90 views

Uploaded by khajarasool_sk

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Quality Integrated Data Reconstruction for Medical Applications
- LTE PHY Freescale
- 06824752.pdf
- DSP Course Plan_18-19
- The PAPR
- papr reduction in ofdm
- Introduction to Linear Precoding
- FFT
- Ramji's Research Pakgkper (24!03!2014)
- Digital Signal Processing
- OFDM Simulation EE810
- EnerLinks III HD Brochure 020 Web
- MLSD Bounds and Receiver Designs For
- A Multistage Channel Estimation and ICI Reduction Method For
- Iaetsd-Adaptive Modulation in Mimo Ofdm System For4g
- 214ec5220 Subba Reddy
- 4G Wireless Networks
- 3.pdf
- 08100915
- Doppler Compensation and Singular Value Decomposition in OFDM Based Aeronautical Communication

You are on page 1of 5

6, JUNE 2008

OFDM with Virtual Subcarriers by Leakage Estimation

Kyungchul Kwak, Sungeun Lee, Jihyung Kim, Student Member, IEEE,

and Daesik Hong, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—Equidistance in pilot spacing is an essential condi- performance. In this paper, we will call this performance

tion for discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based channel esti- degradation in DFT-based channel estimation arising from

mation in OFDM systems. However, virtual subcarriers break VCs ”leakage.”

this condition, degrade the estimation performance, and cause

the interference (called ’leakage’) because the orthogonality Earlier attempts to overcome leakage include the windowing

of Fourier matrix is broken. To solve this problem, we first technique in the frequency domain by Baoguo Yang et al[4].

analyze the leakage using the DFT-inverse DFT process. The Dong Li et al estimate the channel frequency responses of

pilot subcarriers inside virtual subcarriers area are estimated pilot subcarriers inside the virtual subcarrier area using Wiener

by the inverse of the estimated leakage. Thus, the equidistance filtering to satisfy pilot-spacing equidistance[5]. Li’s estimator

condition is satisfied. The proposed estimator operates well in

realistic environment such as IEEE 802.16, and it is robust to an can reduce the complexity by adopting robust channel corre-

increase of virtual subcarriers. lation matrix comparing with linear minimum mean square

error (LMMSE) estimator.

Index Terms—Channel estimation, discrete Fourier transform

(DFT), orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), We propose a new DFT-based channel estimation method

virtual subcarriers. in Section III that is designed to eliminate leakage from VCs.

Before we can develop this approach, however, the leakage

I. I NTRODUCTION must be analyzed, which we do in Section II. The proposed

channel estimation technique satisfies the equidistance condi-

multiplexing (OFDM) is generally performed using pilot

subcarriers. The comb-type pilot pattern is adequate for the

tion by the inverse of the estimated leakage. We next compare

our proposal with conventional estimators in Section IV using

simulation results, and we conclude this paper in Section V.

time-varying environment and multiple-input multiple-output

(MIMO) systems considering spectral efficiency, and requires

II. OFDM S YSTEM M ODEL AND C ONVENTIONAL

an interpolation technique between pilot subcarriers[1]. These

C HANNEL E STIMATION IN T IME D OMAIN

interpolation techniques are generally divided into the fre-

quency domain and the time domain. The interpolation tech- A. OFDM System Model

niques used in frequency domain are linear, second order and Let us consider an OFDM system transmitting Ne subcarri-

cubic interpolation[1][11]. Interpolation in the time domain is ers as data and N −Ne VCs out of N subcarriers. The N −Ne

done using DFT-based channel estimation[2]-[5]. If the pilot VCs are needed to control interferences with other systems,

spacing is identical for all pilot subcarriers, and the number of and the number of VCs is denoted as Nvc .

the pilot subcarriers used is greater than the maximum delay Next, let us assume that this system is perfectly synchro-

spread, DFT-based channel estimation has no interpolation nized. In addition, if the channel is time-invariant during one

error and exhibits better spectral efficiency than frequency OFDM symbol, the received frequency-domain data sample at

domain interpolation[2]-[5]. the k-th subcarrier is given as

Conventional OFDM systems such as IEEE 802.16[6] adopt

Y (k) = H(k)S(k) + W (k) , k = 0, 1, ..., N − 1 (1)

virtual subcarriers (VCs) in order to prevent the interference

with other systems and to ease the filter requirements. How- where Y (k), H(k) and S(k) are the received signal, the

ever, the equidistance condition for pilot spacing cannot be channel frequency response, and the transmitted signal, re-

satisfied by VCs, resulting in severely degraded interpolation spectively. W (k) is additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN)

2

with zero mean and variance, σw .

