based on a lecture of
at
Aachen University
Preface
These notes represent the state of the lecture “Electrical Machines II” at Aachen University
for the summer term effective from 2003. Some extensions of the subject matter, which are
beyond the scope of the lecture, are included for selfstudies at suitable location.
In the lecture the dynamic behavior of the DC, induction and synchronous machine are
discussed. Also voltage and frequency variable excitation with power converters and control
methods needed for power generation and electrical drives are treated. In addition to the
analytical solution of the differential equations under simplifying assumptions, numerical
solution by means of computers will be demonstrated. Also these simulations take the power
converter and control system into account, which is shown on practical applications.
The areas basics, mode of operation, structure and steady state operating behavior are topics
of the lecture “Electrical Machines I”, which is subject to the lecture held in winter terms.
Focus is put on provision of clear understanding of the physical context. Despite plain
description required accuracy is not reduced.
This script is supposed to provide an allembracing knowledge as a basis for both the
continuation of their studies and later in practice to deal with electrical machines in detail.
The lecture “electrical machines II” was especially elaborated for students in main course of
the major “ElectroTechnique and Electronics”. The knowledge of contents of the lecture
“Electrical Machines I” is presumed.
Please note: This script represents a translation of the lecture notes composed in German.
Most subscriptions to appear in equations are not subject to translation for conformity
purposes.
1.1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 1
1.8 Compilation of the equations of the direct and quadrature axis theory .............. 15
2 DC machine 19
3 Induction machine 39
4 Synchronous machine 65
5 Servomotor 107
5.5 Voltage and current waveforms of servomotors with rotor position encoder 118
6 Appendix 121
1.1 Introduction
Up to now always steadystate operation was presumed, i.e. operation on power system with
constant voltage (DC, AC or threephase system), constant speed and also without electrical
switching operation and mechanical load variation. Such mode of operation nearly never
occurs in real world applications, neither at drive engineering nor at central electricity supply.
The electrical machines are the main parts in drive engineering, which are the controlled
system in the actuating system. Final controlling element  today mostly a static converter 
and analog or digital control complete the drive system with speed control. DC motors are of
minor importance nowadays, since recent advances in power semiconductor and
microprocessor technology, which increased the relevance of induction and ECmotors for
electrical drives. High dynamic responses at acceleration or braking and a short setting time in
case of mechanical load changes are demanded.
In central power supply the fundamental basis is provided by synchronous generators. They
are used in thermal power stations in conjunction with steam turbines in form of a high speed
cylindricalrotor generator and in hydroelectric power plants as low speed salientpole
generators. The voltage is preferably sinusoidal and the frequency should be constant. The
speed of the driving machine and the terminal voltage must be controlled in a kind of manner,
that sudden load change provoked by short circuit fault or cutoff do not result in large
changes of the frequencies and voltages. Also operation in parallel with other generators must
be possible without the occurrence of oscillations.
The knowledge of the response characteristic of the “controlled system electrical machine” is
therefore an important precondition for the design and the prediction of the operational
performance of an electrical machine.
While in dynamical operation the transfer function of the electrical and mechanical quantities
can always be described by a set of differential equations. The number of these equations
depends on the number of energy storage mechanism, i.e. a voltage equation for each coil and
for the rotor mass an equation of motion.
To limit the complexity of the calculation for threephase machine with non constant mutual
inductances, some restrictive conditions must be made regarding electrical and magnetic
symmetry and fundamental wave. Additionally two kinds of transformation are required. The
threephase winding will be transformed to a twophase system, which magnetically
decouples the rotor and stator windings and also reduces the number of equations per
windings from three to two. The other transforms from a stationary to an arbitrary rotating
coordinate system. Performing this transformation will result in constant mutual inductances
and the feasibility to take magnetic asymmetry of some machine parts into account for
instance the different reactances X d ≠ X q of salient pole machines.
2 Direct and quadrature axis theory
The transformations have to be power invariant and so that resistances and inductivities stay
unchanged. The torque differential equation will be derived from the power balance and the
torque equilibrium.
The description of polyphase machines requires at least five differential equations, i.e. two for
the rotor, two for the stator and one for the rotating masses. Also the dynamic equations for
the DC machine arise from the quadratureaxis theory. In that case only three equations are
needed for field, armature and mass.
The derivation of a dynamic equation system of the polyphase machine will be accomplished
in common by the consequential use of the quadratureaxis theory. The often used
representative space vector method results in identical equations but loses clearness if
invariance of the power is taken into account. The correlation between quadratureaxis theory
and space vector diagram will be pointed out later.
Direct and quadrature axis theory 3
voltages:
[U S ] = [u u1 , u v1 , u w1 ]T [U R ] = [u u 2 , u v 2 , u w 2 ]T (1.1)
currents:
[I S ] = [i u1 , i v1 , i w1 ]T [I R ] = [i u 2 , i v 2 , i w 2 ]T (1.2)
flux linkages:
[ΨS ] = [Ψ u1 , Ψ v1 , Ψ w1 ]T [ΨR ] = [Ψ u 2 , Ψ v 2 , Ψ w 2 ]T (1.3)
resistances:
R1 0 0 R2 0 0
[RS ] = 0 R1 0
[RR ] = 0 R2 0 (1.4)
0 0 R1 0 0 R2
voltage equations:
[U S ] = [RS ] ⋅ [I S ] + d [ΨS ] [U R ] = [RR ] ⋅ [I R ] + d [ΨR ] (1.5)
dt dt
inductances:
2π 2π
L1hw + L1σ L1hw ⋅ cos L1hw ⋅ cos −
3
3
[LS ] = L1hw ⋅ cos − 2π L1hw + L1σ
2π
L1hw ⋅ cos (1.7)
3 3
2π 2π
L1hw ⋅ cos L ⋅ cos − L + L1σ
1hw 1hw
3 3
2π 2π
L2 hw + L2σ L2 hw ⋅ cos L2 hw ⋅ cos −
3
3
[LR ] = L2hw ⋅ cos − 2π L2 hw + L2σ L2 hw ⋅ cos
2π
(1.8)
3 3
2π 2π
L2 hw ⋅ cos L2 hw ⋅ cos − L 2 hw + L 2σ
3 3
mutual inductances:
2π 2π
M W ⋅ cos(γ ) M W ⋅ cos γ + M W ⋅ cos γ −
3 3
[M S ] = M W ⋅ cos γ − 2π
M W ⋅ cos(γ )
M W ⋅ cos γ +
2π
(1.9)
3 3
π π
M W ⋅ cos(γ )
2 2
M W ⋅ cos γ + M W ⋅ cos γ −
3 3
[M R ] = [M S ]T (1.10)
LW and M W are alternating inductances. The number of turns of stator and rotor windings
differ.
In the form presented above the dynamic set of equations is physically complex and it is quite
complicated to deal with it without using computers.
Direct and quadrature axis theory 5
iu + iv + iw = 0 ⇒ iw = −iu − iv (1.11)
Also this precondition can be bypassed by separation and extra handling of the zero phase
sequence system.
Afterwards the dynamic, power converter and the transient behavior of DC, induction and
synchronous machine will be investigated both analytically as well as numerically.
6 Direct and quadrature axis theory
+
iU1 w1ξ 1 iA1
3
+
⋅ w1ξ1
2
iV1 iW1 B1
iB1
V1 W1
[T32]1
Rotor
U2 γ(t) [T32] γ(t)
A2
w2ξ2
iU2 i'A2
iW2
3
+
+ ⋅ w1ξ1
W2 2
i'B2
iV1
B2
V2
[T32]1
w ⋅ lm w 2 ⋅ lm ⋅ 2 ⋅ m ACu
R=ρ⋅ =ρ⋅ with q L = (1.16)
qL ACu 2⋅m⋅w
2
m wξ 2 l⋅D
L = ⋅ µ 0 ⋅ 1 1 ⋅ ⋅ (1.17)
2 p π δ
To conserve previous resistances and inductances, the number of windings results in:
m ⋅ (w ⋅ ξ ) = const
2
3 ⋅ (w ⋅ ξ )3Ph = 2 ⋅ (w ⋅ ξ )2 Ph
2 2
(1.18)
(w ⋅ ξ )2 Ph =
3
⋅ (w ⋅ ξ )3Ph
2
Therefore follows from the equality of the current linkage for the currents:
3 4 (w ⋅ ξ )3Ph 2 4 (w ⋅ ξ )2 Ph
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⋅ I 3Ph = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⋅ I 2 Ph
2 π p 2 π p
(1.19)
3
I 2 Ph = ⋅ I 3Ph
2
This means equal airgap induction and for the case of same geometric data: equal airgap
flux.
(w1 ⋅ ξ1 )2 Ph =
3
⋅ (w1 ⋅ ξ1 )3 Ph . (1.21)
2
8 Direct and quadrature axis theory
Both systems must have the same ampere turns across the air gap. Then the currents must be
• for Aaxis:
2π 4π 3
w1ξ1 ⋅ iu1 + iv1 ⋅ cos + iw1 ⋅ cos = w1ξ1 ⋅ i A1 (1.22)
3 3 2
iu1 − v1 − (− iu1 − iv1 ) =
i 1 3
⋅ i A1 (1.23)
2 2 2
3
i A1 = ⋅ iu1 (1.24)
2
• for Baxis:
π 5π 3
w1ξ1 ⋅ iv1 ⋅ cos + iw1 ⋅ cos = w1ξ1 ⋅ iB1 (1.25)
6 6 2
3 3 3
⋅ i v1 − ⋅ iw1 = ⋅ i B1 (1.26)
2 2 2
− ⋅ (− iu1 − iv1 ) =
iv 1 1 i B1
(1.27)
2 2 2
iu 1
iB1 = + iv1 2 (1.28)
2
The transformation form of the three phase system to the equivalent two phase system can
also be written in matrix form:
3
i A1 iu1 0
i = [T32 ] ⋅ i with [T32 ] = 2 . (1.29)
B1 v1 1
2
2
The conversion of the voltages will be performed in a similar way, because the symmetric
transformation was chosen:
u A1 u u 1
u = [T32 ] ⋅ u . (1.30)
B1 v1
Just as well a two phase system can be transformed to a three phase system by reverting the
equations:
2
iu1 i 0
i = [T32 ] ⋅ i with [T32 ] = 1
−1 −1 3
A1
(1.31)
v1 B1 − 1
6 2
u u 1 −1 u A1
u = [T32 ] ⋅ u (1.32)
v1 B1
The conversion of the rotor from three to two phases can be performed in analogy.
Additionally the rotor will be translated to the number of stator turns per unit length, which is
marked in the following with a dash " , ".
w1ξ1
ü= (1.34)
w2ξ 2
u ,A2 u u2
, = [T32 ] ⋅ ü ⋅ (1.35)
u B 2 u v2
i A, 2 1 i u2
, = [T32 ] ⋅ ⋅ (1.36)
i B 2 ü i v2
The conversion of the flux linkages of the stator and rotor winding takes place in the manner
from three to two phases and vice versa.
Ψ A1 Ψu1
Ψ = [T32 ] ⋅ Ψ (1.37)
B1 v1
Ψ A' 2 Ψu2
' = [T32 ] ⋅ ü ⋅ (1.38)
ΨB 2 Ψv2
stator
d1 α (t) Therefore equations for rotating
[T α ]
A1 Cartesian coordinate systems in a plane
are used:
iA1 id1
+ +
x * = x ⋅ cos α + y ⋅ sin α (1.43)
y * = − x ⋅ sin α + y ⋅ cos α (1.43)
B1
iB1 iq1
[T α ]1 Carried forward currents and voltages
q1
may be written in matrix form:
i d 1 i A1
i = [Tα ] ⋅ (1.43)
q1 i B1
rotor
u d 1 u A1
u = [Tα ] ⋅ ,
γ(t) [T γ−α ] d2 α (t) (1.43)
A2
q1 u B1
cos α sin α
[Tα ] = . (1.43)
i' B2
[T γ−α ]1
i' q2
− sin α cos α
B2 q2
While transforming the rotor to the rotating system care has to be taken since both system are
moving relative to each other with the difference angel γ − α .
id' 2 i A' 2
[
', = Tγ −α ⋅ ' ] (1.44)
iq 2 i B 2
u d' 2 u A' 2
', = Tγ −α ⋅ ', [ ] (1.45)
u q 2 u B 2
(γ − α ) − sin (γ − α )
[T ] = cos
γ −α
sin (γ − α ) cos(γ − α )
. (1.46)
i A1 −1 id 1
i = [Tα ] ⋅ i (1.49)
B1 q1
u A1 −1 ud 1
u = [Tα ] ⋅ u (1.50)
B1 q1
Direct and quadrature axis theory 11
i A', 2 id 2
' = Tγ −α[ ] −1
⋅ ', (1.51)
iB 2 iq 2
u A' 2 ud' 2
', = Tγ −α [ ] −1
⋅ ' (1.52)
u B 2 uq 2
This transformation is also invariant of power, because the matrices are orthogonal, i.e.
+ cos α − sin α
[Tα ] = [Tα ]
T −1
= (1.53)
+ sin α + cos α
+ cos(γ − α ) + sin (γ − α )
[T ] T
= = Tγ −α[ ]
−1
(1.54)
− sin (γ − α ) + cos(γ − α )
γ −α
Since the same transformation is applied to voltages and currents, the quotient is constant, i.e.
the transformation is invariant to inductances and resistances.
