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CSE 1108 - Fundamentals of

C
Computing
i

Lecture 3

Hardware Components of a Computer


System
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Chapter Topics

Functions of a computer
Data versus information
Bits and bytes
Input devices
Output devices
Processing
Storage
Ergonomics
g
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Computers Are DataProcessing Devices

A computers four major functions:

Gathers data (users input data)


Processes data into information
Outputs data or information
Stores data and information

Data vs. Information

Data: Representation of a fact


fact, figure
figure, or idea
Information: Organized, meaningful data

Bits and Bytes:


The Language of Computers

Bit

Byte

Binary digit
0 or 1
8 bits

Each letter, number, and character is a


g of eight
g 0s and 1s
string

How Much Is a Byte?


Name

Abbreviation

Number of Bytes

Relative Size

Byte

1 byte

Can hold one character of data.

Kil b t
Kilobyte

KB

1 024 bytes
1,024
b t (210 bytes)
b t )

Megabyte

MB

1,048,576 bytes (220 bytes)

Gigabyte

GB

1 073 741 824 bytes (230 bytes)


1,073,741,824

C h
Can
hold
ld 1
1,024
024 characters
h
t
or about
b t
half of a double-spaced typewritten
page.
Can hold approximately 768 pages of
typed text.
Approximately 786
786,432
432 pages of text;
500 sheets of paper is approximately
2 inches, so this represents a stack
of paper 262 feet high.

Terabyte

TB

1,099,511,627,776 bytes (240 bytes)

This represents a stack of typewritten


pages almost 51 miles high
high.

Petabyte

PB

1,125,899,906,842,62 bytes (250


bytes)

Exabyte

EB

1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes
(260 bytes)

Zettabyte

ZB

1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424
bytes (270 bytes)

The stack of pages is now 52,000


miles high, or approximately onefourth the distance from the Earth to
the moon.
The stack of pages is now 52 million
miles high, or just about twice the
distance between the Earth and
Venus.
The stack of pages is now 52 billion
miles high,
high some 20 times the
distance between the Earth and
Pluto.

Computer Hardware

Hardware: Any part of the computer you can


touch

Computer Software

Software: Programs that enable hardware


to perform different tasks

Application software
System software

Input Devices

Devices used to enter information or


instructions into the computer

Keyboard
Mouse/pointing device
Microphone
S
Scanner
Digital camera
Stylus

Keyboards

The QWERTY layout is standard on most


PCs.
Enhanced keyboard
y
features include number,
function, and navigation keys.
Notebook keys
y have alternate functions when
used in conjunction with the Fn (function)
key.

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Specialty Keyboards

Virtual laser
keyboard

Configurable
keyboard

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Mice
waves

Optical mouse

Needs no mouse pad Integrated pointing


device
Doesnt need
cleaning
l
i
Touchpad
Trackball
Trackpoint
Easier on wrists
Stays stationary on
desk

Wireless

U
Uses
radio
di or lilight
ht
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New Mouse Features

Magnifier
Customizable
buttons
Web Search
File storage

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Other Input Devices

Game controllers
Touchscreens
Digital
g
p
pens

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Image Input

Digital cameras,
camcorders, and cell
phones

Pictures
Video

Webcams

Live video

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Sound Input

Microphones
p
are used for:

Podcasts
Video-conferencing
g
Internet phone calls
Speech
p
recognition
g

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Input Devices for the


Physically Challenged

Vi
Visual
l iimpairments
i
t

Voice recognition
K b d with
Keyboards
ith llarge kkeys
Touchscreen keyboards

M t control
Motor
t l issues
i

Special trackballs
H d
Head-mounted
t d devices
d i

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Output Devices

Send processed data out of the computer

Monitors
Printers

Output devices make:

Soft copies (video,


(video sounds,
sounds control signals)
Hard copies (print)

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Monitor Types

CRT (cathode ray


t b )
tube)

Uses much more space


Uses more energy
gy
Offers better viewing
angles
Legacy technology

LCD (liquid crystal


di l )
display)

