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A Priority-based Adaptive CDMA Scheme for

Multimedia Wireless Systems
Adeyemi A. Ajibesin, S’MIEEE, H. Anthony Chan, FIEEE, Mqhele E. Dlodlo, MIEEE
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa
and Keith Ferguson, CSIR, Meraka Institute

Abstract—A prioritised adaptive CDMA scheme in which An effective technique is needed to improve the throughput
processing gain is given priority over modulation and coding and to meet the quality of service (QoS) required for next
schemes (MCS) in wireless systems is presented. The need for generation services[20]. In this paper, an improved and robust
such design is necessary for increased bit rate. A scheme that AMC scheme that is based on the threshold method is exam-
has the capability to optimise both throughput and quality of ined for throughput maximization in broadband CDMA wire-
service without sacrificing the required bit rate is designed. less networks. The processing gain is prioritised over MCS
This is applied to direct sequence code division multiple access to achieve better throughput. Simulations were carried out.
(DS-CDMA) wireless networks for efficient broadband systems. The simulation result shows an improved average throughput
Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive CDMA performance over traditional modulation and coding schemes.
scheme provides throughput improvement of the application and The remainder of this paper is organised as follows: In the
overall system performance using priority-based optimisation. next Section, system model is presented. Section III describes
Index Terms– Adaptive modulation and coding, mobile the proposed AMC scheme. In Section IV, simulation results
satellite channel, CDMA, bit rate . are discussed while conclusions are drawn in Section V.


One of the driving forces for next generation wireless A. Channel model and Path Diversity
systems has been to provide high bit rate for multimedia
systems at low cost. Already, the main design objective of Corazza and Vatalaro channel model is considered for
third generation wireless systems, as defined by the Univer- wireless communication network systems [21]. CDMA tech-
sal Mobile Telecommunications Services/International Mobile nology is combined and applied to low Earth orbit (LEO)
Telecommunications (UMTS/IMT-2000) was to provide high satellite communication network systems. The DS-CDMA,
bit rate for multimedia applications[1]-[7]. The need for high binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature-shift keying
bit rate services, together with the scarce spectrum, motivate (QPSK) are assumed to occupy the Ka-band of land mobile
the development of more spectrum efficient radio technologies. satellite systems. Additionally, the system is considered to
The goal of UMTS/IMT-2000 is to support a large variety of exhibit L-order path diversity, where each satellite contains
services with different quality of service requirements, that S spot beams, which is transmitted via transponders from
is, multimedia services with bandwidth on demand [8]-[12]. gateways with directional antennae. It is assumed that each
The technical challenge is to achieve the required flexibility spot beam has U simultaneous active users.
without overwhelming complexity in the network and termi- The fading signal envelope is described by the path gain
nals [8]-[12]. AMC is one of the solutions to this problem. αl , l = 1, 2, . . . , L, where αl is a Rice lognormal random
With efficient adaptive radio resource management scheme, process and it is the product of two independent processes. It
true broadband access could be achieved [13], [14]. can be written as αl = Sl Rl , where Sl is a lognormal random
It is important the next generation wireless networks realise variable used to model the long-term shadowing effects, while
true broadband communications. The existing research to Rl is a Rice random variable used to model the short-term
optimise the bit rate had explored numerous techniques, which diffuse multipath fading over the direct signal component.
include adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) shemes. With The probability density function of the instantaneous received
this technique, a channel is estimated and based on target BER, signal power is given by [22], [23]
certain parameters of the transmitted signals are dynamically
ζα2l (α) = ζ α2l |βl (α|βl )ζ(βl )dβl , (1)
changed [15]- [19]. This method has been one of the efficient 0
ways for utilising of scarcely available radio resources to
where ζα2l |βl (α|βl ) is the probability density function of the
achieve high bit rate. Optimising bit rate using AMC could
instantaneous received signal power condition on the mean
be improved by exploiting the CDMA parameters.
square value of the signal. The non-central chi-square distri-
0 This work was funded by the DST-Innovation Fund on project No. T70026: bution is given by
Bandwidth Adaptive Real-Time Video Broadcasting over Internet.  
Kl + 1 (Kl + 1)α
ζ α2l |βl (α|βl ) = exp − − Kl
0 978-1-4244-2677-5/08/$25.00 2008
c IEEE βl βl

