You are on page 1of 115

Government of India

Ministry of Power
Central Electricity Authority

100 MW DIBBIN H.E. PROJECT


ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Preliminary Feasibility Report


July 2004

Consultant :
50,000 MW HYDROELECTRIC INITIATIVES

Government of India
Ministry of Power
Central Electricity Authority

100 MW DIBBIN H.E. PROJECT


ARUNACHAL PRADESH

Preliminary Feasibility Report


July 2004

Consultant :
North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd.
(A Government of India Enterprise)
ISO 9001-2000
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Table of Contents
FOREWORD .............................................................................................................................................................. 1
SALIENT FEATURES .............................................................................................................................................. 2
CHAPTER I ....................................................................................................................EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 5
1.2 SCOPE OF WORK...................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 HYDROLOGY ............................................................................................................................................. 6
1.4 POWER POTENTIAL STUDIES.............................................................................................................. 6
1.5 POWER EVACUATION ASPECTS......................................................................................................... 7
1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS................................................................................................................ 7
1.8 FINANCIAL ASPECTS.............................................................................................................................. 8
1.9 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 8

CHAPTER II................................................................................................................PROJECT BACKGROUND


2.1 ARUNACHAL PRADESH ....................................................................................................................... 10
2.2 THE RIVER SYSTEM.............................................................................................................................. 11
2.3 THE PROJECT.......................................................................................................................................... 12
2.4 POWER SCENARIO ................................................................................................................................ 12
2.5 NECESSITY OF THE PROJECT ........................................................................................................... 14
2.6 INFRASTRUCTURE ................................................................................................................................ 15
2.7 PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS............................................................................................................. 16

CHAPTER III ................................................................................................................................PROJECT AREA


3.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT INCLUDING RIVER SYSTEM....................................................... 19
3.2 SOCIO – ECONOMIC AND OTHER ASPECTS ................................................................................. 22

CHAPTER IV.....................................................................................TOPOGRAPHICAL & GEOTECHNICAL


4.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 29
4.2 LOCATION ................................................................................................................................................ 29
4.3 GEOMORPHOLOGY/PHYSIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................ 29
4.4 REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF EAST KAMENG DISTRICT ............................................................... 30
4.5 TECTONICS .............................................................................................................................................. 32
4.6 NEOTECTONICS, SEISMICITY & EARTHQUAKES ...................................................................... 34
4.7 SEISMICITY.............................................................................................................................................. 34
4.8 GEOTECHNICAL APPRAISAL ............................................................................................................ 34
4.9 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS ........................................................................................................... 35
4.10 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................. 36

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative i


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER V ...................................................................................................................................... HYDROLOGY


5.1 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................. 39
5.2 BASIN CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................................. 39
5.3 METEOROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF KAMENG BASIN ........................................................... 40
5.4 PROJECT PROPOSAL ............................................................................................................................ 40
5.5 WATER AVAILABILITY STUDIES ..................................................................................................... 40
5.6 METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................................................... 43
5.7 DESIGN FLOOD STUDIES ....................................................................................................................... 44

CHAPTER VI...................................................................................... CONCEPTUAL LAYOUT & PLANNING


6.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 52
6.2 RIVER DIVERSION WORK................................................................................................................... 52
6.3 DIVERSION DAM..................................................................................................................................... 54
6.4 DESILTING TANK ................................................................................................................................... 57
6.5 INTAKE CHANNEL AND POWER INTAKE...................................................................................... 58
6.6 HEAD RACE TUNNEL ............................................................................................................................ 58
6.7 SURGE SHAFT.......................................................................................................................................... 59
6.8 PENSTOCKS.............................................................................................................................................. 60
6.9 POWER HOUSE........................................................................................................................................ 60
6.10 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................... 61
6.11 TAIL RACE CHANNEL .......................................................................................................................... 61
6.12 FURTHER STUDIES ................................................................................................................................ 61

CHAPTER VII ...................................................................................................................... POWER POTENTIAL


7.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 64
7.2 FIXATION OF FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL ....................................................................................... 64
7.3 FIXATION OF MINIMUM DRAW DOWN LEVEL........................................................................... 64
7.4 FIXATION OF TAIL WATER LEVEL ................................................................................................. 65
7.5 DISCHARGE DATA ................................................................................................................................. 65
7.6 OPERATING HEAD................................................................................................................................. 66
7.7 EFFICIENCY ............................................................................................................................................. 66
7.8 INSTALLED CAPACITY ........................................................................................................................ 66
7.9 ENERGY GENERATION ........................................................................................................................ 67
7.10 UNIT SIZE.................................................................................................................................................. 67
7.11 SUMMARY OF RESULTS ...................................................................................................................... 67
7.12 FURTHER STUDIES ................................................................................................................................ 68

