indra

the hands to heaven.

is

It

pre-

him with

Aditya, the

sun.

That
and

its

(Indra)

the

is

bricks are the

Agni

7?//',

(the Ahavaniya-fire),

the Ya/ush, the Saman,

the Atharvangirasas, the Itihasa, and the Pura/m

and by them the fire has a head, tw^o sides, a tail,
and a centre. This heaven (Ahavaniya-fire) is the
third sacrificial pile for Pra^apati, who knows the
titles

are

on the whole

What

passages.

is

the

same

as those

Upanishad by such passages as we had
is

that

verses

it

is

like

the true of the true.

those

in

VI, 19,

we had

Ramatirtha

peculiar to

just

The

a/^ittaw

is

now,

before in similar
that

he explains

viz. its

Upanishad

6'lokas are explained as

/^ittamadhyastham.

Sutras are explained as comprehensive sentences, such as

ayaw vava khalv atma

The
II, 2,

Anuvyakhyanas are taken as explanaII, 2, beginning with atha ya
esho/J-(7zvasavish/ambhanena.
The Vyakhyanas are taken as fuller
statements of the meaning contained in the Sutra, such as the
dialogue between the Valakhilyas and Kratu.

tions

following on

te.

the

Sutra in

;

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

S3^

With the hands it makes a present of
the sacrificer to the Knower of the Self (Pra^apati)
then the Knower of the Self, lifting him up, presented him to Brahman. In him he becomes full
Purusha.

;

of happiness and joy.
34.

The

earth

is

Dakshi/za-fire, the

the Garhapatya-fire, the sky the
heaven the Ahavaniya-flre and
;

therefore they are also the

Pavaka

Pavamana

(pure), the

and the Su^'i (bright) \ By this
(by the three deities, Pavamana, Pavaka, and Suh)
the

(purifying),

sacrifice

(of the three

Dakshi;2a, and Ahavaniya)

cause the digestive

fire

fires,

the Garhapatya,

manifested.

is

also

is

a

And

compound

be-

of the

Pavamana, Pavaka, and Su^i, therefore that fire is
is to be laid with bricks, is to
be praised, and to be meditated on. The sacrificer,
when he has seized the oblation, wishes^ to perform
to receive oblations,

his meditation of the deity
'

The

in the

:

gold-coloured bird abides in the heart, and

sun

— a diver

bird, a

swan, strong in splendour

him we worship in the fire.'
Having recited the verse, he discovers
ing, viz.

its

mean-

the adorable splendour of Savitr/ (sun)

is

to

be meditated on by him who, abiding within his
mind, meditates thereon. Here he attains the place
of rest for the mind, he holds it within his own Self.

On

this there are the following verses

(i)

^

As

a

without fuel becomes quiet

fire

Epithets of Agni, the

the Garhapatya-fire,

Ahavaniya-fire.

sacrificial-fire,

pavaka

The

construction

This'means, he ought

to

in its

pavama«a applying o
and suk'i to the

to the Dakshi;za-fire,

of

imperfect.
^

:

perform

it.

the

sentence, however,

is

;

PRAPArHAKA,

VI

place \ thus do the thoughts,

S33

34.

when

all

activity ceases,

become quiet in their place.
(2) Even in a mind which loves the truth ^ and has
gone to rest in itself there arise, when it is deluded
by the objects of sense, wrongs resulting from former
^

acts*.

For thoughts alone cause the round of births^

(3)

a

let

man

(4)

What

strive to purify his thoughts.

thinks, that

he

By the

is

a

man

this is the old secret''.

