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Pre-Reading Questions.

1.How long does a season last?

Suggested answer :A quarter of year.
2. How long does a quarter of year last?
Suggested answer :Three months.
3. What is the hottest quarter of the year?
Suggested answer :Summer.
4. What is the coldest quarter of the year?
Suggested answer :Winter.
5. What do we call a set of pages that show the days, weeks,
and months of a particular year
hanging on a wall?
Suggested answer : A calendar.
Reading Passage
Now read the passage below. You can look up the meaning
of the words in bold in the Vocabulary Study Section that
3.1 Reckoning Meteorological
Meteorological seasons are reckoned by temperature,
with summer being the hottest quarter of the year and winter
the coldest quarter of the year.
Using this reckoning, the Roman calendar began the year
and the spring season on the first of March, with each season
occupying three months. This reckoning is also used in
Denmark, the former USSR, and Australia. In the modern
United Kingdom there are no hard and fast rules about
seasons, and informally many people use this reckoning.
So, in meteorology for the Northern hemisphere: spring
begins on March 1, summer on June 1, autumn on September
1, and winter on December 1. Conversely, for the Southern
hemisphere: summer begins on December1, autumn on March
1, winter on June 1, and spring on September 1.
In astronomical reckoning, the seasons begin at the
solstices and equinoxes. The cross-quarter days are considered
seasonal midpoints. The length of these seasons is not
uniform because of the elliptical orbit of the earth and its
different speeds along that orbit.
In the conventional United States calendar: Winter (89
days) begins on 21 December, the winter solstice; spring (92
days) on 20 March, the vernal equinox; summer (93 days) on
20 June, the summer solstice; and autumn (90 days) on 22
September, the autumnal equinox.
Because of the differences in the Northern and Southern
Hemispheres, it is no longer considered appropriate to use the
northern-seasonal designations for the astronomical quarter
days. The modern convention for them is: March Equinox;
June Solstice; September Equinox; and December Solstice.
Vocabulary Study
reckon to guess a number or amount, คิดคำำนวณ

without calculating it exactly

calendar a set of pages that show the ปฏิทิน

days, weeks, and months of a

particular year

meteorolo the scientific study of weather อุตุนิยมวิทยำ

gy conditions

conversel the opposite of another: ตรงกันข้ำม

astronomi relating to the scientific study of เกี่ยวกับดำรำศำสตร์
cal the stars

solstice the time when the sun is ระยะเวลำที่ดวง

furthest north or south of the เส้นศ่นย์ส่ตรมำก
equator ที่สุด

equinox one of the two times in a year เวลำที่ดวงอำทิตย์

when night and day are of equal เส้นศ่นย์ส่ตรพอดี
length ทำำให้มกี ลำงวัน
orbit to travel in a curved path วิถีโคจร

around a much larger object

such as the Earth, the sun

vernal relating to the spring เกี่ยวกับฤดูใบไม้ผลิ

appropriat correct or suitable for a เหมำะสม

e particular time, situation, or


designatio the act of choosing someone or กำรตัง้ กำรระบุ

n something for a particular


conventio a method or style often used in ระเบียบแบบแผน

n literature, art, the theatre etc to
achieve a particular effect

Recalling Information
1.From paragraph 2 how long did a season
last in the Roman calendar?
Suggested answer : Three months
2.From the next paragraph when did the
spring in Northern hemisphere begin?
Suggested answer : March 1.
3.When did the summer in Northern
hemisphere begin?
Suggested answer : June 1.
4.When did the autumn in Northern
hemisphere begin?
Suggested answer : September 1.
5.When did the winter in Northern
hemisphere begin?
Suggested answer : December 1.
6. Based from the passage given is it true
that all the seasons begin the same time
both in the Northern hemisphere and
Southern hemisphere?
Suggested answer : No.
7. So if they are winter in Northern
hemisphere it should be what season in the
Southern hemisphere?
Suggested answer : Summer.
Pre-Reading Questions.
1. What are the midpoints of summer and winter?
Suggested answer : The solstices and equinoxes.
2. What does “ insolation ” depend on?
Suggested answer : The amount of the light from the sun.
3.What do we call the days of greatest insolation?
Suggested answer : "Midsummer".
4. What do we call the days of least insolation?
Suggested answer : "Midwinter".
Reading Passage
Now read the passage below. You can look up the meaning
of the words in bold in the Vocabulary Study Section that
3.2 Traditional
Traditional seasons are reckoned by insolation, with
summer being the quarter of the year with the greatest
insolation and winter the quarter with the least. These seasons
begin about 4 weeks earlier than the meteorological seasons
and 7 weeks earlier than the astronomical seasons.
In traditional reckoning, the seasons begin at the cross-quarter
days. The solstices and equinoxes are the midpoints of these
seasons. For example, the days of greatest and least insolation
are considered the "midsummer" and "midwinter" respectively.
This reckoning is used by various traditional cultures in
the Northern Hemisphere, including East Asian and Irish
cultures. In Iran, Afghanistan and some other parts of middle
east the beginning of the astronomical spring is the beginning
of the new year which is called Nowruz.
So, according to traditional reckoning, winter begins
between 5 November and 10 November; spring between 2
February and 7 February, ; summer between 4 May and 10
May ; and autumn between 3 August and 10 August, The
middle of each season is considered Mid-winter, between 20
December and 23 December,; Mid-spring, between 19 March
and 22 March,); Mid-summer, between 19 June and 23 June,;
and Mid-autumn, between 21 September and 24 September, .