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative ii


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER VIII ................................................................................................................ POWER EVACUATION


8.1 APPRAISAL OF EXISTING POWER EVACUATION FACILITIES.............................................. 70
8.2 PROPOSED EVACUATION SYSTEM TO NEAREST FACILITY.................................................. 70
CHAPTER IX................................................................................................................ENVIRONMENT ASPECT
9.1 GENERAL INFORMATION................................................................................................................... 74
9.2 SUBMERGENCE AREA.......................................................................................................................... 74
9.3 RIVER SYSTEM ....................................................................................................................................... 75
9.4 SEISMICITY.............................................................................................................................................. 75
9.5 EXISTING LANDUSE/LANDCOVER AROUND THE PROPOSED DAM SITE .......................... 76
9.6 FOREST TYPES IN THE VICINITY OF PROJECT AREA ............................................................. 77
9.7 FAUNAL ELEMENTS AROUND THE PROJECT AREA................................................................. 79
9.8 EXISTENCE OF ANY PROTECTED AREA/ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES.................................. 79
9.9 HUMAN SETTLEMENT ......................................................................................................................... 80
9.10 RELIEF AND REHABILITATION........................................................................................................ 80
9.11 RECOMMENDATIONS AND MITIGATIVE MEAUSRES............................................................... 80

CHAPTER X ........................................................................................................................... INFRASTRUCTURE


10.1 THE PROJECT.......................................................................................................................................... 81
10.2 ACCESS ROADS ....................................................................................................................................... 82
10.3 IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING STATE HIGHWAY ROAD.......................................................... 82
10.4 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW ROADS .................................................................................................... 83
10.5 CONSTRUCTION FACILITIES............................................................................................................. 83
10.6 PROJECT ROADS .................................................................................................................................... 83
10.7 PROJECT HEADQUARTERS, OFFICES AND COLONIES ............................................................ 84
10.8 EXPLOSIVE MAGAZINE ....................................................................................................................... 85
10.9 SCHOOL, PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, BANK, PETROL PUMP ................................................... 85
10.10 CONSTRUCTION POWER..................................................................................................................... 86
10.11 TELE-COMMUNICATION..................................................................................................................... 87

CHAPTER XI.............................................................................CONSTRUCTION PLANNING & SCHEDULE


11.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 90
11.2 BASIS OF STUDY ..................................................................................................................................... 90
11.3 MAJOR COMPONENT ........................................................................................................................... 90
11.4 MATERIAL SOURCES............................................................................................................................ 91
11.5 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................................................................... 91
11.6 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS........................................................................................................... 91
11.7 SCHEDULE OF WORKING HOURS.................................................................................................... 92
11.8 CONSTRUCTION PERIOD .................................................................................................................... 93
11.9 STAGE I ACTIVITIES............................................................................................................................. 93
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative iii
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

11.10 STAGE II ACTIVITIES ........................................................................................................................... 93


11.11 STAGE III ACTIVITIES.......................................................................................................................... 94
11.12 RIVER DIVERSION WORK................................................................................................................... 94
11.13 DIVERSION DAM..................................................................................................................................... 94
11.14 HEAD RACE TUNNEL ............................................................................................................................ 95
11.15 SURGE SHAFT.......................................................................................................................................... 95
11.17 PENSTOCKS.............................................................................................................................................. 96
11.18 POWER HOUSE........................................................................................................................................ 96
11.19 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL WORKS.................................................................................................... 96
11.20 SWITCHYARD.......................................................................................................................................... 96

CHAPTER XII .............................................................................................................................COST ESTIMATE


12.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 98
12.2 COST ESTIMATE..................................................................................................................................... 98

CHAPTER XIII .........................................................................................................ECONOMIC EVALUATION


13.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................ 100
13.2 PROJECT BENEFITS ............................................................................................................................ 100
13.3 INPUTS DATA AND ASSUMPTIONS................................................................................................. 100
13.4 ESTIMATED COST AND PHASING .................................................................................................. 101
13.5 DEPRECIATION..................................................................................................................................... 101
13.6 LOAN AMORTIZATION ...................................................................................................................... 102
13.7 WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................... 102
13.8 ENERGY SALE PRICE.......................................................................................................................... 102
13.9 ESTIMATES OF WORKING RESULTS ............................................................................................ 103
13.10 INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR)............................................................................................... 103
13.11 DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO (DSCR)................................................................................. 103
13.12 PAYBACK PERIOD ............................................................................................................................... 104
13.13 CONCLUSION......................................................................................................................................... 104

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative iv


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

List of Annexures
CHAPTER I ....................................................................................................................EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1 A vicinity map
1.2 A conceptual layout map

