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**A Simple Modified Fixed Step Size Power Control Algorithm for CDMA Cellular Systems
**

M.A. Rahim Khan, Dr. P. C. Jain*

School of Electronics, C-DAC, B-30, Sector-62, Noida-201307 (UP) *pcjain@cdacnoida.in

ABSTRACT--CDMA is interference limited multiple access system. Power control is an effective way to reduce co-channel interference. Consequently, it can improve the system capacity. CDMA employs fast closed-loop power control in uplink in which signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) is estimated. Transmitting power is adjusted by comparing estimated SIR with desired SIR. In this paper a modified fixed step power control algorithm has been proposed, which can improve the performance of a CDMA system. The proposed algorithm produced a faster convergence and low outage probability compared to other power control algorithms discussed and analyzed to maintain the desired SIR target.

I. INTRODUCTION

propagation and other interferences it is hard to keep up orthogonality of code when large number of users are present in a cell. The receiver, therefore, sees the other user’s signals as interference (co-channel interference) and more users in the system will generate more interference. Thus co-channel interference is dominating factor in CDMA system. This limits the capacity of the CDMA system. To increase the capacity, some methods are needed for interference management. II. POWER CONTROL Power control aims to control the transmission power in such a way that the co-channel interference is minimized while achieving sufficient Quality of Service (QoS). Co-channel interference is minimized if minimum possible transmission powers are used. Minimizing the transmission powers prolongs the battery life of the mobile station (MS). Power control in CDMA is a closed loop power control (Distributed power control), which is a combination of outer and inner closed loop power control. It adjusts the transmitted power in order to keep the required Signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) equal to a given desired SIR-target. SIR is a measure of the quality of the received signal and used to determine the control action that needs to be taken. The SIR-target is fixed according to the received Bit Error Rate (BER). The setting of the SIR-target is done by the outer loop power control in order to match the required BER. Outer loop power control update rate is 10 to 100 times per sec. The inner closed loop measures the SIR at MS and sends command to the Base Station (BS) for transmit power update. The transmitted power has a fixed value during given time slot. The update rates are 800 times per sec for CDMA (IS-95) and 1500 times per sec for Wideband-CDMA. If SIR-measured is greater than SIR-target then command is sent to decrease the transmit power and if less than, then command is sent to increase the transmit power. No-change command is provided when the SIR-measured is reasonably closer to the SIR-target thus reducing the ping-pong effect around the target. One bit is enough to inform the BS to either increase or decrease its transmitted power by a fixed amount typically by 1 dB. Many power control algorithms are proposed in literature and are studied and compared in this paper.

IF the growth of the personal communication industry is to continue as it has for the past decade, methods need to be devised to allow increasing number of customers to share the available communication bandwidth. In order to achieve high capacity cellular communication system, efficient spectrum usage is of paramount importance. Different methods have been developed to achieve efficient spectrum. In frequency division multiple access (FDMA) the total bandwidth of the system is divided in to narrow frequency channels using bandpass filters. These channels are then allocated to the users. Many first generation cellular system solved problem by using FDMA technology. Along with the change from analog to digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) was implemented digitally in second-generation cellular systems. In TDMA each frequency channel is divided into time slots that are allocated to users. An alternative multiple access CDMA competitor to TDMA emerged in later second generation cellular system. The Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a spread spectrum technology in which each user is assigned a pseudo-random spreading code. Using this code, the narrow band data signal of the user is spread over large bandwidth. All users transmit on the same frequency at the same time but with different spreading code. CDMA offers high capacity in comparison of TDMA and FDMA since CDMA is independent of frequency and time slots among users. Spreading code identifies the users in the receiver by correlating the received signal with replica of the desired user’s code. The cross-correlation of different spreading codes is ideally zero but due to multi-path

