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1, JANUARY 2009

Xiang Nian Zeng, Student Member, IEEE, and Ali Ghrayeb, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper proposes two blind carrier frequency In this paper, we propose two FFO estimation schemes by

offset (CFO) estimation schemes for differentially modulated exploiting two implicit properties associated with the DOFDM

orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. systems, i.e., the channel keeps constant over two consecutive

The proposed schemes estimate the fractional part of the CFO

with only two consecutive OFDM blocks, and they exploit OFDM blocks, and the DOFDM systems employ an M -ary

two implicit properties associated with differentially modulated phase-shift keying (M -PSK) constellation. The first scheme

OFDM (DOFDM) systems, i.e., the channel keeps constant over is based on the FA constraint. Different from that in [2],

two consecutive OFDM blocks, and the DOFDM systems employ we use differentiation in the frequency domain to bypass the

an M -ary phase-shift keying constellation. One of the schemes accumulated phase rotation introduced by CFO in designing

is based on the finite alphabet (FA) constraint and the other

one is based on the constant modulus (CM) constraint. They the cost function. The second scheme is based on the constant

provide a trade-off between the performance and computational modulus (CM) constraint. The two schemes rely on only two

complexity. The constrained Cramer-Rao lower bound is also consecutive OFDM blocks. Their cost functions are periodic

derived. Several numerical examples are presented to validate even in systems having virtual subcarriers (VSCs) [3], imply-

the efficacy of the proposed schemes. ing that they can be applied to systems with or without VSCs,

Index Terms—Carrier frequency offset (CFO), constant mod- whereas some of the existing FFO estimators, e.g., the CM

ulus (CM), differential modulation, finite alphabet (FA), orthog- based subspace FFO estimator in [4] can not be applied to the

onal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). former scenario. As the FA based cost function is somewhat

complicated, we use the modified Newton method to minimize

I. I NTRODUCTION it efficiently. We also derive the constrained Cramer-Rao lower

O RTHOGONAL frequency division multiplexing bound (CRLB) [6] and use it as a bench mark in assessing

(OFDM) systems employing differential modulation the performance of the proposed schemes.

have been proposed for situations where channel estimation We demonstrate through several numerical examples that

becomes impossible. By using differential modulation, the two proposed estimators provide a trade-off between

symbols can be detected without channel knowledge and thus performance and computational complexity. That is, the FA

the receiver complexity can be reduced. Like OFDM system, based scheme is more complicated but it can achieve better

time domain differentially modulated OFDM (DOFDM) performance at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) as compared

system, which is the focus of this paper, is also sensitive to the CM based scheme. Furthermore, the FA based scheme

to carrier frequency offset (CFO). This DOFDM system is also performs a little better than the CM based subspace

adopted by the European digital audio broadcasting (DAB) scheme in [4] at high SNRs, where the latter has been shown

standard [1]. In [2], the authors propose an estimation scheme to have a superior performance over several other schemes.

for the fractional part of CFO (FFO) in particular for DOFDM The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section

systems by exploiting the finite alphabet (FA) property of II, we describe the system model. In Section III, we propose

the transmitted signal. We notice that in their data model the FA based cost function and the CM based cost function

the accumulated phase rotation introduced by CFO is not respectively for FFO estimation. In Section IV, the constrained

considered. However, as their proposed cost function relies on CRLB for CFO estimation is derived. Section V shows the

comparing the phase difference between the symbols in two simulation results. Finally, conclusion is made in Section VI.

consecutive OFDM blocks, the accumulated phase rotation

should not be ignored. With this phase rotation included into II. S YSTEM M ODEL

the data model, their cost function actually does not give

We consider a DOFDM system with N subcarriers. The

a minimum at the true FFO and in turn could not give an

information symbols are differentially modulated along the

accurate estimation.

time direction on each subcarrier. The channel is assumed to

Manuscript received April 18, 2008; revised July 14, 2008; accepted August keep constant over two consecutive OFDM blocks such that

27, 2008. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and differential detection can be performed at the receiver with

approving it for publication was O. Simeone.

X. Zeng was with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the channel information bypassed. Let us denote the vector of

Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. She is now a postdoctoral differentially modulated symbols transmitted in the nth OFDM

fellow in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill block as s(n) = [s0 (n), s1 (n), . . . , sN −1 (n)]T , where sk (n)

University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (e-mail: xiang.zeng@mail.mcgill.ca).

