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systems

CEA, LIST CEA, LIST

Embedded Computing Laboratory Embedded Computing Laboratory

P.O. Box 94, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 France P.O. Box 94, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 France

maroun.ojail@cea.fr stephane.chevobbe@cea.fr

Raphael David Didier Demigny

CEA, LIST IRISA/ENSSAT

Embedded Computing Laboratory Team R2D2

P.O. Box 94 , Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 France 6 rue de Kerampont, 22300 Lannion France

raphael.david@cea.fr didier.demigny@univ-rennes1.fr

different technologies.

Wireless communications have been evolving in the past Main functions in wireless communications are Finite

years in a fast way that led to the apparition of numer- Impulse Response (FIR) Filters and Fast Fourier Trans-

ous standards like UMTS (3G), IEEE 802.11 (WLAN) and forms (FFT). FIR filters are very important blocks in the

DVB-H. New mobile equipments should support multiple Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) tech-

standards in order to offer the most complete set of applica- nique on which the UMTS standard is based [6]. Direct

tions to the user like telephony, mobile internet and mobile and inverse FFT are, on the other hand, essential modules

television. This paper presents a new method of implement- in standards based on the Orthogonal Frequency Division

ing a high performance Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter Multiplexing (OFDM) technique, like WLAN and DVB-

in the frequency domain that is suitable for third generation H [9]. Thus, in this paper we present a new method of

communication systems. The method discussed is also an implementing the FIR filter in the frequency domain. This

enabler for the implementation of low cost modules capable method enables the realization of a minimal size module ca-

of performing filtering and fast Fourier transforms for use pable of executing both the FIR and the FFT functions and

with the wide variety of the wireless communication stan- increases the similarities between WCDMA and OFDM

dards available nowadays. based communication systems.

A 64-tap filter (or sometimes less) is usually sufficient to

meet the minimum requirements of WCDMA based com-

1. Introduction munication standards [2]. Classic frequency domain imple-

mentation is normally more computationally complex than

In the past years, the evolutions of the telecommunica- a time domain implementation for small filter lengths. Con-

tion sector were concentrated on the improvement of wire- sequently, employing a FIR filter in the frequency domain

less communications and their quality of service to enable for wireless communication standards was not possible until

them to support a multi-standard function with both high now. In this study we show that we can overcome this draw-

performance and reduced cost. These evolutions led to the back by combining the inphase (I) and the quadrature phase

definition of multiple access schemes and consequently to (Q) paths in WCDMA transmission and reception chains

the apparition of numerous telecommunication standards before passing them through the FIR filter. We then show

like GPRS, UMTS, IEEE 802.11 and DVB-H. Extracting that by choosing frequency domain filter coefficients as the

similarities between multiple standards is a must in order samples of the ideal frequency transfer function, we can

for a system to take advantage of the multiplicity of radio boost the performances of such a filter mainly in terms of

technologies available nowadays, and that without having immunity against intersymbol interference.

DOI 10.1109/ICDT.2008.9

The structure of this paper is as follows: we begin in decades [3, 1, 10]. But, to our knowledge, no previous work

section 2 by presenting background information on the im- proposed a frequency-domain FIR filter for the UMTS stan-

portance of FIR filters in WCDMA based communication dard, mainly because of computational complexity prob-

systems. In section 3 we discuss the choices we made that lems as discussed in the introduction.

enabled the feasibility of a frequency domain FIR filter for

the UMTS standard in terms of computational complexity 3 Proposed frequency domain FIR filter

and performances of the filtering. Section 4 exposes the

methodology we used to evaluate the performances of the

In this section we show that implementing the FIR filter

proposed frequency domain filter. In section 5 we compare

in the frequency domain for the UMTS standard is actually

these performances against a classical time domain imple-

feasible and even requires less computational complexity

mentation in terms of intersymbol interference measured by

than a time domain realization. We also expose a new and

error vector magnitude and peak distortion. A comparison

effective method to choose the best filter coefficients for the

between the two filters on their immunity against additive

UMTS standard in order to increase performance of FIR

white Gaussian noise is also conducted. We finally con-

filtering, namely its immunity against intersymbol interfer-

clude by summarizing the main innovations of our contri-

ence.

bution and presenting our future work.