Uses far less space


More energy
gy efficient
Less viewable from an angle

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LCD Monitor Features

Screens are grids made up of millions of pixels

Each pixel is composed of red, blue, and green


subpixels

Liquid crystal is sandwiched between two


t
transparent
t layers
l
to
t form
f
images
i

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LCD Quality Factors

Resolution

Viewing angle

Contrast ratio

Brightness

Response time

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Screen Size

21 monitor
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19 monitor
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1680x1050 pixels
1440x900
1280x1024

Wide screen vs. standard 4:3 ratio

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Printers

Impact printers

Nonimpact
p
p
printers

Dot-matrix
Inkjet
Laser

Specialty printers

All-in-one
Plotters
Thermal
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Nonimpact Printers

Inkjet

Less expensive device


Print high-quality
g q
y color
images cost effectively

Laser

More expensive device


Faster printing speed
Color lasers are
becoming less expensive
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Choosing a Printer

Speed (ppm)
Resolution (dpi)
Color output
Memory
Use and cost
Cost of consumables

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The Motherboard

CPU
RAM
Expansion
cards and
slots
Built-in
components

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RAM vs. ROM

Random access
memory (RAM):

Stores instructions
and data
Temporary (volatile)
storage
Consists of several
memory cards or
modules

Read only memory


Read-only
(ROM):

Stores start-up
start up
instructions
Permanent storage

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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Referred to as the brains of the computer


Controls all functions of the computer
Processes all commands and instructions
Can perform billions of tasks per second

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CPU Performance Measures

Speed

Megahertz (MHz)
Gigahertz (GHz)

Cores

Single
Dual
Quad

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Drive Bays

Internal drive bays:

Cannot be accessed from


outside the system
Are reserved for internal
hard drives

External drive bays:

Can be accessed from


outside the system
CD or DVD drives
Floppy and Zip drives
(legacy technology)
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Hard Drive

Permanent (nonvolatile) storage


Internal or external versions

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Optical Storage

Compact discs (CDs)


Digital video discs (DVDs)
Blu ray discs (BDs)
Blu-ray

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Flash Drives/Flash Memory

Flash drives (jump


drives)

Newer storage
alternative
Plug into USB ports

Flash memory cards

Slide into slots in the


system

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Types of Ports

USB
Serial and parallel
Audio and video
FireWire

Connectivity

Ethernet
Modem

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Adding Ports

Expansion cards:

New port
standards

Expansion hubs:

Enable several
devices to be
connected to a
portt

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Power Controls

Power on button: Turns on system;


Power-on
should not be used to turn it off
Called a cold boot when turned on for
the first time that day
Other options:

Sleep mode
Hibernate
Warm boot
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Setting It All Up: Ergonomics

Ergonomics: minimizing injury or


discomfort while using the computer
Steps to follow:

Position monitor correctly


Use adjustable chair
Assume proper position while typing
Take breaks
Ensure adequate lighting

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Review Questions

What exactly is a computer


computer, and what are its
four main functions?
What is the difference between data and
information?
What are bits and bytes
bytes, and how are they
measured?
What devices do I use to get data into the
computer?
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Review Questions

What devices do I use to get information out


of the computer?
Where are programs and information stored?
How are devices connected to the computer?
H
How
d
do I sett up my computer
t to
t avoid
id strain
t i
and injury?

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Week 3 (Part 2)
Understanding and Assessing Hardware:
Evaluating Your System

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Chapter Topics

To buy or to upgrade?
Evaluating your system

CPU
RAM
Storage devices
Video card
Sound card

S t
System
reliability
li bilit

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To Buy or to Upgrade?

Things to
consider

Moores Law
Cost of
upgrading vs.
buying
Time to install
software and
files
fil
Needs and
wants
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To Buy or to Upgrade?

Determine your ideal computer system


Assess existing computers subsystems

CPU
RAM
Storage devices
Video
Audio

Consider training needs


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Desktop or Notebook

Desktop

Hard to move
around
Less expensive
Harder to steal
Easier to expand
and upgrade
Difficult to transport

Notebook

Portable
More expensive
Easily stolen
Difficult to upgrade
Easy external
expansion
Prone to damage
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How Does the CPU Work?

