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# Group No.

2
Assignment

## 3.2 Causes and effects.

This is a diagram of the seasons , regardless of the time
of day (i.e. the Earth's rotation on its axis), the North Pole
will be dark, and the South Pole will be illuminated; see also
arctic winter. In addition to the density of incident light, the
dissipation of light in the atmosphere is greater when it falls
at a shallow angle.
The seasons result from the Earth's axis being tilted to
its orbital plane; it deviates by an angle of approximately
23.5 degrees. Thus, at any given time during summer or
winter, one part of the planet is more directly exposed to the
rays of the Sun.
It is easy to observe the effect of the axis tilt from the
change in day length, and altitude of the Sun at noon (the
culmination of the Sun), during a year.
Seasonal weather differences between hemispheres
are further caused by the elliptical orbit of Earth. Earth
reaches perihelion (the point in its orbit closest to the Sun) in
January, and it reaches aphelion (farthest point from the Sun)
in July. Even though the effect this has on Earth's seasons is
minor, it does noticeably soften the northern hemisphere's
winters and summers. In the southern hemisphere, the
opposite effect is observed.
Vocabulary
diagram a simple drawing or plan that shows แผนผัง

## exactly where something is, what

something looks like, or how something
works

## movement around a central point

illuminat to make a light shine on something, or to ให้ความ
สว่าง
e fill a place with light

ere Earth

## deviate to change what you are doing so that you นอกล่่นอก

ทาง เบี่ยง
are not following an expected plan, idea, เบน
or type of behaviour

## be shown as a symbol after a number.

For example, 70º means 70 degrees:

## ion important, that happens at the end of a

long period of effort or development:

things

## effect to make something happen: มีอิทธิพล

ต่อ
1. The North Pole will be dark, and the South Pole will be
…………………………..
2. The Earth's axis being tilted by an angle of approximately
…………..degrees.
3. What do we call the closest point in Earth’s orbit to the
Sun?....................................
4. What do we call the farthest point in Earth’s orbit to the
Sun?...................................
5. When will the Earth reach the closest point in Earth’s orbit
to the Sun?...........................