The flux linkages in the arbitrary rotating system can now be written as
Ψd 1 id 1 i d' 2
Ψ = L ⋅
1 + L ⋅
h ' (1.55)
q1 iq1 iq 2
Ψd' 2 id' 2 i d 1
' = L'
⋅
2 ', + Lh ⋅ (1.56)
Ψq 2 iq 2 iq1
After conversion to the same number of turns, rotor resistance and inductance are given by:
R2' = ü 2 ⋅ R2 (1.57)
3 3
Lh = ⋅ Lhw = ⋅ ü ⋅ M W (1.58)
2 2
The total inductance is
L1 = L1σ + Lh (1.59)
L'2 = L'2σ + Lh = ü 2 ⋅ L2 (1.60)
u A1 u u1 iu1 d Ψu1 i A1 d Ψ A1
u = [T32 ] ⋅ u = R1 ⋅ [T32 ] ⋅ i + dt [T32 ] ⋅ Ψ = R1 ⋅ i + dt Ψ (1.63)
B1 v1 v1 v1 B1 B1
u A2
,
u u 2
,
iu 2 d
'
Ψu 2
'
i A 2 d Ψ A' 2
'
, = [T ] ⋅ , = R '
⋅ [T ] ⋅ ' + [T ] ⋅ ' = R 2 ' +
⋅ ' (1.64)
Ψ i B 2 dt ΨB 2
32 2 32 32
B2
u v2
u v2
i dt v2
2. Transformation of the inactive stator and the rotating rotor to an arbitrary rotating
coordinate system:
u d 1 u A1 i A1 d −1 Ψd 1
u = [Tα ] ⋅ u = R ⋅ [Tα ] ⋅ i + [Tα ] ⋅ [Tα ] ⋅
Ψq1
1
q1 B1 B1 dt
id 1 d [Tα ]−1 Ψd 1 −1 d Ψd 1
= R1 ⋅ + [Tα ]⋅ ⋅ + [Tα ] ⋅
iq1 dt Ψq1 dt Ψq1
id 1 d Ψd 1 dα − Ψq1
= R1 ⋅ + + ⋅ (1.65)
iq1 dt Ψq1 dt + Ψd 1
Keep in mind, that in this case [Tα ] as well as [Tγ −α ] are not independent of t.
, = Tγ −α ⋅ , = R '
⋅ Tγ −α ⋅ ' + T γ −α ⋅ T γ −α ⋅ '
Ψq 2
2
uq 2 u B 2 iB 2 dt
i ' d [T ]−1 Ψ ' −1 d Ψ
= R2' ⋅ d' 2 + [Tγ −α ]⋅ γ −α ⋅ d' 2 + [Tγ −α ] ⋅ d' 2
'
iq 2 dt Ψq 2 dt Ψq 2
id' 2 d Ψd' 2 d (γ − α ) + Ψq' 2
= R ⋅ ' + ' +
'
⋅ '
(1.66)
iq 2 dt Ψq 2 − Ψd 2
2
dt
dα d (γ − α )
• rotary voltages caused by or.
dt dt
Direct and quadrature axis theory 13
It is required to take a closer look at the following special cases and distinguish between:
u d 1 id 1 d Ψd 1
u = R1 ⋅ i + Ψ (1.67)
q1 q1 dt q1
ud, 2 id' 2 d Ψd' 2 dγ + Ψq' 2
, = R2 ' +
'
⋅ ' + ⋅ '
(1.68)
u
q 2 i
q 2 dt Ψq 2 dt − Ψd 2
u d 1 id 1 d Ψd 1 dγ − Ψq1
u = R1 ⋅ + + ⋅ (1.69)
q1 iq1 dt Ψq1 dt + Ψd 1
ud, 2 id' 2 d Ψd' 2
, = R2 ⋅ ' + '
'
(1.70)
uq 2 iq 2 dt Ψq 2
dt
So that the power input appears as:
Pauf = [i ] ⋅ [u ] = [1
i ]42⋅ R4[i ] + [i ]T ⋅ d [Ψ ] + [1
⋅3 i ]4⋅2[ω4 3] ,
⋅Ψ
T T T
(1.72)
PV 1 4 2dt43 Pmech
dWm
dt
dWm
where PV represents the ohmic losses in the winding resistances, the change of the
dt
magnetic energy and Pmech the mechanical power of the total system:
dγ
M el ⋅
M el ⋅ ω dt .
Pmech = M el ⋅ Ω = = (1.73)
p p
14 Direct and quadrature axis theory
dα dα d (γ − α ) ' d (γ − α )
⋅ (− Ψq1 ) + iq1 ⋅ ⋅ (− Ψd' 2 )
p
M el = id 1 ⋅ ⋅ Ψd 1 + id' 2 ⋅ ⋅ Ψq 2 + iq' 2 ⋅
dγ dt dt dt dt
dt
dα d (γ − α )
(iq1 ⋅ Ψd 1 − id 1 ⋅ Ψq1 ) + (id' 2 ⋅ Ψq' 2 − iq' 2 ⋅ Ψd' 2 )⋅
p
=
dγ dt dt
dt
= p ⋅ L1h ⋅ (iq1 ⋅ id' 2 − id 1 ⋅ iq' 2 ) . (1.74)
dΩ J d 2γ
M el = M W + J ⋅ = MW + ⋅ 2 (1.75)
dt p dt
ω 1 dγ
Ω = 2 ⋅π ⋅ n = = ⋅ (1.76)
p p dt
U1 d1 α (t)
[T 32 ] A1 [T α ]
+
w 1ξ 1
3 3
w1ξ 1 w1ξ 1
+ 2 2
+
B1
V1 W1 q1
[T 32 ]1 [T α ]1
w 2ξ2 3
3 w1ξ 1
w1ξ 1 2
+
2 +
+
W2
B2 q2
V2
[T 32 ]1 [T γ−α ] 1
i = [Tα ]⋅ i ', = Tγ −α
A2
(1.80)
iq 2
'
q1 B1 i
B2
3
0 cos α sin α cos(γ − α ) − sin (γ − α )
[T32 ] = 2 [Tα ] = [Tγ −α ] = (1.81)
1
2 − sin α cos α sin (γ − α ) cos(γ − α )
2
u d 1 id 1 d Ψd 1 dα − Ψq1
u = R1 ⋅ i + Ψ + ⋅ (1.83)
q1 q1 dt q1 dt + Ψd 1
ud' 2 id' 2 d Ψd' 2 d (γ − α ) + Ψq' 2
', = R2 ⋅ ' + ' + ⋅
'
'
(1.84)
uq 2 iq 2 dt Ψq 2 dt − Ψd 2
J d 2γ
M el = p ⋅ L1h ⋅ (iq1 ⋅ id' 2 − id 1 ⋅ iq' 2 ) = ⋅ + MW (1.85)
p dt 2
i (t ) =
2
3
( 2
)
⋅ iu (t ) + a ⋅ iv (t ) + a ⋅ iw (t ) (1.86)
2π
j⋅ 2
The operator a = e 3
the
represents a spatial displacement of 120°. With the factor
3
amplitude of the space vector is adjusted to the physical magnitude. The projection on the
particular winding axis results the instantaneous value of the particular phase current.
+Re
Im
W V
Fig. 5: space vector illustration
Direct and quadrature axis theory 17
If the dynamic equations of a rotating field machine are represented with complex space
vectors in a coordinate system, which is rotating with angular speed α (t ) , the following set of
equations is achieved, if the rotor is converted to the number of the stator windings:
dΨS dα
u S = R1 ⋅ i S + + j⋅ ⋅ΨS (1.87)
dt dt
dΨR d (γ − α ) '
'
u R = R2 ⋅ i R + + j⋅ ⋅ΨR
' ' '
(1.88)
dt dt
Ψ S = L1 ⋅ i S + L1h ⋅ i R
'
(1.89)
Ψ = L2 ⋅ i + L1h ⋅ i S
' '
R R (1.90)
M el =
3
2
(
p Im Ψ R ⋅ i R + ⋅
' '*
)
J dω
p dt
(* =ˆ conjugate complex) (1.91)
with “d” representing the negative imaginary axis and “q” representing the positive real axis,
a set of equations is gained, which is, except of the factor in the torque equation, similar to the
set of equations of the twoaxis theory.
u d 1 id 1 d Ψd 1 dα − Ψq1
u = R1 ⋅ i + Ψ + ⋅ (1.98)
q1 q1 dt q1 dt + Ψd 1
J dω
p ⋅ (Ψq' 2 ⋅ id' 2 − Ψd' 2 ⋅ iq' 2 ) + ⋅
3
M el = (1.100)
2 p dt
3
The factor in the torque equation shows, that the transformation is not invariant of power.
2
Instead of that the space vectors should be defined as follows (for example for the current):
i=
2
3
(
⋅ iu + a ⋅ iv + a ⋅ iw
2
) (1.101)
2.1 Basics
Because of their easy control and because of economic reasons DC machines in combination
with thyristor converters or transistor amplifiers are today still often used as high dynamic
speedvariable drives in the small and middle power range.
The essential disadvantage is the commutator. Size and dynamic are limited by the
mechanical commutation. The current transfer with brushes has a high rate of wear and
requires maintenance.
But because of the mechanical commutation with the commutator, the armature current
linkage and the excitation field are always oriented in an optimal way for the generation of the
torque. With constant excitation there is a linear correlation between torque and current. Thus
a rapid and exact speed and position control is possible.
The following pictures show the basic structure of controlled DC machines (For the
simplification machines with only two poles are shown).
Fig. 6: DC machine
Fig. 7 also illustrates a highdynamic DC servomotor in the power range of some kW for
robotic device applications. The motor has an axial field and a doubleside stator with AlNiCo
–magnets. The ironless disctype rotor is made of distributed wires or punched segments.
DC machine 21
d1
The d1axis corresponds to the
φ UF id1 = I F
IF excitation field.
q1
The q2axis is the axis of the armature
Ω quadratureaxis field.
It has to be considered, that the rotor is converted to the number of the stator windings, which
is not usual for DC machines. Therefore it has to be cancelled.
u d 1 = −U F , id 1 = − I F , R1 = RF , L1 = LF (2.2 ad)
u q1 = 0 , iq1 = 0 (2.3)
Ψd 1 = − LF ⋅ I F (2.6)
IA
Ψq1 = Lh ⋅ (2.7)
ü
Ψd' 2 = − Lh ⋅ I F (2.8)
IA
Ψq' 2 = ü 2 ⋅ LA ⋅ (2.9)
ü
22 DC machine
Lh
With the mutual inductance between excitation and armature winding M = three
ü
differential equations for DC machines are gained, which describe the dynamic behaviour:
dI F
U F = RF ⋅ I F + LF ⋅ (2.13)
dt
dI
U A = R A ⋅ I A + LA ⋅ A + p ⋅ M ⋅ I F ⋅ Ω (2.14)
dt
dΩ
M el = p ⋅ M ⋅ I F ⋅ I A = J ⋅ + MW (2.15)
dt
The saturation of the excitation circuit is neglected in the considered case.
In analogy to the lecture Electrical Machines I:
p ⋅ M ⋅ IF = c ⋅φ (2.16)
k
c= (2.17)
2π
k ⋅φ
p ⋅ M ⋅ I F ⋅ Ω = c ⋅φ ⋅ Ω = ⋅ 2π ⋅ n = k ⋅ φ ⋅ n = U i (2.18)
2π
p ⋅ M ⋅ I F ⋅ I A = c ⋅ φ ⋅ I A = M el (2.19)
It is obvious from the dynamic set of equations, that not only the variables for the steadystate
operation but additionally the energy stores LF, LA and J need to be taken into consideration.
Besides the saturation, the mechanical friction and the voltage drop at the brushes in the
following paragraphs is neglected.
Fig. 11 shows the equivalent circuit diagram of the DC machine in dynamic operation.
RA LA
IA
J MW
RF LF
UA Ui
IF M, Ω
UF
The set of equations needs to be converted into the state formulation. To simplify the
following considerations, it is normalized on rated (=nominal) values:
dI F 1 1
LF ⋅ = U F − RF ⋅ I F ⋅ ⋅ (2.20)
dt RF I FN
dI A 1 1
LA ⋅ = U A − RA ⋅ I A − p ⋅ M ⋅ I F ⋅ Ω ⋅ ⋅ (2.21)
dt R A I AN
dΩ 1
J⋅ = p ⋅ M ⋅ I F ⋅ I A − MW ⋅ (2.22)
dt MN
Normalized values are also called “perunit values”. For this purpose lower case letters are
used:
UA IA R A ⋅ I AN
= uA , = iA , = rA
U AN I AN U AN
UF IF RF ⋅ I FN
= uF , = iF , = rF (2.23 ah)
U FN I FN U FN
Ω MW
= n, = mw
Ω0 MN
nominal values:
U N = p ⋅ M ⋅ I FN ⋅ Ω 0 (2.24)
M N = p ⋅ M ⋅ I FN ⋅ I AN (2.25)
time constants:
LF
TF = (2.26)
RF
L
TA = A (2.27)
RA
J ⋅ Ω0
TJ = (2.28)
MN
dn
TJ ⋅ = iF ⋅ i A − mw (2.31)
dt 12 m
3
el
24 DC machine
The according structure diagram for the three differential equations, describing the state of the
energy stores is depicted in Fig. 9:
m
W
i
A
u + +  TA
i m  TJ n
A el
A 1/r X
 A
+
ui i
F
n
X
i
F
i
F
u
F 1/r
+  TF
i
F
F
Because of the products i A ⋅i F and n ⋅ i F the set of equations is not linear and can only be
solved with numerical methods using computers.
DC machine 25
mW
uA + 1 TA iA=m i  TJ n
 rA +
n
The set of equation now consists of only two equations being linear. Therefore it can be
solved analytically:
di A u A − n
TA ⋅ = − iA (2.32)
dt rA
dn
TJ ⋅ = i A − mW (2.33)
dt
The structure diagram of DC machines is obtained using Laplacetransformation. This is the
common display format in control engineering. In order to differ from the appearance of
previous equations, upper case letters are used for Laplacetransformation.
U A (s ) − N (s )
T A ⋅ sI A (s ) + I A (s ) = (2.34)
rA
TJ ⋅ sN (s ) = I A (s ) − M W (s ) (2.35)
U A (s ) − N (s )
I A (s ) = (2.36)
rA ⋅ (1 + sTA )
I A (s ) − M W (s )
N (s ) = (2.37)
sTJ
26 DC machine
Z(s)=M W (s)
G 1(s) G 2(s)
G 1(s) G 2(s)
J ⋅ Ω0 RA J ⋅ Ω0 J ⋅ Ω0
Tm = TJ ⋅ rA = ⋅ = = (2.40)
M N UN IN U MK
MN ⋅ N IN
RA
follows:
N (s ) 1 1
= = (2.41)
U A (s ) 1 + sTm + s 2TmTA s 1
TmT A ⋅ s 2 + +
TA TATm
DC machine 27
At the time t = 0 a step change of the reference input variable is applied. For example the
stationary machine is connected to rated voltage (coarse start up).
