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STBC/OFDM Systems in

High-Mobility Wireless Channels

Meng-Lin Ku and Chia-Chi Huang

Abstract—In this paper, we investigate channel estimation an ideal choice for several applications such as wireless

for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems metropolitan area networks (WMANs) 802.16e [3], etc.

with space-time block code (STBC) in mobile wireless channels. However, a high-rate STBC/OFDM system employing multi-

Our proposed method consists of two-stage processing and is

developed on the basis of the classical discrete Fourier transform level modulation with non-constant envelope (e.g. 16QAM)

(DFT)-based channel estimation method. In the initialization generally requires accurate channel state information (CSI) to

stage, we employ a multipath interference cancellation technique perform coherent detection. This in turn implies that dynamic

to estimate multipath delays and multipath complex gains. In channel estimation is a crucial factor in realizing a successful

the tracking stage, we develop a refined decision-feedback (DF) STBC/OFDM system over doubly selective channels.

DFT-based channel estimation method in which a few pilot

tones inserted in OFDM data symbols are applied to form an Blind channel estimation, which merely relies on the re-

optimal gradient vector at the first iteration such that the error ceived signals, is very attractive due to its bandwidth-saving

propagation effect is mitigated. In order to reduce computational advantage. Nevertheless, it requires a long data record, in-

complexity, an approximate weighting matrix is adopted to

avoid matrix inversion. We demonstrate the proposed method volves high computational complexity, and only applies to

through computer simulation of an STBC/OFDM system with slowly time-varying channels. On the contrary, pilot-aided

two transmit antennas and a single receive antenna. The results (PA) channel estimation, using pilot tones known to the re-

show that our method outperforms the classical DFT-based ceiver, shows great promise for applications in mobile wireless

method, the STBC-based minimum mean square error (MMSE) communication, even though the use of pilot tones ends up

method, and the Kalman filtering method as well, and that

significant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance improvement with lower data rate. Decision-feedback (DF) channel esti-

can be achieved, especially when a high-level modulation scheme, mation offers an alternative way to track channel variations;

e.g. 16QAM, is adopted in high-mobility environments. nevertheless, it is vulnerable to decision error propagation in

Index Terms—Multiple-input multiple-output systems, space- fast time-varying channels [4] –[9]. As a high quality channel

time coding, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, channel estimator with low training overhead is needed for successful

estimation, IEEE 802.16e. implementation of STBC/OFDM systems, we restrict our

attention to the category of PA plus DF channel estimation

I. I NTRODUCTION methods in this paper.

Among a wide variety of PA plus DF channel estimation

O RTHOGONAL frequency division multiplexing

(OFDM) has been widely applied in wireless

communication systems in recent years due to its capability

methods, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based chan-

nel estimation method, derived from either minimum mean

of high-rate transmission and low-complexity implementation square error (MMSE) criterion or maximum likelihood (ML)

over frequency-selective fading channels. Space-time coding criterion, has been intensively studied for OFDM systems with

is another promising technique to provide diversity gain preambles [8]–[11]. It is shown in [7]–[10] that the DFT-based

through the use of multiple transmit antennas, especially channel estimation method using the ML criterion is simpler

when receive diversity is too expensive to deploy. In to implement because it requires neither channel statistics

particular, the space-time block code (STBC) has received nor operating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, as

a lot of attention because a simple linear decoder can be presented in [10], the performance of the ML estimator is

used at the receiver side [1][2]. These advantages make comparable to that of the MMSE estimator at intermediate or

OFDM combined with STBC, known as STBC/OFDM, high SNR values when the number of pilot tones is sufficiently

larger than the maximal channel length (in samples). Thus, we

Manuscript received June 1, 2007; revised January 1, 2008; accepted April will focus on the ML estimator in this paper. In order to save

4, 2008. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and bandwidth and improve system performance, DF data symbols

approving it for publication is X.-G. Xia.

This work is supported in part by the National Science Council under are also used as pilots to track channel variations in subsequent

Grants NSC94-2220-E-009-033, NSC95-2220-E-009-010, and NSC96-2220- OFDM data symbols, and this method is called the DF DFT-

E-009-002. based channel estimation method. Recently, the mathematical

M. L. Ku is with the Department of Communication Engineer-

ing, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (e-mail: equivalence between the DF DFT-based method and Newton’s

willyku.cm87@nctu.edu.tw). method has been studied in [12], and it is concluded that

C. C. Huang is with the Department of Communication Engineer- the DF DFT-based method is only applicable to slowly time-

ing, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (e-mail:

huangcc@faculty.nctu.edu.tw). varying channels because of the local optimization capability

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/T-WC.2008.070585 of Newton’s method.