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Kl (Kl + 1)α C. Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (SINR)
I˙o 2 . (2)
βl A traditional CDMA system has a normalized signal to
interference ratio (SIR) of [26]
The Rice factor K = Kl is the ratio of the direct signal power
to the diffuse multipath power. The mean power and variance Es Gp
SIR = = , (7)
are result βl = E[Rl2 ]Sl2 = (Kl + 1)2σ 2 Sl2 . In the presence of NJ Nu − 1
shadowing, Sl2 is a random variable with lognormal probability where ES represents the received symbol energy, NJ repre-
density function of sents the received interference power spectrum density, Gp

2 represents the processing gain, and Nu is the number of users
1 (ln S − μsl )
ζSl (s) = √ exp − √ , (3) per sector. In CDMA, the channel condition can be represented
2πhσslS 2hσs l
by the normalized SINR, which is
where h = (ln 10)/20, μsl and σslS are the mean and standard Es
deviation (in dB) of the associated normal variate, respectively. SIN R = , (8)
NJ + N0
The power control error (PCE) is applied. The closed-loop
power control scheme, which has been proposed is adopted where N0 is the received noise power spectrum density. If only
[22], [24]. The logarithm mean and the standard deviation of multiple access interference (MAI) is considered and ignoring
the power envelope p = s of the received signal are assumed other interferences, then,
to be μpl and σpl respectively. In a power controlled algorithm, Es Es Es
N0 = − NJ = −
the received power is controlled to vary around the target SIN R SIN R Gp /Nu − 1
power. μpl = 0dB is set and the PCE is measured by σpl .
The channel model is validated by simulation. Nu − 1
= Es (SIN R−1 − ) (9)
B. Receiver Model
is obtained. Further, if only the interference from the other
The U simultaneously active users of a particular spot users in the same cell is considered in the error probability
beam transmitting via satellite transponders and a L-order path analysis of a Rice lognormal channel DS-CDMA system, the
diversity are considered. The received signal is given as [23], variance of the interference from multiple users in the same
[25] cell and from multipaths can be written as [26].

Ts2 Nu (L + K)
r(t) = 2Pt αkl (t)dk (t − τlk )ck (t − τlk ) 2
σint = [1 + ]. (10)
k=1 l=1
3Gp 1+K


˙ c t + φl ) + n(t) , (4)
A. Description of The Proposed AMC Scheme
where Pt is the transmitted power, ck (t) is the spreading
sequence of the k-th user, dk (t) is the message generated In this Section, an adaptive CDMA scheme, which is a
at rate 1/T , τlk , and φkl represent independent time delays unique type of AMC algorithm is proposed for high bit rate on
and carrier phases, respectively. The fading envelope αl (t) wireless systems. This scheme combines CDMA modulation
describes the Rice-lognormal statistics, generated at rate 1/Tc . adaptation with modulation and coding scheme (MCS) param-
The n(t) represents AWGN with two-sided power spectral eter adaptation. In the traditional adaptive CDMA scheme,
density of No /2. the parameters such as Rician K factor, SIN R, Nu are
In a DS-CDMA system with RAKE receiver techniques, the inputs into the system followed by the MSC and CDMA
output of the n-th transmitted bit of user 1, assuming perfect modulation parameters. That is, the channel parameters are
synchronization is given by set first and after the acquisition, the MCS with CDMA
 (n+1)T +τl1 modulation parameters are assigned. The scheme is executed
Zl1 (n) = r(t)α1l c1 (t − τl1 ) cos(ωc t + φ1l )dt . (5) sequentially until the channel situation changes.
nT +τl1 In the proposed scheme, the channel parameters are set first
Assuming that perfect channel gain estimates is also given, as in the traditional adaptive scheme but the processing gain
the above equation becomes is prioritised over the MCS. The processing gain is used to
increase the granularity of the channel adaptation and thereby