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Near-far problem in CDMA occurs in the absence of power control. If all mobile users are transmitted at the same power level, the mobile closest to the BS will overpower all others since signal drops exponentially with the distance. The power control aims to set the transmitted power of mobile stations so that signals are received at the same mean power level at BS. The uplink power control is critical for the capacity of CDMA system. The requirement of the dynamic range of uplink power control can be of the order of 80dB. In down link since all signals transmitted by BS, propagate through same radio channel before reaching to MS. They undergo the same attenuation and so power control is not needed. Power control is used to provide more power to mobile users located near border of the cell, suffering from high interference due to nearby mobile users from other cells and hence sufficient power is required from BS to minimize the interference produced by nearby cells. The dynamic range of downlink power control is usually smaller than in uplink (typically 20-30 dB) Human voice activity cycle is 35%. When mobile user assigned to the channel is not talking then all other channels are benefited with less interference in a CDMA radio channel and thus mutual interference reduces by 65%. With this the channel capacity increases three times. This advantage is only with CDMA and not with FDMA and TDMA where the frequency channel or time slot is dedicated to the user respectively and the channel capacity is wasted during silent period. III. CLOSED LOOP POWER CONTROL Closed loop power control manages problem above by constantly controlling the received power of the mobiles and continuously adjust its transmit power in order to achieve some predetermined threshold level of SIR. The closed loop power control is used with the objective to keep the SIR measured as close as possible to SIR-target. This can be achieved using Pn+1 = Pn + sgn (yt – yn).</ (1)

control step size is a parameter of the fast (inner) closed loop power control. The power update step size may be chosen according to the average mobile speed and other operating environment parameters. Pilot signals are transmitted at a constant power from BS to MS. The variation of its strength gives information of the downlink attenuation. This is called open-loop power control (Centralized power control). The center frequency allocated to up- and downlink transmissions are usually widely separated and thus the correlation between up- and downlink attenuation is generally weak. Centralized power control requires extensive computational power due to number of mobile users in network. However, closed loop power control (Distributed power control) adjusts power levels of each transmitted signal using local measurements in reasonable time to maintain SIR for all users. In this paper, we propose a modified fixed step size power control algorithm and compared with performance with six existing algorithms using MATLAB simulations. Our algorithm achieves better performance in terms of faster convergence and fewer oscillations at low outage probabilities. This section discusses six different distributed power control algorithms while section IV provides simulations results to compare their performances. Finally section V concludes with extension of modified fixed step size power control to multiple cell scenarios. A. Distance Based Power Control Distance Based Power Control (DBPC) algorithm uses the distance between base station (BS) and each mobile station (MS) to allocate transmitted power to each of its served mobiles [11]. No feedback is provided and hence it is called open-loop power control mechanism. If power control is not applied (i.e. transmit power is same for all users), the most constrained value of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) will be for a user at the boundary of the cell. Thus more transmit power is allocated to mobiles that have poor channel conditions as per the equation Gk = Ak/Rd

(3)

Where Pn is current power at iteration n, yt is SIR-target, </ is step size, and yn is current measured SIR represented as Yn = (Gki.Pi)/[ Σ Qj≠i Gkj.Pj + ni] (2)

Where Pi and Pj are transmitted power of mobile i and j respectively, Gki and Gkj are link gain from base station k to mobile i and j respectively and ni is receiver noise of mobile i All mobile users measure SIR and then subtract from yt SIRtarget with sign function. This creates transmit power control (TPC) command which is then send to the BS. The transmit power at BS is adjusted according to the TPC received from mobile user. Thus closed loop power control is able to adjust the power levels of each transmitted signal using only local measurements carried at MS. With this all mobile users will maintain the desired SIR in reasonable time. The power

Where Gk is link gain, Ak is constant depends on antenna properties, transmission wavelength, and environment. R is the distance between BS and MS in meters and d is path loss exponent with value of 2 for free space propagation and 5 for dense urban areas. Mobiles closer to BS under distance Rmin are allocated same transmission power. B. Distributed Balancing Power Control Distributed Balancing power control (DB) algorithm uses the received SIR at the MS to adjust the transmitted power of the BS in order to achieve better global transmission quality (QoS)