CHAPTER IV.....................................................................................TOPOGRAPHICAL & GEOTECHNICAL


4.1 Geological Map of East Kameng District
CHAPTER V ...................................................................................................................................... HYDROLOGY
ANNEXURES
5.1 Ten Daily Flow Series-Bichom
5.2 Ten Daily Flow Series - Dibbin
5.3 Calculation of Equivalent Slope
5.4 Details of SUG Parameters
5.5 Calculation of Effective Rainfall Values
5.6 Details of Rainfall Excess
5.7 Convolution of Design Flood Hydrograph
5.8 Copy of Comments on Hydrology Chapter and their replies

FIGURES
5.1 Synthetic Unit Hydrograph
5.2 100 year return period flood

PLATES
I Index Map
II Isohyetal Map
III Project Component Layout
IV Raingauge and Discharge Sites

CHAPTER VI...................................................................................... CONCEPTUAL LAYOUT & PLANNING


Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-601 Conceptual Layout
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-602 Upstream view of Dam
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-603 Details of Desilting Chamber
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-604 Details of Intake Channel
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-605 Details of Water Conductor system
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-606 Cross Section of Tunnel
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-607 Details of Surge Shaft
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-608 Cross Section of Turbine Hall
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-609 Cross Section of Power House
Drawing No. : NP-PFR-DB-610 Cross Section of Coffer Dams

Annexure 6.1 Copy of the comments received from CWC and replies

CHAPTER VII ...................................................................................................................... POWER POTENTIAL


Annexure 7.1 Copy of Comments and their replies
Tables 7.1-7.19 Power Potential Studies

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative v


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

List of Annexures & Drawings

CHAPTER VIII ................................................................................................................ POWER EVACUATION


Annexure 8.1 Power Map of North Eastern Region
Annexure 8.2 Single Line Diagram
Annexure 8.3 Power Evacuation system
Annexure 8.4 Proposed Switchyard Layout
Annexure 8.5 Copy of the comments received on Power Evacuation

CHAPTER IX................................................................................................................ENVIRONMENT ASPECT


Annexure 9.1 Drainage Map of Tizu River of the Bishum Chu river of Dibbin Project
Annexure 9.2 Map showing Submergence Area due to reservoir of proposed project
Annexure 9.3 Seismic zoning map of North East and Eastern Part of India showing
location of the proposed Dibbin HE scheme
Annexure 9.4 IRS-ID LISS III Scene of 7 km Radius area of the proposed project
Annexure 9.5 IRS-ID PAN Scene of 7 km Radius area of the proposed project
Annexure 9.6 Landuse/Landcover Map of Submergence Area
CHAPTER XI.............................................................................CONSTRUCTION PLANNING & SCHEDULE
11.1 Construction Schedule
CHAPTER XII .............................................................................................................................COST ESTIMATE
12.1 Cost Abstract

CHAPTER XIII .........................................................................................................ECONOMIC EVALUATION


Annexure 13.1 Inputs and Assumptions
Annexure 13.1A Year Wise Allocation of Project Cost
Annexure 13.2 General Breakdown of Scheme Cost
Annexure 13.3 Calculation of Interest During Construction (IDC)
Annexure 13.4 Calculation Depreciation including Advance Against Deprecation
Annexure 13.5 Loan Amortization
Annexure 13.6 Calculation of Working Capital Requirements
Annexure 13.7 Calculation of Sale Price of Energy
Annexure 13.8 Estimates of Working Results
Annexure 13.9 Internal Rate of Return (Project)
Annexure 13.10 Debt Services Coverage Ratio
Annexure 13.11 Payback Period

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative vi


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

FOREWORD

With the objective of accelerating capacity addition and developing untapped hydro power potential
in India in a phased and systematic manner, the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) had conducted
Ranking Studies, based on inter-se-priority for their development, so as to have a shelf of prioritized
schemes. A noble initiative towards development of such potential has been initiated by the Hon’ble
Prime Minister of India, on May 24, 2003 at Vigyan Bhawan, by launching the 50,000 MW hydro
electric initiative, to be taken up under the aegis of the Ministry of Power.

North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd. (NEEPCO) has been entrusted by CEA to prepare
the Pre-Feasibility Reports for 18 hydro electric projects with an installed capacity of 4915 MW in
the States of Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

In the first two stages of this ambitious programme, the Design & Engineering group of NEEPCO
has prepared the Pre-Feasibility Reports of 12 projects with an installed capacity of 4100 MW. The
Pre-Feasibility Reports of these twelve Hydro Electric Projects were submitted to CEA. Pre-
Feasibility studies of additional three projects in the Kameng river valley have now been taken up
by NEEPCO. The enclosed Pre-Feasibility report of Dibbin Hydro Electric Project (100 MW) has
been estimated at a cost of 371.52 Crores (including IDC) at September 2003 price level, with a first
year tariff of Rs.2.53/kWh.