Vocabulary Study
traditional being part of the traditions of a สืบทอดตำม
country or group of people

insolation the amount of light from the sun ปริมำณแสง

which reaches a particular area

cross- is a day falling approximately วันสำำคัญ

quarter halfway between a solstice and an
day equinox
และ equinox

midsumm the middle of summer ชูวงกลำงฤด่

midwinter the middle of winter ชูวงกลำงฤด่
respective in the same order as the things you ตำมลำำดับ

ly have just mentioned

various many different types of something หลำกหลำย

culture the beliefs, way of life, art, and วัฒนธรรม

customs that are shared and accepted

by people in a particular society

middle half of the way through an event or กึ่งกลำง

period of time
include to make someone or something part ประกอบด้วย

of a group

Recalling Information

1.What does “tradition” in line 1 means?

Suggested answer : part of the traditions of a
country or people.
2.What does “insolation” in line 1 means?
Suggested answer : the amount of light from the sun.

3.From the words “midsummer” and

“midwinter” what does “mid” means?
Suggested answer : In the middle of
4.Which word in paragraph 2 is being called
for New Year in Iran, Afghanistan and
in some parts of middle East ?
Suggested answer : “Nowruz”
5.What does “various” in paragraph 2 means?
Suggested answer : many different types of

Pre-Reading Questions.
1.How many seasons are there in Thailand?
Suggested answer : There are three seasons in Thailand.
2.Based on the passage given how many seasons are there?
Suggested answer :There are four seasons.

Reading Passage
Now read the passage below. You can look up the meaning
of the words in bold in the Vocabulary Study Section that

3.3 The Seasons.

There are four key dates in the year. These occur on 21
March, June, September and December.
21 March is the Vernal Equinox and represents the
beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere. It is the point
at which the Sun crosses the Equator as it travels northwards.
At this time day and night are of equal length, hence equinox
- 'equal night'.
21 June is the Summer Solstice or Midsummer's Day in
the northern hemisphere, when the Sun has reached its further
point north of the Equator (Tropic of Cancer). As more
sunlight reaches the northern hemisphere the days last longer
than the nights. The day after, the sun begins to travel south
and the days start to shorten.
21 September is the Autumnal Equinox when the sun
crosses the Equator going south.
21 December is the Winter Solstice and is shortest day
in the northern hemisphere; it is the middle of summer in the
southern hemisphere. The Sun has reached its furthest point of
travel south - the Tropic of Capricorn.
The seasons are, of course, reversed in the
southern hemisphere - autumn in March, winter in June,
spring in September and summer in December.

Vocabulary Study

occur to happen or exist in a เกิดขึ้น

particular place or situation

represent to officially speak or take action แทน

for another person or group of

cross to go or stretch from one side ข้ำม

of something such as a road,

river, room etc to the other

northward towards the north ไปทำงเหนื อ

equal the same in size, number, เทูำเทียมกัน

amount, value etc as something


reach to move your arm in order to เอื้อมถึง

touch or lift something with

your hand

sunlight natural light that comes from แสงอำทิตย์

the sun

reverse to change something, such as a ด้ำนตรงกันข้ำม

decision, judgment, or process

so that it is the opposite of
what it was before
Recalling Information

1. How many key dates are there from

paragraph 1?
Suggested answer : There are four key
2. When are they?
Suggested answer : 21 of March, June,
September and December.
3. What is the beginning of spring in the
Northern hemisphere and when ?
Suggested answer : The Vernal Equinox
on 21 March.
4. What is the Midsummer’s Day in the
Northern hemisphere and when ?
Suggested answer : The Summer Solstice
on 21 June.
5. When did the sun cross the Equator going
south ?
Suggested answer :The Autumnal Equinox
on 21 September.
6. When is the shortest day in the Northern
Suggested answer : 21 December.