A. Ghrayeb is with the Department of Electrical and Computer denotes the differentially modulated symbol transmitted on

Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (e-mail: the kth subcarrier. Let d(n) = [d0 (n), d1 (n), . . . , dN −1 (n)]T

aghrayeb@ece.concordia.ca). denote the vector of information symbols carried in the nth

This work was supported in part by NSERC Grant N00858 and an NSERC

Canada Graduate Scholarship. OFDM block, where dk (n) denotes the information symbol on

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/T-WC.2009.080546 the kth subcarrier. The information symbol dk (n) belongs to

1536-1276/09$25.00

c 2009 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 125

a M -PSK constellation, i.e., A := {β0 , β1 , . . . , βM−1 } with its DFT output can be represented as

i

βi = ej2π M . Then, the differential modulation can be repre-

y(n, ε̃)

sented as s(n) = D(n)s(n− 1), where D(n) =diag(d(n)). In

general, OFDM systems usually have a number of VSCs [3] = FC(ε̃)H r(n)

ε(n−1)Q

to help with spectrum shaping. So, let us denote the number of = ejθ ej2π N FC(ε̆f )C(εi )FH Hs(n) + FC(ε̃)H v(n),

VSCs as P and the number of information bearing subcarriers

(2)

as M = N − P . The set of indices of the VSCs is denoted

by ϕ. For any k in ϕ, we have sk (n) = 0 and dk (n) = 0 for where ε̆f = εf − ε̃. Let yk (n, ε̃) denote the kth element of

all n. y(n, ε̃). From (2), for ε̃ = εf , we have

At the transmitter, the differentially modulated signal is ε(n−1)Q

first passed through the inverse discrete Fourier transform yk (n, εf ) = ejθ ej2π H((k−εi ))N s((k−εi ))N (n) + wk (n),

N

(IDFT), and then appended with a cyclic prefix (CP) before (3)

it is propagated through the multipath fading channel. We where wk (n) denotes the kth element of FC(εf )H v(n), and

denote the equivalent baseband discrete time channel impulse ((x))N represents x modulo N . Eqn. (3) reveals that if εf is

L accurately compensated then the DFT outputs do not have any

response over the nth OFDM block as h(n, t) = l=0

hl (n)δ(t − l), where L is the channel order and hl (n) with inter-carrier-interference.

l = 0, . . . , L, are channel coefficients modeled as independent We observe from (3) that, in the absence of noise,

complex Gaussian random variables (r.v.s) with zero mean and yk1 (n, εf )yk∗2 (n, εf ) = H((k1 −εi ))N s((k1 −εi ))N (n)

any normalized power delay profile. The channel frequency ∗

×H((k s∗

2 −εi ))N ((k2 −εi ))N

(n).

response onthe kth subcarrier can then be represented as

L −j2π lk

Hk (n) = l=0 hl (n)e

N . The length of CP which is Consequently, for k1 = k2 , we have

denoted by LCP , is always assumed to be larger than L such

that there is no inter-block-interference. Therefore, the total yk1 (n, εf )yk∗2 (n, εf ) = yk1 (n − 1, εf )yk∗2 (n − 1, εf )

number of samples in an OFDM block is Q = LCP + N . ×d((k1 −εi ))N (n)d∗((k2 −εi ))N (n).

The received signal vector in the time domain with the CP As both d((k1 −εi ))N (n) and d∗((k2 −εi ))N (n) belong to the M -

removed can be represented as PSK constellation, so does their multiplication denoted by

r(n) = ejθ ej2π

ε(n−1)Q

C(ε)FH H(n)s(n)+v(n), n = 1, 2, . . .

N

αk1 ,k2 . Therefore, heuristically, we can have a cost function

(1) for the joint estimation of εf and detection of αk1 ,k2 , that is

where θ denotes the initial phase offset of the first OFDM Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̃k1 ,k2 ) = |yk1 (n, ε̃)yk∗2 (n, ε̃) − α̃k1 ,k2

block, and ε is the normalized CFO with respect to the

×yk1 (n − 1, ε̃)yk∗2 (n − 1, ε̃)|2 . (4)

subcarrier interval. The CFO has two parts, i.e., ε = εi + εf .