1536-1276/08$25.00

c 2008 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 4313

Most mobile wireless channels are characterized by channel each of which is denoted by {X (i) [1, k], . . . , X (i) [T, k]}, for

impulse response (CIR) consisting of a few dominant paths. i = 1, . . . , NT [1][2]. These NT signal sequences possess the

The multipath delays are usually slowly time-varying. The orthogonal property given by XH [k]X[k] = C[k]INT , where

C[k] = C [k] = t=1 |X (i) [t, k]|2 is the total transmitted

(i) T

amplitude and the phase of each path, however, can vary

relatively fast. In this paper, we propose a two-stage channel signal energy at the kth subcarrier for each transmit antenna,

estimation method by utilizing these channel characteristics. and they are simultaneously transmitted by the NT transmit

In the initialization stage, we employ a multipath interference antennas within the duration of T OFDM data symbols. At

cancellation (MPIC)-based decorrelation method to identify the tth OFDM data symbol and the ith transmit antenna, after

significant paths. In the following tracking stage, we develop insertion of K−M zeros for DC and virtual subcarriers, STBC

a refined DF DFT-based channel estimation method, in which encoded data symbols and pilot tones X (i) [t, k], for k ∈ Q

we use a few pilot tones inserted in OFDM data symbols and k ∈ J, respectively, are modulated onto M subcarriers

to form an optimal gradient vector at the first iteration. This via a K-point inverse DFT (IDFT) unit to produce time

optimal gradient vector helps the classical method jump out of domain samples. A cyclic prefix (CP) is then added in front of

the local optimum, thus reducing the error propagation effect. each OFDM data symbol to eliminate intersymbol interference

The classical DF DFT-based channel estimation method is then caused by multipath channels. As shown in Fig. 1, each OFDM

used at the following iterations. In addition, an approximate frame starts with a CP-added preamble which occupies one

weighting matrix is adopted to reduce the computational OFDM symbol and is followed by ND consecutive OFDM

complexity associated with the matrix inversion operation of data symbols. In order to avoid inter-antenna interference at

the weighting matrix in the DF DFT-based channel estimation the receiver side, pilot tones are alternatively inserted into

method. the available subcarriers of the preamble with antenna-specific

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section subcarrier shifts [3], and the preamble in frequency domain is

II, we describe the STBC/OFDM system. In Section III, we denoted by P (i) [k], for k ∈ Q ∪ J and i = 1, . . . , NT .

present the MPIC-based decorrelation method in the initializa-

tion stage. Next, the equivalence between the DF DFT-based

channel estimation method and Newton’s method is briefly B. Channel Model

reviewed, and we propose a refined DF DFT-based channel The complex baseband representation of impulse response

estimation method in the tracking stage. We then discuss the for a mobile wireless channel (in discrete expression) between

computational complexity of the proposed two-stage channel the ith transmit antenna and the jth receive antenna can be

estimation method in Section IV. In Section V, we present described by

our computer simulation and performance evaluation results.

Finally, some conclusions are drawn in Section VI.

(j,i)

L

(j,i) (j,i)

Notation: By convention, boldface letters are used for h(j,i) [t, τ ] = μl (t) δ τ − τl (1)

matrices, vectors, and sets. The superscripts (·)∗ , (·)T and l=1

(·)H stand for complex conjugate, transpose and Hermitian, where L(j,i) is the number of resolvable paths, τl is the time

(j,i)

respectively. The notation e(·) takes the real part of (·). The (j,i)

delay in samples of the lth path, and μl (t) is the complex

notation IN ×N presents an N × N identity matrix. We deonte (j,i)

the Kronecker delta function as δ[n]. Besides, we denote the Gaussian fading gain of the lth path. All paths μl (t), for

(j,i)

dimension of the vector x as |x|. The notation {·} denotes a l = 1, . . . , L , are assumed to be independent of each other.

set, e.g. a set x = {x1 , . . . , x|x| }, where |x| is cardinality of Thus, with proper cyclic extension, the channel frequency

the set x. Further, diag{x} denotes the diagonal matrix with response can be expressed as

vector x on the diagonal, and diag{X1 , . . . , XM } denotes the (j,i)

L

block diagonal matrix with √ the submatrices X1 , . . . , XM on (j,i) (j,i) (j,i)