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for the entire call [6]. The algorithm calculates the optimal transmit power assignment for mobile, which is proportional to the ratio of total received power of the mobile to the link gain between its BS and itself. Power allocation for each MS is calculated at the BS in a centralized manner (typically every 1.25ms or 800 times per sec). Then each mobile measure the SIR and the link gain between its home BS and itself at the beginning of every control period, and transmits the SIR to its BS. BS updates its transmit power to each mobile based on the received SIR from each mobile user. This affects the received power at each mobile, and corresponding SIR. C. Multiple Fixed Step size Power Control Multiple Fixed Step size Power Control (MSPC) algorithm is a closed loop power control algorithm in which feedback from the mobile user is used to adjust the transmit power of the BS [6]. The update is based on the average SIR at the mobile, and the adjustments usually occur in multiple step size. The MS measures the SIR over a time period (1.25ms) and compare with a predefined SIR-target. If the measured SIR is larger than SIR-target, then mobile user sends a power down command to the BS, otherwise, it sends a power up command. The BS interprets the commands transmitted from mobile user and updates transmitted power accordingly. The power update takes place in multiple fixed step size instead of single fixed step. D. Adaptive Step size Power control Adaptive Step size Power Control (ASPC) algorithm uses adaptive step size as opposed to fixed step size in order to achieve faster convergence towards SIR-target [3]. Here the first power update command is interpreted as a fixed step size </. However, we adapt step size dynamically if successive feedback commands requests additional change in the power level in the same direction to ensure faster convergence. The power control updates take place in multiple steps of different sizes (u</ in case of successive up command and v</ in case of successive down command where u and v are increasing and decreasing factor respectively). Analysis of above algorithms showed that DBPC and DB algorithms are non-iterative since power assignments are decided on the basis of the initial SIR values. Thus, outage percentage increases as number of mobile users increases in a cell due to co-channel interference. Outage percentage is a probability of failing to achieve adequate reception of the signal due to co-channel interference. Further the performance of DBPC is worse than DB since it uses individual distance of the mobile from BS as metric for power allocation. MSPC uses feedback mechanism, percentage of outage decreases with the number of iterations. However, MSPC uses fixed step size, outage percentage falls off at a slower rate. Fast convergence is achieved by either making the iteration time-step smaller, or by designing iteration with faster convergence property. ASPC

results in faster reduction of the outage percentage. However, oscillations are there because of choosing single SIR-target. E. Constrained Second Order Power Control Constrained Second Order Power Control (CSOPC) algorithm updates transmission power using current and past power with weight ω(n) to determine the necessary transmission power of each mobile [9]. This algorithm reduces the instruction sets for faster convergence. The second order iterative expression is represented as Pi(n+1)=min[Pi,max,{0,ω(n)(yt/Si (n))Pi (n) (4) +(1-ω(n))Pi (n-1)}] Where ω(n) is a decreasing sequence such that limω(n) = 1, ω(n)=1+ (1/1.5)n for n=1, 2, 3…l, where l is total number of iterations, Pi max is maximum allowable power for mobile i. F. Linear Quadratic Power Control Applying modern control theory to CDMA power control, a state space equation for a CDMA power control system and liner quadratic power control (LQPC) have been developed [8] and expressed for mobile i as S i (n+1) = {GkiPi (n) +ui (n)}/Ii (n) =si(n) + vi (n); n=1,2,….l (5)

Where Ii (n)=Σ Qj≠i PjGkj+ ni and vi(n)=ui(n)/ Ii(n) depends on total interference produced by the other users and the noise in the system. The iterative expression can be represented as Pi(n+1)=min{Pi,max, Si (n+1)Ii(n)} (6)

G. Modified Fixed Step size Power Control In ASPC outage probability has faster convergence rate but there is significant instability or oscillations in outage percentage. It is due to choosing single SIR-target. As a result, the mobile toggled between two regions whenever measured SIR is near SIR-target. To mitigate this effect, a buffer region with lower critical threshold and upper critical threshold is chosen for SIR-target in modified fixed step size power control algorithm. This increases the stability due to the buffer, which provides a memory based damping effect similar to hysteresis. In this case if the measured SIR is between lower and upper critical SIR-target values, the mobile does not send any control feedback to the BS. Thus we eliminate the oscillation observed at low outage percentages in adaptive step size power control algorithm. The MS measures the SIR over a time period (1.25ms) and compare with a predefined SIR-target. If the measured SIR is larger than SIR-target, then mobile user sends a power down command to the BS, otherwise, it sends a power up command. The BS interprets the commands transmitted from mobile user and updates transmitted power accordingly. The power update takes place according to the amount of

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difference between measured SIR and SIR-target instead of single fixed step. IV. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS

thankful to Dr. P.R. Gupta, Head, School of IT and Mr. Munish Kumar, Head, M.Tech. IT Program for providing facilities to work in the above project. REFERENCES