:

serenity of his thoughts a

man

blots out

whether good or bad. Dwelling within
Self with serene thoughts, he obtains imperish-

actions,

all

his

able happiness.
(5)

If the

thoughts of a

man were

so fixed on

Brahman as they are on the things of this world,
who would not then be freed from bondage ?
(6)

The

mind,

it is

said, is

of two kinds, pure or

impure from the contact with lust, pure
from lust"^.
(7) When a man, having freed his mind from
sloth, distraction, and vacillation, becomes as it were
delivered from his mind^, that is the highest point.
(8) The mind must be restrained in the heart till
that is knowledge, that is
to an end
it comes

impure

when

;

free

;

liberty: all the rest are extensions of the ties^ (which

bind us to this

life).

^

^

Dies in the fireplace.

^

M. reads satyakamina,^.
The commentator inserts
M. reads sawsara^.

*
^
^
''

This

is

M.

a negative.

very like the teaching of the

Cf. Ind. Stud. II, 60.

kamasahkalpam, as

in

reads upa^amyati twice.

Dhammapada,

Brahmavindu Up.

v. i,

I, i.

where we read

MS. M.

*

See note to VI, 20.

®

M. reads mokshaj>^a and

j-eshas tu.

The commentator

says that

!!

MAITRAYAJVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

334

{9) That happiness which belongs to a mind which
by deep meditation has been washed^ clean from all
impurity and has entered within the Self, cannot be
described here by words it can be felt by the inward
power only 2.
(10) Water in water, fire in fire, ether in ether, no
one can distinguish them
likewise a man whose
mind has entered (till it cannot be distinguished
;

;

from the

Self), attains liberty.

Mind alone

(11)

liberty for

men

bound;

free

;

if

the cause of bondage and

is

attached to the world,

it

becomes

from the world, that is liberty^.
Therefore those who do not offer the Agnihotra
(as described above), who do not lay the fires (with
if

the bricks, as described above),
the

who

are ignorant (of

mind being the cause of the round of

births),

who

do not meditate (on the Self in the solar orb) are
debarred from remembering the ethereal place of
Brahman. Therefore that fire is to receive oblations, is to be laid with bricks, is to be praised, to
be meditated on.
35 ^ Adoration to Agni, the dweller on earth, who
remembers his world. Grant that world to this thy
worshipper

Adoration to Vayu, the dweller in the sky, who
his world.
Grant that world to this thy
worshipper

remembers

this line is easy,

granthavistara/^

Upanishad.
stand

till

I

it is so by no means.
Professor Cowell translates
by book-prolixity, but this sounds very strange in an

but

am

not satisfied with

a better one

granthis are mentioned
^

'
*

M.
M.

is

found.

my own

M.

translation, but

inJ^Mnd. Up. VII, 26

reads nirdhuta.

2

;

Ka//z.

Up. VI,

j^j^ j-g^^^jg

to

be addressed to the

may
The
15.

karaweti.

reads vishayasaktam muktyai.

Next follow invocations

it

reads grmdhavistara/^.

deities.

!

VI pRAPArz/AKA,

335

35.

A

Adoration to Aditya, the dweller in heaven, who
remembers his world. Grant that world to this thy
worshipper
Adoration to Brahman, who dwells everywhere,

who remembers
shipper

The mouth
a golden

go

Grant

all.

to

all

this

thy wor-

!

lid

of the true (Brahman)

open

;

to the true one,

He who

O

Pushan

who pervades

is

we may

(Vish;2u)\

all
I

meant by the true one

is

of the sun, that which

covered with

is

(sun), that

the person in the sun,

is

And what

that,

am
is

he^.

the essence

bright, personal, sexless^;

a portion (only) of the light which pervades the
ether

;

which

as

is,

and

in the eye,

that

is

it

and

in the fire.

immortal, that

That

is

were, in the midst of the sun,

is

That

is

Brahman,

splendour.

the true one, a portion (only) of the light

which pervades the ether, which is in the midst of
the sun, the immortal, of which Soma (the moon)
and the vital breaths also are offshoots
that is
Brahman, that is immortal, that is splendour.
:

That

is

the true one, a portion (only) of the light

which pervades the ether, which in the midst of the
sun shines as Ya^ais, viz. as Om, as water, light,
essence, immortal, Brahman, Bhu//;, Bhuva/^, Svar,

Om.
'The

^

"^

eight-footed^, the bright, the swan,

The verse occurs in a more original form
The commentator adds iti after aham,

3

A7/and. Up.