H [t, k] = μl (t) exp −j2πkτl /K (2)

the diagonal; finally, j = −1 l=1

II. STBC/OFDM S YSTEM

A. Transmitted Signals

C. Received Signals

As shown in Fig. 1, we consider an STBC/OFDM system

with NT transmit and NR receive antennas, employing K We assume that both timing and carrier frequency synchro-

subcarriers among which M subcarriers are used to transmit nization are perfect, and that the length of channel impulse

data symbols plus pilot tones and the other K −M subcarriers response is always smaller than the length of the CP. Another

are used as either a DC subcarrier or virtual subcarriers at assumption here is that the channel is quasi-static over the

the two edges to avoid the spectrum overlapping problem duration of each time slot. The time index t in H (j,i) [t, k]

at the receiver. Assume that Q and J denote the sets of is dropped hereafter. Hence, after the OFDM demodulator in

subcarrier indices assigned to transmit data symbols and pilot Fig. 1, the received preamble at the jth receive antenna can

tones, respectively. At subcarrier k ∈ Q (or k ∈ J) and be expressed as

after symbol mapping, P modulated data symbols (or pilot

NT

tones) {s1 [k], . . . , sP [k]} are encoded by a T × NT STBC R̆(j) [k] = H (j,i) [k] P (i) [k] + Z (j) [k] (3)

encoder X[k] to generate NT signal sequences of length T , i=1

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4314 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008

1

R( ) [ k ]

X ( ) [t , k ] R ( ) [t , k ]

1 1

OFDM OFDM

Modulator Demodulator

s1 [ k ]

N −1

R( R ) [ k ]

Channel

sP [ k ] STBC

X(

NT −1)

[t , k ] OFDM OFDM

R(

N R −1)

[t , k ] Estimation

&

Encoder Modulator Demodulator

STBC

N Decoder

R( R ) [ k ]

X(

NT )

[t , k ] OFDM OFDM

R(

NR )

[t , k ]

Modulator Demodulator

Preamble 1st OFDM data symbol 2nd OFDM data symbol Tth OFDM data symbol

data symbols at the jth receive antenna are given by Set preassumed number of paths N h & observation window Wb

[τ ] & C

Calculate CRP PP [τ ] by

NT

R(j) [t, k] = H (j,i) [k] X (i) [t, k] + Z (j) [t, k] (4)

{ }

CRP [τ ] = IDFT R [ k ] ⋅ P∗ [ k ] , for τ = 0,…, K − 1

i=1

or Z (j) [t, k] in (4) are uncorrelated additive white Gaussian Step 2 :

2

noise (AWGN) with zero-mean and variance σZ on the jth Estimate multipath delays and complex gains coarsely:

receive antenna. while ρ < N h

ρ ← ρ +1

III. P ROPOSED C HANNEL E STIMATION M ETHOD τρ = arg max { CRP

[τ ] }

τ ∈Wb

In this section, we first present the MPIC-based decorre- if τρ > G ⋅ K

lation method for the initialization stage. Before introducing

⎡τ ⎤ = 0

CRP

the refined DF DFT-based channel estimation method for the ⎣ ρ⎦

else

tracking stage, we briefly review the equivalence between

κ ← κ +1

the DF DFT-based channel estimation method and Newton’s

method. find a legal path with time delay τˆκ = τρ & complex path gain μˆκ = CRP

⎡τ ⎤

⎣ ρ⎦

CRP RP

ˆκ CPP ⎡⎣ τ − τˆκ ⎦⎤ , τ ∈ Wb \ {τ1 ,…,τρ −1}

[τ ] ← C [τ ] − μ

Method end

placed at the beginning of each OFDM frame, while the diffi- Fig. 2. The MPIC-based decorrelation method in the initialization stage. (G

is the ratio of the CP length to the useful OFDM symbol time, and IDF T {·}

culty is that for most wireless standards, the preamble does not is a K-point IDFT operation.)

have ideal auto-correlation due to the use of either guard band

or non-equally spaced pilot tones. Fig. 2 outlines the MPIC-

based decorrelation method to estimate CIR path-by-path by

canceling out already known multipath interference. Since the a mobile radio channel and a multipath observation window,

preambles transmitted from different antennas do not interfere respectively. Next, we calculate the cyclic cross-correlation

with each other at the receiver side, channel estimation can CR̆P [τ ] between the received and the transmitted preamble as

be independently performed for each transceiver antenna pair, well as the normalized cyclic auto-correlation CP P [k] of the

and therefore the antenna indices j and i are omitted in transmitted preamble. Both ρ and κ, which stand for a path

the following. In step 1, we first define two parameters Nh counting variable and the number of legal paths found by the

and Wb which represent a preassumed number of paths in MPIC-based decorrelation method, respectively, are initialized