Manuscript received December 19, 2006; revised April 28, 2007 and

September 6, 2007; accepted September 13, 2007. The associate editor coor- Channel estimation is done by inserting pilot subcarriers

dinating the review of this letter and approving it for publication was A Grant. into the transmitted signal. Figure 1 shows the comb-type

This research has been supported by the MIC (Ministry of Information and pilot model considering VCs. Δp represents the spacing

Communication), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research

Center) support program supervised by the IITA (Institute of Information between pilot subcarriers and the equidistance pilot position

Technology Assessment) and by Korea Science & Engineering Foundation is indicated with ρ(·). Direct current (DC) denotes the start

through the NRL Program (Grant R0A-2007-000-20043-0). of DFT operation. If no VCs are used, all equidistance

K. Kwak, S. Lee, and D. Hong are in the Information and Telecom-

munication Lab. (B715), Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engin., Yon- pilot subcarriers are positioned in the available bandwidth;

sei Univ., Seoul, Korea (e-mail: chulli@itl.yonsei.ac.kr, {softmind, dae- if VCs are present, however, some of the pilot subcarriers

sikh}@yonsei.ac.kr; homepage:mirinae.yonsei.ac.kr). should be positioned inside the virtual subcarrier area, and

J. Kim is with the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute

(ETRI), Daejeon, Korea (e-mail: savant21@etri.re.kr). the channel frequency responses (CFRs) inside the virtual

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2008.061093. subcarrier area couldn’t be thus obtained. Let us assume

1536-1276/08$25.00

c 2008 IEEE

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 3, 2009 at 09:13 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 6, JUNE 2008 2005

N/2

Δp than LS estimation of CIR and good estimation performance

Virtual subcarriers

when some conditions are satisfied since the complexity of N -

DC

point DFT operation is O (N log N ). The conditions are that

the number of pilot subcarriers is larger than the number of

0 ρ (1) ρ (2) …… ρ ( N pL ) ρ ( N pL + 1) …ρ ( N pL + N pI ) ρ ( N pL + N pI + 1) … ρ ( N p − 1) ρ ( N p ) N-1

channel taps and the distance of consecutive pilot subcarriers

L I R

N p

pilot subcarriers

Pilot subcarrier

N pilot subcarriers

p N pilot subcarriersp is identical to all pilot subcarriers, which involves the leakage

{ ( ) (

outside virtual subcarriers at Φ p = ρ (1) , ρ ( 2 ) ,..., ρ N p , ρ N p + N p + 1 ,..., ρ N p

Out L L I

) ( )} from the loss of orthogonality from DFT-IDFT process when

VCs exist. In order to show the effect of the leakage, DFT-

Virtual pilot subcarrier

{ ( ) ( )

Φ In = ρ N pL + 1 , ρ N pL + 2 ,..., ρ N pL + N pI ( )}

inside virtual subcarriers at p

based channel estimation is introduced in two cases, NpI = 0

Fig. 1. Allocations of pilot subcarriers with respect to virtual subcarriers. and NpI = 0 .

1) When NpI = 0 (no virtual subcarriers): The channel

frequency response (CFR) at the pilot subcarriers is first

that the total number of pilot subcarriers outside the virtual obtained by least squares (LS)

subcarrier area is NpOut , composed of NpL pilot subcarriers ∗

on the left side and NpR pilot subcarriers on the right side H̃ (ρ (p))LS = Y (ρ (p)) S (ρ (p))

. (4)

of the virtual subcarrier area. As shown in Figure 1, be- = H (ρ (p)) + W (ρ (p)) , p = 1, 2, ..., Np

cause NpI CFRs at the equidistance pilot subcarriers inside The distribution of W (ρ(p)) is not changed after multiplying

the virtual subcarrier area are unobtainable, the DFT-based ∗

S (ρ(p)) because S (ρ(p)) has unit transmit power.

channel estimation performance is severely degraded. For the The LS-estimated CFR vector for all pilot subcarriers in

simplicity, let us assume that Np = NpOut +NpI . Then, the pilot ΦOut is denoted as

p

subcarriers outside the virtual subcarrier area are located in the

set ΦOut

p = [ρ(1), ρ(2), ..., ρ(NpL ), ρ(NpL +NpI +1), ..., ρ(Np )]. H̃LS = HLS + WLS , (5)