3.1 Analysis of computational complexi-

2 Background ties

Third Generation 3G communication systems use To process one sample in the time domain, a symmet-

WCDMA technique to transmit and receive data. The spec- ric FIR filter needs N2 multiplications and N − 1 additions.

trum of a signal of the type used in WCDMA has adjacent This means that a FIR filter executes 0.5(3N −2) operations

channel sidelobes. These sidelobes introduce interference per sample. This processing should be executed for both I

into users of the adjacent frequencies who could be the same and Q paths, which means that the actual number of opera-

operator or could be other operators. That’s why filtering tions per sample (a couple of an I-sample and a Q-sample)

in the transmitter should be used to overcome the effect of doubles and becomes 3N − 2. Consequently, the compu-

the adjacent channel sidelobes. Numerous considerations tational complexity (the number of operations per second

discussed in [8] and throughout this paper led to the use without distinguishing between addition and multiplication)

of a FIR filter in the WCDMA transmitter, together with a of a FIR filter operating at frequency F is:

matched filter in the receiver in a way to get a Nyquist filter

as the combined filter response. CCF IRtime = (3N − 2) F (2)

In the time domain, the FIR operation is achieved by

convolution. Converting to the frequency domain, a con- For our proposed frequency domain implementation, we

volution is equivalent to a simple multiplication. Hence we use the overlap-add method [5] which consists of decom-

can state that F IR [x(t)] = x(t) ⊗ h(t) = F −1 [H.F(x)] posing the signal into simple components, processing each

where H is the Fourier transform of filter coefficients h(t), of the components, and recombining the processed compo-

(⊗) is the convolution product, (.) is the dot product and nents into the final signal. If the input signal is segmented

F(x) is the Fast Fourier transform of discrete input x(t). into sections of length L and a FIR filter of length N is to

FIR filters in the transmission and reception chains are be implemented, a FFT of length L + N − 1 or more should

used to implement root raised cosine (RRC) filters of which be performed to avoid time aliasing. In our study, we seg-

the combined transfer function results in a raised cosine fil- ment the input signal into sections of length N and thus we

ter (a type of Nyquist filter). The time domain representa- use a FFT of length P where P is the minimal power of 2

tion for the RRC filter is [4] greater than or equal to 2N . Each FFT of length P requires

5P log2 (P ) operations and processes N samples at a fre-

sin (1 − α)π Tt + 4α Tt cos (1 + α)π Tt

h(t) = t 2 (1) quency F to which we have to add 6 operations per sample

π T 1 − 4α Tt to perform the complex multiplication by the filter coeffi-

cients H. Hence, we get the computational complexity of

where the frequency domain FIR filter of length N as:

1 1

T = = ≈ 0.260µs for WCDMA. P

chip rate 3.84 × 106 CCF IRf req. = 2 5 log2 (P ) + 3 F (3)

N

Note that implementing FIR filters by FFT is not by it-

self an innovative idea. In fact, many researches have pro- The frequency domain filter proposed here directly pro-

posed FIR filters in the frequency domain in the past two cesses the I and Q paths. This is done by combining the

2

Computational Complexity (MOPS)

6000 where

5000 Time domain FIR

Frequency domain FIR 1−α 1+α

4000 m= and M =

3000

2T 2T

2000

1000 4 Methodology

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

FIR filter length In order to evaluate the performance of our proposed FIR

implementation method in the frequency domain, especially

Figure 1. Computational complexities of dif- in terms of immunity against intersymbol interference and

ferent FIR implementations noise rejection, two FIR filter implementations are consid-

ered:

paths before entering the filter into complex samples that • a time domain filter of which the coefficients were ob-

will be treated by the direct and inverse FFT then breaking tained by sampling the RRC impulse response with an

the output again into two paths. In fact, from the linearity oversampling factor of 4 and which processes the I and

property of the Fourier transform, we can state that: Q paths successively;

F IRf (XI + jXQ ) = F −1 [F (XI + jXQ ) H] • the frequency domain filter with coefficients extracted

= F −1 [F (XI ) H + jF (XQ ) H] as discussed in section 3.2 and which combines the I

= F IRf (XI ) + jF IRf (XQ ) (4) an Q paths into one complex signal and processes the

two paths simultaneously.