The simulation of fixed step power control and modified fixed step power control algorithms were performed based on an IS95 CDMA system in a single cell. Fifty mobiles were randomly allocated in a cell. All mobiles are listening at all times. In this study we consider only lognormal shadow fading, hence link gain Gki is lognormal distributed with mean 0dB and standard deviation 6dB. Same SIR-target was applied to all mobile in a cell, and varied between 6 to 8 dB as a function of simulation steps. Following parameters have been taken for simulation: Bit rate 9600bits/s, Radio channel BW 1.2288MChips/s, Receiver noise 10-12 for all mobiles, Maximum transmission power of each mobile 1W. Initial power of each mobile was generated uniformly between 1mW to 1W. Outage percentage is a probability of failing to achieve adequate reception of the signal due to co-channel interference. Table shows outage percentage for 50 mobiles, number of iterations required to reduce the outage percentage to zero, and number of iterations required to maintain SIR-target within 68dB for different closed loop power control algorithms. Results shows that the outage percentage needed is least in MFSPC and number of iterations required also less both to reduce outage percentage to zero and to maintain SIR-target within 6-8dB. V. CONCLUSIONS In this paper we have presented an overview of various power control algorithms for CDMA system. We have simulated fixed step power control and modified fixed step power control algorithms and compared with the existing algorithms. The results indicate that proposed algorithm improves the performance of closed loop power control compared to existing algorithms. The outage percentage for 50 mobiles needs minimum iterations and SIR is also maintained within SIR-target in minimum number of iterations compared to all algorithms explained above. The modified fixed step power control algorithm can handle large number of mobile users in a CDMA system. Future work can include the performance measure with mobility of mobile stations moving within the cell and when MS moves from one BS to another (hand-off control) in multicell scenario. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful to Dr.George Varkey, Executive Director, C-DAC, Noida for his encouragement and permission to present/publish this paper. Mr. Rahim khan is

[1] J.Yu, et al, “A novel method of SIR measurements for power control in CDMA systems”, J. of Physics: Conference Series, 48, pp 457-461, 2006 [2] Vamsi Krishna, Vemasani Bala, Satish Appuni “Performance Evaluation of Power Control Algorithms in Cellular Radio Communication Systems” School of Engineering Blekinge Institute of Technology Karlskrona, pp 145, 2005, Ronneby, Sweden. [3] M. Rintamaki, H. Koivo, ”Adaptive closed loop power control algorithm for CDMA cellular communication systems”, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol.53, pp 44-49, Nov.2004 [4] M. Lee, D. Oh, W.K. Won, “Modified distributed constrained power control using reference model in CDMA cellular systems”, in Proc of 42nd IEEE Conf. on Decision and control, pp 4225-4230 , Dec.2003, Hawaii, USA [5] M.S. Elmusrati, et al, “Fully distributed power control algorithms with one bit signaling and nonlinear error estimation”, in Porc. IEEE, Veh. Tech. Conf. (VTC), Orlando, pp727-731, Oct. 2003, Florida, USA [6] H. Wang, et al, “Balanced distributed power control in CDMA cellular system”, in Proc. of 12th IEEE Intern. Symp on Personal, Indoor, and mobile Radio Communication, Vol.2, pp 1515-1419, Sept. 2002 [7] L. Nuaymi, P. Godlewski, X. Lagrange, “Power allocation and control for the downlink in cellular CDMA networks”, in Proc. of 11th IEEE Intern. Symp. On Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communication, Vol.1, pp 29-31, 2001, San Diego, USA [8] A. EI-Osery, C. Abdallah, “Distributed power control in CDMA cellular systems”, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol.42, no.4, pp 152-159, Aug. 2000, [9] R. Jeantii, S.L. Kim, “Second order power control with asymptotically fast convergence”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, Vol. 10, no.3, pp 447-457,2000 [10] C.W. Sung, W.S. Wong, “A distributed fixed step power control algorithm quantization and active link quality protection”, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. 44, pp 553-562, March 1999, [11] W.M. Tam, F.C.M. Lau,” Capacity analysis of CDMA cellular system with power control schemes”, in Proc. of 6th IEEE Intern. Conf. on Universal personal communication [ICUPC’97], pp 608-612, 1997, San Diego, USA

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