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Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.；Guilin College of Aerospace technology, Guilin, China

Email: shy1997@126.com

Abstract—orthogonal frequency division multiplexing low back-off values and try to prevent the occurrence of

(OFDM) systems based on discrete cosine transform signal clipping. This can be done through some

(DCT) is proposed for the first time in this paper in order manipulations of the OFDM signal before transmission.

to solve the distortion due to great Peak-to-Average

Therefore, the subject of finding a computationally

Power Ratio (PAPR) of OFDM systems signals. The

character of the DCT energy focused is made use of in the efficient algorithm to decrease the PAPR in OFDM

frequency domain, and it helps to reduce the PAPR systems has become an active research topic [1].

engendered by IFFT at the transmitter statistically, To achieve the above objective, several proposals

avoiding the nonlinear distortion in OFDM systems due to have been suggested and studied in the literature. For

great change of PAPR. In this paper, the characters of instance, we find clipping with filtering, block coding,

DCT algorithm are analyzed first, and then the algorithm

optimization with tone reservation (TR), and selected

is applied to signal processing in OFDM systems. It is

mathematically verified that this method is potent to mapping [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]. However, most of these

reduce the PAPR. Lastly, the simulation results show that methods try to exploit the sub-carrier symbols of the

the proposed scheme in reducing the threshold of PAPR OFDM block by creating some correlation between

statistically is feasible. them. As a result, the reduction in PAPR achieved by

these techniques is relative and is obtained at the

Index Terms—Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), expense of either additional complexity to the OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM),

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR)

transceiver, a high coding overhead, and/or the need of

some kind of transmitter/receiver symbol handshake.

I. INTRODUCTION In this paper, we consider DCT as a way of reducing

the PAPR of OFDM transmitted signals. It makes use of

and inter symbols interference (ISI) of the receiver

signal appear because of multi-path effects,

the character of the DCT energy focused in the

frequency domain. The data of OFDM signal is

modulated by IFFT after being dealt with DCT, which

time-varying fast fading and Doppler frequency shift. It can reduce the PAPR of OFDM systems. Compared

causes the error of receiver and degrades the with the means of SLM-OFDM and PTS-OFDM,

communication performance. OFDM systems are DCT-OFDM maintains the system orthogonal

stronger than single-carrier systems at multi-path fading properties, which will not result in additional noise and

channel environment, so they are used in many high need not transmit side information. At the same time,

data rate transmission systems such as digital video the proposed method reduces the PAPR greatly and the

broadcasting (DVB), IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16, and system has character of low complexity hardware.

HIPERLAN Type II, etc. DCT-OFDM is an ideal scheme to reduce PAPR of

One of the implementation drawbacks of OFDM OFDM.

is that the transmitted signal has a high PAPR, a large

dynamic signal range with a very high PAPR. As a II. ACHIEVEMENT OF DCT

result, the OFDM signal will be clipped when passed

through a nonlinear power amplifier at the transmitter Sequence data f (x ) of OFDM is transformed with

end. Clipping degrades the bit-error-rate (BER) DCT and we will get sequence data F (u ) , which changes

performance and causes spectral spreading [1，2]. One the values of the elements of sequence data. However,

way to solve this problem is to force the amplifier to the sequence structure will not be changed. At the same

work in its linear region. Unfortunately, such a solution time, many zero elements will appear in the

is not powerful efficient. Power efficiency is necessary transformed sequence. That means, the energy of the

in wireless communication as it provides adequate area signal focuses on some sub-carriers, and PAPR is

coverage, saves power consumption, and allows mostly affected by them. For example, N =8,

small-size terminals. It is, therefore, important to aim at and f (x ) =[1，1，1 ，1， -1， -1， -1， -1]. We will

a power efficient operation of the power amplifier with get:

Sponsors: the 973 program of China (No. 2007CB310605) and the National Natural Science Fund of China (No. 60772011)

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F (u ) = DCTf ( x) B. THE IMPROVEMENT OF PAPR OF

DCT-OFDM

= [0,2.563,0,−0.9,0,0.601,0,−0.51] (1) One of the implementation drawbacks of OFDM is

In equation (1), the largest element of the sequence that the transmitted signal has a high PAPR. The largest

after being transformed is 2.563, and the other elements instantaneous peak power will appear if all sub-carrier

are very small or even 0, which indicates that the energy phases are accumulated to the same direction in the

of OFDM sequence is focused by DCT. In addition, the same time. When the number of OFDM sub-carriers is

energy keeps the same after DCT, so the total energy N and Xi（i＝0，1，2…，N-1）is the data of N

remains unchanged. Just as equation (1) figures: sub-signals, the most amplitude of out Sk (k=0,1,…N-1)

