Look at the picture 3.14-3.24 and answer these questions.

find the position of things and watch their movement? Suggested answer :Radar. 2. Where can we see it?

Pre-Reading Questions.

1. What do we call this equipment that uses radio waves to

Suggested answer : Airport or weather office. 3. What is can be seen in picture 3.16? Suggested answer : Polar-orbiting satellite. Suggested answer : About 870 km. high. 5.How long does it take for one orbit?

4. How high does it orbit around the earth?

Suggested answer : It takes approximately 1 hour 42 minutes. Now read the given passage below. You can look up the meaning of the words in bold in the Vocabulary Study Section that follows. 3.1 Radar

Reading Passage

weather radars that provides a picture of the distribution of

As well as the Windprofiler radars, there is a network of

rainfall. From the radar it is possible to work out where it is

raining and how heavy the rain is. The network includes sites

provided by the Republic of Ireland and the States of Jersey and covers the whole of the British Isles. Extensive radar information from the continent is also available. 3.2 Satellites

orbit in 1960, satellites have become essential tools for into two categories.

Since the first meteorological satellite was placed in

weather forecasters. The satellites used by meteorologists fall Polar-orbiting satellites pass around the earth from pole

to pole at a height of about 870 km. It takes approximately 1 hour 42 minutes for the satellite to complete its orbit, by which time the earth has rotated by about 25 degrees. Geostationary satellites remain over the equator,

stationary with respect to the earth. This is achieved by

having the satellite in orbit at a height of about 36,000 km. so it always views the same part of the globe.

At this height it takes exactly 24 hours to complete one orbit, Meteosat , the name given to the European geostationary

satellites, like their US, Japanese and Indian counterparts, give sequences of cloud images. From these, the development and movement of weather systems can be followed and, of particular importance, tropical storms can be tracked.

The Global Telecommunication System (GTS) has been set up to transfer weather observations (and forecasts) around the world. The Telecommunications Centre at Met Office

3.3 Analysis

Headquarters in Exeter has the role of passing data between

Washington and continental Europe via Paris and Offenbach.

It also collects observations from the UK and transmits them from the UK is available about ten minutes past the hour of observation.

around the world via the GTS. A complete set of observations

and an analysis is produced by the computer. This involves depressions and anticyclones to be identified. The analysis the aid of satellite and radar information) in order to understand what is going on in the atmosphere. 3.4 Forecast

The observations at a specific time are plotted on a chart

isobars (lines of constant pressure) being drawn, which allows may be modified by the forecasters and fronts are added (with

improving the accuracy and detail of weather forecasts, and in lengthening the period for which useful guidance can be given. The calculations involved are both numerous and

The use of computers has played a key role in

complex and must be performed quickly so that forecasts are

available in good time. Consequently, some of the most powerful computers in the world are needed.

mathematical equations describing certain physical processes

Weather forecasts are based on the solution of a set of

3.5 The computer model

in the atmosphere. To solve these complex equations it is first necessary to divide the atmosphere up into boxes, with a grid point in the centre of each box. The properties of the of the grid points.

atmosphere are then represented by what is happening at each The array of grid points, the system of equations and the

method of solving the equations is referred to as the model. spacing of roughly 40 km between each grid point in the levels through the atmosphere.

In the present global model used by the Met Office, there is a horizontal. The grid points are also arranged in 50 vertical The computer model produces a global forecast twice a

day using the midnight and midday observations as starting out to 48 hours for the UK and parts of the Atlantic and Europe, the model is run again at 0600 and 1800 daily.

conditions. In order to provide more-detailed forecast charts

computer models, and other technological advances, there is still an important role for the forecaster . For the general development of weather systems, the model provides insight only a guide. Good as it is, forecasters have to make

Despite greater computer power, improvements to the

3.6 Role of the forecaster

into how the atmosphere is behaving and developing, but it is allowances for the model's known problem areas - the

handling of small-scale features, for example. The chief

forecaster on duty modifies the computer output to correct for likely errors in the model output, such as removing spurious areas of rainfall. Forecasters also have to take into account pictures.

any late observations and consult the latest satellite and radar

Vocabulary Study


a piece of equipment that uses of things and watch their movement

radio waves to find the position


วัตถุท่อ ี ยู่ไกลโดยใช้ วิธีสง ู วิทยุคลื่นสั้น ดาวเทียม


a machine that has been sent

into space and goes around the television, and other electronic communication

Earth, moon etc, used for radio,


the most northern or most especially the Earth

southern point on a planet, the order that something



happens or exists in, or the or exist in


order it is supposed to happen transfer plot to move from one place to another โยกย้าย เปลี่ยน

to mark, calculate, or follow the การกำาหนด จุด path of an aircraft or ship, for example on a map เส้นและวัดมุม สมการ


a statement in mathematics that

shows that two amounts or totals are equal array a set of numbers or signs, or of computer memory units, arranged in lines across or down insight a sudden clear understanding of especially a complicated situation or idea chief something or part of something, การเข้าใจอยูาง ถูองแท้ กลูุม ลำาดับ

the most important person, or one of the most important people, in a company or organization



not based on facts or good incorrect

thinking and is likely to be

ปลอม หลอกลวง





Recalling Information
satellite passage launch 3.2

when in







2. Can radar pictures used by the Environment Agency for river management and flood warnings? Suggested answer : Yes.





3. Based from the passage 3.2 which imaginary line that remain over?

Geostationary satellites, stationary with respect to the earth Suggested answer : The equator.

4. How high is it from the earth?

Suggested answer : At a height of about 36,000 km.

5. How long does it take for an orbit around the earth? complete one orbit.

Suggested answer : At this height it takes exactly 24 hours to 6. Based from the passage 3.4 the use of computers has weather forecasts. What is the underlined word means? Suggested answer : Correctness.

played a key role in improving the accuracy and detail of

7. The computer model produces a global forecast twice a day using the midnight and midday observations as starting conditions. What is the underlined word means? Suggested answer : Two times.

8. Not only greater computer power, improvements to the

computer models, and other technological advances, there is

still an important role for the man who control, calculate and forecast the weather . Who is he? Suggested answer : The weather forecaster.

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