*

The

the rest.

Vedas;
ha7;isa?;z

I,

6,

6

;

^vet.

Up. V,

in Tal.

Up.

bound

15.

10.

eight feet are explained as the eight regions, or aroga

The swan
see

-ff'ul.

trisutram

Up.

is

the sun.

I, i

;

The

Ind. Stud.

and

three threads are the three

IX,

n — ash/apadawz

ma;nm avyayam, dvivartamanaw

ju/^ir

tai^asaiddha7;^

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAA^A-UPANISHAD.

2,36

with three threads, the infinitely small, the imperishable, blind for

who

A
sun.

That

That

is

kindled with light

— he

(fire),

that

is

two rays rising in the midst of the
the knower^ (the Sun), the true one.

Ya^s,
is Vayu

the

water, that

is

mortal, that

is

that

is

the heat, that

(wind), that

the moon, that

is

is

like salt,

breath, that

bright, that

the place of Brahman, that

and that

desires are there

is

And

the ocean

is

moved by

here they quote

a gentle wind, he

is

the knower, he

knows the

obtained unity, he becomes identified with

They who

rise

up

in endless

:

who

difference (be-

tween the high and the highest Brahman)

drops (from the

all

He who knows

dwells within the gods shines forth.

he

is

Im-

is

oneness with Brahman, for

fulfilled.

Like a lamp,

this,

Agni

is

In that ocean the sacrificers are dissolved^

light.

'

evil,

portion (only) of the light which pervades the

ether, are the

of

good and

sees him, sees everything.'

number,

;

having

it.

like

spray

from the

sea), like lightnings

within the clouds in the highest heaven, they,

light

when

they have entered into the light of glory (Brahman),

appear
light
is

like so

many

flame-crests in the track of

fire.'

There are two manifestations of the Brahma-

36,
:

one

is

tranquil, the other lively.

tranquil, the ether

is

the support

;

Of that which

of that which

is

Therefore (to the former) sacrifice must
be offered on the house-altar with hymns, herbs,
ghee, meat, cakes, sthalipaka, and other things to
the latter, with meat and drinks (belonging to the
great sacrifices) thrown into the mouth, for the mouth
lively, food.

;

sarva-^
five
^

pajyan na

pai-yati.

Here the

eight feet are explained as the

elements, manas, buddhi, and ahahkara.
Savit for savitn'.

^

Vliyante for viliyante.

VI PRAPAr/fAKA,

is

the Ahavaniya-fire

;

and

Z?)7

2)7'

this is

done

to increase

our bodily vigour, to gain the world of purity, and
for the sake of immortality. And here they quote
:

Let him who
By an Agnish/oma he wins the kingdom
of Yama
by Uktha, the kingdom of Soma by
a Sho^/asin-sacrifice, the kingdom of S6rya by an
longs for heaven, offer an Agni-

*

hotra.

;

;

;

Atiratra-sacrifice,
sacrifices

and

the kingdom

of Indra

;

beginning with the twelve-night

by the
sacrifice

ending with the thousand years' sacrifice, the

world of Praf^apati.
As a lamp burns so long as the vessel that holds
the wick

is filled

with

oil,

these two, the Self and the

bright Sun, remain so long as the egg (of the world)

and he who dwells within
2,7.