The set of equidistance position

L inside the virtual

L subcarrier

where HLS and WLS are the CFR vector and noise vector

area is defined as ΦInp = [ρ N p + 1 , ...., ρ Np + NpI ]. in the LS-estimation for equidistant pilot subcarriers. The p-

th elements of HLS and WLS are H (ρ(p)) and W (ρ(p)),

B. LS Estimation of CIR p = 1, 2, .., NpOut, respectively. A N/Δp -point IDFT of (5) is

A conventional approach to estimate the channel in time represented as

domain is the least square (LS) estimation of channel impulse h̃LS = GH̃LS , (6)

response (CIR)[6]. The vector representation of (1) on the pilot where the N/Δp -point IDFT matrix, G , has the entries,

subcarriers could be shown as j2π (n−1)(m−1)

[G]m,n = √ 1 e N/Δp

, m, n = 1, 2, ..., N/Δp.

N/Δp

Y = SFp h + W , (2) Then, N -point DFT operation is performed to achieve the

where S is a NpOut × NpOut diagonal matrix whose (m, m) CFRs for whole subcarriers

element indicates the m-th pilot subcarrier in the set ΦOut

p H̃DFT = FGH̃LS = AHLS + AWLS = H + AWLS , (7)

and Fp is a NpOut -point DFT matrix whose l-th row is fpl =

j2π(N Out −1)l

where the normalized N × Np DFT matrix, F, has the entries,

j2πl j4πl p

− − − (n−1)(m−1)

√ 1

1e

Out

Np

e

Out

Np

...... e

Out

Np

, l ∈ ΦOut

p . [F]m,n = √ 1 e−j2π N , m = 1, 2, ..., N, n =

NpOut N/Δp

h denotes the CIR. 1, 2, ..., N/Δp , and the DFT-interpolation matrix is A = FG.

Then, the LS estimation of CIR can be denoted as (6) and (7) are hold only if the multi-path delays are the integer

times of the sampling interval.

† †

ĥ = (SFp ) Y = h + (SFp ) W , (3) 2) When NpI = 0 (with virtual subcarriers): When VCs

are present, only the CFRs outside the VCs can be achieved,

where † denotes the pseudo inverse of a matrix, and the

so that the LS-estimated CFRs are:

noise

power of LS estimation

for CIR is calculated as

H H (k) + W (k) , k ∈ ΦOut

† † p

tr σw 2

(SFp ) (SFp ) , and tr{·} means the trace of H̃LS = . (8)

zero , k ∈ ΦIn

p

a matrix. Thus, the noise in (3) could be boosted by Fp As (8) clearly shows, it is impossible to obtain the CFRs

when VCs exist. Moreover, the complexity of LS estimation inside the virtual subcarrier area, causing leakage arising from

of CIR is high because of pseudo inverse whose complexity

3 the loss of orthogonality in the DFT-IDFT process. Based on

is O NpOut . However, this complexity can be reduced (7), the CFRs including the leakage can be written as

by one matrix inverse calculation since the pilot subcarriers vc

in different OFDM symbol are positioned in the same subcar- H̃vc

DFT = H − FĜH + AW LS

, (9)

riers. = H − Ileak + AWLS

where Ĝ is a N/Δp × NpI matrix, and which consists of NpI

C. DFT-based Channel Estimation columns of G from the (NpL +1)-th column to the (NpL +NpI )-

Another approach of channel estimation in time domain is th column. Hvc is a NpI × 1 vector representing the unobtain-

DFT-based channel estimation[4][5]. The advantages of DFT- able CFRs inside the virtual subcarrier area. Ileak = FĜHvc

based channel estimation are that it has lower complexity denotes the leakage interfering with the estimated channel.

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 3, 2009 at 09:13 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

2006 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 6, JUNE 2008

III. P ROPOSED C HANNEL E STIMATION M ETHOD BASED First Step Second Step

ON L EAKAGE E STIMATION (The DFT-based channel estimation (The elimination of leakage)

with leakage)

Rx.

As outlined in Section II-C, the leakage over the estimated Estimate Estimate

signal F LS Est- DFT-based

channels results from the loss of orthogonality in the DFT- H LS

F Channel H vc

IDFT process. Our approach seeks to eliminate it by estimat- T imation Estimation (CFRs at

(CFRs at Φ )

In

ing the leakage and then creating artificial CFRs inside the p

Φ Inp and Φ Out

p )

virtual subcarrier area. This will make it possible to satisfy

equidistance pilot spacing, in turn enabling us to achieve DFT-

Used Φ Out

p , Φp

leak

Φ Out

p

Φ leak

p Φ Out

p , Φp

In

pilot set

based channel estimation without leakage.