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 4315

to zero. In step 2, we start by increasing the value of the truncated DFT matrix whose (m, l)th entry is defined as

(j,i)

path counting variable, ρ, by one, and picking only one path exp{−j2πΘm τ̂l /K}, and the ((i − 1)|Θ| + m)th entry

whose time delay τ̃ρ yields the largest value in |CR̆P [τ ]|, for (j)

of Mv represents the estimated channel frequency response

τ ∈ Wb . If the time delay τ̃ρ is larger than the length of the for the Θm th subcarrier at the vth iteration, corresponding

CP, this path is treated as an illegal path, thereby discarded by to the (j, i)th antenna pair. In order to initialize the channel

setting CR̆P [τ̃ρ ] = 0. Otherwise, we increase the number of estimator of (9), the CSI estimated in the previous time slot

legal paths found, κ, by one, and then reserve this path as the has to be taken as the initial value of the CSI for the current

κth legal path with time delay τ̂κ = τ̃ρ and complex path gain time slot.

μ̂κ = CR̆P [τ̃ρ ]. The replica of the interference associated with It has been shown in [12] that the DF DFT-based chan-

this legal path is regenerated and subtracted from CR̆P [τ ] to nel estimation method can be equivalently expressed in the

obtain a refined cross-correlation function: framework of Newton’s method as [14]:

CR̆P [τ ] ← CR̆P [τ ] − μ̂κ CP P [|τ − τ̂κ |] (5) (j) (j)

δ̄ v = M̄v−1 − Ĉ−1 H (j)

v X̂v R (10)

for τ ∈ Wb \ {τ̃1 , . . . , τ̃ρ−1 }, where "←" is the assignment

operation. We continue the iterative process of the step 2 until

ρ reaches the preassumed value of Nh . q̄(j) (j) H

Δ̄(j)

v = F v (11)

(j) −1

ton’s Method M(j) (j) (j)

v = Mv−1 − F E q̄(j)

v (12)

Through the initialization stage, we are able to obtain

(j) (j) (j) (j)

information on the number of paths κ(j,i) (≤ Nh ), the where M̄v−1 = Π−1 Mv−1 and Δ̄v = Πδ̄ v . According to

(j,i) (j,i) (j)

multipath delays τ̂l , the multipath complex gains μ̂l , [12], the purpose of calculating the difference between M̄v−1

for l = 1, . . . , κ(j,i) , and therefore the corresponding channel −1 H (j)

and Ĉv X̂v R in (10), followed by the IDFT matrix F (j)H

frequency response. With the assumption of the unchanged (j)

in (11), is to form the gradient vector q̄v in Newton’s method,

multipath delays over the duration of each OFDM frame, as observed in (12). Furthermore, it is also proved in [12] that

the DF DFT-based channel estimation method using the ML −1

the role of the weighting matrix E(j) in (12) is in fact the

criterion (at the vth iteration) can be summarized as follows inverse of the Hessian matrix in Newton’s method.

[8]–[10][12]. First, the re-encoded STBC matrix is used to

obtain the least-square (LS) channel estimate [13]:

δ (j) −1 H (j)

v = Ĉv X̂v R (6) C. Refined DF DFT-Based Channel Estimation Method

where v is the iteration number from 1 to V , R(j) = Through the equivalence relation described in Section III.B.,

T T

[R(j) [Θ1 ], . . . , R(j) [Θ|Θ| ]]T is the received signal vector it is concluded that the classical DF DFT-based channel

at the jth receive antenna in which we have R(j) [k] = estimation method (called method I, hereafter) is limited by

[R(j) [1, k], . . . , R(j) [T, k]]T and Θ is a subset of Q used to the local search capability of Newton’s method and only

track channel variations, X̂v = diag{X̂v [Θ1 ], . . . , X̂v [Θ|Θ| ]} applicable to slowly time-varying channels. In the previous

consists of the re-encoded STBC matrix X̂v [k] with de- studies [8][9], pilot tones as well as decision data symbols are

(i)

cision symbols X̂v [t, k] which are obtained by applying simultaneously adopted to perform channel estimation at each

the previously estimated channel frequency response to de- iteration. This is, however, not a good solution in fast time-

code the received signal R(j) [k] according to [1][2], Ĉv = varying channels because decision data symbols easily induces

diag{Ĉv [Θ1 ]INT , . . . , Ĉv [Θ|Θ| ]INT } is the energy normaliza- the error propagation effect, whereas pilot tones are much

(i) T (i) 2 more reliable than decision data symbols. From the viewpoint

tion factor in which Ĉv [k] = Ĉv [k] = t=1 |X̂v [t, k]| .