The integer part is denoted by εi , and the fractional part εf This is because in the absence of noise, we have

is within the range [−0.5, 0.5). The matrices C(ε) and H(n) Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̃k1 ,k2 ) = 0 at ε̃ = εf and α̃k1 ,k2 = αk1 ,k2 .

ε ε(N −1)

are defined as C(ε) =diag([1, ej2π N , . . . , ej2π N ]), and Or, alternatively, we can have a FFO estimator given by

H(n) =diag([H0 (n), H1 (n), . . . , HN −1 (n)]). The N ×N dis- minimizing Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)) over ε̃ ∈ [−0.5, 0.5), with

crete Fourier transform (DFT) matrix F has its element on the α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃) = arg min Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̃).

−j2πmn α̃∈A

mth row and nth column defined as √1N e N . The noise By exploiting the frequency diversity of the OFDM system,

vector is defined as v(n) = [v0 (n), v1 (n), . . . , vN −1 (n)]T , finally we propose a cost function as

where vk (n) with k = 0, . . . , N − 1, are modeled as inde- −1 −1

N

N

pendent complex Gaussian r.v.s with zero mean and variance JF A (ε̃) = Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)). (5)

σv2 . k1 =0 k2 =k1 +1

III. P ROPOSED FFO E STIMATORS JF A (ε̃), that is, ε̂f = arg min JF A (ε̃).

ε̃∈[−0.5,0.5)

The cost function derived in (5) is based on a system

A. FA Based Scheme without VSCs. However, this cost function can be applied

We first derive the FA based cost function for DOFDM directly to DOFDM systems having VSCs. This is supported

systems without VSCs, and then show that this cost function by two facts. Firstly, in the absence of noise, all of the terms

can also be applied directly to systems having VSCs. As in the summation of (5) have a minimum at ε̃ = εf . For

the proposed schemes involve only two consecutive OFDM example, by assuming ε̃ = εf , let us consider those terms

blocks, i.e., (n − 1)th and nth, in the rest of the paper we that have either ((k1 − εi ))N or ((k2 − εi ))N as a VSC,

denote H(n − 1) and H(n) by H for simplicity of notation.1 or have both of them as VSCs. For such terms, we have

Let us assume that the received time domain signal r(n) is Jk1 ,k2 (εf , α̂k1 ,k2 (εf )) = 0 where α̂k1 ,k2 (εf ) can take any

first compensated with a FFO candidate ε̃ ∈ [−0.5, 0.5). Then, value in A. Secondly, JF A (ε̃) is periodic with a period of one

such that J(ε̃ + m) = J(ε̃) holds for any integer m ∈ [0, N )

1 We note that requiring the channel to remain constant at least over

and ε̃ ∈ [−0.5, 0.5). This property also holds for DOFDM

two consecutive blocks is a general requirement for all systems employing systems having VSCs and its proof is shown in Appendix

differential detection. A. The reason we emphasize the application of the proposed

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126 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

scheme as an FFO estimator to DOFDM systems having VSCs where x̆(n − 1), d̆(n), and F̆ are matrices obtained by

is that some of the existing blind FFO estimators are developed removing those rows with the indices in the set ϕ from

for systems without VSCs and can not be applied to systems x(n − 1), d(n), and F, respectively, and D̆(n) =diag(d̆(n)).

having VSCs, e.g., the CM based subspace scheme proposed The unknown deterministic parameters are ε, x̆(n − 1) and

in [4]. d̆(n). As each element of d̆(n) takes discrete value in a

In minimizing the cost function in (5), we use the mod- M -PSK constellation, the regular CRLB, which can only be

ified Newton method as an alternative to the grid search applied to the estimation problem with continuous unknown

to reduce the computational complexity. The gradient and parameters, does not make sense. So, we use the constrained

Hessian of the cost function can be obtained from the terms CRLB presented in [6]. The constrained CRLB with a FA

d2 constraint is obtained by treating the symbols as if they were

dε̃ Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)) and dε̃2 Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)) which are

d

given in Appendix B. As the modified Newton method is known prior [7]. Therefore, in the next, we derive the CRLB

efficient when the initial point is near the actual minimum, of ε, by assuming that d̆(n) is known already.

we select two points that are separated apart by 0.5, e.g., Let us define the observation vector as r = [r(n −