UA
1 U A (s) = 1/s
0 t
Fig. 16: DC machine, coarse start up
It is to be set:
1
= ω 02 (2.42)
TATm
1 2⋅D Tm
= 2 ⋅ D ⋅ ω0 = ⇒D= (2.43)
TA TATm 4TA
1 ω 02
n (t ) = L−1 ⋅ 2 2
(2.44)
s s + 2 sDω 0 + ω 0
Tm
D= < 1, (2.45)
4TA
n (t ) = 1 −
e − Dω0t
1− D 2
(
sin ω 0 1 − D 2 t + arcsin 1 − D 2 ) (2.46)
I A (s ) = sTJ N (s ) (2.47)
i A (t ) = L−1 {sTJ N (s )} = TJ
dn 1 dn
= Tm (2.48)
dt rA dt
28 DC machine
n(∞ ) = 1
Tm
oscillation for <1
4T A
Tm
aperiodic limit for =1
4T A
Tm
Fig. 17: time characteristic of rotational speed for different
TA
i A (∞ ) = 0
Tm
Fig. 18: time characteristic of the armature current for different
TA
DC machine 29
If the machine operates at steadystate noload condition and the armature voltages is
changed, then the current increases, to achieve the new speed. If the speed is achieved, the
induced voltage has achieved its new steadystate value and the armature current decreases to
zero again. Depending on the magnitude of the damping this process causes oscillation or is
aperiodic.
The influence of the disturbance, i.e. the speed variation if the machine is loaded, can be
obtained for W =ˆ U A = 0 :
The physical interpretation is a stationary machine (n = 0), which is loaded with a certain
torque. The reaction is a fallingoff in speed ∆n . By linear superposition any initial condition
can be added, i.e. n = 1.
Z(s) = M w(s) + 1 G 2(s) Y(s) = N(s)
 sTj
T m = T jr A
1/r A G 1(s)
1+sT A
0 t
Fig. 20: load with rated torque
rA (1 + sTA ) dn (t )
∆n = L−1 = rA L {N (s ) + sTA N (s )} = rA n(t ) + TA
−1
s (1 + sTm + s TmTA )
(2.50)
dt
2
30 DC machine
Tm
Fig. 21: time characteristic of the speed variation for different
TA
The diagram shows the related fallingoff in speed if the machine is loaded with the rated
torque. Depending on the magnitude of the damping this process causes oscillation or is
aperiodic. In steadystate operation with rated values it is:
u A − rA ⋅ i A
n= (2.51)
iF
u A = 1 , i A = 1 , iF = 1 (2.52)
n = 1 − rA (2.53)
∆n = 1 − n = rA (2.54)
The fallingoff in speed if the machine is loaded corresponds to the referred armature
resistance rA.
DC machine 31
Tm
D= <1 (2.55)
4TA
• aperiodic characteristics are obtained if the armature voltage or the load changes for
Tm
D= >1 (2.56)
4TA
RA LA
I IA
J
n
RF LF
UN
IF
The general based set of equations in state formulation with u A = u F = 1 is applied. The iron
saturation is neglected. The machine should be not loaded mW = 0 .
= (1 − n ⋅ i F ) − i A
di A 1
TA (2.57)
dt rA
di F 1
TF = − iF (2.58)
dt rF
dn
TJ = i A ⋅ iF (2.59)
dt
With
y (t k + ∆t ) − y (t k )
= y , (t k ) (2.60)
∆t
follows
y (t k +1 ) = y (t k ) + ∆ty , (t k ) . (2.61)
It is practical to choose the same discretization for each ∆t . With y (t k ) = y (k ) the following
set of equations is obtained:
i A (k + 1) − i A (k ) 1
TA = (1 − n (k ) ⋅ i F (k )) − i A (k ) (2.62)
∆t rA
iF (k + 1) − iF (k ) 1
TF = − i F (k ) (2.63)
∆t rF
n (k + 1) − n (k )
TJ = i F (k ) ⋅ i A (k ) (2.64)
∆t
DC machine 33
A recursive set of equations is formed, by moving all the variables, which are known at the
instant t k , on the right side and then determining the new variables at the instant t k +1 . Starting
at t = 0 it is integrated stepwise. As a matter of course the scanning intervals has to be much
smaller than the least machine time constant ∆t << T .
Applied to the DC shuntwound machine the following recursive set of equations is achieved:
∆t ∆t (1 − n(k ) ⋅ iF (k ))
i A (k + 1) = 1 − i A (k ) + ⋅ (2.65)
TA TA rA
∆t 1
iF (k + 1) = i F (k ) + ⋅ − i F (k ) (2.66)
TF rF
∆t
n (k + 1) = n (k ) + ⋅ iF (k ) ⋅ i A (k ) (2.67)
TJ
The following numerical values were used in the example shown in Fig. 24:
A sharp increase of the armature current and a slow increase of the excitation current lead to a
reduced torque during the acceleration. Even though an aperiodic characteristic is expected,
because of D = Tm 4T A > 1 , the speed and the armature current overshoot, because the field
is generated with a delay.
34 DC machine
+
 + 
The general set of equations of the permanentfield DC machine in based values with
I F = I FN = const , i.e. iF = 1 is:
= (u A − n ) − i A
di A 1
TA (2.68)
dt rA
dn
TJ = i A − mW (2.69)
dt
∆t ∆t u A (k ) − n (k )
i A (k + 1) = 1 − ⋅ i A (k ) + ⋅ (2.70)
TA TA rA
∆t
n (k + 1) = n (k ) + ⋅ (i A (k ) − mW (k )) (2.71)
TJ
DC machine 35
The stepbystep solution of the set of differential equations is done using numeric methods:
Then the PIcontrollers have to be discretized as follows (illustration due to Fig. 26):
X1 + X Y
 K R 1+sT R
sT R
X2
Y (s ) 1 + sTR
= G (s ) = K R (2.72)
X (s ) sTR
dy dx
TR = K R x + TR (2.74)
dt dt
1
y (t ) = K R ∫ x(t )dt + x (2.75)
TR
1 k −1
y (k ) = K R ∑ x (i )∆t (i ) + {x (k ) (2.76)
1T i =1
3 P − Anteil
R4 4244
I − Anteil
The dimensioning of the current and speed controllers is not discussed in detail here. Suitable
values for the first attempt are:
• TRi ≈ Tm = rATJ
• K Ri ≈ 1
• TRn ≈ 10TRi
• K Rn = 5 − 10
It is important, to switch off the integralaction component if the current is limited. The figure
shows the time characteristic of speed and armature current of a permanentfield DC machine
during a setpoint stepchange of the speed from 0 to 1 and then to 1, i.e. startup and
I
reversing. The machine has no load. The current is limited to: A = 2,5 .
I AN
36 DC machine
Fig. 27: actual value and desired value (dashed line) of speed and current in based values
Those drives are often used as speedvariable servo drives for machine tools and robots. They
are high dynamic, i.e. featuring a slimline rotor to achieve low moment of inertia J ~ D 4 ⋅ l
L 1
and a small armature time constant, because T A = A ~ (because of the permanent
R A δ + hM
field, the mechanical airgap δ has to be replaced by the magnetic airgap δ + hM ).
h
Depending on the type of magnetic material, the ratio M amounts round about 2 ... 10.
δ
If a position control is applied, the cascade has an additional upperlevel controlloop.
Fig. 28 shows the general circuit diagram of a clocked DC chopper controller, consisting of a
selfcommutated thyristor switch or GTO and a freewheeling diode, connected in parallel to
the motor.
DC machine 37
Th
IM
n J
IG
UB M
φ
driving
braking
UA
U Batt
Ith
ID
t
T puls = 1/f puls T ein T aus
Fig. 29: stepup, stepdown converter, duty cycles
Besides the losses in the power semiconductor devices, the chopper controllers operates non
dissipative. With the assumption Tm >> TAF , i.e. n = const during a cycle and with
negligence of the voltage drop on the windings, it is as a first approximation:
TPuls
∫ u(t )dt = T
1 1
n ~ UA = U Batt Tein (2.77)
TPuls 0 Puls
The mean value of the motor voltage and so at least the speed is controlled by the ratio of
conducting time (Tein = Ton) and dead time (Taus = Toff) of the thyristor. The pulse frequencies
are some 100 Hz up to some kHz. The chopper controller allows only onequadrant
operation. For braking, the thyristor and the freewheeling diode has to be interchanged in the
circuit using contactors.
3 Induction machine
An arbitrary coordinate system is to be used, whose rotational speed and initial value can be
chosen freely
dα
α (t ) = ω K ⋅ t + α 0 , = ωK . (3.1 a, b)
dt
After converting the rotor quantities on the number of the stator windings, the voltage
equations of the induction machine are:
flux linkages:
Ψd' 2 id' 2 i d 1
' = L'
2 ' + Lh ⋅
⋅ (3.6)
Ψq 2 iq 2 iq1
torque equations:
J dω
( )
M el = p ⋅ Lh ⋅ iq1 ⋅ id' 2 − id 1 ⋅ iq' 2 = M W + ⋅
p dt
(3.7)
At first a suitable coordinate system is to be chosen, with assumed synchronous rotation with
the rotating field in the stator:
dα
= ω K = ω1 (3.9)
dt
α (t ) = ω1 ⋅ t + α 0 . (3.10)
For the inverse transformation into the complex notation, the choice of the constant of
integration α0 is still arbitrary. A reasonable choice appears due to Fig. 30:
U1
α(t)
+ id
⇒
inverse transformation
+
I0
q Im
iq
coordinate system complex plane
2 ⋅ U1 ⋅ Re e{ jω1⋅t
}= 2
3
{
jω1⋅t
⋅ ud 1 ⋅ Re e ⋅ e jα0
}
− uq1 ⋅ Im
14 e424{
jω1⋅t
⋅ e4 jα0
3
} (3.12)
⋅Re {( − j )⋅e 1⋅t ⋅e jα0 }
jω
ud 1 jα0 u
U1 = ⋅ e + j ⋅ q1 ⋅ e jα0 (3.13)
3 3
π
π −j
Definition for induction machines: α 0 = − , e jα0 = e 2 = − j . Then follows:
2
• quadrature axis (qaxis), in which the torque is generated, corresponds to the real axis.
• direct axis (daxis), in which the machine is magnetized, corresponds to the imaginary
axis.
uq1 ud 1
U1 = − j⋅ = U q1 + U d 1 (3.14)
3 3
Induction machine 41
iq' 2 id' 2
I2 = − j⋅ = I q2 + I d 2
' ' '
(3.17)
3 3
As the currents iq1 and id 1 in the rotating twophase system are direct currents in the steady
state operation, the currents I q1 and I d 1 in the complex notation are currents with system
1
frequency, whose r.m.s. value equals times the DC value and whose phase angle is
3
π
determined by α 0 = − .
2
•
'
I q1 and I q 2 are active currents in the complex notation.
•
'
I d 1 and I d 2 are reactive currents in the complex notation.
dΨ
=0 (3.18)
dt
dω
=0 (3.19)
dt
Torque equation and voltage equation are therefore decoupled and independent
U1 =
(
R1 ⋅ i q1 + ω 1 ⋅ L1 ⋅ id 1 + Lh ⋅ id' 2 ) − j R ⋅i
1 d1 (
− ω1 ⋅ L1 ⋅ iq1 + Lh ⋅ iq' 2 ) (3.25)
3 3
ω −ω ω1 − ω
R2' ⋅ iq' 2 + 1
ω1
(
ω1 ⋅ L'2 ⋅ i d' 2 + Lh ⋅ id 1 ) R2' ⋅ id' 2 −
ω1
(
ω1 ⋅ L'2 ⋅ iq' 2 + Lh ⋅ iq1 )
U = −j
'
2 (3.26)
3 3
U 1 = R1 ⋅ I q1 + j ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I d 1 + j ⋅ X h ⋅ I d 2 + R1 ⋅ I d 1 + j ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I q1 + j ⋅ X h ⋅ I q 2
' '
(3.27)
U 1 = R1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ X h ⋅ I 2
'
(3.29)
U 2 = R2' ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ s ⋅ X 2' ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ s ⋅ X h ⋅ I 1
' ' '
(3.30)
Finally the wellknown voltage equations of the induction machine is achieved, corresponding
to the symmetric equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) as depicted in Fig. 31.
R1 X 1σ X 2σ ' R 2'/s
I1 I0 I2 '
U1 Xh U 2'/s
3 p ω1 ⋅ Ψd 1 iq1 ω1 ⋅ Ψq1 id 1 3 p
M el = ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ = ⋅ (U iq ⋅ I q + U id ⋅ I d ) (3.31)
ω1 3 3 3 3 ω1
Induction machine 43
dΨd 1
= ud 1 − id 1 ⋅ R1 + ω1 ⋅ Ψq1 (3.32)
dt
dΨq1
= uq1 − iq1 ⋅ R1 − ω1 ⋅ Ψd 1 (3.33)
dt
dΨd' 2
= −id' 2 ⋅ R2' − (ω − ω1 ) ⋅ Ψq' 2 (3.34)
dt
dΨq' 2
= −iq' 2 ⋅ R2' + (ω − ω1 ) ⋅ Ψd' 2 (3.35)
dt
dω p
= ⋅ [p ⋅ (Ψd 1 ⋅ iq1 − Ψq1 ⋅ id 1 ) − M W ] (3.36)
dt J
id 1 (1 + σ 2 ) 0 −1 0 Ψd 1
i (1 + σ 2 )
− 1 Ψq1
q1 = 1 − σ ⋅ 0 0
⋅ (3.37)
id' 2 σ ⋅ L1h − 1 0 (1 + σ 1 ) 0 Ψd 2
'
' '
iq 2 1444 404444 −1
2444444443
0 (1 + σ 1 ) Ψq 2
[ L ]−1
The following structure diagram for induction machines, shown in Fig. 32, accords to the
discussed behavior:
Values are defined as:
• default: ω K = ω1
44 Induction machine
Initial conditions for t < 0 in case of machine being turnedoff appear as:
ud 1 = uq1 = M W = 0 (3.39)
Excitation values of the rapid acceleration case of induction machines are (for t > 0 ):
After rapidly starting up, the induction machine is operating at noload and the initial
conditions before the sudden load change are considered:
id 1 = 3 ⋅ I 0 , ω = ω1 (3.41 a,b)
For t > t L the considered induction machine is to be suddenly loaded with rated torque. The
excitation values ensue to:
o PN = 400 kW
o n0 = 1000 min −1
o U1N = 380V (verk.)