Therefore

a

let

it

hold together.'

man perform

all

these cere-

monies with the syllable Om (at the beginning). Its
splendour is endless, and it is declared to be threefold, in the fire (of the altar), in the sun (the deity),
in

the breath (the sacrificer).

to increase the food,

the

which makes what

ascend to the sun.

fire

Now this is the
The

is

channel

offered in

sap which flows

from thence, rains down as with the sound of a
hymn. By it there are vital breaths, from them
there is offspring. And here they quote
The offering which is offered in the fire, goes to
the sun the sun rains it down by his rays thus food
comes, and from food the birth of living beings.'
And thus he said
The oblation which is properly thrown on the
fire, goes toward the sun
from the sun comes rain,
from rain food, from food living beings K'
:

*

;

;

:

*

;

1

[15]

See

Manu
z

III, 76.

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

338
38.

He who offers the Agnihotra breaks through the

Then, cutting through bewilderment,
never approving of anger, meditating on one desire
(that of Hberty), he breaks through the shrine of
Brahman with its four nets, and proceeds thence to
the ether.
For having there broken through the
net of desire.

(four) spheres of the Sun, the

Moon, the

Fire,

and

Goodness, he then, being purified himself, beholds
dwelling in goodness, immovable, immortal, indestructible,

bearing the

firm,

highest abode,

name

of Vish?iu, the

endowed with love of

truth

and om-

niscience, the self-dependent Intelligence (Brahman),

standing in
*

its

own

greatness.

And here they quote

In the midst of the sun stands the

the midst of the

goodness,

in

moon

the

fire,

in the

moon,

midst of

:

in
fire

the midst of goodness the Eternal.'

Having meditated on him who has the breadth
of a thumb within the span (of the heart) in the
body, who is smaller than small, he obtains the
nature of the Highest; there

And on
'

this

all

desires are fulfilled.

they quote:

Having the breadth of a thumb within the span

(of the heart) in the body, like the flame of a lamp,
burning twofold or threefold, that glorified Brahman,
the great God, has entered into all the worlds.
Adoration to Brahman Adoration !'

Om

!

!

Seventh PRApArifAKA.
I. Agni, the Gayatra (metre), the Trivm (hymn),
the Rathantara (song), the spring, the upward breath

(pra;za), the

rise in the
^

Nakshatras, the Vasus (deities)

East

;

they warm, they

rain,

Other MSS. read sruvanti, which seems

— these

they praise
better.

^


VII

PRAPArHAKA,

him

(the sun), they enter again into

look out from him (the sun).

He

(the sun), they

(the sun)

is

incon-

blameless,

covered,

deep,

form,

ceivable, without

339

4.

unfathomable, without qualities, pure, brilliant,
enjoying the play of the three qualities, awful, not
caused, a master-magician^, the omniscient, the
solid,

mighty, immeasurable, without beginning or end,
blissful,
all

unborn, wise, indescribable, the creator of

things, the self of all things, the enjoyer of all

things, the ruler of all things, the centre of the centre

of

all thinq-s.

2. Indra, the Trish/ubh (metre), the Vau^adasa.
(hymn), the Brzhat (song), the summer, the throughthese rise
going breath (Vyana), Soma, the Rudras

they warm, they rain, they praise, they
He
enter again into him, they look out from him.
(the sun) is without end or beginning, unmeasured,
in the

South

;

unlimited, not to be
ent,

moved by

another, self-depend-

without sign, without form, of endless power,

the creator, the maker of

light.

The

Maruts, the 6^agati (metre), the Saptada^a
3.
(hymn), the Vairupa (song), the rainy season, the
downward breath (apana), ^Sukra, the Adityas these

West

rise in the

;

they warm, they

rain,

they praise,

they enter again into him, they look out

That
less,

from him.

the tranquil, the soundless, fearless, sorrowimmortal,
joyful, satisfied, firm, immovable,
is

eternal, true, the highest abode, bearing the

name

of Vish;m.
4.

the Anush/ubh (metre), the

The Vi5ve Devas,

Ekavi;;/5a (hymn), the Vaira^a (song), the autumn,
the equal breath (samana), Yaruna, the Sadhyas
these rise in the North they warm, they rain, they
;

^

See VII, II, abhidhyatur

Z 2

vistr/tir iva.