2.563 2 + (− 0.9 ) + 0.6012 + (− 0.51) ≈ 8

2 2

can be expressed:

⎧ 1 N −1 ⎛ 2πik ⎞⎫

S k max = max ⎨ ∑ X i exp⎜ j

⎝ N ⎠⎭

⎟⎬

⎩ N i =0

1 N −1

∑ Xi

N i =0

=

(2)

The peak amplitude of OFDM symbols corresponds

to the maximum instantaneous power.

2

1 ⎛ N −1 ⎞

= ⎜∑ Xi ⎟

2

Ppro max = S k pro max

N ⎝ i =0 ⎠

(3)

In the time domain, for N positive numbers x0,

x1,…,xN-1, we will get inequality (4)

2

⎛ x0 + x1 + ...+ xN −1 ⎞ 1 2 2

⎜

N

( 2

⎟ ≤ x0 + x1 + ...+ xN −1 )

Fig.1 The Spectrum of 256 DCT-OFDM ⎝ ⎠ N (4)

Fig.1 indicates that DCT can focus the signal energy From (4) we can get

on some little sub-carriers, which can depress PAPR. N −1 N −1

2

A. DCT-OFDM

i =0 i =0 (5)

From (4) and (5), we can get:

1 ⎛ N −1 2⎞

N −1

⎜∑ Xi ⎟ ≤ ∑ Xi = P

2

Ppro max =

N ⎝ i =0 ⎠ i =0 (6)

Where P is the total power, that is to say, OFDM

peak power may be equivalent to the total signal power.

2

The total power of OFDM signal is N and the peak

amplitude of signal is:

1 N −1 1

S k pro max = ∑

N i =0

Xi =

N

⋅N = N

(7)

Fig.2 the frame of DCT-OFDM Making use of character of DCT, we transform real

Fig.2 is the base band system of OFDM based on and imaginary parts of Xi by DCT in frequency domain.

DCT. DCT is imported before the IFFT of conventional X = {X 0 , X 1 ,…, X N −1 }

Assuming that is the vector data

OFDM system. In frequency domain, the OFDM signal

in frequency domain, where X i = X i Re + jX i Im ，

is transformed with DCT. The character of the DCT

energy focus redistributes power on every sub-carrier and X i Re , X i Im are the vectors of real and imaginary parts

which can reduce the PAPR. It will not influence the respectively. We can get vector A={A0，A1，A2，…，

orthogonal character of OFDM because the DCT goes AN-1} after DCT.

before IFFT. The original signal can be resumed if A = DCT( X ) = CXRe + jCXIm = ARe + jAIm (8)

IDCT is inserted after FFT. DCT-OFDM system block

Where C is DCT matrix, ARe, AIm are the vectors of

is shown in Fig.2 [11].

real and imaginary parts of A respectively. In other

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words, DCT of A equals to DCT of the real and ⎛ ⎛π π ⎞ ⎞

imaginary parts of A. According to the characteristic of ⎜ tg⎜ − ⎟ ⎟

1 ⎜ 2N ⎝ 4 8 N ⎠ π

unitary transformation, the total power of real and SDCT ≤ 2 −1 + ln + csc ⎟

imaginary parts keeps unchanged after DCT. The total N⎜ π ⎛π ⎞ 4N ⎟

⎜ tg⎜ ⎟ ⎟

signal power is the sum of real and imaginary power. ⎝ ⎝ 8N ⎠ ⎠ (12)

Thus, the total power of signal keeps constant after 2

DCT lim S DCT ≤ 2.2825 + ln N

N →∞ π (13)

Assuming that PX is the total power of signal and PA

is the total power of signal after DCT.

PA = PX = PA Re + PA Im = PX Re + PX Im Ⅳ SIMULATION

N −1 N −1 A. DCT-OFDM SIMULATION PERFORMANCE

= ∑ An = ∑ X i

2 2

According to (7) and (13) ，we compared OFDM

n =0 i =0 (9) maximum normalized amplitude with that of

Where SDCT is the most of peak power of OFDM after DCT-OFDM, the results are shown in table.1. The

DCT. results of our analysis are the same as that in theory.