4
o I 0 = 160 A
o I 1N = 715 A
o σ = 0,05
o cosϕ N = 0,90
o M N = 3906 Nm
J ⋅ Ω0
o Tm = = 0,33s
M kipp
x x
x x
x
Advantage can be taken of this for the induction machine by choosing a rotorfluxoriented
coordinate system, which is rotating with the speed of the rotor flux
α (t ) = ω µ ⋅ t + α 0 (3.44)
ωµ = ω + ωR (3.45)
does not necessarily need to correspond with the stationary value ω1 of the stator field at
rated frequency.
Induction machine 49
Fig. 39: coordinate system, revolving at rotor flux rotational speed (d=direct, q=quadrature)
This is called fieldoriented operation. An observer, rotating with the system with α(t), detects
the same field distribution and the same torque generation as in comparable DC machines.
The result are simple relations for the controlled variables rotor flux and stator active current.
Both variables can be adjusted independently ( ⇒ compare to: DC machine).
Ψd' 2 = (1 + σ 2 ) ⋅ Lh ⋅ id' 2 + Lh ⋅ id 1 = Lh ⋅ iµ
!
(direct reference axis) (3.46)
⋅ (iµ − id 1 )
1
id' 2 = (3.48)
1+σ 2
⋅ (− iq1 )
1
iq' 2 = (3.49)
1+σ 2
50 Induction machine
⋅ (iµ − id 1 ) + Lh ⋅ µ
1 di
0 = R2' ⋅ (3.54)
1+σ2 dt
⋅ (− iq1 ) + ω R ⋅ Lh ⋅ iµ
1
0 = R2' ⋅ (3.55)
1+σ 2
T2 =
(1 + σ 2 ) ⋅ Lh L'2
= ' , (3.56)
R2' R2
The stator voltage equations do not have to be regarded further on, if the stator currents are
injected by power converters with high switching frequencies and short sampling times
(servoconverter).
Induction machine 51
The equation for iµ shows, that the direct component of the stator current controls the rotor
flux. The large rotor time constant is the controlling time constant ( ⇒ compare with the field
winding of DC machines). Therefore the magnitude of the rotor flux is not suitable for rapid
control processes.
The equation for ω R shows, how the angular speed of the rotor flux is composed of the
mechanical angular speed of the rotor and the angular speed of the slip, which results from the
active current component of the stator current and the magnitude of the rotor flux.
The torque equation describes the mechanical dynamic response and the torque generation,
which now results from the direct flux and the quadrature current ( ⇒ compare with DC
machines). If Ψd' 2 = const applies, torque M el und the angular speed ω R are proportional to
iq1 . These three equations describe the model of the induction machine in fieldoriented
coordinates.
In analogy to DC machines, an equivalent structure diagram for induction machines in field
oriented coordinates with injected stator currents can be found. This means, that under certain
conditions induction machines behave like separately excited DC machines with vanishing
time constant. At constant rotor flux the torque generation follows the quadrature current
instantaneously and the rotor flux can be adjusted solely with the direct current component.
ω µ ⋅ T2 ⋅ iµ − ω ⋅ T2 ⋅ iµ = iq1 (3.61)
diµ
T2 ⋅ + iµ = id 1 (3.62)
dt
p ⋅ Lh J dω
M el = ⋅ iµ ⋅ iq1 = M W + ⋅ (3.63)
1+σ 2 p dt
p ⋅ Lh
M el = ⋅ iµ ⋅ iq1 (3.66)
1+σ 2
id 1 i A1
i = [Tα ]⋅ i (3.67)
q1 B1
i A1 iu1
i = [T32 ] ⋅ i (3.68)
B1 v1
searched
mea Rotor
sured flux
value
For this reason induction machines can be controlled in fieldoriented coordinates with
injected currents. The following picture shows the structure diagram of a complete drive
system with speed, torque and flux controller.
PWM
T2
%
current controller
flux controller
field weakening
speed controller
The setpoint values for the flux and the torque are calculated from the speed setpoint input. In
base speed operation the machine is driven with full flux and above the synchronous speed
with field weakening (field control). Using a flux model with appropriate controller, the
setpoint values for the transformed stator direct and quadrature currents are calculated. The
threephase current setpoint values for the pulsecontrolled inverter result from an inverse
transformation. Current iµ and position α are calculated online with the flux model, with
knowledge of the measured stator current and speed values.
ω
If the machine is in standstill at the instant t = 0 and a setpoint stepchange = 1 is
ω1
enforced, the control unit injects the currents iu1 , iv1 and iw1 ( id 1 and iq1 in the flux model
after the transformation) with the pulsecontrolled inverter in such a manner, that the
L
magnetizing current iµ is builtup on its rated value with the rotor time constant T2 = 2 . The
R2
machine accelerates nearly linear according to the adjusted quadrature current iq1 max during
J ω1
the acceleration time TJ = ⋅ .
p M max
There is no overshoot and there are no oscillations any more. → high dynamic drive
iq1
3 ⋅ iN
ω
iµ ω1
3 ⋅ iN
The stator fluxlinkages as well as the currents and voltages in steadystate operation are
π
obtained by inverse transformation from rotating systems with α (t ) = ω1 ⋅ t − :
2
Ψq1 Ψd 1 L1 ⋅ iq1 + Lh ⋅ iq 2
'
L ⋅ i + Lh ⋅ id' 2
Ψ1 = − j⋅ = − j 1 d1 (3.69)
3 3 3 3
= L1 ⋅ I q1 + Lh ⋅ I q 2 + L1 ⋅ I d 1 + Lh ⋅ I d 2
' '
(3.70)
I
'
= L1 ⋅ I 1 + Lh ⋅ I 2 = L1 ⋅ I 1 + 2
'
(3.71)
1 + σ1
( *
)
= L1 ⋅ I 1 + I 2 = L1 ⋅ I 0
*
(3.72)
For this purpose the equivalent circuit diagram (see script EM I, chapter 7.2) with
w ⋅ξ
ü = 1 1 ⋅ (1 + σ 1 ) is suitable in particular.
w 2 ⋅ξ2
'
I2
I2 =
*
(3.73)
1+ σ1
*
1
σ
X 2* = ⋅ X1 (3.73)
1−σ
Fig. 44: induction machine, shortcircuit ecd
In the equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) as shown in Fig. 44, with R1 = 0 the current I 0* in the
shunt arm has to be kept constant to achieve Ψ1 = const .
U1 U1
Ψ1 = L1 ⋅ I 0 = L1 ⋅ = = const
*
(3.76)
j ⋅ X1 j ⋅ ω1
U1
This means operation on a supply with = const . The neglect of R1 is only valid for high
f1
frequencies. For lower frequencies the supply voltage must be increased to compensate the
resistance voltage drop at the stator resistance.
56 Induction machine
The locus diagram of the stator current is the wellknown Heyland diagram of induction
machines. The circle is practically parameterized with the rotor frequency.
tan (ϕ ) = * ⋅ s ~ s ⋅ ω1 = ω 2
*X 2*
2 (3.77)
R2
U1
The speed is adjusted with supply frequency and supply voltage = const .
f1
The peak value of the current is I1∞ . The maximum torque is the breakdown torque M kipp .
The relation between the breakdown slip and the rotor time constant is described by:
R2' ⋅ (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ ω1
2
R2*
ω kipp = s kipp ⋅ ω1 = * ⋅ ω1 = (3.78)
X2 σ
ω1 ⋅ L1 ⋅
1−σ
R2' ⋅ (1 + σ 1 )
2
R2' 1
= = = (3.79)
(1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ Lh ⋅ σ ⋅ (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ (1 + σ 2 ) σ ⋅ L2 σ ⋅ T2
'
M 2 2
= = (3.80)
M kipp s skipp ω 2 ω kipp
+ +
skipp s ω kipp ω 2
For different values of the supply frequency a family of characteristics is obtained, which
appears quite similar to the characteristic of DC machines for ω 2 < ω kipp .
Induction machine 57
U1N ,Str
For Ψ1 = Ψ10 (noload fluxlinkage) is I1 = I 0 N = (noload current).
X1
P=
U1 = const
con
st
1
M kipp ~ 2
f1
M = const
Again the rotor fluxlinkage as well as the stator fluxlinkage are obtained by inverse
π
transformation from the rotating system with α = ω1 ⋅ t − .
2
Practically the rotor fluxlinkage for fieldoriented operation is to be chosen. With that the
induction machine is expected to behave like a separately excited DC machine.
Ψq' 2 Ψd' 2 0 L ⋅i
Ψ2 = − j⋅ = − j⋅ h µ
'
(3.81)
3 3 3 3
We define:
+ iµ
I0 = − j ⋅ (3.82)
3
and divide Ψ2' by (1 + σ 2 )
Ψ2
'
L ⋅I (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ Lh ⋅ I 0
+ +
= (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 0
+
= h 0 = (3.83)
(1 + σ 2 ) (1 + σ 2 ) (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ (1 + σ 2 )
58 Induction machine
w1 ⋅ ξ1 1
For this purpose the equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) with ü = ⋅ is reasonable.
w 2 ⋅ ξ 2 (1 + σ 2 )
I 2 = I 2 ⋅ (1 + σ 2 ) (3.84)
+ '
R2'
R2+ = (3.85)
(1 + σ 2 )2
+
I 0 = I1 + I 2
'
(3.84)
Fig. 47: induction machine, ecd for constant rotor flux linkage
In the equivalent network with R1 = 0 the current I 0+ in the shunt arm has to be kept
constantly to achieve Ψ2' = const . This is fieldoriented operation. The voltage drop at σ ⋅ L1
has to be compensated loaddependent:
= j ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 0
U1 +
(3.87)
ω1
For this purpose the stator has to be dimensioned adequate, to avoid saturation phenomena.
Again the neglect of R1 is only valid for high frequencies. In the case of low frequencies the
supply voltage must be increased to compensate the resistance voltage drop at the stator
resistance R1 .
The locus diagram of the stator current I1 dependent on the rotor frequency ω 2 is now a line
for Ψ2' = const and the stator voltage U1 is loaddependent.
U 1 = j ⋅ σ ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ (1 − σ ) ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I 0
+
(3.88)
+ +
I 0 = I1 + I 2 (3.89)
R2+
+ I 0 ⋅ j ⋅ (1 − σ ) ⋅ X 1 = 0
+ +
I ⋅
2 (3.90)
s
For I1 follows:
I ⋅ (1 − σ ) ⋅ X 1 (1 − σ ) ⋅ ω1 ⋅ L1
+
+ + + +
I1 = I 0 − I 2 = I 0 + j ⋅ 0
= I 0 ⋅ 1+ j ⋅ (3.91)
R2+ s R2+
ω 2 ω1
+
= I 0 ⋅ 1 + j ⋅
(1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ Lh ⋅ ω 2 = I + ⋅ (1 + j ⋅ ω ⋅ T ) = I + ⋅ 1 + j ⋅ ω 2 (3.92)
' 0 2 2 0
σ ⋅ ω kipp
(1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ (1 + σ 2 ) ⋅ R2 2
(1 + σ 2 )
Induction machine 59
Specific points:
+ U 1N ,Str
• ω2 = 0 : I1 = I 0N = noload flux linkage (3.96)
j ⋅ X1
• ω2 → ∞ : I 1 → ∞ stator current (unlimited) (3.97)
ii) The reactive current is constant and equal to the noload current, the power factor cos ϕ is
is improved (=increased) compared to Ψ1 = const .
The torque is calculated with the induced voltage and the active current ( ⇒ compare to DC
machines).
3⋅ p 3⋅ p I ω
M = ⋅ U i ⋅ I 1W = ⋅ (1 − σ ) ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I 0 N ⋅ 0 N ⋅ 2 (3.100)
ω1 ω1 σ ω kipp
3⋅ p U 12N ω ω
= ⋅ ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ M kipp ⋅ 2 (3.101)
ω1 σ ω kipp ω kipp
X1 ⋅
1−σ
60 Induction machine
The speed drop in the load case is halved for Ψ2' = const compared to the case of Ψ1 = const .