;

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

340
praise,

they enter again into him, they look out from

him.

He

is

pure within, purifying, undeveloped,

tranquil, breathless, selfless, endless.

Mitra-Varu;eau, the Pankti (metre), the

5.

Tnna-

vatrayastri;;^^a (hymns), the 6'akvara-raivata (songs),

snowy and dewy

the

seasons, the out-going breath

—these
above
they
they enter again
out from him —who
called

(udana), the Aiigiras, the

they warm, they
into him,

rain,

they look

Moon

rise

praise,

is

Pra;2ava (Om), the leader, consisting of

and sorrow.
6ani (Saturn), Rahu and Ketu

light,

without

sleep, old age, death,
6.

(the ascending

and descending nodes), the serpents, Rakshas, Yakshas, men, birds, i"arabhas, elephants, &c.
these rise
below they warm, they rain, they praise, they enter
again into him, they look out from him he who is


;

wise,

of

who keeps

all,

things in their right place, the centre

the imperishable, the pure, the purifier, the

bright, the patient, the tranquil.
7.

And

is

indeed the

Self,

the heart, kindled like

within
all

he

forms.

Of him

is

creatures are woven.

all

smaller (than small)
fire,

this food,

That Self

endowed with
within him

all

from sin\
from hunger
and thirst, imagining nothing but what it ought to
imagine, and desiring nothing but what it ought
to desire. He is the highest lord, he is the supreme
master of all beings, the guardian of all beings, a
boundary keeping all things apart in their right
free from old age, from death

places^.

He

and

the Self, the lord,

is

free

grief,

is

indeed 6ambhu,

Bhava, Rudra, Pra^apati, the creator of
^

See

^Mnd. Up. VIII,

See A7/and. Up.VIII,
lokanam.
^

all,

Hira;2ya-

7, i.
4, i,

where we find setur vidh/Vtir esha/«

1

!

VII

TRATATHAKA,

34

8.

garbha, the true, breath, the swan, the ruler, the
And he who abides in
eternal, Vish;m, Naraya;^a.
the

and he who abides

fire,

in the heart,

and he who

To
abides in the sun, they are one and the same.
thee who art this, endowed with all forms, settled in
the true ether, be adoration
8.

Now follow the impediments

O

ledge,

King^

!

This

is

in the

way of know-

indeed the origin of the net

who

is worthy of heaven
of heaven. That
worthy
lives with those who are not
Though they have been told that there is a
is it.

of bewilderment, that one

grove before them, they cling to a small shrub. And
others also who are always merry, always abroad,
always begging, always making a living by handiwork and others who are begging in towns, per;

forming

sacrifices for

those

who

are not allowed to

who make themselves the pupils of
^'udras, and ^Sudras who know the sacred books
and others who are malignant, who use bad language,

offer sacrifices,

;

dancers, prize-fighters, travelling mendicants, actors,

who have been degraded in the king's service
and others who for money pretend that they can lay

those

;

(the evil influences) of Yakshas, Rakshasas, ghosts,
goblins, devils, serpents, imps, &c.
falsely

wear red dresses ^

who wish

;

earrings,

and others who
and skulls; and

by the jugglery of false
arguments, mere comparisons and paralogisms, the
with all these he should not
believers in the Veda

others

to entice

^

This king

is

not meant for Brzliadratha.

This refers to people who claim the privileges and licence of
Sannyasins without having passed through the discipline of the
preceding ajramas. As this was one of the chief complaints made
against the followers of -Sakyamuni, it might refer to Buddhists,
^

it ought
Buddha.

but

to

be borne in mind that there were Buddhists before

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAA'A-UPANISHAD,

342

They are

live together.

And

of heaven.
'

The world

thus

false

know what

does not

it is

said

and unworthy

:

by the paralogisms of the
comparisons and arguments,

unsettled

by

denial of Self,

clearly thieves,

and philosophy

the difference between

is

Veda

\'

Brzhaspati, having

become

brought forth
that false knowledge for the safety of Indra and for
the destruction of the Asuras. By it they show that
9.

