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AIR POLLUITON P2

1. WHAT KIND OF SEWER SYSTEMS YOU KNOW?

Combined system of sewers: both storm water runoff and sewage in the
same pipe
Separate system of sewers: transports sewage alone and storm water runoff
alone (or directly to surface water)
On the other hand, waste water can be conveyed by gravity, can be pumped
or conveyed by vacuum.
2. WHAT KIND OF POLLUTANTS ARE IN COMMUNAL WASTE WATER?

From physical point of view:


Solids:
solid of high density (e.g. stones)
swimming solid (e.g. wood)
suspended particle (grit, sand, small organic particles, drops of
oil etc.)
Soluble materials
Emulsions
Gases
From chemical point of view:
Organic
Inorganic
3. WRITE THE DEFINITION OF BOD5 AND COD. WHAT ARE THEY USED
FOR?

BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand


The BOD is a measure of the rate at which micro-organisms use dissolved
oxygen in the bacterial breakdown of organic matter under aerobic
conditions.
The BOD5 test indicates the organic strength of a waste water and is
determined by measuring of BOD of a sample at 20C for five days in the
dark.
COD = Chemical Oxygen Demand
COD is a measure of the amount of oxygen consumed from a chemical
oxidising agent under controlled conditions. The COD is generally greater

than the BOD as the chemical oxidising agent will often oxidise more
compounds than is possible under biological conditions.

4. MAKE A SKETCH OF THE FLOW DIAGRAM OF A COMMUNAL WASTE


WATER TREATMENT PLANT. MAKE A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE
EQUIPMENT OPERATION PRINCIPLES.

5. MAKE A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL TREATMENT. WHAT


PROCESSES CAN BE USED IN THIS PART OF WASTE WATER
TREATMENT?

The screening can be:


Coarse screening, for spacing of over 40 mm
Medium screening, for spacing of 10 to 40 mm
Fine screening, for spacing under 10 mm

6. HOW CAN BE CALCULATED THE SETTLING VELOCITY OF A SOLID


PARTICLE IN WATER?

Considering:
Re < 1
Free settling
Ball shape for the particle

( )
=

Where:
= settling velocity from Stokes law [m/s]
= diameter of the solid (particle considered) [m]
= density of the solid [kg/m]
= density of the fluid [kg/m]
= gravity acceleration [m/s]
= dynamic viscosity of the fluid [kg/(ms)]
7. HOW CAN YOU CALCULATE THE MINIMUM LENGTH OF A HORIZONTAL
FLOW RECTANGULAR SETTLEMENT TANK, IF THE SETTLING
VELOCITY, THE INLET VOLUME FLOW RATE, THE WIDTH AND THE
DEPTH OF THE BASIN ARE GIVEN?

Considering a laminar flow:


= water velocity [m/s];
= settling velocity [m/s];
=

Settling time and detention time:

; =

But >

, therefore:

>

>

8. WHAT KINDS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT YOU KNOW?

On the basis of oxygen consumption:


Aerobic
Anaerobic
On the basis of microorganisms growth:
Biofilm (attached growth, fixed film) processes:
Percolating filter (Trickling filter)
Rotating biological contactor
Activated sludge (suspended growth) treatment

9. WHAT KIND OF AERATION POSSIBILITIES CAN BE USED IN ACTIVATED


SLUDGE TREATMENT (SKETCH + DESCRIPTION)?

1) Mechanical surface aerator with draft tub: mix of water in


which there is air dissolved into the waste water.

2) Submerged air diffusion:

3) Combined surface mixing and submerged diffuse aeration:

4) Diffused air pipes


5) Bubble diffusers
6) Jet aeration equipment

10. WHY HAS TO BE RETURNED A PART OF SLUDGE FROM SECONDARY


SETTLEMENT TANK TO THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANT?

The recirculation of part of the sludge from the secondary settlement tank
ensures that the same amount of microorganism will remains in the treatment
system.

11. MAKE A SKETCH AND A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF A TRICKLING FILTER.

12. MAKE A SKETCH AND A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF A ROTATING


BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR.

Biofilm process, since the rotating leaves are covered with biofilm at which
the waste water pass through.

13. WHAT PROCEDURES CAN BE USED IN TERTIARY TREATMENT? GIVE A


ONE SENTENCE COMMENT TO EACH OF THEM.

Processes in tertiary treatment can be:


Disinfection: treatment of the effluent for the destruction of all
pathogens.
Chemical treatment (precipitation, neutralization etc.): used for acidic
and caustic waste water, if contaminants can be well precipitated; to
improve settling properties, to remove heavy metals and phosphorus
removal.