ε(0) = −0.25 and 0.25, and evaluate the cost function at these 1)T , r(n)T ]T and the vector of unknown deterministic param-

two points respectively and choose the point with a smaller eters as Θ = [ε, x̄T , x̃T ]T , where x̄ and x̃ denote the real and

cost value as the initial value. Then, the Newton iteration imaginary part of x̆(n − 1), respectively. Then, the likelihood

as specified in [5, pp. 114] is repeated. Let us denote the function of r conditioned on Θ is given by

CFO estimation obtained after the ith iteration as ε(i+1) . If

f (r|Θ)

|ε(i+1) − ε(i) | < 0.001 is satisfied, then the iteration process

1 2

is terminated and the fractional part of ε(i+1) is accepted as = (πσv2 )−2N exp[− (r(n − 1) − C(ε)F̆H x̆(n − 1)

an FFO estimation; otherwise, continue to the next iteration. σv2

εQ

+ r(n) − ej2π N C(ε)F̆H D̆(n) x̆(n − 1)2 )].

B. CM Based Scheme Then the Fisher information matrix (FIM) can be obtained as

T

We can also propose a CM based FFO estimation ∂ ln f (r|Θ) ∂ ln f (r|Θ)

scheme. We observe from (3) that, in the absence of noise, FIM = E

∂Θ ∂Θ

|yk (n, εf )|2 = |H((k−εi ))N |2 |s((k−εi ))N (n)|2 . Consequently, ⎡ 2 ⎤

4π 2π 2π

we have |yk (n, εf )|2 = |yk (n − 1, εf )|2 . This is true because 2 ⎣ 2π N 2 a ∗ N Im{b }

H

N Re{b }

H

= ⎦,

the square amplitude operation essentially removes the data

σv2 N Im{b } 2IM 0M×M

2π ∗

symbols when CM signaling is used. Therefore, the CM based N Re{b } 0M×M 2IM

cost function for FFO estimation is given by 2 2

where a = E1 F̆H x̆(n − 1) + E2 F̆H D̆(n) x̆(n − 1) ,

N −1 H

b = F̆E1 F̆H x̆(n − 1) + D̆(n) F̆E2 F̆H D̆(n)x̆(n − 1),

JCM (ε̃) = (|yk (n, ε̃)|2 − |yk (n − 1, ε̃)|2 )2 . (6) E1 =diag([0, 1, . . . , N − 1] ), and E2 = QIN + E1 . By

T

k=0

using the block matrix inversion lemma, we have

Comparing these two schemes, we notice that the FA based

N 2 σv2 1

cost function in (5) exploits more side information of the CRLB(ε) = (FIM−1 )1,1 = [a − Re(bH b)]−1 .

8π 2 2

M -PSK constellation. Accordingly, the computation of the

FA based cost function is more demanding than that of the V. S IMULATION R ESULTS

CM based cost function due to two factors. Firstly, the FA

We consider a DOFDM system with N = 64 and LCP =

based cost function consists of O(N 2 ) terms while the CM

16. There are P = 12 VSCs. One VSC is on the direct current

based cost function only has N terms. Secondly, the symbol

(DC) subcarrier. The others are located at the two edges of the

detection process is actually carried out implicitly within the

spectrum with each side having 6 and 5 VSCs, respectively.

FA based FFO estimation which indicates that the complexity

The multipath fading channel has an exponential power delay

of the FA based scheme increases with the constellation size.

profile with L = 7, i.e., E{|hl (n)|2 } = 7 1 e−i e−l , l =

However, we will show via simulations that, compared with i=0

the CM based scheme, the FA based scheme can achieve 0, 1, ..., 7. The FFO is estimated by using two consecutive

an additional performance improvement at high SNRs in DOFDM blocks during which the fading channel is keeping

exchange for the increased complexity. constant. The mean squared error (MSE) and the CRLB are

obtained by averaging over 10, 000 runs of simulation. The

SNR is defined as Es /σv2 where Es is the symbol energy on

IV. C ONSTRAINED CRLB D ERIVATION each information bearing subcarrier. For the CM based scheme

In our underlying estimation problem, by defining x(n − (6) and the CM based subspace scheme [4], the grid search

ε(n−2)Q

1) =ejθ ej2π N Hs(n − 1), the observation vectors can be method is used in minimizing their cost functions. In the range

represented as [−0.5, 0.5), 1, 000 equally spaced FFO candidates are used to

achieve a precision of 10−3 .