Control unit
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
Machine cycle

Fetch
Decode
Execute
Store

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Differentiating CPUs

Processing power

Core: A complete processing section from a CPU


embedded into the same p
physical
y
chip
p
Clock speed: How quickly the processor works
Cache: The amount of immediate access memory
y
the CPU has
Front side bus: connects the processor to system
memory

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Evaluating the CPU

Identify your current CPU


Determine whether it is meeting your needs

Go to Task Manager to review CPU usage

Consider how quickly data moves to or from


the CPU

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Evaluating RAM

Random access memory (RAM)

Temporary storage
T
t
(memory)
(
)
Volatile

Memory modules fit on motherboard

Most are called dual inline memory modules


(
(DIMMs)
)

DDR2
DDR3
SRAM
DRAM
SDRAM
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How Much RAM Do You Need?

Physical memory vs. kernel memory


Need RAM for operating system, application
software, and data
Sample RAM requirements:
Application

Minimum RAM Required

Windows 7
Microsoft Office Professional 2007
Internet Explorer 8
iTunes
Adobe Photoshop Elements

1000 MB
256 MB
128 MB
256 MB
512 MB

Total RAM required to run all


programs simultaneously

2,152 MB or 2.15 GB
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Virtual Memory

Memory-bound system
Virtual memory
Page file
Drawback = speed
Increasing RAM can avoid this problem

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Adding RAM

Things
g to consider

Type of RAM module


Amount of RAM

Maximum limit
Number of slots
Operating system

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Storage

Types of storage devices

Hard drive
USB flash drive
Optical drive
External hard drive

Nonvolatile storage

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The Hard Drive

Storage capacity is up to 2 terabytes (TB)


Access time is measured in milliseconds
Data transfer rate is measured in megabits or
megabytes per second

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How a Hard Disk Works

Composed of coated
platters
l
stacked
k d
on a spindle
D t saved
Data
d tto the
th disk:
di k
Pattern of magnetized
spots

Read/write
head

Spots = 1
Spaces = 0

Spots are translated


into data
Access arms
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Evaluating Storage

Identify your hard drives


drive s total capacity
Determine your storage capacity needs
Consider data transfer rates

Internal
External

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Optical Storage

Optical media: Store data as tiny pits burned


into a disc by a laser

Prerecorded

Recordable

CD R DVD
CD-R,
DVD-R,
R BD
BD-R
R

Rewritable

CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, BD-ROM

CD-RW DVD-RW,
CD-RW,
DVD-RW BD-RE

Consider replacing CD/DVD drive with BD


burner
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Evaluating Video

Two components

Video card (adapter)


Monitor

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Video Cards

Process binary data into images


Contain memory known as video memory
Control the number of colors a monitor can
display (bit depth)

Standard VGA
True color

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Graphics Processing Unit

Performs the same work as a CPU


Specialized to handle

3D graphics
g p
Image and video processing

C U p
CPUs
perform better with a G
GPU
U handling
g
graphics computation.

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Evaluating Video

Identify the amount of video memory on your


video card
Determine your video needs
Consider how many monitors you want to use

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Evaluating Audio

Sound cards

Attach to motherboard
Process digital data into
sounds
3D sound cards
Surround sound
Allow you to connect audio
devices

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Evaluating System Reliability

Performance problems

Slow
Freezes
Crashes

Upkeep and maintenance

System tools
Control Panel
U d t software
Update
ft

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Upkeep and Maintenance

Clean out your Startup folder


Clear out unnecessary files
Run spyware/adware programs
Run the Disk Defragmenter utility

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Update Software and


Hardware Drivers

Software

Patches
Automatic updates

Hardware

Download updated drivers

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The Last Resort

If problems persist:

Upgrade the operating system to the latest


version
Reinstall the operating system

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The Final Decision

How closely does your system meet your


needs?
How much would it cost to upgrade your
system?
How much would it cost to purchase a new
system?

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Review Questions

How can I determine whether I should


upgrade my existing computer or buy a new
one?
What does the CPU do, and how can I
evaluate its performance?
How does memory work in my computer,
and how can I evaluate how much memory I
need?
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Review Questions

What are the computers


computer s main storage
devices, and how can I evaluate whether they
match myy needs?
What components affect the output of video
on my computer, and how can I evaluate
whether they match my needs?
How can I improve the reliability of my
system?
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References

Technology in Action
Action, Chapter 2
2, Looking at
Computers: Understanding the Parts

Technology in Action, Chapter 6,


Understanding and Assessing Hardware:
Evaluating Your System

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