(j) of optimization, the pilot tones inserted in each OFDM data

Thus, it is clear that the ((m − 1)NT + i)th entry of δ v

symbol can play a more important role in providing a global

represents the LS estimate for the Θm th subcarrier at the ith

search direction at the first iteration of the method I. Fig. 3

transmit and the jth receive antenna. Second, a truncated DFT

shows the refined DF DFT-based channel estimation method

matrix is applied to improve the LS estimate as follows:

in the tracking stage. With the help from a few pilot tones

H

q(j)

v =F

(j)

Δ(j)

v (7) to form a gradient vector according to (10) and (11), the

refined channel tracking method (called method II, hereafter)

E(j) = F(j) F(j)

H

(8) is proposed here by only modifying the first iteration (v = 1)

of (12) as follows

−1

M(j) (j) (j)

v =F E q(j) (9) (j) (j)

v M1 = M0 − B(j) F(j) q̄(j)

p (13)

(j)

where Δv = Πδ (j)

and Π is an NT |Θ| × NT |Θ| permu-

v

(j)

tation matrix obtained by making the ((i − 1)|Θ| + m)th where q̄p is the gradient vector calculated accord-

row have all zeros except for a single one at the ((m − ing to (10) and (11) by only utilizing the set J, in-

1)NT + i)th column for i = 1, . . . , NT and m = 1, . . . , |Θ|, stead of Θ, B(j) is a block diagonal matrix defined as

F(j) = diag{F(j,1) , . . . , F(j,NT ) }, F(j,i) is the |Θ| × κ(j,i) diag{β (j,1) I|Θ| , . . . , β (j,NT ) I|Θ| }, and β (j,i) is a real-valued

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4316 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008

Optimal Β( ) F ( )q (p )

j j j

M1( j )

Step Size

C−p1X Hp R (p ) Fp(

j)

F( j )

H

j ( j)

Β

Xp

STBC M (pj ) M (0 j )

Encoded Pilot

Matrix

Channel Tracking for v=1

ˆ X

ˆ R

−1 H ( j) ( j )H ( j )−1 ( j)

C v v F E F

ˆ

X v

STBC Decoder

M (v−j )1

D

& Encoder

Channel Tracking for v>1

Decoder Output

Fig. 3. Block diagram of the refined DF DFT-based channel estimation method in the tracking stage. (The subscript "p" is to indicate that the calculation

is only associated with the pilot subcarrier set.)

−1 (j)

step size which can be determined by minimizing the follow- in F(j) E(j) q̄v is less than a prespecified threshold ε or

ing ML cost function over the pilot subcarrier indices: the iteration number v reaches the maximum value of V .

The channel tracking process for the current time slot will

β opt = arg min Ω (β)

β be stopped when either of the above two conditions holds.

NR In order to reduce computational complexity in the method

(j)

= arg min Rp − Xp Π−1 II, we further propose method III to avoid the matrix inverse

p −1

β j=1 of the weighting matrix, E(j) , by taking into account

2 the strongly diagonal property of E(j) which is originally

(j) (j) (j)

× M(j)

p − B p Fp q̄p (14) proposed for reducing the complexity of multiuser detection in

T

T T

code division multiple access (CDMA) systems N[15]. Define

where β = β (1) , . . . , β(NR ) in which we define β(j) = E(j) = |Θ|(Iκ(j) + Oof f ), where κ(j) = T

i=1 κ

(j,i)

and

(j,1) T (j) (j) (j) Oof f is a zero-diagonal matrix. Then, it follows that if |Θ|

β , . . . , β (j,NT ) , the notations Rp , Xp , Mp , Bp , −1

(j) (j) is large enough, an approximate weighting matrix of E(j)

Fp and Πp are defined similar to R(j) , X̂v , Mv , B(j) , takes the form:

F(j) and Π, respectively, but here the set J is used instead of

(j)

Θ in the definition. Note that Mp is the estimated channel −1 1 −1

E(j) = (I (j) + Oof f )

frequency obtained from the previous time slot. Let M (j,i) [k] |Θ| κ

and ξ (j,i) [k] for k = Jm denote the ((i − 1)|J| + m)th 1

(j) (j) (j) ≈ (I (j) − Oof f )

entries of Mp and Fp q̄p , respectively. Furthermore, we |Θ| κ

T

(j)

define γ [t, k] = R [t, k] − N (j)