⎧ N−1 ⎧ ⎡πu(2i +1)⎤⎫ N ⎫

j 2πul

1 N −1 Table.1 shows that the biggest amplitude can reduce

SDCT = ∑

N u=0

⎨ u ∑⎨ i ⎢

d X cos

⎣ 2N ⎥⎦⎭

⎬e ⎬ obviously with the increase of the number of

⎩ i=0 ⎩ ⎭ sub-carrier.

⎡ πu (2i + 1) ⎤

N −1 N −1 j 2πul

1

=

N

∑ X i ∑ du e

i =0 u =0

N

cos ⎢

⎣ 2 N ⎥⎦ Table.1 amplitude comparison between conventional

OFDM and DCT-OFDM symbol with different N

1 N −1 ⎡ jπu ( 42lN+ 2i +1)

N −1 jπu ( 4 l − 2 i −1)

⎤

=

2 N

∑ X i ∑ d u ⎢e + e 2N ⎥

i =0 u =0 ⎣ ⎦

N −1⎛ jπu ( 4l +2i +1) jπu ( 4l −2i−1)

1 N−1 2⎡ ⎞⎤

= ∑

2 N i=0

X i ⎢

N ⎢⎣

2 + ∑ ⎜

⎜ e 2N

+ e 2N ⎟⎥

⎟

u=1 ⎝ ⎠⎦⎥

⎡ i ⎤ Table.2 PAPR comparison between OFDM and

1− j(−1) 1+ j(−1) ⎥

i

1 N−1 2⎢

= ∑ i N⎢

2 N i=0

X 2 − 2 + jπ ( 4l +2i+1)

+ jπ ( 4l −2i−1)

⎥

DCT-OFDM with QPSK when N＝4

⎣ 1− e 2N 1− e 2N ⎦

( ) [ ]

N −1

1 1 1

=

2 N

∑X

i =0

i

2N

2 2 −4 +

2N

1 − j (− 1)

i

π (4l + 2i + 1) ⎤

⎡

⋅ ⎢1 + jctg (

4N

)⎥ +

1

1 + j (−1)i [ ]

⎣ ⎦ 2N

⎡ ⎛ π (4l − 2i − 1) ⎞⎤

⋅ ⎢1 + jctg ⎜ ⎟⎥

⎣ ⎝ 4N ⎠⎦ (10)

We can get：

N −1 N −1

1 1

S DCT ≤

2 N

∑XY

i =0

i i ≤

2 N

∑( X

i =0

i + Yi )

1 N −1

π (4l + 2i + 1) The PAPR of OFDM is compared with that of

≤

2 2N

∑

i =0

([4 − 2 2 + 2 ( csc

4N DCT-OFDM in table.2 where N=4 and QPSK is

introduced. The biggest PAPR is reduced from

π (4l − 2i − 1) 6.0206dB to 2.8145dB as shown in table.2. Therefore,

+ csc )]) DCT can improve the performance of OFDM. After

4N (11) DCT, many data values are very small and even some

Using triangle formula in equation (11), we can get: zero elements appear in the transformed sequence. In

time domain, there are a few big amplitude frequency

signals with many small signals added to. The peak

value of OFDM signal is decided by these signals.

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Small signals can be considered as the interference to OFDM PAPR. We will compare PAPR performance of

big signals and have little impact on the instantaneous SLM-OFDM, PTS-OFDM and DCT-OFDM [8，9，

peak of the signal. 10，12，13，14]. The simulation parameters in Fig.5

are as follows: N=128， QPSK modulation，four times

over-sampling. The random phases sequence vector

Pi(u) of SLM-OFDM is selected as Pi(u) ∈ {1,−1, j,− j} and

the weight coefficients of PTS-OFDM are selected as

bv ∈ {1,−1} and adjacent segmentation is introduced [10，

13].

In Fig.5, the performance of DCT-OFDM is between

SLM-OFDM with M=8 and SLM-OFDM with M=16.

When BER is 10-3, the threshold of DCT-OFDM is

0.15dB higher than SLM-OFDM system with M=16

and 0.4dB lower with M=8. Compared with

PTS-OFDM, the performance of DCT-OFDM is

between that of block number V is 4 and 8 in

Fig.3 the Improvement of PAPR0 of OFDM Based PTS-OFDM. When BER is 10-3, the threshold of

DCT DCT-OFDM is 0.3dB higher than that of V is 8 and 1dB

lower than that of V is 4. The SLM-OFDM transmitter

In Fig.3, the PAPR of DCT-OFDM systems can be needs 8-IFFT circuits, 8 multipliers and an optimal

selection output circuit. Beside, log 2 ( M − 1)

reduced 3.5dB compared with OFDM systems. With

the increase of M, PAPR can be further reduced. redundancy side information is provided. Moreover,