.Sukra,

is evil, and that evil is good. They say that we
ought to ponder on the (new) law, which upsets the
Veda and the other sacred books 2. Therefore let no
one ponder on that false knowledge it is wrong, it
Its reward lasts only as long
is, as it were, barren.
as the pleasure lasts, as with one who has fallen from
Let that false science not be attempted,
his caste.

good

:

for thus

it is

said

:

Widely opposed and divergent are these two,
one known as false knowledge, the other as
knowledge.
I
(Yama) believe Na/('iketas to be
possessed by a desire of knowledge even many
pleasures do not move thee ^
(2) He who knows at the same time both the
(i)

the

;

and the perfect knowledge
(of the Self), he crosses death by means of the
imperfect, and obtains immortality by means of the

imperfect

(sacrifice, &c.)

perfect knowledge^.

Those who

(3)
^

If

we

unusual

if

translate

we

thus,

wrapped up^

the use of vidya

follow the commentary,

in the
for

midst of

vn'tha vidya

we should have

is

to trans-

he does not know the Veda and the other knowledge.

late,
'^

;

are

All this

were

may

heretics,

refer to Buddhists, but not

by necessity,

for there

such as Br/haspati, long before ^akyamuni.

KaM. Up.

^

See

^

Vesh/yamana-^, instead of vartamana^.

II, 4.

"

See

Va^"-.

Up.

1 1.

PRAPArHAKA,

VII

II.

343

imperfect knowledge, fancying themselves alone wise
and learned, they wander about floundering and de-

by the blinds
10. The gods and the demons, wishing to know
the Self, went into the presence of Brahman (their

ceived, like the blind led

Having bowed before him, they
blessed one, we wish to know the Self,

father, Pra^apati)

said

'

:

O

^.

having pondered a
long while, he thought, these demons are not yet
self-subdued^; therefore a very different Self was

do thou

tell

us.'

Then,

after

them (from what was told to the gods). On
that Self these deluded demons take their stand,
clinging to it, destroying the true means of salvatold to

tion (the Veda), preaching untruth.

What

is

untrue

they see as true, as in jugglery. Therefore, what is
taught in the Vedas, that is true. What is said in
the Vedas, on that the wise keep their stand.
Therefore let a Brahman not read what is not of
the Veda, or this will be the result.
11. This is indeed the nature of it (the Veda), the
supreme light of the ether which is within the heart.

This

is

taught as threefold,

This

in the breath.

syllable

By

it

Om,

(by the

is

in

fire,

in the sun,

indeed the nature of

of the ether which

Om)

the

is

it,

the

within the heart.

that (light) starts, rises, breathes

becomes forever the means of the worship and
knowledge of Brahman. That (light, in the shape of

forth,

1

See KaM. Up.

2

Cf.

3

I prefer

II, 5.

^y^and. Up. VIII,

8.

ayatatmana/^, though

it is

the easier (sugama) reading,

compared with anyatatmana/z, those who seek for the Self elsewhere, namely, in the body. It seems to me to refer to those who,
as

without having subdued the passions of their body, wish to obtain
Possibly, however, the author

the knowledge of the Highest Self.

may have

intended a climax from anyatatmana/^ to anyatamam.

;

:

M AITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAA^A-U PANISH AD.