M (j,i)

[k]X (i) [t, k] and 1 (j)

i=1 = 2 2 |Θ| Iκ (j) − E (16)

φ [t, k] = ξ [k]X [t, k]. By expanding (14) and taking |Θ|

∂Ω(β)/∂β = 0, after straightforward manipulations, the

optimum value of β (j) is given by

(j) −1

βopt = −Φ(j) Γ(j) (15) IV. C OMPUTATIONAL C OMPLEXITY

where

T the (m, u)th entry of the matrix Φ(j) is calculated by Now let us look at the computational complexity of the

∗

(j,m)

k∈J e{φ [t, k]φ(j,u) [t, k]}, the uth entry of the three methods, in terms of the number of real multiplications

t=1 ∗

vector Γ(j) is given by Tt=1 k∈J e{φ(j,u) [t, k]γ (j) [t, k]}. per transceiver antenna pair. In general, the operations of K-

It is noted that, after the first iteration, we execute the channel point IDFT and K × K matrix inversion need 4K log2 K and

tracking process of (10)–(12) for the second and subsequent 4K 3 real multiplications, respectively. Besides, the weighting

−1

iterations until a stopping criterion holds. The stopping cri- matrix E(j) only needs to be calculated once in each

terion is to check whether the absolute value of each entry OFDM frame as it is only related to the multipath delays

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 4317

TABLE I

C OMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY FOR THE SYSTEM PARAMETERS STBC/OFDM system with two transmit antennas and a single

GIVEN IN S ECTION V.A. receive antenna. The parameters are set the same as those

in the 802.16e OFDM standard [3]. The system occupies a

Initialization Stage

bandwidth of 5M Hz and operates in the 2.3GHz frequency

Method I and Method II 14128 band. The entire bandwidth is divided into K = 256 sub-

Method III 12208 carriers among which |Q| + |J| = 200 subcarriers are used

Tracking Stage (|J| = 8) to transmit data symbols and pilot tones, and the remaining

|Θ| 48 96 192 M = 56 subcarriers are used as virtual subcarriers at the two

The first iteration of the Method II 16806 16902 17094 edges and a DC subcarrier. In the simulation, the modulation

and the Method III schemes for the data symbols are QPSK and 16QAM, while

Each iteration of the Method I or 17312 17888 19040 the BPSK modulation scheme is adopted for the pilot tones.

each of the second and subsequent

iterations of the Method II and the Each pilot subcarrier transmits the same power as each data

Method III subcarrier. Each OFDM frame is composed of one OFDM

preamble and ND = 40 OFDM data symbols. The length of

the CP is 64 sample periods, i.e., one quarter of the useful

(j,i) symbol time. The preambles transmitted from the first and

τ̂l . Therefore, the complexity considered in the initializa- second antennas use even and odd subcarriers respectively

tion stage is mainly due to the operations of CR̆P [τ ] and

−1 with a 3dB power boost, and the values of those subcarriers

E(j) . The calculation and update of CR̆P [τ ] require at most are set according to [3]. Both a conventional two-path channel

4(|Q|+|J|)/NT +4K log2 K +4Nh|Wb | real multiplications. and an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Veh-A

−1

Moreover, the calculation of E(j) needs at most 4Nh3 real channel are simulated with path delays uniformly distributed

multiplications, but it needs at most 2Nh2 real multiplica- from 0 to 50 sample periods, where the relative path power

−1

tions if the approximate weighting matrix of E(j) in (16) profiles are set as 0, 0 (dB) for the two-path channel and 0,

is used instead. In the tracking stage, the computation for −1, −9, −10, −15, −20 (dB) for the ITU Veh-A channel [16].

each iteration of the method I (or each of the second and The vehicle speed ve of 240km/hr is used to simulate mobile

subsequent iterations of the method II and the method III) radio environments, for which Rayleigh fading is generated

−1 (j)

involves the calculation of F(j) E(j) q̄v , in total requiring by Jakes’ model [17]. Moreover, the multipath observation

at most |Θ|(4T + 2) + 2|Θ|T /NT + 8K log2 K + 4Nh2 real window Wb is set as [0, 108]. The preassumed number of

multiplications. For the method II and the method III, an paths Nh is set as 4 and 8 in the two-path channel and the

optimal gradient vector is formed at the first iteration, in which ITU Veh-A channel, respectively. Both the data subcarrier set