L1 ⋅ I 0 N = const (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 0 N = const
U 1 R1 U 1 R1
− ⋅ I 1 = const − ⋅ I 1 − j ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 1 = const
ω1 ω1 ω1 ω1
U1 U1
for R1 = 0 : = const for R1 = 0 : − 2 ⋅ π ⋅ j ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 1 = const
f1 f1
1 − σ I 1 = I 0 N ⋅ (1 + j ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ T2 )
j⋅
σ
I 1 = I 0N ⋅ 1 +
ω kipp
+ j
ω2
speed control with ω1
ω 2 adjusts itself due to load
current entsprechend ω
2 M = 2 ⋅ M kipp ⋅ 2
M = M kipp ⋅
ω kipp ω ω kipp
+ 2
ω2 ω kipp
if ω 2 = ω kipp follows
M = M kipp (=ˆ M max ) M = 2 ⋅ M kipp (M max → ∞ )
I1W =
Iø
2
I1W = I ∞ (=ˆ i B1 3 )
I 1B =
Iø
+ I0 I1B = I 0 (=ˆ i A1 3 )
2
= σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ iq1 (3.107)
dΨd 1 L di di
ud 1 = R1 ⋅ id 1 + − ω µ ⋅ Ψq1 = R1 ⋅ id 1 + 1h ⋅ µ + σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ d 1 − ω µ ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ iq1 (3.108)
dt 1 + σ 2 dt dt
dΨq1 di L ⋅i
uq1 = R1 ⋅ iq1 + + ω µ ⋅ Ψd 1 = R1 ⋅ iq1 + σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ q1 + ω µ ⋅ 1h µ + ω µ ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ id 1 (3.109)
dt dt 1+σ2
T1 =
(1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ L1h (3.110)
R1
1 di
+ id 1 = ⋅ ud 1 + ω µ ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ iq1 − (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ µ
did 1
σ ⋅ T1 ⋅ (3.111)
dt R1 dt
+ iq1 = ⋅ (uq1 − ω µ ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ id 1 − (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ ω µ ⋅ iµ )
diq1 1
σ ⋅ T1 ⋅ (3.112)
dt R1
The stator voltage equations complete the machine model with the coaction of the stator
voltages and the stator currents.
Induction machine 63
Concerning the components of the stator currents the induction machine behaves like a first
1
order timedelay element with the time constant σ ⋅ T1 and the gain . The components of
R1
the stator currents are coupled by the right side of the equations. ω µ ⋅σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ id 1 and
ω µ ⋅σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ iq1 are rotary induced voltages, caused by the current in the particular quadrature
diµ
axis. (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ is a transformer voltage, which is caused by the change of the
dt
magnetizing current. (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ ω µ ⋅ iµ is the rotary induced voltage of the magnetizing field.
Both control systems are coupled by the stator currents and are not independent from each
other. However a decoupling is desired in such a manner, that the current controllers can be
adjusted independently. This is realized by adding compensating voltages with negative sign
to the controller output voltages uRd and u Rq , so that the coupling voltages disappear. So the
controllers see decoupled controlled systems. Assumption for the compensation: the rotor flux
di
linkage needs to be constant, i.e. µ = 0 .
dt
di u
σ ⋅ T1 ⋅ d 1 + id 1 = Rd (3.113)
dt R1
diq1 uRq
σ ⋅ T1 ⋅ + iq1 = (3.114)
dt R1
u Rd = ud 1 − ω µ ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ iq1 (3.115)
u Rq = uq1 + ω µ ⋅ σ ⋅ L1 ⋅ id 1 + (1 − σ ) ⋅ L1 ⋅ ω µ ⋅ iµ (3.116)
Fig. 51 shows the complete circuit of a fieldoriented induction machine with voltage
injecting actuator with pulsewidth modulation. A cascade control is used for the direct and
the quadraturecurrent, which can be adjusted independently with the aid of a decoupling
network. The actual values of magnitude and position of the rotor flux, which are required for
the control, are determined with a flux model (see next page for figure).
transformation
64
ω α
α ω
µ
i i
d1 A1
flux
mo [ T α]
del
m iµ i i
q1
B1 2
X
L 1h
p
1+ σ 2
i i ω iµ
d1 q1 µ
decoupl..
T
network
u Eq
u Ed
α
field flux current
i J
d1
iµ
weakening control control
ψ u
i Rd u
iµ
S  d1S  d1 ,soll u u
A1 U,soll
2
+ + i
ω U
1 u
V ,soll M
[ T α] PWM
ω m i 3~
q1
S i V
m u
+ i u q1 ,soll u
S   Rq u
q1S B1 W ,soll
3
 + + i W
Fig. 51: fieldoriented induction machine, voltage injecting actuator, pulsewidth modulation
Induction machine
4 Synchronous machine
iu u u d
α (t) id
q
ω
ud
iq
iD ,i Q i'F
uq
u' F
iF i'Q
i'D
uF
uv
iv
iw
uw
In the equivalent winding system all the windings are separated in magnetizing in direct and
quadrature axis. Five voltage equations and one torque equation apply:
dΨd
− ud = R1 ⋅ id + − ω ⋅ Ψq (4.1)
dt
dΨq
− u q = R1 ⋅ iq + + ω ⋅ Ψd (4.2)
dt
dΨF'
u F' = RF' ⋅ i F' + (4.3)
dt
dΨD'
0 = RD' ⋅ i D' + (4.4)
dt
dΨQ'
0 = RQ' ⋅ iQ' + (4.5)
dt
J dω
M el = p ⋅ (Ψd ⋅ iq − Ψq ⋅ id ) = ⋅ − MA (4.6)
p dt
In generator operation the torque on the shaft is not driving but braking:
M A = −MW (4.7)
The following relations result for 5 accordant flux linkages (summarized in a matrix):
Ψd Ld Lhd Lhd 0 0 id
Ψ ' L L'F Lhd 0 0 i F'
F hd
ΨD' = Lhd Lhd L'D 0 0 ⋅ i D' (4.8 ae)
Ψq 0 0 0 Lq Lhq iq
ΨQ' 0 0 0 Lhq L'Q iQ'
u d u u
u = [Tα ] ⋅ [T32 ] ⋅ u (4.9)
q v
id iu
i = [Tα ] ⋅ [T32 ] ⋅ i (4.10)
q v
The rotor quantities do not need to be transformed, because they are already separated in 2
dγ
perpendicular axes rotating with .
dt
So that the salientpole synchronousmachine is completely described with
o five voltage equations,
o one torque equation and
o five fluxlinkage equations
in a twoaxis system rotating with synchronous angular speed.
If damper windings are omitted and permanent magnets are treated as an injected magnetic
field, the permanentfield synchronous machine with rotor position encoder, the so called EC
motor, is also described.
The system of differential equations is nonlinear and therefore it can only be solved
completely using numerical methods on a computer. Only if the speed is defined to be
constant, an analytic solution can be found.
As it was formulated in the requirements, the zero phasesequence system is neglected. But if
the star point is connected and the load is not symmetrical, then there are a star point current
and a star point voltage:
u St = uu + uv + u w = 3 ⋅ u0 ≠ 0 (4.11)
If the zero phasesequence system is separated from the unsymmetrical system, a symmetrical
system ensues, which can handled as before:
For the zero phasesequence system additional voltage and fluxlinkage equations are
obtained, which can be solved separately:
dΨ0
− u0 = R0 ⋅ i0 + (EZS) (4.13)
dt
Ψ0 = L0 ⋅ i0 (4.14)
68 Synchronous machine
L0 and R0 can be measured, if all the three winding phases are supplied in phase:
After the inverse transformation of the solution of the symmetrical system, the solution is
added to the zero phasesequence system solution:
ud = ω ⋅ Ψq (4.17)
u q = −ω ⋅ Ψd (4.18)
i D' = 0 (4.20)
iQ' = 0 (4.21)
M A = p ⋅ (Ψq ⋅ id − Ψd ⋅ iq ) (4.22)
Ψq = Lq ⋅ iq (4.24)
The other fluxlinkages are not taken care of, the voltage equation for the excitation winding
is trivial and the damper currents in steadystate operation are equal zero. Pasting the flux
linkages results in:
ud = ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq (4.25)
⋅ (ud ⋅ id + u q ⋅ iq )
p
MA = (4.27)
ω
Synchronous machine 69
dα dγ
For the inverse transformation of the system rotating with = the choice of the
dt dt
integration constant α 0 is still free. Practically we choose for the synchronous machine:
π
α0 = − +ϑ (4.28)
2
d +Re
α( t)
U
q +
+
π
ε  ε
id Uq 2 + d
Ud
inverse
iq transformation
Im
q
Fig. 54: coordinate system Fig. 55: complex plane
ud u
U= ⋅ e jα0 + j q ⋅ e jα 0 = U d + U q (4.29)
3 3
Then the rotor axis, in which the machine is magnetized (direct axis) lags behind with an
π
angle of − + ϑ and the quadrature axis (the axis of the synchronous generated voltage) is
2
leading with an angular displacement of ϑ . As desired the terminal voltage coincides with the
real axis.
Inverse transformation:
ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq −j
π
iq
Ud = ⋅e 2
⋅ e jϑ = − jω ⋅ Lq ⋅ ⋅ e jϑ (4.30)
3 3
π
− ω ⋅ Ld ⋅ id − ω ⋅ Lhd ⋅ i F' −j
Uq = j ⋅e 2
⋅ e jϑ
3
− ji d − ji F'
= − jω ⋅ L d ⋅ ⋅ e jϑ − jω ⋅ Lhd ⋅ ⋅ e jϑ (4.31)
3 3
70 Synchronous machine
We define:
iq
Iq = ⋅ e jϑ (4.32)
3
− jid jϑ
Id = ⋅e (4.33)
3
− ji F'
IF = ⋅ e jϑ
,
(4.34)
3
Then we obtain:
U d = − jω ⋅ Lq ⋅ I q (4.35)
U q = − jω ⋅ Ld ⋅ I d − jω ⋅ Lhd ⋅ I F
'
(4.36)
and respectively:
U p = U + jX q ⋅ I q + jX d ⋅ I d (4.40)
q
jX dId
UP
For this reason the phasor diagram of
salientpole machines can be drawn, if
U and I and the directions of the d
(direct) and q(quadrature) axes are
Ud
known respectively predetermined. jX qIq U
Uq
ϑ ϕ Id
I
ψ d
Iq
I 'F
Fig. 56: SYM, phasor diagram
Synchronous machine 71
I = Id + Iq (4.42)
ψ = ϑ +ϕ (4.43)
For practical use mostly the following depiction of the phasor diagram is applied:
q
jX qI
Up
U
ϑ Id
I
ϕ d
Iq
Fig. 57: SYM, common phasor diagram
Construction manual:
• from the power supply the type of load is predetermined: U , I , ϕ are known
→ orientation of axes d and q is unknown
• phasors of jX q I and jX d I are to be drawn
• the qaxis, i.e. the direction of U p and ϑ , is determined by the straight line from the
origin through the pivot of jX q I
• based on that, the current I can be decomposed into I d and I q
• the perpendicular from the pivot of jX d I on the qaxis is due to the magnitude of U p
The phasor diagram of salient pole machines differs from that of cylindricalrotor machines in
the difference (X d − X q ) , i.e. the different admittances in d and qaxis X q ≈ 0,5...0,8 ⋅ X d .
For X q = X d = X the phasor diagram of the cylindricalrotor machine is obtained.
72 Synchronous machine
If the direct components are substituted by the rootmeansquare values, then the torque
ensues to:
3 p u d id u q iq
MA = ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ (4.46)
ω 3 3 3 3
⋅ (U d ⋅ I d + U q ⋅ I q )
3p
MA = (4.47)
ω
That means, that the active power in the d and the qaxis are adding up.
With the relations found in the phasor diagram
U p − U ⋅ cos ϑ
Id = , (4.48)
Xd
U d = U ⋅ sin ϑ (4.49)
U ⋅ sin ϑ
Iq = , (4.50)
Xq
U q = U ⋅ cos ϑ (4.51)
3p U p − U ⋅ cos ϑ U ⋅ sin ϑ
MA = ⋅ U ⋅ sin ϑ ⋅ + U ⋅ cos ϑ ⋅ (4.52)
ω Xd X q
U ⋅ U 2
3p U 1 1
= ⋅ P
⋅ sin ϑ + ⋅ − ⋅ sin 2ϑ (4.53)
ω Xd 2 X q X d
14 4244 3 1444424444 3
M Syn M Re l
M
M kipp MA
M Syn
M Rel
ϑ kipp π π ϑ
2
The torque of salientpole machines is composed of two components. The first part also
appears in cylindricalrotor machines and is depending on the excitation. It is called
synchronous torque. The second part does not depend on the excitation and results from the
difference of the permeances X d ≠ X q . This is called the reluctance torque.
The magnetic unsymmetrical rotor tries to adjust itself in such a manner, that the magnetic
energy is minimized. This does not depend on the polarity of the excitation. Therefore the
reluctance torque has twice the frequency of the synchronous torque. The breakdown torque is
π
moved to values ϑ Kipp < .
2
In low power ranges machines without excitation winding are built, only using the reluctance
torque caused by the difference of the permeances in d and qaxis. These are the so called
reluctance machines.
For X d = X q = X the torque equation of the cylindricalrotor machine is matched.
X q can be determined with a measurement of the angular displacement when the machine is
loaded with pure activepower load.
jX qI
jX dI cos ϕ = 1 (4.60)
X ⋅I
U NStr tan ϑ = q (4.61)
U NStr
UP ϑ U
X q = NStr ⋅ tan ϑ (4.62)
I
Ι
Fig. 60: SYM; phasor diagram for pure active power load
74 Synchronous machine
Small salientpole machines can be driven unexcited with a very small slip on the power
supply. Depending on the rotor position concerning the stator field different currents appear
depending on the width of air gap. The slip has to be very small (a few per mill), so that a
damper winding has no influence on the measurement. Current and voltage, oscillating with
the slip frequency, are measured.
Direct X d and quadrature component X q of the so called synchronous reactance ensue to:
U max
Xd = (4.63)
I min
U min
Xq = (4.64)
I max
The sudden short circuit is the transient phenomenon, which appears instantaneously after
shortcircuiting of the statorcircuit terminal. After all phenomena faded away, the machine is
in continued (or sustained) short circuit.
Synchronous machine 75
The solution of this problem will be carried out analytically without using a computer.
Therefore some simplifications have to be made for easing purposes:
U
q +
U
π
ε  ε
Z Y
Uq 2 + d
F
Q
ω Ud
V W
Im
X
Fig. 62: SYM, orientation of windings Fig. 63: SYM, revolving coordinate system
With the upper called simplifications the following set of equations is derived:
dΨd
− ud = − ω ⋅ Ψq (4.65)
dt
dΨq
− uq = + ω ⋅ Ψd (4.66)
dt
dΨF'
u F' = R2' ⋅ i F' + (4.67)
dt
dΨQ'
0 = R ⋅i +
'
2
'
Q (4.68)
dt
76 Synchronous machine
M A = p ⋅ (Ψq ⋅ id − Ψd ⋅ iq ) (4.69)
Ψd = L1 ⋅ id + Lh ⋅ i F' (4.70)
Ψq = L1 ⋅ i q + Lh ⋅ iQ' (4.71)
The torque equation is decoupled and can be handled separately. Before starting the solution,
initial conditions need to be predefined.