Adsorption: adhesion of atoms, ions, molecules of gas, liquid, or


dissolved solids to a solid surface. This process creates a film of the

adsorbate (the molecules or atoms being accumulated) on the surface


of the adsorbent.
Membrane technology: semi-permeable layer with two main features
of selectivity and permeability. The inlet flow is separated in permeate
(cleared water) and retentate (concentrated contamination).
Distillation:

Evaporation: thermal process, widely used for concentrating


solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. Concentration is accomplished
by boiling out one part of the solvent, normally water, from the liquid
phase.

14. WHAT CATEGORIES OF DISINFECTION YOU KNOW? WRITE THEIR


ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.

Disinfection Techniques of Wastewater


Chemical by Chlorine, Ozone, Hydrogen peroxide.
Advantages are elimination of odors; oxidation of residual organic
compounds; ozone can be generated from air, making its supply
dependent only upon a source of power.
Disadvantages are high cost of production and potential to cause
localized air pollution.
Physical.
Irradiation.

15. WHAT IS PRECIPITATION? WHAT IS IT USED FOR? WHERE CAN IT BE


USED IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT?

Chemical precipitation is a method of wastewater treatment. Metal salts are


generally used for the precipitation of phosphate. Wastewater treatment
chemicals are added to form particles which settle and remove contaminants.
Before primary settlement, biological treatment and secondary settlement.

16. DESCRIBE THE OPERATION OF A FIXED BED ADSORPTION COLUMN.


(SKETCH, BREAKTHROUGH CURVE)

A part of the bed is saturated at inlet point of water and reaches adsorption
equilibrum. This part of the bed is not able to further adhesion so moves
towards the outlet zone of the water. Zones in the bed are:
saturated zone
adsorption or operation zone
free zone
Water flow to be cleared into the adsorber has to be turned off at
breakthrough point or exhaustion point, and let into another adsorber
column. Saturated adsorber has to be regenerated (desorbed.)

17. WHAT TYPES OF SLUDGE WATER YOU KNOW? WHAT ARE THE
REMOVAL PROCESSES OF THEM?

Inter-particles water (~70%) - Thickening


Bonded water colloidal water or capillary water (~22%) - First
conditioning or stabilization, then: Dewatering
Inside water (~8%) - drying

18. SHOW THE FLOW DIAGRAM OF SLUDGE TREATMENT. WHAT TYPES OF


SLUDGE WATER ARE REMOVED IN THE PARTS OF IT?

19. SHOW THE VOLUME OF SLUDGE VS. SLUDGE CONCENTRATION


DIAGRAM.

20. WHAT IS CONDITIONING USED FOR? DESCRIBE THE POSSIBLE


CONDITIONING METHODS.

The purpose of sludge conditioning is to provide a rigid sludge structure


of porosity and pore size sufficient to allow drainage and dewatering.
Preparation process before dewatering.

Sludge conditioning is a process whereby sludge solids are treated with


chemicals or various other means to prepare the sludge for dewatering
processes.
Physical
Chemical
Biochemical (aerobic, anaerobic)
21. WHAT IS DIGESTION USED FOR? (HEATING, MIXING, SHAPE, COVER,
BOTTOM)

The digestion process is a Anaerobic Biochemical Conditioning. The


products are:
Digested sludge for agriculture
Biogas
The digestion can occurs in different temperatures according with the
microorganisms into the sludge:
Cold digestion T < 15 C (50-180 days)
Heated digestion
Mesophilic digestion T= 32- 38 C (15-25 days)
Thermophilic digestion T= 55- 58 C (5-12 days)

The reactor can be:


Cylindrical
Conical bottom
Conical cover

Egg-shaped

22. DESCRIBE THE OPERATION OF A DECANTER CENTRIFUGE (SKETCH).

Sludge dewatering (after conditioning)

1 Feeding sludge pipe


2 Dry sludge
3 Clarified liquid
4 Screw conveyor
5 Rotating bowl
7 Adjustable tresholds
8 Casing

23. MAKE A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF BIOGAS. (PRODUCTION, COMPOUNDS,


UTILIZATION)

Biogas can be defined as a mixture of methan (60-65% CH4) and other


gases, as carbon dioxide (30-35%), what can be produced by digestion of
organic mater of the sludge, for example. The biogas can be used in the heat
energy recovery by its direct combustion or it can be used in electric energy
(gas engine, furnace).