In Fig.4, Complementary Cumulative Distribution DCT-OFDM only needs 2 additional DCT circuits. The

Function (CCDF) Simulation Curve is shown for four PTS-OFDM receiver, when V is 8, needs 8 FFT circuits,

times over-sampling OFDM with N=128 and QPSK is adder circuit necessary and comparative choice circuit.

introduced. Four times over-sampling simulation curve At the same time, 8bit weight information is needed. In

is close to the theoretical value curve [11]. The PAPR addition, SLM-OFDM and PTS-OFDM have a

performance of DCT-OFDM system is greatly shortcoming which the hardware complexity increases

improved because of introducing of DCT and the in exponential order with the PAPR performance

improvement is about 3.5dB when BER is 10-4. improvement. DCT circuit is easy to realize because of

DCT technology used in digital video and the

realization of high-speed circuit structure of DCT.

Fig.4 the performance improvement of PAPR based

Ⅴ. CONCLUSION

DCT

The proposed method to reduce OFDM PAPR based

B. THE PERFORMANCE COMPARISON WITH

on DCT is a better scheme which has not been studied

OTHER TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING PAPR

yet. The character of energy focus of DCT is used. The

There are many methods to solve the problem of

OFDM symbols are transformed with DCT firstly, and

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then, are modulated with IFFT. As a result, PAPR of Global Telecommunications Conference.

OFDM is reduced. Compared with SLM-OFDM and 1997.GLOBECOM'97, IEEE,1997,1:3-8.

PTS-OFDM, DCT-OFDM has the advantage of low [14] Heung-Gyoon Ryu, Kyoung-Jas Youn. A new

hardware complexity and no side information. PAPR reduction scheme: SPW(subblock phase

weighting). IEEE Transactions on Consumer

REFERENCES Electronics, 2002. 48(1):81-89.

[1] Richard Van Nee and Ramjee Prasad,“OFDM for

wireless multimedia communications”, Artech

House Publishers. 2000

[2] Wu Y. and Zou W.Y, "Orthogonal frequency

division multiplexing: A multi carrier modulation

scheme", IEEE Trans. On Consumer Electronics,

Vol.41, pp.392-399, Aug .l995

[3] Xiaodong Li and Leonard J.Cimini, "Effects of

clipping and filtering on the performance of

OFDM", IEEE Communication letters, Vol.2,

No.5, pp.131-133, May 1998

[4] Cimini L,.J., "Peak to average power reduction of

an OFDM signal using Partial Transmit

Sequences', IEEE Communication letters, Vol.4,

No.3, pp 86-88, Mar 2000

[5] Muller S, Huber J, "A Novel peak power reduction

schemes for 2 OFDM", IEEE PIMRC, Sep1997

[6] Baumel R, Fisher R, Huber J, "Reducing the peak

to average power ratio of multi carrier modulation

by selected mapping", Electronics letters, Vol.32,

No.22, pp.1090-1094. Oct1996

[7] VanEetvelt P., Wade G. and Tomlinson M, "Peak

to average power reduction for OFDM schemes by

selective scrambling", Electronics letters, Vol.32,

No.21, pp.1963-1964 Oct1996.

[8] Stefan H.Muller and Johannes B.Huber, 'A

Comparison ofpeak power reduction schemes for

OFDM', IEEE GLOBECOM, Vol.1, pp. 1-5,

Nov1997.

[9] Hideki Ochiai, "Performance Analysis of Peak

power and band-limited OFDM system with Linear

scaling", IEEE Trans. On Wireless

Communications, Vol.2, No.5, pp.] 055-1065,

Sep2003.

[10] Heung-Gyoon and Kyoung-Jae Youn, "A New

PAPR Reduction Scheme: SPW (Subblock Phase

Weighting)" IEEE Trans. On Consumer

Electronics, Vol.48, No.1, pp.8 1-89, Feb2002.

[11] Chen Mingzhi. Research of and comparison

between the algorithms of image compression

based on transformation of frequency domain.

Journal of FuJian University of Technology ，

Vol.4 No.6 Dec.2006

[12] Sathananthan K,Tellambura C. Coding to reduce

both PAR and PICR of an OFDM[J], signals. IEEE

Communications Letters, 2002,6(8):316-318.

[13] Stefan H Muller, Johannes B Huber. A comparison

of peak power reduction schemes for OFDM.

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