The initial state before switching is noload operation and rated voltage:
uF'
id (0 ) = 0 , i q (0 ) = 0 , iQ' (0) = 0 , iF' (0 ) = 3 ⋅ I F' 0 = (4.74 ad)
R2'
I F' 0 is the rootmeansquare value of the noload excitation current based on the stator, which
causes the induction of rated voltage at rated speed. For this case the fluxlinkages for the no
load operation are:
Ψd (0 ) = Lh ⋅ i F' (0 ) (4.75)
Ψq (0 ) = 0 (4.76)
Out of this follows the stator voltage for the noload operation:
ud (0 ) = 0 (4.79)
π
The inverse transformation with α 0 = − + ε results in:
2
ud uq − ω ⋅ Lh ⋅ i F' (0) − j π2 jε
U= ⋅ e jα 0 + j ⋅ e jα 0 =0+ j ⋅e ⋅e
3 3 3
− ji F' (0)
= − jX h ⋅ ⋅ e jε = − jX h ⋅ I F 0 = U p 0 = U NStr ⋅ e jε
'
(4.81)
3
After defining the initial conditions the solution of the system of equations for t ≥ 0 can be
started. First the voltage equations of the stator are considered. For a threephase short circuit
follows:
dΨd
− ud = 0 = − ω ⋅ Ψq (4.82)
dt
dΨq
− uq = 0 = + ω ⋅ Ψd (4.83)
dt
The solution of these two differential equations can be easily done.
Ψq and Ψd are harmonic oscillations:
Ψq (0 ) = A = 0 (4.86)
Ψd (0 ) = − B = Lh ⋅ i F' (0 ) (4.87)
Stator currents in the fluxlinkage equations are eliminated by solving the stator fluxlinkages
for stator currents and pasting them into the rotor fluxlinkages:
Ψd i'
id = − F (4.90)
L1 1 + σ 1
Ψq iQ'
iq = − (4.91)
L1 1+σ1
σ σ
⋅ Lh ⋅ i F' (0) ⋅ cos ωt +
1 1
ΨF' = ⋅ Ψd + ⋅ Lh ⋅ i F' = ⋅ Lh ⋅ i F' (4.92)
1+ σ1 1−σ 1+ σ1 1−σ
σ σ
⋅ − Lh ⋅ iF' (0) ⋅ sin ωt +
1 1
ΨQ' = ⋅ Ψq + ⋅ Lh ⋅ iQ' = ⋅ Lh ⋅ iQ' (4.93)
1 + σ1 1−σ 1 + σ1 1−σ
Besides the known stator fluxlinkages, the rotor fluxlinkages still include the unknown rotor
currents. By pasting the rotor fluxlinkages into the rotor voltage equations the differential
equations for the rotor currents are achieved:
σ di '
u F' = R2' ⋅ i F' (0 ) = R2' ⋅ i F' + ⋅ − ω ⋅ Lh ⋅ i F' (0) ⋅ sin ωt +
1
⋅ Lh ⋅ F (4.94)
1+ σ1 1−σ dt
σ diQ'
⋅ − ω ⋅ Lh ⋅ i F' (0 ) ⋅ cos ωt +
1
0 = R2' ⋅ iQ' + ⋅ Lh ⋅ (4.95)
1+ σ1 1−σ dt
78 Synchronous machine
L'2 (1 + σ 2 ) ⋅ Lh
TF 0 = = (4.96)
R2' R2'
TFK = σ ⋅ TF 0 (4.97)
diF' 1−σ
TFK ⋅ + iF' = iF' (0) ⋅ 1 + ω ⋅ TFK ⋅ ⋅ sin ωt (4.98)
dt σ
diQ' 1−σ
TFK ⋅ + iQ' = iF (0 ) ⋅ ω ⋅ TFK ⋅ ⋅ cos ωt (4.99)
dt σ
These two inhomogeneous differential equations can be solved using Laplace transformation.
1
Considering that ω ⋅ TFK >> 1 , i.e. → 0 , solutions for the rotor currents follow as:
ω ⋅ TFK
1−σ t
1 − σ − TFK
i F' = i F' (0) ⋅ 1 − ⋅ cos ωt + ⋅e (4.100)
σ σ
1−σ
iQ' = i F' (0 ) ⋅ ⋅ sin ωt (4.101)
σ
An inverse transformation is not required, because the excitation winding and the damper
winding are both arranged perpendicular and mounted on the rotating rotor. Now we know
the stator fluxlinkages and the rotor currents.
Rotor currents in the transformed system can be determined. Pasting known relations leads to:
1−σ t
1 − σ − TFK
i (0 ) ⋅ 1 −
' ⋅ cos ωt + ⋅e
Lh ⋅ i F' (0 ) ⋅ cos ωt
F
σ σ
id = − (4.102)
L1 1+σ1
1−σ
i F' (0) ⋅ ⋅ sin ωt
− Lh ⋅ i F' (0 ) ⋅ sin ωt σ
iq = − (4.103)
L1 1+ σ1
1 1 − σ −T t
i d i F' (0) σ ⋅ cos ωt − 1 + σ ⋅ e
FK
i = ⋅
(4.104)
q 1 + σ 1 1
− ⋅ sin ωt
σ
Synchronous machine 79
Now the inverse transformation to the stationary threephase system can be executed. Focus is
put on the current in phase U:
2 2 π π
iu = ⋅ iA = ⋅ id ⋅ cos ωt − + ε − iq ⋅ sin ωt − + ε (4.105)
3 3 2 2
3 ⋅ U Nstr
After pasting, converting and using i F' (0 ) = the stator current ensues to:
ω ⋅ Lh
2 ⋅ U NStr 1−σ − t
iu = ⋅ − 1 + ⋅ e TFK ⋅ sin(ωt + ε ) + 1 ⋅ sin ε (4.106)
ω ⋅ L1 σ σ
The stator current iu now consists of an alternating component, which decreases from high to
lower values, and a DC component, which does not fall off.
The bahavior of the DC component is physically not correct. The reason for this purpose is
the neglect of the stator resistance, to make the system of equations solvable analytically. To
obtain a universal valid solution for the time characteristic of the stator current, the
declination of the DC component has to be added by the factor e −t TdK .
TdK is the shortcircuit time constant of the stator winding.
L1
Td 0 = (4.107)
R1
TdK = σ ⋅ Td 0 (4.108)
Then follows:
2 ⋅ U NStr 1 − σ −t TFK −t T
⋅ sin(ωt + ε ) + ⋅ sin ε ⋅ e dK
1
iu = ⋅ − 1 + ⋅e (4.109)
ω ⋅ L1 σ σ
1 1 1 −t TFK
⋅ sin (ωt + ε ) +
1
iu = 2 ⋅ U NStr ⋅ − + − ⋅ e ⋅ sin ε ⋅ e −t TdK (4.110)
X 1 X 1K X 1 X 1K
As well as for the DC component of the stator current, the declination has to be physically
added in the corresponding alternating component of the rotor currents:
1 − σ −t TFK 1 − σ
i F' = i F' (0 ) ⋅ 1 + ⋅e − ⋅ cos ωt ⋅ e −t TdK (4.111)
σ σ
1 − σ
iQ' = i F' (0 ) ⋅ ⋅ sin ωt ⋅ e −t TdK (4.112)
σ
80 Synchronous machine
u = 2 ⋅ U ⋅ cos ωt (4.113)
1 1 1 − TFK
t
iu = 2 ⋅ U N ⋅ − + − ⋅ e ⋅ sin ωt (4.114)
X 1 X 1K X 1
π
• switching at voltage zero crossing: ε =
2
u = 2 ⋅ U ⋅ sin ωt (4.115)
1 1 1 − TFK
t
1 −
t
iu = 2 ⋅ U N ⋅ − + − ⋅ e ⋅ cos ω t + ⋅ e TdK
(4.116)
X 1 X 1K X 1 X 1K
1 − σ −T t 1−σ −
t
i F' = i F' (0) ⋅ 1 + ⋅ e FK − ⋅ cos ωt ⋅ e TdK (4.117)
σ σ
t
1−σ −
i = i (0 ) ⋅
' '
⋅ sin ωt ⋅ e TdK (4.118)
σ
Q F
• The time characteristic of the stator currents in the stator windings depends on the
instant of switching, because of the sinusoidal changing fluxlinkage before switching.
• Switching at maximum voltage: There is no DC component. The shortcircuit current
π 2 ⋅ U NStr
has a timedelay of and starts at zero crossing I u max = .
2 X
1K
• Switching at voltage zero crossing: There is a DC component in full, because the
π
shortcircuit current with a timedelay of has to be compensated to zero. After one
2
period the DC component and the alternating component add up to twice their value.
2 ⋅ U NStr
The DC component declines with TdK . I u max = 2 ⋅
X
1K
• Instantaneously after switching the magnitude of the shortcircuit current relevantly
depends on the shortcircuit reactance X 1K = σ ⋅ X 1 . The initial symmetrical short
2 ⋅ U NStr
circuit current flows. The initial symmetrical shortcircuit current declines
X 1K
with the shortcircuit time constant TFK to the sustained shortcircuit current
2 ⋅ U NStr
, which depends on the synchronous reactance.
X1
82 Synchronous machine
• The time characteristic of the rotor currents does not depend on the instant of
switching, because the fluxlinkage before switching was constant.
• The DC component of the stator current corresponds to the alternating component of
the rotor. The alternating component of the stator current corresponds to the DC
component of the rotor.
• After switching the flux linkage can not change in the shortcircuited stator winding.
Therefore the currents in the excitation winding and in the damper winding have to
magnetize oppositely and counteracting. Because of the resistance of the stator
winding, the alternating component declines with TdK . The DC component is
1
increased as well as the stator current with a factor of and declines as well as the
σ
1
alternating component of the stator current with .
TFK
• In practice the following values are typical for cylindricalrotor generator:
X1 I
o x1 = = N = 1,2 L 2
UN IN IK0
o x1K = σ ⋅ x1 = 0,15L 0,25
o TdK = 60L 250ms
o TFK = 0,5L 2s
Figures 68 and 69, showing a snapshot of the flux distribution in the synchronous machine
before the sudden short circuit and half a period after, give a simple physical explication.
φh
V 2φ h
V Z Z
φs φs
φh ω
E F
φF
X U F E
X U
W Y
W Y
For ωt < 0 the fluxlinkage in the stator winding U is maximal. Therefore the voltage in
phase U is:
u = 2 ⋅ U ⋅ sin ωt (4.119)
Ψ1 = Lh ⋅ 2 ⋅ I Fo
'
(4.120)
The synchronous machine is threephase short circuited, when phase U has its voltage zero
crossing. With neglect of the resistances of stator winding and rotor winding we obtain in
stator and rotor (for ωt ≥ 0 ):
dΨ
u= =0 , i.e. Ψ = const (4.122)
dt
i.e. a constant fluxlinkage is forced. This means, that the flux φ h , whose magnetic loop was
closed along the stator at noload operation, keeps its magnitude but is now displaced to the
magnetically worse conductive leakage path. If the rotor has turned half a revolution, the
stator winding has to generate a currentlinkage, which is able to drive a flux with the double
magnitude of the poleflux through the leakage path, to retain the original fluxlinkage.
For ωt = π follows:
Ψ1 = − Lh ⋅ 2 ⋅ I F' 0 + (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ σ ⋅ Lh ⋅ 2 ⋅ I 1 = Lh ⋅ 2 ⋅ I F' 0
!
(4.123)
and then
2 2 ⋅ I F' 0 ⋅ Lh 2 2 ⋅ U N
2 ⋅ I1 = = (4.124)
σ ⋅ L1 σ ⋅ X1
1
The sustained shortcircuit current is increased with a factor of . The relevant reactance is
σ
X 1K = σ ⋅ X 1 . When switching at voltage zero crossing, the DC component occurs entirely,
which doubles the amplitude of the sudden shortcircuit current.
o e −t TFK = 1
o e −t TdK = 1
84 Synchronous machine
(
M el = p ⋅ Lh ⋅ iq1 ⋅ i F' − i d 1 ⋅ iQ' ) (4.125)
3 ⋅ U NStr
iq = ⋅ (− sin ωt ) (4.127)
σ ⋅ ω ⋅ L1
3 ⋅ U NStr 1 − σ 1− σ 3 ⋅ U NStr
i F' = ⋅ 1 − ⋅ cos ωt + = ⋅ (1 − (1 − σ ) ⋅ cos ωt ) (4.128)
ω ⋅ Lh σ σ σ ⋅ ω ⋅ Lh
3 ⋅ U NStr
iQ' = ⋅ ((1 − σ ) ⋅ sin ωt ) (4.129)
σ ⋅ ω ⋅ Lh
− 3 p U NStr
2
M elK = ⋅ ⋅ sin ωt (4.130)
ω σ ⋅ X1
The peak transient torque oscillates at system frequency. Based on the rated torque results:
2
3 p U NStr
− ⋅ ⋅ sin ωt
M elK ω σ ⋅ X1 −1
mel = = = ⋅ sin ωt (4.131)
MN 3p
⋅ U N I N cos ϕ N x K ⋅ cos ϕ N
ω
If the numerical values are calculated, it can be seen, that the peak transient torque is
increased by a factor
1 1
L = 9,5L 5
0,15 ⋅ 0,7 0,25 ⋅ 0,8
related to the according rated torque. This is important for the dimensioning of the mechanical
system. The torque results from the coaction of the DC component of the stator current and
the rotating field of the rotor.
Synchronous machine 85
Stator current:
1 1 −
t
1 1 Td' −
t
1
iu = 2 ⋅ U N , Str ⋅ '' − ' ⋅ e Td + ' − ⋅e + ⋅ cos(ωt + ε ) ...