r(n − 1) = C(ε)F̆H x̆(n − 1) + v(n − 1), Unless stated otherwise, the CFO is uniformly distributed

in the range [−5, 5]. Due to the periodicity of the cost

and

εQ

functions for FFO estimation, we use the modified MSE as

r(n) = ej2π N C(ε)F̆H D̆(n)x̆(n − 1) + v(n), a performance measurement, in which the modified squared

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 127

−1 −1

10 10

FA based scheme, 2−PSK FA based scheme

FA based scheme, 4−PSK CM based subspace scheme

FA based scheme, 8−PSK CM based scheme

CM based scheme, 2−PSK

−2 CM based scheme, 4−PSK −2

10 CM based scheme, 8−PSK 10

−3 −3

10 10

modified MSE

modified MSE

−4 −4

10 10

−5 −5

10 10

−6 −6

10 10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

SNR (dB) SNR (dB)

Fig. 1. Comparison of the modified MSE of the FA based FFO estimator and Fig. 2. Comparison of the modified MSE of the FA based FFO estimator,

the CM based FFO estimator for a DOFDM system with VSCs and ε ∈[-5,5]. the CM based FFO estimator and the CM based subspace FFO estimator for

a 4-PSK DOFDM system without VSCs and ε ∈[-5,5].

TABLE I

E FFICIENCY OF THE N EWTON METHOD FOR THE FA BASED FFO TABLE II

ESTIMATOR OVER A DOFDM SYSTEM WITH VSC S AND ε ∈[-5,5]. COMPARISON OF COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY OF THE FA BASED FFO

ESTIMATOR , CM BASED FFO ESTIMATOR , AND THE CM BASED

# of cost func. SUBSPACE FFO ESTIMATOR FOR A SYSTEM WITHOUT VSC S .

complexity # of iterations

evaluations

SNR 10dB 25dB 10dB 25dB Schemes 10dB 25dB

2-PSK 3.7 3.0 5.9 5.5 FA based scheme 1.05s 0.58s

4-PSK 6.8 3.1 8.8 5.1 CM based scheme 0.21s

8-PSK 8.8 4.0 10.8 6.0 CM based subsapce scheme 0.27s

error is defined as SEmodified = min[(ε̂f − εf )2 , (ε̂f − ε̄f )2 ], which is usually unknown and is assumed to be equal to 10 in

where ε̄f is the complement of εf given by ε̄f = εf − 1 the estimation process. In [4], the CM based subspace scheme

if εf > 0; ε̄f = εf if εf = 0; ε̄f = εf + 1 if εf < 0. is shown to be superior to several blind schemes, i.e., VSC

The reason for not using regular MSE is that when CFO is method [3], CM method [8], and VSC+CM method [8]. In this

in the neighborhood of m + 0.5, with integer m, the regular figure, we show that the FA based scheme performs a little

MSE may not be able to provide a correct measurement on better than the CM based subspace scheme at high SNRs.

the estimation performance. For example, let us assume that in However, at low SNRs, the proposed estimators perform

one realization, the CFO is 0.48. The FFO estimation could be a little worse than the CM based subspace scheme. This

−0.49 because of noise. This is an acceptable FFO estimation is because the proposed cost functions are in the form of

as after the FFO compensation by using this estimation, not comparing two noisy signals. We might say that there is twice

much inter-carrier-interference is left at the DFT outputs. as much noise associated with the proposed schemes compared

2 with the CM based subspace scheme.

However, the regular squared error is given by (0.97) , which

indicates that it is a rather poor estimation on the contrary. In Table II, we consider the same system setup as that of

In Fig. 1, we compare the modified MSE of the FA based Fig. 2 and compare the computational complexity of the three

scheme (given by (5)) and the CM based scheme (given by schemes. The complexity is measured by the average time

(6)) for 2-PSK, 4-PSK and 8-PSK, respectively. We observe in seconds used for each estimation process performed by

that the FA based scheme performs better than the CM based computer simulation with Matlab. The complexity of the FA

scheme at high SNRs. This is more prominent for 4-PSK and based scheme decreases with SNR. We observe that, although

8-PSK, in which the SNR gain is about 4dB at high SNR. the Newton method is very efficient, the computational burden

We also examine the efficiency of the Newton method for of the FA based scheme is still higher than that of the other

the FA based scheme. In Table I, we show the required number two schemes.