where F IRf denotes the FIR filtering in frequency domain

and XI and XQ are the inputs on the I and Q paths respec- Note that in designing the filter, the sampling rate also

tively. needs to be considered. The higher the sampling rate the

Comparing the computational complexities of the 2 dif- easier it is after a digital to analogue converter to remove

ferent implementations of the FIR filter for different filter high frequency components generated in the sampling pro-

lengths leads to Fig. 1. From this figure, we can find that cess. The higher the sampling rate, the faster the converter

it is more advantageous to implement FIR filters in the fre- must operate, which in general will lead to greater cost and

quency domain for lengths 44 and more which is generally greater power consumption. To keep our approach realistic,

the case of the UMTS standard. (Note that the computa- we chose an oversampling factor of 4 (thus a sampling rate

tional complexity of the frequency domain FIR could be fs = 4 × chip rate = 15.36M Hz) as a compromise be-

further reduced if we take into account trivial multiplica- tween high performance on a hand and cost and complexity

tions in the FFT, which makes this type of filtering feasible on the other hand.

for even shorter filters) We then created two real random input signals of length

5000 points with values between −1 and 1 to simulate in-

3.2 Filter coeﬃcients puts on the I and Q paths, and we included 3 null samples

between each adjacent values to simulate an oversampled

Instead of performing the FFT of the filter’s coefficients signal by a factor of 4. These signals where passed through

extracted by sampling the RRC time representation (1) like a classical time domain filter to get the transmitted signal.

shown in section 2, we take the ideal square root of the The two filter implementations (the time domain and our

raised cosine filter transfer function shown in (5) and sam- proposed frequency domain) are then applied to the trans-

ple it to get the coefficients that should be used in the fre- mitted signal. Note that results shown in the next section

quency domain FIR filter. This operation leads to the mod- where obtained by repeating the same operations on 100

ule of the coefficients which we have to multiply by a linear different random input signals.

πf

phase ϕH (f ) = exp(− 2T ). The resultant coefficients are

then used in the frequency domain implementation of the

FIR filter. 5 Performance evaluation

T

T

πT 0 ≤ |f | ≤ m

H(f ) = 1 + cos (|f | − m) m ≤ |f | ≤ M Following in this section, is the comparison between the

2 α

0 |f | > M two filter implementation methods in terms of intersymbol

(5) interference and additive white Gaussian noise rejection.

3

90 40

Gain in immunity against ISI(%)

80 Time domain FIR

30

Frequency domain FIR

EVM(%)

70

20

60

Minimum and maximum gains

Average gain 10

50

40 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

FIR filter length FIR filter length

Figure 2. ISI immunity gain of frequency do- Figure 3. EVM of the two different filter imple-

main FIR implementation mentations

5.1 Intersymbol interference rejection mum requirement for the EVM: the EVM shall not exceed

17.5% in the user equipment radio trasmission and recep-

tion in the FDD mode [4]. This requirement is in fact one of

The main property of Nyquist filters is that they result

the key guidelines for choosing the appropriate length of the

in zero intersymbol interference (ISI) at the optimum sam-

FIR filter to use. The formula used to calculate the EVM is

pling point for filtered data [8]. This is why we present

presented in (6) where Perror is the root mean square power

here a comparison between a classical time domain FIR im-

of the error vector and Preference is the root mean square

plementation, and our frequency domain implementation.

power of the ideal transmitted signal.

The ISI is measured as the variance of the error between the

samples of the input signal and those of the received sig-

Perror

nals at the optimum sampling points. Fig. 2 shows the gain EV M (%) = × 100 (6)

in percentage of the frequency domain implementation over Preference

the time domain implementation for different filter lengths.

From this figure, we can see that no pertinent conclusion Simulations with different filter lengths and for the two

could be made about FIR filters of lengths 16 or less be- different FIR implementations discussed in this paper show

cause the gain in ISI rejection clearly varies with the input that the frequency domain implementation using the sam-

signal, the main reason is that such short filters do not re- pled ideal filter transfer function is always better than the

construct the input signal in a reliable way. For the other time domain implementation. From Fig. 3, we can see that

FIR filters (the kind of filters suitable for UMTS), the gain the frequency domain implementation ensures that the min-

is about 72%. This gain is augmented to 99% if we use imum requirement of EVM is met even with a FIR filter of

a frequency domain implemented filter in the transmission length 8. Of course, the EVM is not the only criterion to

chain as well. select the proper filter length, other decisive factors should

To have a better comparison of the immunity against ISI be considered like the filter immunity against noise and in-

of the two different filters, we compare two other parame- terference.