''
1X4 Xd X d X d Xd
{
d
4 42444 3 144 42444 3
subtransient ... transient ...
steady state ...
1 1 1 1 1 1
t t
−
−
... − cos ε ⋅ ⋅ '' + '' ⋅ e − cos(2ωt + ε ) ⋅ ⋅ '' − '' ⋅ e
TA TA
(4.133)
2 Xd Xq
2 Xd Xq
14444 4244444 3 14444442 444444 3
asymmetric... double − frequent
The single components of the shortcircuit current are determined by the magnetizing
reactances and the leakage reactances of the concerned windings. For the occurring couplings,
the equivalent magnitudes X d'' , X q'' and X d' are defined.
The subtransient reactance X d'' is the effective reactance in the daxis at first point of time.
Here the stator winding d, the damper winding D and the excitation winding F feature a
magnetic coupling at first. The reactance at sudden short circuit results from the magnetizing
reactance and the leakage reactances ( ⇒ compare with transformers). The according transient
time constant Td'' is obtained as well.
X 1σ
d X d'' = X 1σ + X hd X Dσ X Fσ
L'd'
T =
d
''
D X'' d X hd X Dσ X Fσ R1
U NStr
I K'' =
X d''
F
Besides the stator winding q only the quadratureaxis damperwinding Q is active in the q
axis. For the calculation of the quadratureaxis subtransient reactance X q'' , the simple parallel
connection of the magnetizing reactance and the damper winding in the qaxis are gained.
X 1σ
X q'' = X 1σ + X hq X Qσ
X'' q X hq X Qσ
Q X '' = X +X X
If the influence of the damper winding is declined rapidly, still the excitation winding and the
short circuited stator winding in the daxis are coupled. The transient reactance X d' and the
transient time constant Td' are calculated as follows:
X 1σ
d
X d' = X 1σ + X hd X Fσ
L'd
X' d X hd Td' =
X Fσ R1
U
I K' = NStr
F X d'
A transient reactance X q' does not exist, because there is no other winding in the rotor qaxis
besides the damper winding.
After the declination of the longer lasting transient process, the stator current fades to the
sustained shortcircuit current, which is determined by the direct reactance X d .
U NStr
IK = (4.134)
Xd
The appearing DC component depends on the instant of switching. Switching at zero voltage
crossing results in an entire DC component. If the switching is executed at maximum voltage,
no DC component comes up. The DC component falls off with the asymmetric time constant
TA .
1 2⋅ L ⋅ L
'' ''
The doublefrequency component, as well dropping with the asymmetric time constant TA ,
results from the magnetic asymmetry X d'' ≠ X q'' at first instant.
Standard machines with directaxis and quadratureaxis damperwinding are not asymmetrical
because of X d'' ≈ X q'' .
For this reason the doublefrequency component disappears and the time constant TA is equal
to the subtransient time constant T A ≈ Td'' .
Fig. 73: sudden shortcircuit current with maximum DC component, one phase
The maximum peak of the sudden shortcircuit current in phase U occurs half a period after
shortcircuiting the three phases at voltage zero crossing of phase U. The amplitudes of the
subtransient and the DC component add up. Regarding the damping, the current peak is:
U NStr
I S = 2 ⋅ 1,8 ⋅ (4.136)
X d''
In agreement with a VDE (association of german electrical engineers), the maximum value
has to be smaller than 15 times the peak value of the rated current, because of the high
occurring forces and oscillating torques.
1,8
o X d'' ≥ = 0,12
15
88 Synchronous machine
Typical values of the reactances and time constants of salientpole machines with definite
damper winding are:
Those reactances and time constants can be determined from the sudden shortcircuit.
dΨd
= −ud − id ⋅ R1 + ω ⋅ Ψq (4.137)
dt
dΨq
= −u q − iq ⋅ R1 − ω ⋅ Ψd (4.138)
dt
dΨF'
= u F' − iF' ⋅ RF' (4.139)
dt
dΨD'
= −iD' ⋅ RD' (4.140)
dt
dΨQ,
= −iQ, ⋅ RQ, (4.141)
dt
dω p
= ⋅ [M A − p ⋅ (Ψq ⋅ id − Ψd ⋅ iq )] (4.142)
dt J
Therefore the inductivity matrix has to be inverted. This is not explained in detail here.
For this reason the complete system of equations is known as interpreted in the shown
structure diagram (Fig. 74), which has to be solved – using:
o excitation values: ud , u q , u F , M A
id
R1
R 1 id
ud   ψd ψd
ωψ q +
P
dω
ω +
dt P +
J MA

ωψ d P
uq  ψq ψq
(L) 1
 
R 1i q iq
R1
uF' + ψ F' ψ F'

R FiF' iF'
RF
ψ D' ψ D'

R DiD' iD'
RD
ψ Q' ψ Q'

R QiQ' iQ'
RQ
1) Initial conditions for t < 0 need to be predefined, for example noload operation at
rated voltage and synchronous speed.
ud (0 ) = +ω ⋅ Ψq (0 ) = 0 (4.145)
and M A = 0 .
90 Synchronous machine
π
Practically we define α = ω ⋅ t − + ε . Then it is:
2
π
⋅ (ud (0 ) ⋅ cos α − u q (0 ) ⋅ sin α ) =
2 2
u1u 0 = ⋅ 0 + 3 ⋅ U NStr ⋅ sin ωt − + ε
3 3 2
= 2 ⋅ U ⋅ cos(ωt + ε ) (4.148)
ud = u q = 0
ud = 0 , u q = 3 ⋅ U NStr
M A = 0, u F, = RF ⋅ i F, (0 )
Fig. 75: salientpole machine, sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchronizing: stator current iU
Fig. 76: sal. pole machine, sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchronizing:excitation current i F
92 Synchronous machine
Fig. 77: sal. pole machine, sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchr.: direct stator current id
Fig. 78: sal. pole mach., sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchr.: quadrature stator current iq
Synchronous machine 93
Fig. 79: salient pole mach., sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchr.: direct damper current i D
Fig. 80: sal. pole mach., sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchr.: quadrature damp. current iQ
94 Synchronous machine
Fig. 81: salient pole machine., sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchronization.: torque M
Fig. 82: salient pole machine., sudden shortcircuit and coarse synchronization.: speed n
Synchronous machine 95
• Because the switching instant was at the zero voltage crossing of phase U, the stator
current iu contains an extended DC component. The time constant for the slope of the
sustained shortcircuit current is Td'' respectively Td' .
1
• The excitation current jumps to a value, which is times the noload value, and falls
σ
off corresponding to the stator current. DC components of stator currents cause an
alternating component of the excitation current.
• The damper currents iD and iQ are only effective at first instant after switching,
anytime else they are equal zero.
• Even though the driving torque remains constant, the speed declines after short
circuiting because of the ohmic losses in the resistances.
After the sudden shortcircuit the machine was coarse synchronized by reconnecting to the
power supply and again transient phenomena occur with high current and torquepeaks.
96 Synchronous machine
1.) It is assumed, that the speed of the machine is constant during the transient
phenomenon. The bigger the moment of inertia of the rotating machine, the better this
assumption is fulfilled.
2.) The effect of the damper winding is not taken into consideration, because the
subtransient phenomenon declines rapidly. In lots of cases there is no damper winding
at all.
3.) The induced voltage components in the voltage equations can be neglected in
contrast to the rotary induced voltage (ωT >> 1) . Therefore the DC components of the
currents do not occur.
4.) The excitation fluxlinkage during the transient phenomenon is assumed to be
constant, i.e. the excitation current changes according to the stator current. This
assumption is fulfilled, if the resistance of the excitation winding is very small
(RF = 0) , because the shortcircuited winding keeps its flux constant dΨF = 0 and
dt
ΨF = const . The assumption can be fulfilled too, if the machine is equipped with a
voltage controller to compensate the ohmic voltage drop if the current changes, i.e.
dΨF
u F − RF ⋅ i F = 0 = .
dt
5.) The resistance of the stator winding can be neglected: R1 = 0
u F' = 0 (4.151)
o currents:
i D' ⇒ does not appear!
iQ' ⇒ does not appear!
Synchronous machine 97
o torque
M W = p ⋅ (Ψq ⋅ i d − Ψd ⋅ i q ) (4.152)
o flux linkages
Ψd = Ld ⋅ i d + Lhd ⋅ i F' (4.153)
ΨF' = Lhd ⋅ id + L'F ⋅ i F' (4.154)
ΨD' ⇒ does not appear!
Ψq = Lq ⋅ iq (4.155)
Flux linkages Ψd and Ψq are inserted into the voltage equations and the inverse
π
transformation with α 0 = − + ϑ is to be executed according to section 4.2.
2
ud ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq − j 2 jϑ π
Ud = ⋅ e jα0 = ⋅ e ⋅ e = − jX q ⋅ I q (4.156)
3 3
Uq = j
uq
⋅ e jα 0 = j
(
− ω ⋅ Ld ⋅ i d + Lhd ⋅ i F' )⋅e −j
π
2
⋅ e jϑ = − jX d ⋅ I d − jX hd ⋅ I F
'
(4.157)
3 3
whereas
iq
Iq = ⋅ e jϑ (4.158)
3
id
Id = − j ⋅ e jϑ (4.159)
3
i F'
=−j ⋅ e jϑ
'
I F (4.160)
3
besides
U p = − jX hd ⋅ I F
'
(4.161)
The inverse transformation is done for the excitation flux in the direct axis in the same way:
The index “0” describes the state before switching. If the excitation fluxlinkage has to be
constant after switching, then it has to be:
This means, that the excitation current changes according to the stator current:
I d0 − I d
I F = I F0 +
' '
(4.164)
1+ σ 2
' I − Id
U q = − jX d ⋅ I d − jX hd ⋅ I Fo + d 0 (4.165)
1442 1 + σ 2
443
I 'F
1 jX d ⋅ I d 0
= jX hd ⋅ I F 0 − jX d ⋅ I d ⋅ 1 − −
'
(4.166)
(1 + σ 1 )(1 + σ 2 ) (1 + σ 1 )(1 + σ 2 )
= U p 0 − jX d' ⋅ I d − j (1 − σ )X d ⋅ I d 0 (4.167)
U p = U p 0 − j (1 − σ ) X d ⋅ I d 0 = U q + X d' ⋅ I d = const
'
1.) (4.168)
' I −Id
U p = − jX hd ⋅ I F = − jX hd ⋅ I Fo + d 0
'
(4.169)
1+σ 2
jX d ⋅ I d 0 jX d ⋅ I d
= − jX hd ⋅ I F 0 − +
'
(4.170)
(1 + σ 1 )(1 + σ 2 ) (1 + σ 1 )(1 + σ 2 )
= U p 0 − j (1 − σ ) X d ⋅ I d 0 + j (1 − σ ) X d ⋅ I d (4.171)
U p = U p + j (1 − σ )X d ⋅ I d
'
2.) (4.172)
3.) U d = − jX q ⋅ I q (4.173)
Aspects 1), 2) and 3) describe the transient operation of a salientpole machine, i.e. the
transient phenomenon after switching. The following cases need to be distinguished:
Now the U p is not constant anymore regarding the phasor diagram for the transient operation,
but U 'p = const . The voltage U p changes according to I d . The value of U p' can be
determined using the initial conditions before switching.
Up
jX dI
(1
σ )X
d
Id
jX qI
Ud
jX' dId
Id
U'p jX qIq
U I
Uq
Iq ϑ ϕ
⋅ (U d ⋅ I d + U q ⋅ I q )
3p
M = (4.174)
ω
U 'p − U q Ud
Id = ,
Iq = (4.175 a,b)
X d Xq
U d = U ⋅ sin ϑ U q = U ⋅ cos ϑ (4.176 a,b)
3 p U p − U ⋅ cos ϑ U ⋅ sin ϑ
'
3 p U p ⋅ U 1 1 U 2
'
1.) The electrical sudden load change, caused by a switching in the power supply
network. The supply voltage and the supply reactance are suddenly changed.
Because U p' has to be constant, the currents I d and I q change stepwise, because
the supply voltage and the supply frequency are suddenly changed. Therefore the
generated torque is changed too. Instantaneously after switching, ϑ is equal ϑ0 ,
because the speed does not change immediately due to the moment of inertia. The
speed of the machine does not change fast, therefore there is a surplus/shortfall of
torque, which causes a motion process ϑ (t ) of the rotor. The resulting currents and
the time characteristic of the torque in transient operation can be determined using
the precondition U 'p = const .
2.) The mechanical sudden load change, caused by a stepwise change of the driving
torque. The supply voltage and the supply reactance do not change in this case.
Shortly after the sudden load change, the same currents flow as before. Therefore
the synchronous machine generates the same torque as before. The surplus/shortfall
of torque causes a motion process ϑ (t ) of the rotor. Therefore the currents and the
torque of the synchronous machine change. Their time characteristic can be
determined using the precondition U 'p = const .
After the declination of the transient phenomenon, a new steadystate operating state adjusts
itself gradually.
For easier description the following base values (so called “perunit quantities”) are to be
used:
U
u= (4.179)
U NStr
I
i= (4.180)
I NStr
IF Up
iF = = (4.181)
I F 0 U NStr
R
r= (4.182)
U NStr I N
X
x= (4.183)
U NSr I N
M M M
m= = = (4.184)
M N 3 p ⋅ U ⋅ I ⋅ cos ϕ M SN ⋅ cos ϕ N
ω
NStr N N
Synchronous machine 101
u 'p − u ⋅ cos ϑ
id = (4.187)
x d'
u 'p 1−σ
iF = − ⋅ u ⋅ cos ϑ (4.188)
σ σ
iF
transient
stationary
1
π π
ϑ ϑ
N 2
Fig. 84: current i F versus ϑ
1 u 1 1 1
o steadystate m= ⋅ p ⋅ sin ϑ + ⋅ − ⋅ sin 2ϑ (4.189)
cos ϕ N x d 2 x q x d
1 u 'p 1 1 1
o transient m= ⋅ ' ⋅ sin ϑ + ⋅ − ' ⋅ sin 2ϑ (4.190)
cos ϕ N x d 2 x q x d
m
π
ϑ kipp > 2 transient
stationary
1
ϑ kipp < π
2
ϑN π π ϑ
2
Fig. 85: torque m vs. ϑ
102 Synchronous machine
Because of the constant flux in the excitation winding, the machine compounds itself during
the transient phenomenon by increasing the excitation current and with it the torque on a
multiple of the rated values. Therefore the dynamic stability is increased to angular
displacements of more than 90° (electrical).
