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Name: _______________________

EXTRA PRACTICE

Read the following passage then answer the questions from 1 to 20.

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10

Although lie detectors are being used by governments, police departments, and
businesses that all want guaranteed ways of detecting the truth, the results are not
always accurate. Lie detectors are properly called emotion detectors, for their aim is
to measure bodily changes that contradict what a person says. The polygraph
machine records changes in heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and the electrical
activity of the skin (galvanic skin response, or GSR). In the first part of the
polygraph test, you are electronically connected to the machine and asked a few
neutral questions (What is your name? Where do you live?). Your physical
reactions serve as the standard (baseline) for evaluating what comes next. Then
you are asked a few critical questions among the neutral ones (When did you rob
the bank?). The assumption is that if you are guilty, your body will reveal the
truth, even if you try to deny it. Your heart rate, respiration, and GSR will change
abruptly as you respond to the incriminating questions.

That is the theory; but psychologists have found that lie detectors are simply
not reliable. Since most physical changes are the same across the emotions,
15 machines cannot tell whether you are feeling guilty, angry, nervous, thrilled, or
revved up from an exciting day. Innocent people may be tense and nervous about
the whole procedure. They may react physiologically to a certain word (bank) not
because they robbed it, but because they recently bounced a check. In either case,
the machine will record a lie. The reverse mistake is also common. Some
20 practiced liars can lie without flinching, and others learn to beat the machine by
tensing muscles or thinking about an exciting experience during neutral questions.
Adapted from Psychology, by Carole Wade and Carol Tavris (Harper & Row, 1990)

1. What is the main idea of the passage?


A. Physical reactions reveal guilt.

B. How lie detectors are used and their

reliability.
C. Lie detectors distinguish different emotions.

D. Lie detectors make innocent people

nervous.
2. What is the other name for lie detectors in the first paragraph?
A. polygraph machine records.

B. GSR.

C. emotion detectors.

D. baseline.

3. Acording to the passage, polygraph tests


A. record a persons physical reactions.

B. measure a persons thoughts.

C. always reveal the truth about a person.

D. make guilty people angry.

4. According to the passage, what kind of questions are asked on the first part of the
polygraph test?
A. Critical

B. Unimportant

C. Incriminating

D. Emotional

5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as something that is measured by a polygraph


machine?
A. Blood pressure

B. Heart rate

C. Breathing

D. Eye movement

6. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the reason why lie detectors are unreliable?
A. physical changes remain unchanged across all emotions.

B. The entire process may lead the innocent people to be strained and neurotic.
C. Some experienced liars can easily beat the machine.
D. Innocent people may react calmly to certain words.
7. Which of the following questions does NOT the passage answer?
A. How does the polygraph machine work?
B. What kind of questions does the polygraph machine ask?
C. What kind of crime is the polygraph test suitable for?
D. Can the polygraph machine detect physical changes and emotions?
8. Where in the passage does the author first mention how the test is given?
A. line 2 3

B. line 4 5

C. line 6 7

D. line 8 9

C. questions

D. standards

C. the truth

D. your body

9. In line 9, the word ones refers to


A. reactions

B. evaluations

10. The word it in line 10 refers to


A. the question

B. the assumption

11. In line 10, the word assumption could be best replaced with
A. statement

B. belief

C. faith

D. imagining

12. What does the word incriminating mean?


A. making someone guilty of a crime

B. making someone not guilty of a crime

C. not responsible for any crime

D. innocent of any crime

13. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?


A. Lie detectors are very reliable.

B. Innocent people are never found guilty.

C. Psychologists never argue about anything. D. Most people cannot control their bodily
reactions.
14. From the passage, it can be inferred that
A. emotions are all the same.

B. psychologists would not want the detectors used to prove

someones guilt.

C. neutral questions reveal the truth.

D. psychologists are unreliable.

15. It can be concluded from the passage that a polygraph test


A. is the best way to determine a persons guilt.

B. works in principle but not in practice

C. is the only evidence needed in a court of law.

D. can read the persons thoughts.

16. What is most likely the subject of the paragraph preceding this passage?
A. Using lie detectors in the hope that machines will do better to discover the truth.
B. How achievement and aptitude tests measure ability and intelligence.
C. The role of psychologists in fighting crime.
D. An analysis of the criminal mind.
17. The passage was probably written by a specialist in
A. sociology

B. anthropology

C. mind reading

D. criminal psychology

18. The author would most probably agree with which of the following statements?
A. Polygraphs have no place in our society.
thoughts.

B. Physical reactions are not connected to

C. Machines are no match for psychologists.

D. Polygraph tests should not be used as the sole

evidence of guilt.

19. Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the last
paragraph?
A. Several generalizations are made from which several conclusions are drawn.
B. A general concept is defined and examples are given.
C. Persuasive language is used to argue against a popular idea.
D. Suggestions for the use of lie detectors are given.
20. Why did the author write the passage?
A. to illustrate how a lie detectors works.

B. to explain how innocent people are found

guilty.
C. to criticize the use of lie detector.

D. to propose ways of using a lie detectors.