ters: the Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) and the peak dis-

tortion. 5.1.2 Peak distortion comparison

Another parameter commonly used to measure the ISI of

5.1.1 Error vector magnitude comparison a transmit-receive filter combination is the peak distortion

In literature discussing UMTS radio receivers, a parameter defined as follows [7]:

called EVM is commonly used to indicate the amount of
∞

ISI [7]. 3GPP technical specifications for the UMTS stan- 2 k=1 h N2 + kM

Dp(dB) = 20 log10 N (7)

dard provide the following definition of EVM: “The Error h

2

Vector Magnitude is a measure of the difference between

the reference waveform and the measured waveform. This In (7), h is the impulse response of the transmit-receive

difference is called the error vector. ... The EVM result is filter combination, N is the length of this response and M

defined as the square root of the ratio of the mean error vec- is the oversample factor. Furthermore it has been assumed

tor power to the mean reference power expressed as a per- that h is symmetric. In order to extract h, we passed a pulse

centage”. These technical specifications define also a mini- signal into two sets of transmit-receive filters. At first a

4

0 References

Peak distortion (dB)

Frequency domain FIR [1] E. Bidet, J. Cardin, M. Kouam, C. Joanblanq, and J. Pali-

−20

cot. FDF, a 512-TAP FIR Filter Using a Mixed Temporal-

Frequential Approach. In IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits

−30 Conference, pages 173–176, May 1995.

[2] J. Chandran, R. Kaluri, J. Singh, V. Owall, and R. Vel-

−40 janovski. Xilinx Virtex II Pro Implementation of a Re-

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

FIR filter length configurable UMTS Digital Channel Filter. In DELTA ’04:

Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Workshop on

Figure 4. Peak distortion of the two different Electronic Design, Test and Applications, page 77, Wash-

filter implementations ington, DC, USA, 2004. IEEE Computer Society.

[3] G. Clark, S. Parker, and S. Mitra. A unified approach to

time- and frequency-domain realization of FIR adaptive dig-

ital filtersA unified approach to time- and frequency-domain

realization of FIR adaptive digital filters. In IEEE trans-

transmit and a receive filters implemented in the time do- actions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol-

main then another set implemented in the frequency domain ume 31, pages 1073–1083, October 1983.

(note that in this case both the transmit and the receive filters [4] ETSI. UMTS; User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and

are implemented in the frequency domain). The oversample reception (FDD) specifications. TS 25.101, 2007.

factor is always M = 4. Fig. 4 confirms that our frequency [5] E. C. Ifeachor and B. W. Jervis. Digital Signal Processing:

domain FIR filter presents less peak distortion than the time A Practical Approach, chapter 5, pages 292–294. Prentice

domain filter. Hall, 2002.

[6] T. Ojanper and R. Prasad, editors. WCDMA: Towards IP

From this section we can conclude that, not only our fre- Mobility and Mobile Internet. Universal Personal Commu-

quency implementation method of FIR filters is feasible for nications. Artech House Publishers, 2001.

the UMTS standard like demonstrated in section 3, but also [7] J. Potman, F. Hoeksema, and C. Slump. Adaptive receive

that this implementation presents better ISI rejection as con- filter structures for UMTS. In Proceedings of SPS-DARTS

firmed by EVM and peak distortion comparison. 2006, Metropolis, Antwerp, Belgium, 2006. IEEE Computer

Society.

[8] A. Richardson. WCDMA design handbook. Cambridge Uni-

5.2 Additive white Gaussian noise rejec- versity Press, United Kingdom, 2006.

tion [9] N. S. Voros and K. Masselos, editors. System Level Design

of Reconfigurable Systems-on-Chip. Springer, Dordrecht,

The Netherlands, 2005.

The essential reason for implementing the raised cosine [10] D. Zhou and V. E. DeBrunner. A New Rapid Frequency-

filter as two RRC filters, one in the transmitter and the Domain Adaptation of Causal FIR Filters. In 12th Digi-

other in the receiver, is that filtering in the receiver is es- tal Signal Processing Workshop, pages 332–335, September

sential to reject the noise and interference present in the re- 2006.

ceiver [8]. Furthermore, to eliminate the Additive White

Gaussian Noise (AWGN) caused by the channel, the trans-

mit and receive filters transfer functions should be identical.

Now let us examine if our filter implementation in the fre-

quency domain with sampled ideal RRC transfer function,

linear phase and combined I and Q paths results in less or

more AWGN rejection than the classical time domain im-

plementation.

First we fix the transmit filter to a time domain imple-

mented FIR. A white Gaussian noise is then added to the

transmitted signal with a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of

16dB. The noisy signal is passed through the two receive

filters and the SNR is measured again. In both cases the

SNR is found to be augmented to 22dB. This means that

employing our frequency domain implemented filter will

not degrade the system’s performance concerning the rejec-

tion of the AWGN.

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