Before proceeding to our proposed channel estimation, we

Estimated DFT-based Whitening

first derive the leakage at the k-th subcarrier based on (9) channel Channel

(in order to analyze how the leakage affects the estimation

H Estimation Noise

Third Step

performance) as

(The DFT-based channel estimation

vc without leakage) Φ Out

p , Φp

In

Φ Out

p , Φp

In

Ileak (k) = fk ĜH

NpI

1

sin Δπ (ρ(NpL +l)−k)

Fig. 2. Block diagram of the proposed channel estimation.

= N/Δp H(ρ(NpL + l)) sin πp ρ(N L +l)−k × (10)

N( )

l=1 1

p

L 1

exp jπ ρ(Np + l) − k Δp − N ,

B. The second step : Compensation for leakage

where fk is the k-th row of F. In (10), ρ(NpL + l) − k is After DFT-based channel estimation, the estimated CFR

multiples of Δp for k ∈ ΦOut because the differences between vector, H̃vc DFT , has leakage. Meanwhile, the CFRs at Φp

leak

p

Out are estimated by LS estimation and DFT-based estimation with

all elements

of Φ p are

also multiples of Δp . As a result,

leakage. Therefore, based on (10), the leakage at Φleak can be

sin Δπp ρ(NpL + l) − k becomes zero for k ∈ ΦOut p , thus

p

estimated by

Ileak (k) is also zero. These results show the CFRs at ΦOut p vc

are estimated exactly, i.e., there is no leakage. Ĩleak = fρleak (1) ; fρleak (2) ; ...; fρleak (NpI ) ĜH̃

leak

Φp

Estimating the leakage is essential if we wish to create (11)

artificial CFRs inside the virtual subcarrier area, and this can = H̃leak − H̃vc DFT ,

be done using non-comb-type pilot subcarriers. Therefore, Φleak

p

we should identify the position of these additional pilot where [·]Φleak is a subvector containing rows corresponding

subcarriers. p

leak

to Φp and [A; B] is the vertical concatenation of matrices

The numerator of (10), sin Δπp ρ(NpL + l) − k , is maxi-

A and B. Ĩleak is the estimated leakage vector distributed by

mized when ρ(NpL +l)−k is Δp (m+0.5) and m is an integer, noise. H̃leak is LS-estimated CFR at Φleak p . Figure 3 illustrates

i.e., the leakage could be large at the midpoint between two the leakage estimation process for ITU-R vehicular A channel,

consecutive comb-type pilot subcarriers.

On the other hand, N = 1024, Nvc = 158, Δp = 32, and SNR = ∞. The

π

the denominator of (10), sin N ρ(NpL + l) − k , decreases solid line and dotted line denote the original CFR, H, and the

as ρ(NpL + l) − k becomes smaller, i.e., the leakage could be DFT-based-estimated CFR, H̃vc DFT , respectively. The leakage

large when k comes as close to the virtual subcarrier area estimation is performed by subtracting the DFT-estimated

as possible. Therefore, in order to estimate the leakage, pilot CFRs from the LS-estimated CFRs at Φleak p .

subcarriers for leakage estimation should be located at the In (11), let us assume the leakage model matrix, L, as

midpoint between two comb-type pilot subcarriers, and as

close to the virtual subcarrier area as possible. The position L = F̂Ĝ = fρleak (1) ; fρleak (2) ; ...; fρleak (NpI ) Ĝ . (12)

set of the NpI pilot subcarriers for estimating the leakage is

defined as Φleak

p = [ρleak (1)ρleak (2)...ρleak (NpI )]. From Theorem 1. in [7], the following condition suggests that

As shown in Figure 2, the proposed channel estimation the leakage model matrix, L, has full rank as NpI since both

procedure is separated into 3 parts. In the first step, DFT- ranks of F̂ and Ĝ are NpI ,

based channel estimation is performed with leakage. In the

second step, the leakage is estimated and eliminated. DFT- rank F̂Ĝ = rank F̂ , if and only if there are

(13)

based channel estimation can then be performed in the third X such that ĜX = I ,

step without the leakage.

where I is an N/Δp × N/Δp identity matrix. Therefore, the

rank of L is NpI , and L is invertible.