(j)

the computation of B(j) F(j) q̄p and the optimum β (j) at Θ and the pilot subcarrier set J are used in the tracking stage.

most requires |J|(4T + 2) + 8K log2 K + 2|Θ| + 10|J|T + The subcarrier indices of J are uniformly assigned within the

NT2 + NT (2|J|T + 1) real multipliations. The computational available subcarriers. The set Θ is uniformly selected from

complexity for the system parameters given in Section V.A. Q, and the parameter |Θ| could be 192, 96, 48, 24, 12, 6 or

is listed in Table I. The values of the parameters |Wb |, Nh , 3. The values of the maximum iteration number V are set as

T , NT , K, |Q|, and |J| are set as 109, 8, 2, 2, 256, 192, 5 and 7 for QPSK and 16QAM modulation, respectively. For

and 8, respectively, while the value of the parameter |Θ| can the stopping criterion, the prespecified threshold ε is set as

be 48, 96, or 192. For a fair performance comparison, both 10−4 . The entire simulations are conducted in the equivalent

the data subcarrier set Θ and the pilot subcarrier set J are baseband, and we assume both symbol synchronization and

used for tracking channel variations, except that only the pilot carrier synchronization are perfect. Finally, throughout the

subcarrier set is adopted at the first iteration of the method II simulation, the parameter Eb/No is defined as a ratio of

and the method III. Hence, we use |Θ| + |J| to replace |Θ| in received bit energy to the power spectral density of noise.

the calculation of the complexity in Table I. As observed in For comparison purpose, the performance curve with ideal

Table I, the complexity of the method II and the method III is a channel estimation, denoted as perfect CSI, is provided for

little bit lower than that of the method I. It can also be noticed reference and served as a performance lower bound. We also

that the complexity in the tracking stage is mostly due to the compare the proposed methods with both the STBC-based

operations of the DFT and the IDFT which in total require MMSE method [13] and the Kalman filtering method [18][19]

8K log2 K = 16384 real multiplications. Some complexity where the decision-feedback methodology is employed under

gain can be achieved by using partial DFT processing such as the assumption of ideal channel estimation in the initialization

in [9]. If |Θ| is larger than Nh , the computation of the partial stage. Some statistical information such as Doppler frequency,

DFT processing mainly depends on the size of Θ. As a result, auto-covariance of channels, and noise power is assumed to

the complexity of the tracking stage is basically dominated by be known for these two existing methods. It is noted that

|Θ| since |J|, NT and T are usually much smaller than |Θ|. the Kalman filtering method is mainly based on [18] and the

received signals within a time slot are used to perform channel

V. C OMPUTER S IMULATION estimation according to the decision-feedback steps in [19].

We demonstrate the performance of the proposed chan- Fig. 4 shows the BER performance for QPSK modulation

nel estimation methods through computer simulation of an in the two-path channel at ve = 240km/hr with |J| = 8 and

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4318 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008

−1

10

−1

10

−2

10

BER

BER

−2

10

−3

10 Method I Method I

Method II Method II

Method III Method III

STBC−Based MMSE STBC−Based MMSE

Kalman Filtering Kalman Filtering

Perfect CSI Perfect CSI

−4 −3

10 10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Eb/No (dB) Eb/No (dB)

Fig. 4. BER performance for QPSK modulation in the two-path channel at Fig. 6. BER performance for 16QAM modulation in the ITU Veh-A channel

ve = 240km/hr. (|J| = 8 and |Θ| = |Q| = 192). at ve = 240km/hr. (|J| = 8 and |Θ| = |Q| = 192).

the above results, Fig. 6 shows that both the method II and the

−1

10

method III significantly outperform the method I, whereas they

still have 3.6dB gap in Eb/No compared with the perfect CSI

case. The two existing methods still have a significant Eb/No

gap compared with the method II and the method III. Fig. 7

and Fig. 8 show BER versus fd in the ITU Veh-A channel

BER

−2

10

where fd is the maximum Doppler frequency, normalized by

Method I

the subcarrier spacing. Clearly, the BER performance gap

Method II between the method I and the method II (or the method III)