of iterations and the number of cost function evaluations at In Fig. 3, we examine the regular MSE of the FA based

several SNRs. It shows that at high SNR, the modified Newton scheme by setting ε = 4.32, and compare it with the con-

method can converge at around 3 or 4 iterations on average. strained CRLB. The modulation scheme is 4-PSK. To show the

In Fig. 2, we compare the modified MSE of the FA based robustness of the modified Newton method, in each run of the

scheme, the CM based scheme and the CM based subspace simulation, we randomly select two points that are separated

scheme [4] for a 4-PSK DOFDM system without VSCs. The apart by 0.5 in the range [−0.5, 0.5) as the candidates for the

CM based subspace scheme requires the knowledge of L, initial estimate. As expected, the constrained CRLB is much

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128 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009

0 0

10 10

FA based scheme, No VSCs FA based scheme, fdT=0.003

constrained CRLB, No VSCs FA based scheme, f T=0.015

FA based scheme, With VSCs d

−1

10 constrained CRLB, With VSCs FA based scheme, ideal case

−1

10 CM based scheme, fdT=0.003

CM based scheme, f T=0.015

d

−2 CM based scheme, ideal case

10

−2

10

−3

10

regular MSE

regular MSE

−3

10

−4

10

−4

10

−5

10

−5

−6 10

10

−7 −6

10 10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

SNR (dB) SNR (dB)

Fig. 3. Regular MSE performance of the FA based FFO estimator for a Fig. 4. Regular MSE performance of the FA based FFO estimator and the

4-PSK DOFDM system with or without VSCs, and ε = 4.32. CM based FFO estimator in a time variant channel for a 4-PSK DOFDM

system having VSCs and ε = 4.32.

is actually derived by assuming that the information symbols A PPENDIX A

are known. The performance of the FA based scheme is also P ROOF OF THE P ERIODICITY

compared for systems with or without VSCs. It shows that the

presence of the VSCs only degrades the performance slightly.

In Fig. 4, we examine the regular MSE of the FA based

From (2), we have yk (n, ε̃ + m) = y((k+m))N (n, ε̃). So, we

scheme and the CM based scheme for a 4-PSK DOFDM

have

system in a time variant channel with ε = 4.32. The fading

N −1

N −1

channel is assumed to keep constant within each OFDM block

but change slowly from one block to another according to the J(ε̃ + m) = Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)),

k1 =0 k2 =k1 +1

Jakes’ fading model [9]. The underlying OFDM system oper-

ates at a central carrier frequency of 5GHz with a 1.25MHz where k1 = ((k1 + m))N and k2 = ((k2 + m))N . Then, we

total bandwidth. The normalized Doppler frequency fd T is set have

to 0.003, and 0.015, where fd denotes the Doppler frequency

N −1

N −1

and T denotes the duration of an OFDM block including CP. J(ε̃ + m) = Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃))

As shown in the figure, the FA based scheme is slightly more k1 =m k2 =k1 +1

sensitive to channel variations than the CM based scheme. We

m−1

m−1

remark here that the CM based subspace scheme is insensitive + Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃))

to channel variations. This is because when multiple OFDM k1 =0 k2 =k1 +1

blocks are available for CFO estimation, the CM based sub- −1

N

m−1

space scheme does not require channel to keep constant over + Jk2 ,k1 (ε̃, α̂k2 ,k1 (ε̃)). (7)

them. k1 =0 k2 =m

VI. C ONCLUSIONS

Jk2 ,k1 (ε̃, α̂k2 ,k1 (ε̃)) = |[yk1 (n, ε̃)][yk2 (n, ε̃)]∗ − α̂∗k2 ,k1 (ε̃)

In this paper, we proposed two FFO estimators which can

×yk1 (n − 1, ε̃)[yk2 (n − 1, ε̃)]∗ |2 .

be applied for DOFDM systems employing M -PSK only. The

proposed schemes rely on two consecutive OFDM blocks over (8)

which channel is required to keep constant. The constrained It can be easily shown that α̂∗k ,k (ε̃) = α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃). Therefore,

CRLB was derived. Simulation results showed that the FA we have from (8) that

2 1

that of the CM based scheme and the existing CM based Jk2 ,k1 (ε̃, α̂k2 ,k1 (ε̃)) = Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)).

subspace scheme, but it can achieve a little better performance

Finally, from (7), we obtain

at high SNRs. The proposed schemes also provide a wider

−1 −1

application to systems having VSCs as compared to the CM N N

based subspace scheme. However, they are sensitive to channel J(ε̃ + m) = Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)) = J(ε̃).