A. The first step : DFT-based channel estimation with leakage Then, the unobtainable CFRs inside the virtual subcarrier

area can be estimated as

LS estimation on ΦOut

p and Φleak

p is performed by (4). DFT-

based channel estimation is then performed for LS-estimated H̃vc = L−1 H̃leak − H̃vc DFT

CFRs on ΦOut vc

p . The CFRs estimated with the leakage, H̃DFT ,

Φleak

p . (14)

vc −1

are obtained as (9). = H + L [W]Φleak

p

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 3, 2009 at 09:13 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 6, JUNE 2008 2007

0 Noise boost by pseudo inverse

Original CFR, H 10

vc

1 CFR by DFT estimator, H DFT

Pilot position of ΦOut

p

p

In

Pilot position of Φ p

0.8 MSE improvement achieved

by eliminating the leakage

Amplitude of CFR

-1

10

0.6

MSE

leak

0.4

Estimate the leakages, I leak at Φ p

vc Nvc = 158,Δ p=32, DFT-estimator

I leak = H leak − H DFT

-2 Nvc = 158,Δ p=16, DFT-estimator

In The elimination of leakage 10

0.2

Predict CFRs at Φ p by equi-distance condition Nvc = 158,Δ p=32, LS-estimator of CIR

Nvc = 158,Δ p=32, Proposed estimator

Nvc = 0 ,Δ p=32, DFT-estimator

0

368 384 400 416 432 448 480 512 544 576 592 608 624

Subcarrier 5 10 15 20 25

SNR

Fig. 3. Leakage estimation at Φleak

p , N =1024, Nvc = 158, Δp = 32, SNR

= ∞, ITU-R vehicular A channel. Fig. 4. MSE of the proposed and DFT-based channel estimation via SNR ,

N =1024, Nvc = 158, Δp = 32, ITU-R vehicular A channel.

of the pilot spacing is satisfied. The CFR estimate at full is set to 2.3GHz. These parameters match the standards

equidistance, HLS , is obtained as of IEEE 802.16[9]. In the vehicular A channel model, the

maximum channel delays are approximately 26 samples of

H̃LS = H̃LLS ; H̃vc ; H̃R

LS = HLS + W̃ , (15)

OFDM signal in the time domain. In order to satisfy the

where H̃LLS and H̃R sampling theorem, the spacing between two consecutive pilot

LS are the LS-estimated CFRs on the left

side and right side of the virtual subcarrier area of ΦOut subcarriers, Δp , must not exceed a value around 32[10].

p ,

To prove the effectiveness of proposed estimator, the pilot

respectively. W̃ = WLS + [0NpL /2×1 ; L−1 [W]Φleak ; 0 Np ×1 ]

R

p spacing, Δp , is set to 32.

and 0NpL ×1 and 0NpR ×1 are zero vectors with lengths NpL and

Figure 4 shows the MSE performances of the DFT-based,

NpR , respectively. LS, and proposed channel estimation via SNR. It is assumed

that the number of VCs is 158, which is also the same as

C. The third step : DFT-based channel estimation without IEEE 802.16[9], ΦOut p = [0, 32, ..., 416, 608, ..., 992], ΦIn

p =

leakage [448, 480, 512, 544, 576] and Φleak

p = [368, 400, 432, 592, 624]

We know from the result of (15) that W̃ is not a white noise for Δp = 32. The square, triangle, and circle mark show

vector. Moreover, the boosted noise, L−1 [W]Φleak , could the simulation results of the DFT-based, LS, and proposed

p

increase the estimation error. For this reason, we can adopt estimator, respectively. In order to prove the robustness against

a whitening process to use with (15) the change of VCs and data-efficiency of the proposed es-

timator, the MSE results of the DFT-based estimator with

−1 −1 −1

Rw̃ 2 H̃LS = Rw̃ 2 HLS + Rw̃ 2 W̃ , (16) (Nvc = 0, Δp = 32) and (Nvc = 158, Δp = 16) are denoted

as the solid line without mark and the dotted line with square

where Rw̃ is a whitening matrix of W̃ and represented as [8]

⎡ ⎤ mark, respectively.