344

Om), when there

is

from

internal heat, free

the action of

smoke

the smoke,

air,

breathing, takes the place of the

first

all

for

;

This

brightness ^

when

like

is

there

is

a breath of

sky

in

one column,
it and takes

rising to the

follows afterwards every bough, envelopes

shape ^.

its

throwing

It is like

salt (into water), like

The Veda comes and goes

heating ghee^

like the

And

dissolving view of a master-magician ^

here

they quote
'

Why

then

as soon as

is it

it

whole body.

called " like lightning ?"

comes

forth (as

Therefore

let

Om)
a

boundless light by the syllable

The man

(i)

he

up the

man worship

that

in the right eye,

Indra, and his wife abides in the left eye^.

is

(2)

The

union of these two takes place

in the cavity

within the heart, and the ball of blood which
that

Because

lights

Om/

eye who abides

in the

it

is

(3)

indeed the vigfour and

There

and fixed

is

life

is

there,

of these two.

a channel going from the heart so

in that

eye

;

that

is

far,

the artery for both of

them, being one, divided into two.
'

but

This seems to be the meaning adopted by the commentator

may it not be, sending forth brightness ?
The simile is not very clear. The light

of Brahman is below
That sphere of fire becoming
heated, the light of Brahman becomes manifest. When the fire
has been fanned by the wind of sonant breath, then the light of
Brahman, embodying itself in the wind and the fire, manifests itself
first in the mere sound of Om, but aftersvards, checked by throat,
palate, &c., it assumes the form of articulate letters, and ends by
becoming the Veda in its many branches.
^

the sphere of

fire

in

the body.

^ As these are outwardly changed,
without losing their nature,
thus the light of Brahman, though assuming the diff"erent forms of
the Veda, remains itself.
*

See before, VII,

^

See

i.

Bnh. Up. IV,

2, 2, 3,

where Indra

is

explained as Indha.

VII PRAPAri^AKA,

The mind

(4)

345

excites the fire of the body, that fire

the breath, and the breath,

stirs

II.

moving

in the chest,

produces the low sound.

Brought forth by the touch of the fire, as with
a churning-stick, it is at first a minim, from the
minim it becomes in the throat a double minim
on the tip of the tongue know that it is a treble
minim, and, when uttered, they call it the alphabet
(5)

;

He who

(6)

sees this, does not see death, nor dis-

he sees

ease, nor misery, for seeing

all

(objectively,

not as affecting him subjectively); he becomes

all

everywhere (he becomes Brahman).

There

(7)

he
sound asleep, and

the person in the eye, there

is

who walks as in sleep, he who
he who is above the sleeper

is

these are the four

:

conditions (of the Self), and the fourth

than

all

and Brahman with three

A

^

is

greater

^.

Brahman with one

(8)

is

comparison of

moves

foot
feet

is

in the three,

in the last.

A7zand. Up. VII, 26, shows

this verse with

the great freedom with which the wording of these ancient verses

was

Instead of

treated.

Na

pajyan mr/'tyum pa^yati na

S)3.r\-a.m

hi pa,fyan pa^yati

the J^/iandogya. Up. reads

Na
The
is

ha pa^ya/z pajyati sarvam apnoti

is

dream

;

In the
;

in the

disguise

is

first

;

in the

in the third the

absorbed in sleep

Self.

body

Pr%Ma, and Turiya.

awake, and enjoys the world

thing as in a

he

sarvaja-^,

:

sarvaja/z.

conditions here described are sometimes called the Vi^va

(Vai^vanara), Tai^asa,
Self

nota duy^khatam,

pa^yo m;7'tyum pa^yati na voga?n nota du/zkhatam,

Sarva;?i
^

rog3.?n

sarvam apnoti

;

in the fourth

state the Self

In the

two former

state the

states cease,

and

he becomes again the pure

has the disguise of a coarse material

second of a subtle material body

potential only; in the fourth

potential or realised.

first

second he sees every-

it

;

in

the third

its

has no disguise, either

MAITRAYAiVA-BRAHMAiVA-UPANISHAD.

34^

It is that

both the true

and the untrue

(in

the fourth condition)

may have
Great Self (seems to) become
two, yes, that he (seems to) become two ^
(in

the three conditions)

their desert, that the

^

'

By

reason of the experience of the false and the true, the great

Soul appears possessed of duality.'

Cowell.

II

I

347

TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS.

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349

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January, 1884.

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