variations, which is more significant for the FA based scheme. k1 =0 k2 =k1 +1

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 28, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 129

A PPENDIX B where ak1 ,k2 , āk1 ,k2 , ăk1 ,k2 , bk1 ,k2 , b̄k1 ,k2 , b̆k1 ,k2 are el-

G RADIENT AND H ESSIAN ements on the (k1 )th row and (k2 )th column of matrices

Let us define A(ε(i) , n), Ā(ε(i) , n), Ă(ε(i) , n), A(ε(i) , n − 1), Ā(ε(i) , n −

1), Ă(ε(i) , n − 1), respectively.

A(ε̃, n) = [FC(ε̃)H r(n)][FC(ε̃)H r(n)]H ,

4π R EFERENCES

Ā(ε̃, n) = − Im{[FE1 C(ε̃)H r(n)][FC(ε̃)H × r(n)]H },

N [1] ETSI EN 300 401 v1.3.3 (2001-05), “Radio broadcasting systems; Digital

and audio broadcasting (DAB) to mobile, portable and fixed receivers," May

2001.

8π 2 [2] Z. Liu and B. Weng, “Finite-alphabet based blind carrier frequency offset

Ă(ε̃, n) = − (Re{[FE21 C(ε̃)H r(n)][FC(ε̃)H r(n)]H } estimation for differentially coded OFDM," in Proc. IEEE Globecom, vol.

N2 1, pp. 327-331, Dec. 2003.

−[FE1 C(ε̃)H r(n)][FE1 C(ε̃)H r(n)]H ). [3] H. Liu and U. Tureli, “A high-efficiency carrier estimator for OFDM

communications," IEEE Commun. Lett., pp. 104-106, Apr. 1998.

Then, the gradient and Hessian of Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, α̂k1 ,k2 (ε̃)) at ε̃ = [4] T. Roman and V. Koivuen, “Subspace method for blind CFO estimation

ε(i) , are given by for OFDM systems with constant modulus constellations," in Proc. IEEE

Veh. Technol. Conf., May 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1253-1257.

d [5] G. P. McCormick, Nonlinear Programing, Theory, Algorithm and Appli-

Jk1 ,k2 (ε̃, ᾱk1 ,k2 (ε̃)) cations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1983.

dε̃ (i)

ε̃=ε [6] P. Stoica and B. C. Ng, “On the Cramer-Rao bound under parametric

= 2Re{āk1 ,k2 a∗k1 ,k2 + b̄k1 ,k2 b∗k1 ,k2 constraints," IEEE Signal Processing Lett., no. 7, pp. 177-179, July 1998.

[7] B. M. Sadler, R. J. Kozick, and T. Moore, “Bounds on bearing and symbol

−α̂∗k1 ,k2 (ε(i) )āk1 ,k2 b∗k1 ,k2 − α̂∗k1 ,k2 (ε(i) )ak1 ,k2 b̄∗k1 ,k2 }, estimation with side information," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.

49, no. 4, pp. 822-834, Apr. 2001.

and [8] M. Ghogho and A. Swami, “Blind frequency-offset estimator for OFDM

systems transmitting constant-modulus symbols," IEEE Commun. Lett.,

d2 vol. 6, pp. 343-345, Aug. 2002.

J (ε̃, ᾱ (ε̃))

dε̃2

k1 ,k2 k1 ,k2 (i) [9] P. Dent, G. E. Bottomley, and T. Croft, “Jakes fading model revisited,"

ε̃=ε Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1162-1163, June 1993.

= 2Re{ăk1 ,k2 a∗k1 ,k2 + āk1 ,k2 ā∗k1 ,k2 + b̆k1 ,k2 b∗k1 ,k2

+b̄k1 ,k2 b̄∗k1 ,k2 − α̂∗k1 ,k2 (ε(i) )ăk1 ,k2 b∗k1 ,k2

−α̂∗k1 ,k2 (ε(i) )āk1 ,k2 b̄∗k1 ,k2 − α̂∗k1 ,k2 (ε(i) )āk1 ,k2 b̄∗k1 ,k2

−α̂∗k1 ,k2 (ε(i) )ak1 ,k2 b̆∗k1 ,k2 },

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 28, 2009 at 06:53 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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