INpL 0 0 The performance of the DFT-based channel estimation

⎢ H ⎥

Rw̃ = ⎣ 0 L−1 L−1 0 ⎦ , (17) does not improve even when the SNR increases, because the

0 0 INpR unobtainable CFRs inside the virtual subcarrier area make a

MSE floor. Despite more pilot subcarriers for the DFT-based

where INpL and INpR are identity matrices whose size are NpL estimator with Δp = 16, the MSE performance of the DFT-

and NpR , respectively. based estimator is severely degraded than that of the proposed

The full set of CFRs after whitening noise can then be estimator due to the leakage. Moreover, compared with the

estimated by DFT-based channel estimation as case of Nvc = 0, the performance degradation of the proposed

estimator is negligible.

−1 −1

H̃w = ARw̃ 2 H̃LS = H + A Rw̃ 2 − I HLS + W . (18) Because of the noise boost from (3), the MSE of the LS-

estimation is the largest at low SNR among the considered

IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS channel estimation methods. On the other hand, the MSE of

The ITU-R vehicular A channel model was used for our the proposed channel estimation is almost the same as the

simulations[9]. The total number of subcarriers, N , is 1024 lowest MSE when Nvc = 0, because the leakage is eliminated

and the CP length to prevent inter-symbol interference (ISI) is by the estimation of the unobtainable CFRs.

128. The used bandwidth is 10MHz and the carrier frequency The superiority of the proposed channel estimation can

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 3, 2009 at 09:13 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

2008 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 6, JUNE 2008

Noise boost

SNR=15dB, Δp=32,LS-estimator Large Nvc degrades

-1 by pseudo inverse the performance of

10 SNR=15dB, Δp=32,Proposed estimator

LS-estimator

-1

10 SNR=25dB, Δp=16,DFT-based estimator

SNR=25dB, Δp=32,LS-estimator

BER improvement

by eliminating the leakage SNR=25dB, Δp=32,Proposed estimator

MSE

BER

-2

10

Performance degradation

Nvc = 158,Δ p=32,DFT-estimator from the increase of Nvc

Nvc = 158,Δ p=16,DFT-estimator -2

10

Nvc = 158,Δ p=32,LS-estimator of CIR Proposed estimator is

Robust to the increase of Nvc

Nvc = 158,Δ p=32,Proposed estimator

-3

10 Nvc = 0 ,Δ p=32,DFT-estimator

Perfect channel estimation

2 6 10 14 18 22 26 0 30 94 158

SNR Number of virtual subcarriers, Nvc

Fig. 5. BER of the proposed and DFT-based channel estimation via SNR , Fig. 6. MSE of the proposed and DFT-based channel estimation via Nvc ,

N =1024, Nvc = 158, Δp = 32, ITU-R vehicular A channel. SNR=20dB and SNR=30dB, N =1024, Δp = 32, ITU-R vehicular A channel.

also be demonstrated with the bit error rate (BER), which is subcarriers. Analysis and simulations show that the proposed

depicted in Figure 5. The simulation environments of Figure channel estimation method achieves better estimation perfor-

5 are the same as those in Figure 4. BPSK is used for the mance than the conventional method and does so indepen-

modulation. As with Figure 4, the BER for the proposed esti- dently of any increase in the number of virtual subcarriers.

mator is much better than those achieved with the conventional

DFT-based estimator and LS-estimator. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Figure 6 emphasizes the robustness of the proposed channel The authors would like to thank Mr. Michael Collins for

estimation against an increase in the number of VCs. The his assistance in revising English in this article.

SNRs are fixed at 15dB and 25dB for the comparison of mid-

range SNR and high SNR. The x-axis and y-axis of Figure R EFERENCES

6 are the numbers of VCs and the MSE, respectively. The

[1] M. Sandell and O. Edfors, “A comparative study of pilot-based channel

solid lines and the dotted lines denote the MSE results for estimators for wireless OFDM,” Div. Signal Processing, Lulea Univ.

SNR=15dB and SNR=25dB, respectively. In addition, lines Technology, Sweden, Res. Rep. TULEA 1996.

with square, triangle, and circle mark show the MSE results [2] Y. Zhao and A. Huang, “A novel channel estimation method for OFDM

mobile communication systems based on pilot signals and transform-

for DFT-based, LS, and the proposed estimator, respectively. domain processing,” in Proc. IEEE VTC’97, vol. 3, May 1997, pp. 2089–

The MSE for the DFT-based channel estimation increases 2093.

with the number of VCs although more pilot subcarriers [3] M. Li, J. Tan, and W. Zhang, “A channel estimation method based on

frequency-domain pilots and time-domain processing for OFDM systems,”

are used for DFT-based channel estimation with less pilot IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1049–1057, Nov. 2004.

spacing, Δp = 16. This is because the unobtainable CFRs [4] B. Yang, Z. Cao, and K. B. Letaief, “Analysis of low-complexity

inside virtual subcarrier area also increase. In particular, the windowed DFT-based MMSE channel estimator for OFDM systems,”

IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1977–1987, Nov. 2001.