The transient phenomenon of a sudden load change in power supply operation and the self
compounding because of the constant excitation flux can be illustrated with the phasor
diagram.
u 'p − u q
id = (4.196)
x d'
i = id + iq (4.197)
up
u' p uq
Fig. 86: phasor diagram
Synchronous machine 103
The transient theory can also be applied for isolated operation. Again applying U 'p = const
U p' is determined from the instant before switching. Because of the constant flux in the
excitation winding, the currents and voltages instantaneously after switching result from
U 'p = const .
After a certain period time, if the transient phenomenon has fallen off, U p = const is applied.
For this reason the currents and voltages for the most recent steadystate can be determined.
Between initial and final state there is a transient phenomenon with Td 0 ( TF 0 ) if the stator
winding is opencircuited or short circuited, respectively TdK ( TFK ) if the excitation winding
is opencircuited or short circuited.
Example: Synchronous machine connected to power supply; rated current and cos ϕ = 0
(inductive) assumed.
up jx di Values:
o u = 1, i = 1, ϕ = 90°
o uq = 1 , ud = 0
jx' di
o iq = 0 , id = 1
o u p = 1 + xd = iF
u=1
u' p o u 'p = 1 + x d'
i=1
Fig. 87: synchronous machine, phasor diagram
o after a long period of time we obtain for the new steadystate operation:
u = u p + x d ⋅ id (4.200)
{
=0
104 Synchronous machine
( )
−
u = up + u − up ⋅ e
'
p
TF 0
(4.202)
u=u p
u=1 u=u' p
t
Fig. 88: time characteristic
U p = U 'p + (1 − σ dF ) ⋅ X d ⋅ I d = U q + X d ⋅ I d (4.204)
Ud = X q ⋅ Iq (4.205)
Synchronous machine 105
Td 0
stator field opencircuited
TdK field shortcircuited
case: switching appears in field.
TF 0 stator opencircuited
Feld
TFK stator shortcircuited
Permanentfield synchronous machines with rotor position encoder are also known as servo
motors.
Function:
The threephase winding of the stator is supplied with a squarewave or sinusoidal three
phase system depending on the rotor position. Thus a rotating m.m.f is caused, which rotates
with the exact rotor speed and which generates a time constant torque in coaction with the
magnetic field of the permanentfield rotor. The rotating field in the stator is commutated
depending on the rotor position in such a manner, that the rotating m.m.f in the stator and the
rotor field are perpendicular with a constant electrical angle of 90°.
Thus results an operating method, which does not correspond to the operating method of
synchronous machines anymore, but to that of DC machines. Here the armature current
linkage and the excitation field are also perpendicular with a constant electrical angle of 90°.
This constant angle is adjusted mechanically with the commutator of the DC machine.
The constant angle of a permanentfield synchronous machine with rotor position encoder is
adjusted electrically using a power inverter. This machine type can not fall out of
synchronism anymore and behaves like a DC machine. That is why the machine is also called
“electronically commutated DC motor (ECmotor)”.
108 Servomotor
hM
ECmotors are used in machine
δ tools and robotic devices
u because of their excellent
x x
x
x x
x dynamic behavior simple
x
x x
x
controllability. The brushless
x
y technique has a low rate of wear
z φM
x
x x and is maintenancefree.
x α iπ x
x θq p x
q
v w
Due to Lq ≠ Ld a suitable coordinate system is to be chosen, requiring to rotate with the rotor,
dα dγ
= . (5.206)
dt dt
Servomotor 109
Practically the previously discussed coordinate system for salientpole machines without
damper windings is used. The load reference arrow system for motor operation is applied on
the considered case.
There are only voltage equations and the fluxlinkage of the stator winding, but no voltage
equation for the permanent magnets. The constant rotor flux ΨM in the daxis, which is
caused by the permanent magnets, is considered by a constant equivalent excitation current
iF' 0 in the equation for the stator fluxlinkage in the daxis. The stator winding has no effect
on the permanent magnets.
dΨd
ud = R1 ⋅ id + − ω ⋅ Ψq (5.1)
dt
dΨq
uq = R1 ⋅ iq + + ω ⋅ Ψd (5.2)
dt
J dω
M el = p ⋅ (Ψd ⋅ iq − Ψq ⋅ id ) = ⋅ + MW (5.3)
p dt
Ψq = Lq ⋅ iq (5.5)
The fluxlinkages can be directly pasted into the stator voltage equation and into the torque
equation.
did
ud = R1 ⋅ id + Ld ⋅ − ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq (5.6)
dt
diq
uq = R1 ⋅ iq + Lq ⋅ + ω ⋅ Ld ⋅ id + ω ⋅ Lhd ⋅ iF' 0 (5.7)
dt
(
M el = p ⋅ Lhd ⋅ i F' 0 ⋅ iq + Ld ⋅ id ⋅ iq − Lq ⋅ iq ⋅ id ) (5.8)
[ ]
= p ⋅ Lhd ⋅ i F' 0 − id ⋅ (Lq − Ld ) ⋅ iq =
J dω
⋅
p dt
+ MW (5.9)
110 Servomotor
For this reason the dynamic system of equation can be simplified and the torque equation is
decoupled.
ud = R1 ⋅ id − ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq (5.12)
[ ]
M el = p ⋅ Lhd ⋅ iF' 0 − id ⋅ (Lq − Ld ) ⋅ iq (5.14)
After the inverse transformation into the complex notation, the rotor axis, which is the
magnetizing axis of the permanent magnets, is pointing in direction of the negative imaginary
axis and the qaxis, where the torque is generated, is orientated to the real axis ( ⇒ compare
with induction machine).
ud j⋅α0 u
U= ⋅ e + j ⋅ q ⋅ e j⋅α0 = U d + U q (5.17)
3 3
R1 ⋅ id − ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq
Ud = ⋅ (− j ) = R1 ⋅ I d + j ⋅ X q ⋅ I q (5.18)
3
R1 ⋅ iq + ω ⋅ Ld ⋅ id + ω ⋅ Lhd ⋅ iF' 0
Uq = j⋅ ⋅ (− j ) = R1 ⋅ I q + j ⋅ X d ⋅ I d + j ⋅ X hd ⋅ I F 0
'
(5.19)
3
iq id iF' 0
Iq = Id = − j⋅ I F0 = − j ⋅
'
, , (5.20 ac)
3 3 3
Servomotor 111
With:
U p = j ⋅ X hd ⋅ I F 0
'
(5.21)
U = R1 ⋅ (I d + I q ) + j ⋅ X q ⋅ I q + j ⋅ X d ⋅ I d + U p (5.22)
3⋅ p i
⋅ ω ⋅ Lhd ⋅ F 0 − d ⋅ (ω ⋅ Lq − ω ⋅ Ld ) ⋅ q
i' i
M el = (5.23)
ω 3 3 3
3⋅ p
M el = ⋅ [U p − I d ⋅ (X q − X d )]⋅ I q (5.24)
ω
Based on the knowledge of equations 5.17  5.22 the phasor diagram can be drawn. U p and
I q are in phase. Two modes need to be distinguished:
RΙq R Ιq
j XdΙ d
Up U p
ϑ Ι= Ι Ι
q
Ι ϑ q
U
ϕ ψ
ϕ
d d
Ι Ι d Ι F0
F0
Thus the total current consumption is decreased. At the same time the phase displacement
between terminal voltage and stator current is reduced, so a power factor cos ϕ of nearly 1 is
obtained. This method allows an operation with lower current consumption and therefore with
lower copper losses. Thus the utilization of the machine is increased, power of the converter
output power is reduced. With increasing difference (X q − X d ) this so called precontrol
ψ < 0 becomes more and more effective.
The characteristics of the permanentfield synchronous machine with rotor position encoder
in steadystate operation can be determined using the direct and quadrature components of the
voltage equations and the torque equation.
U d = R1 ⋅ I d − X q ⋅ I q (5.25)
U q = R1 ⋅ I q + X d ⋅ I d + U p (5.26)
3⋅ p
M = ⋅ (U p − I d ⋅ (X q − X d ))⋅ I q (5.27)
ω
3 ⋅ p ω ω
M = ⋅ ⋅ U p 0 − I d ⋅ ⋅ (X q 0 − X d 0 ) ⋅ I q (5.33)
ω ω 0 ω0
Finally results:
o speed (shunt characteristic)
n ω U q − R1 ⋅ I q
= = (5.34)
n0 ω 0 U p 0 + X d 0 ⋅ I d
o torque (shunt characteristic)
3⋅ p
M = ⋅ [U p 0 − I d ⋅ (X q 0 − X d 0 )]⋅ I q (5.35)
ω0
o control instruction (electrical commutator):
ω
U d = R1 ⋅ I d − ⋅ X q0 ⋅ I q (5.36)
ω0
Servomotor 113
n M
U
q =
U
NS
, Ι
tr
n d <
0 0
U
q =
U
<0
NS
tr , Ι Ι d
d =
0
Mk
U
q < U
Ι = 0
, Ι
NS
tr
d
d = 0
U N Str Ιq
Ι qmax =
R1
By setpoint selection of the voltage U q ≤ U NStr the speed can be adjusted nondissipative in
the speed range n ≤ n0 . By injecting a negative direct current − I d with a voltage component
U d the speed can be further increased in spite of the permanent field. Torque increases
simultaneously.
114 Servomotor
dα
The transformation of the stator voltages to a rotating system with = ω is done as usual:
dt
u d u u
u = [Tα ]⋅ [T32 ]⋅ u (5.42)
q v
Based on this, the structure diagram of a complete servo drive can be drawn. Besides the
machine model a PWMconverter and the speed control are included.
Thus the machine can be simulated and computational calculated with (spiceoriented)
simulation tools.
excitation values: ud , uq , mW
state values: id , iq , ω
π
initial conditions: id (0 ) = iq (0) = ω (0) = 0 , α0 = −
2
α iq
ω
Ι i qS ω
u US u BS u qS   + ωS
2
+
u VS 1
iq
PWM [ Tα ]
u WS u AS u dS  ω
3 X Lq
+
R1 id
8
ω
Tq X
ω T iq
q
iF0' Lhd
id iq
Td id
uU uA ud 1 +   +
L q L d
3 R1
+
uV
[ Tα ]
iq mW
Tq J
uW uB uq 1 +  iq  p ω
2 p X
R1
 +
IF0 ' L hd
ω T di d ω
R1
+ id
X Td
ω iF0' Lhd
R1
α
The machine is controlled in such a manner, that armature currentlinkage and excitation field
are perpendicular in normal operation. This means that, if the flux of the permanent magnets
is represented by Lhd ⋅ iF' 0 , the stator current has no direct component id = 0 and the
quadrature component iq is the torquegenerating component.
ud
+ ω ⋅ Tq ⋅ iq = 0 (5.43)
R1
ud = −ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq (5.44)
If a control method with id ≠ 0 is applied, for example fieldweakening id < 0 , the voltage
control in the daxis has to be:
ud
+ ω ⋅ Tq ⋅ iq = id∞ (5.45)
R1
ud = −ω ⋅ Lq ⋅ iq + R1 ⋅ id∞ (5.46)
−
t
id = id∞ ⋅ 1 − e Td (5.47)
116 Servomotor
Voltage in the quadrature axis results from the speed which is supposed to be adjusted. For
example at noload operation and rated frequency:
uq L
− ω ⋅ hd ⋅ iF' 0 = 0 (5.48)
R1 R1
λ power factor, thermal conductivity; wave length; ordinal number; reduced magnetic
conductivity
Λ magnetic conductivity
µ permeability; ordinal number
υ ordinal number; kinematic viscosity
ξ winding factor
ρ specific resistance
σ leakage factor; tensile stress
τ general partition; tangential force
Φ magnetic flux
ϕ phase displacement between voltage and current
ψ flux linkage
ω angular frequency
124 Appendix
6.2 Units
The following table contains most important physical variables and their symbols and units to
be used. An overview of possible unit conversions is given in the right column additionally.
length L Meter m
1 h (hour) = 3600 s
celsiustemperature ϑ Degree °C ϑ = T – T0
Centigrade
area A  m2
1 N = 1 kg·m/s2
pressure P Pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2
1 kp / m2 = 1 mm WS
GD2 = 4 J / kgm2
energy W Joule J 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws
1 Ws = 0,102 kpm
capacity C Farad F 1 F = 1 As / V
εr = relative diel.constant
inductance L Henry H 1 H = 1 Vs / A = 1 Ωs
1 M (Maxwell) =
8
10 Vs = 1 Gcm
126 Appendix
1 T = 104 G (Gauß)
1 G = 108 Vs / m2
1 A / m = 102 A / cm
magn.motive force θ  A
magn. potential V  A
µ0 = 1 G / Oe
permeability µ   µ = µ0µr
µr = relative permeability
α = lcurve / r
7 Literature reference list
Books and scripts listed as follows may exceed the teaching range significantly. Nevertheless
they are recommended best for a detailed and deeper understanding of the content of this
lecture.
B. Adkins
The general Theory of electrical Machines, Chapman and Hall, London
Ch.V. Jones
The unified Theory of electrical Machines, Butterworth, London
ElectroCraft Corporation
DC Motors, Speed Controls, Servo Systems, Pergamon Press
Ch. Concordia
Synchronous Machines, John Wiley, New York
Bahram Amin
Induction Motors – Analysis and Torque Control
Peter Vas
Vector Control of AC Machines, Oxford Science Publications
T.J.E. Miller
Switched Reluctance Motors and their control, Magna Pysics Publishing