Method III

STBC−Based MMSE becomes larger as fd increases up to 0.07 and 0.05 in the

Kalman Filtering

Perfect CSI

cases of QPSK and 16QAM modulation, respectively. It is

−3

10 worthy to mention that the method III is comparable to the

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Eb/No (dB) method II at different maximum Doppler frequencies, even

though an approximate weighting matrix is adopted in the

Fig. 5. BER performance for 16QAM modulation in the two-path channel method III. For calibration purpose, the BER performance for

at ve = 240km/hr. (|J| = 8 and |Θ| = |Q| = 192). the three proposed methods without error propagation is also

simulated in these two figures. We observe that the adoption

of the optimal gradient vector effectively reduces the error

|Θ| = 192. As can be observed in Fig. 4, at BER=10−2 , the propagation effect and even the BER performance without

required Eb/No for both the method II and the method III is error propagation is attainable for fd up to 0.05 and 0.03

about 3dB less than that for the method I, and at most 0.2dB in the cases of QPSK and 16QAM modulation, respectively.

more than that for the perfect CSI case. Compared with the Fig. 9 shows BER versus |J| in the ITU Veh-A channel for

STBC-based MMSE method and the Kalman filtering method, 16QAM modulation at ve = 240km/hr with |Θ| = |Q| and

the method II and the method III also yield much better BER Eb/No= 20dB. As can be observed from this figure, the BER

performance. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 give the BER performance performance of the method II (or the method III) converges

for 16QAM modulation in the two-path channel and the ITU faster than the method I, while it is improved continually

Veh-A channel, respectively, at ve = 240km/hr with |J| = 8 until |J| increases to 8. Moreover, both the method II and

and |Θ| = 192. As shown in Fig. 5, it is clear that with the the method III can still give better BER performance even

help from the pilot gradient vector at the first iteration, both when the number of pilot tones is small. Fig. 10 shows BER

the method II and the method III provide a substantial gain versus |Θ| in the ITU Veh-A channel for 16QAM modulation

in Eb/No, and there is only 0.8dB degradation in the required at ve = 240km/hr with |J| = 8 and Eb/No= 20dB.

Eb/No at BER=10−2 compared with the performance curve of This figure indicates that there is a trade-off between BER

the perfect CSI case. However, for the method I, a higher error and |Θ|, and that one can reduce computational complexity

floor is clearly visible at a BER of 4 × 10−2 . Obviously, the by using a smaller |Θ| at the cost of slight performance

two existing methods also suffer from severe degradation in degradation whenever |Θ| is larger than 48. Fig. 11 compares

the BER performance due to the error propagation effect, even the average number of iterations in the ITU Veh-A channel

though they are a little better than the method I. Similarly to for 16QAM modulation at ve = 240km/hr with |J| = 8 and

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 4319

−1

10

−1

10

−2

10 −2

BER

10

BER

−3

10

Method I

Method II Method I

Method III Method II

Without Error Propagation Method III

Perfect CSI −3 Without Error Propagation

−4 10

10 Perfect CSI

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

f 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

d

|J|

Fig. 7. BER versus normalized Doppler frequency in the ITU Veh-A channel

for QPSK modulation. (|J| = 8, |Θ| = |Q| = 192, and Eb/No=16dB). Fig. 9. BER versus number of pilot tones used in the ITU Veh-A channel

for 16QAM modulation. (ve = 240km/hr, |Θ| = |Q|, and Eb/No=20dB).

0

10

Method I

Method II

−1 Method III

10

Without Error Propagation

Perfect CSI

−1

10

−2

10

BER

BER

−2

−3 10

10

Method I

Method II

Method III

Without Error Propagation

Perfect CSI

−4

10

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 10

−3

fd 192 96 48 24 12 6 3

|θ|

Fig. 8. BER versus normalized Doppler frequency in the ITU Veh-A channel

for 16QAM modulation. (|J| = 8, |Θ| = |Q| = 192, and Eb/No=22dB). Fig. 10. BER versus number of data subcarriers used in the ITU Veh-

A channel for 16QAM modulation. (ve = 240km/hr, |J| = 8, and

Eb/No=20dB).

matrix, when |Θ| is larger than 48, the method III requires weighting matrix is proposed and used in the method III. The

one more iteration compared with the method II. However, simulation results show that both the method II and the method

the method III is still an attractive approach by decreasing V III can effectively alleviate the error propagation effect and

from 7 to 6 at the price of slight BER performance degradation thus significantly improve the performance of the method I

when the computational complexity of matrix inverse is an (i.e., the classical DF DFT-based channel estimation method).

issue. The two refined methods also outperform the STBC-based

MMSE method and the Kalman filtering method, especially

VI. C ONCLUSION when a high-level modulation scheme, e.g. 16QAM, is adopted

in high-mobility environments.

In this paper, we present a two-stage channel estimation

method for STBC/OFDM systems in mobile wireless chan-

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