MSE increases very rapidly at smaller Nvc . The MSE results [5] D. Li, F. Guo, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Enhanced DFT interpolation-based

of the LS-estimator show that the performance is degraded channel estimation for OFDM systems with virtual subcarriers,” in Proc.

severely at large Nvc . On the other hand, the MSE of the IEEE VTC’06 Spring, vol.4, pp. 1580–1584.

[6] M. Morelli and U. Mengali, “A comparison of pilot-aided channel

proposed channel estimation method tracks with the increase estimation methods for OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing

in the VCs almost constantly. This is because the leakage not vol 49, no. 12, pp. 3065–3073, Dec. 2001.

satisfying the equidistance condition of pilot subcarriers has [7] Y. Tian and G. P. H. Styan, “When does rank(ABC) = rank(AB) +

rank(BC) - rank(B) hold?” International J. Mathematical Educ. in Sci.

been eliminated. The MSE of LS-estimator at small Nvc for and Technol. vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 127–137, Jan. 2002.

25dB is lower than that of the proposed estimator because [8] S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing, vol. 1:

of the whitening process. However, the gap between them Estimation Theory. Prentice Hall, 1993

[9] IEEE P802.16e/D8 “Amendment for physical and medium access control

is too small, and as Nvc increases, the proposed estimator layers for combined fixed and mobile operation in licensed bands,”

outperforms LS-estimator. Technical Report TTAR-0021, May 2005

[10] Y. Li, “Pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation for OFDM in wireless

systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1207–1215, July

V. C ONCLUSIONS 2000.

[11] J. Kim, J. Park, and D. Hong, “Performance analysis of channel

In this paper, we proposed a new channel estimation method estimation in OFDM systems,” IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 12,

to overcome the drawbacks of DFT-based channel estimation no. 1, pp. 60–62, Jan. 2005.

with virtual subcarriers by using pilot subcarriers to estimate

the unobtainable channel frequency responses inside virtual

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 3, 2009 at 09:13 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

- Quality Integrated Data Reconstruction for Medical ApplicationsUploaded byEditor IJACSA
- LTE PHY FreescaleUploaded byharis313
- 06824752.pdfUploaded bysherif_helmy
- DSP Course Plan_18-19Uploaded byAnonymous VASS3z0wTH
- The PAPRUploaded byDpkKSingh
- papr reduction in ofdmUploaded bylakshmipo
- Introduction to Linear PrecodingUploaded byKarthik AS
- FFTUploaded bystarman222
- Ramji's Research Pakgkper (24!03!2014)Uploaded byJill Ward
- Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded byJoshua Duffy
- OFDM Simulation EE810Uploaded byAshique Mahmood
- EnerLinks III HD Brochure 020 WebUploaded byStanley Ochieng' Ouma
- MLSD Bounds and Receiver Designs ForUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- A Multistage Channel Estimation and ICI Reduction Method ForUploaded byapi-3816993
- Iaetsd-Adaptive Modulation in Mimo Ofdm System For4gUploaded byiaetsdiaetsd
- 214ec5220 Subba ReddyUploaded byVamsikrishna Pasupuleti
- 4G Wireless NetworksUploaded bydhaval yogesh mehta
- 3.pdfUploaded byImad A Shaheen
- 08100915Uploaded bynhatvp
- Doppler Compensation and Singular Value Decomposition in OFDM Based Aeronautical CommunicationUploaded byIJSTE
- 6940f75429c4dc2eb68be8e3531b5024c839.pdfUploaded byprabhu0365
- lab6Uploaded byxx
- Lte Modem ChallengesUploaded byYasser Naguib
- EE318-Chapter8-2Uploaded byMohamed Elbadawi M
- Ofdm ReportUploaded bySomya Anand
- Mat Lab SlidesUploaded byMarza Ihsan Marzuki
- 841c67b03830a26db25d4a82f600c71dUploaded byIraj Az Irani
- pap247Uploaded bySupriya
- UntitledUploaded byapi-251901021
- 5 WimaxUploaded bymnalou