provide a smoother adaptation system. Unlike ordinary AMC
Zl1 (n) = Pt T b1n α1l + 2Pt α1l αki Iilk1 (T )
that provides a coarse adaptation to the channel, the use
k=2 i=1
of processing gain provides the fine tuning to the selected
MCS. This is illustrated in Figure 1. Also as shown in layer
cosφk1 1
il + αl N (T ), (6)
2 of the Figure, a puncturing method is used to select the
where Iilk1 (T )
represents the cross correlation of i-th path of coding rate based on the channel conditions. Many papers
the k-th user with the local spreading code at the l-th branch have presented the puncturing techniques [27]-[34]. This work
of the correlation receiver and N (T ) represents zero mean is therefore focused on the development of an efficient scheme
Gaussian process with variance no T {α1l }2 . and simulation of the proposed AMC.

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B. Design of The Proposed AMC Scheme

In this Section, the design process of the proposed scheme is
explained. The flowchart of the scheme is presented in Figure
2. The algorithm highlights how the processing gain and the
MCS are selected in order to increase the transmission bit
rate. The selection process is based on the channel condition
subjected to a certain threshold value Γ.
The adaptive processing gain scheme firstly initialised the
processing gain and MCS. Secondly, the algorithm checks the
channel conditions based on minimum threshold value, and
increases the number of processing gain accordingly in order
to increase the bit rate. This is dependent on the situation of
the channel. The next higher MCS would be examined only
when the maximum number of processing gain is reached. If
given a channel condition, higher MCS with a given number
of processing gain does not necessarily give a higher bit rate
than the previous MCS with a maximum number of processing
gains. Thus, the last step in the scheme is to check and
make sure that the state with the highest bit rate is selected.
In this scheme, a higher priority is given to increase the
number of processing gains instead of the MCS. This adaptive
CDMA algorithm for wireless channels is designed to get
Fig. 1. Block diagram of ARRM system with a prioritised Gp as much throughput as possible while guaranteeing a BER
of 10−3 . In other words, it means that the scheme will first
exploit the processing gain starting with the lowest. The lower
the processing gain, the higher the spectral efficiency. The
algorithm considers the MCS after all the processing gains
have been exploited. The algorithm sets its parameters based
on this rule.


The parameters considered in this simulation are rate = 1/3
and turbo encoder, which is based on the parallel recursive
systematic convolutional (RSC) encoders. This turbo encoder
is constructed from the generator polynomials (G1; G2) =
(37; 23)8 . Other parameters involved the information sequence
length (k), which represents the encoded sequence length
= 1,024 bits. The turbo encoded sequence is interleaved
with a size 2p · 2q block-interleaver, where ’p’ and ’q’ are
the maximum allowable integers for a given sequence size.
BPSK/QPSK modulation is assumed for data demodulation at
the receiver. Gp = 32, 64, 128 is assumed for CDMA systems.
The uplink channel is assumed to be composed of L = 16
paths and uncorrelated, wireless faded paths.
1) Throughput Performance of the Proposed Adaptive
CDMA scheme: The throughput performance of the existing
adaptive scheme is compared with the proposed adaptive
Fig. 2. Flowchart of ARRM algorithm with a prioritised Gp
scheme. Adaptive modulation, AMC, adaptive CDMA and the
proposed algorithm are examined. The results are presented
in Figure 3. Given the same conditions, it is observed that
the proposed adaptive scheme shows an improved throughput
A scheme is designed to select MCS and the number of compared with other existing schemes. Essentially, the tradi-
processing gain. The objective of this scheme is to maximise tional adaptive CDMA scheme is compared with the prioritised
the bit rate by selecting the right combination for the number adaptive CDMA system. As shown, the proposed scheme is
of processing gain j and the MCS i, given a channel condition an enhanced version of the existing adaptive CDMA system
α. on satellite channel.

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10−3 . The scheme that has been described has the potential to
improve throughput, performance and robustness of the wire-
less systems. This optimised method of increasing capacity
and performance of wireless systems at the same time is one
of the solutions to realise next generation wireless systems.

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