- Wireless Networked Security System Based on ZigbeeUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Wireless Device Identification in MIMO ChannelsUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Window Design for SISO and MIMO OFDMWindow Design for SISO and MIMO OFDM SystemsUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Video Ads Dissemination Through WiFi-Cellular Hybrid NetworksUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Vertical Handover Criteria and Algorithm in IEEE 802.11 and 802.16 Hybrid NetworksUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Utility-Based Adaptive Radio Resource Allocation InUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- User Set Estimation for Adaptive Resource Allocation in a Multiuser OFDM SystemUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Uneven Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation Method for Mobile OFDM SystemsUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Two-Layer Spreading CDMA an Improved MethodUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Turbo MIMO Equalization and Decoding in FastUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Turbo Coded OFDM for Reducing PAPR and Error RatesUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Training Symbol Based Coarse TimingUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Throughput Evaluation of the the Nonorthogonal CSKCDMA ALOHA With InterferenceUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Three-Dimensional Modeling and Simulation OfUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Theoretical Studies and Efficient Algorithm OfUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- The Continuous-Time Peak-To-Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals Using Complex Modulation SchemesUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Synchronization, Channel Estimation, AndUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Study of a Novel Zoom Spectrum Analysis Approach for Wireless Communication AnalyzerUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Stochastic Differential Equations ForUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Space Time Frequency Code ImplementationUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Space Shift Keying Modulation for MIMO ChannelsUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Smooth Beamforming for OFDMUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Single-Symbol ML Decoding for Orthogonal and Quasi-Orthogonal STBC in Clipped MIMO-OfDM Systems Using a Clipping Noise Model With Gaussian ApproximationUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Simple MMSE Interference Suppression for Real and Rate Half Complex Orthogonal Space Time Block CodesUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Sequence Hopping Cell Search Scheme for OFDM Cellular SystemsUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Selective Mapping With Symbol Re-Mapping for OFDM or TDM Using MMSE FDEUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Selective Level MappingUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- IMP Selected Mapping Without Side Information for OFDM Selective ChannelsUploaded bykhajarasool_sk
- Robust Video Broadcasting Over 802.11 in Time Correlated Fading ChannelsUploaded bykhajarasool_sk

- 1987 Hansen E Richard Role of Conditioning InformationUploaded byFlávio Dias
- Medical Ethics Basic PrinsipUploaded byAdeLia Nur Fitriana
- Basic SeismicsUploaded bycatarac19
- Change ManagementUploaded byMohammad Raihanul Hasan
- OpenSAP Hyb1 Week 1 Unit 1 Hybris Strategy PresentationUploaded byPankaj Khatoniar
- Electrical PetrophysicsUploaded byJosé Andrés Zabala
- ESA Update AnnouncementUploaded byedin cabrera
- Catalog ReerUploaded byerkinguler
- MM CookbookUploaded bySuvendu Bishoyi
- Howard Gardner & Lee S. Shulman TheUploaded byResearchJSP
- clinical cases for MRCPCH PART 2 applied knowledge in practiceUploaded byaeyousef
- supplier_auditUploaded byAmilaLakmal
- Arhuaco UniverseUploaded byDaniel Williams
- Tribology Lesson PlanUploaded bykumar
- Exam-wordUploaded byDaryl Melo
- Instron 3367 Frerichs GuideUploaded byNexhat Qehaja
- RA_PHYSICIAN_DAVAO_Sep2018.pdfUploaded byPhilBoardResults
- Lab+2+ManualUploaded bysonti11
- 3DDamUploaded bypani68
- Admission Form UOG 2010Uploaded byadnan_westridgian
- Modeling and Implement a It On Guide for BPM 11.1.1.5.0 - e15176-05Uploaded byjebwhs87
- Armasar, Ioana - Aspects of specialized translations in the field of economics.pdfUploaded byE Wigmans
- Blacklisted411.Net - Edition 4 - 2006.01.16Uploaded byjformica
- MCPUploaded byfvmsh
- HildegardUploaded byGlenn Lacdang Ravanilla
- CollectionUploaded byHany Sewilam Abdull Hamid
- Share Point Designer Workflow Bonus Issue 2Uploaded byXil Micro
- Four General or World PhilosophiesUploaded byKris Bernadette Perez David
- operating systemUploaded byapi-274744268
- Apoptosis Assay in PlantsUploaded bySujoy Deb