I am highly indebted and thankful to Hon’ble Union Minister of Power; Hon’ble Union Minister of
State for Power; Shri R.V. Shahi, Secretary (Power), Government of India; and Shri H.L. Bajaj,
Chairman, CEA for the opportunity given to NEEPCO for undertaking the task and being a part of
the “Mission 2012: Power for all”. I also thank Messrs Premier Mott MacDonald for rendering
necessary support service to NEEPCO in preparation of the reports.

New Delhi S.C. Sharma


July 2004 Chairman & Managing Director

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 1


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

SALIENT FEATURES
LOCATION
State Arunachal Pradesh
River Bichom, tributary of Kameng river
Location of dam
Longitude 92° 31' 16" E
Latitude 27° 27' 00" N
Access to the project By road from Tezpur (Assam) via Balipara Bhalukpong
and Rupa
Nearest Rail head Bhalukpong
Airport Tezpur
HYDROLOGY
Catchment area at Dam Site 607 sq.km
Maximum average discharge at dam site 143.54 cumecs
Minimum average discharge at dam site 7.58 cumecs
DIVERSION DAM
Type Gated Dam
Full reservoir level (FRL) 1185 m
Minimum draw down level (MDDL) 1179 m
Deepest River Bed Level 1160 m
Total length at top of dam 143 m
SPILLWAY
Type Gated spillway
Width of spillway block 78 m
No. of bays 5 bays
Crest level of spillway 1171 m
Spillway gates 5 nos. 11.1m x 14 m
Energy dissipation system Stilling basin
Design flood 3740
SUBMERGENCE
Villages submerged Nil
Area submerged 6.4 Ha
RESERVOIR
Gross storage 0.26 Mcum
Live storage 0.21 Mcum

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 2


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000
INTAKE
Invert level of intake 1171 m
Intake gate size 5mx5m
Trash rack Semi circular
HEAD RACE TUNNEL
Size 5.0 m
Shape Modified horse shoe type section
Velocity 4.03 m/sec
Length 4430 m
SURGE SHAFT
Type Simple
Diameter 13.7 m
Height 60.33 m
Bottom Elevation 1135.67 m
POWER HOUSE
Installed Capacity 100 MW
Units 2 x 50 MW
Type of Turbine Francis
Design head 150 m
Annual Design Energy (90% dependable 335.72 GWh
year)
Annual energy in 90% year on 95% 332.00 GWh
machine availability
Minimum TWL 1020 m
FINANCIAL ASPECT
Total Project Cost Rs. 371.52 crores
Tariff for 1st year
After considering 12% free power Rs. 2.53 per kWh
Without considering 12% free power Rs. 2.23 per kWh
Levelised tariff for 35 years
Rs. 2.04 per kWh
After considering 12% free power
Rs. 1.79 per kWh
Without considering 12% free power
Cost per MW installed Rs. 3.71 Crores
CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 4½ years (excluding 30 months of Pre-construction
activities)

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 3


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER-I
Executive Summary

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 4


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 Dibbin HE Project is proposed on river Bichom, in its upper reaches, which is a
tributary of Kameng river in west District. The installed capacity of the project would
be 100 MW (2x50 MW) and the annual energy generation from the project in a 90%
dependable year is assessed as 335.72 MU. The levelised tariff at May 2004 price level
would be Rs. 2.53 per kWh with 12% free power and Rs 2.23 per kWh without 12%
free power. The scheme envisages construction of a gated dam 27 m high located just
downstream of the confluence of Ditya Bung river with Bichom river with its co-
ordinates at 92°31'16"E and 27°27'00"N to divert the river water Bichom into the water
conductor system.

1.1.2 The water conductor system shall comprise an intake channel, a surface desilting
chamber, a head race tunnel, a surge shaft, pressure shaft and penstocks.

1.1.3 The dam site of Dibbin H.E. Project is located in the upper reach of river Bichom
where the river bed level is EL 1160 m just downstream of confluence of Bichom Chu
with Difya Ru with its co-ordinates at 92°31' 16" E and 27°27'00" N. The dam site is
approachable through PWD road from Rupa upto Nafra and then a foot path of about
15 km upto Dibbin village. Power house site is located near Nachibin village with its
co-ordinates at 27024'36"N and 92031'12"E. Nafra is connected to Rupa town by a
PWD road. Upto Rupa town the road from Balipara is maintained by Border Roads
Task Force (BRTF) of the Government of India. Balipara, in turn is connected to
Tezpur on the National Highway No. 52. Tezpur which is the nearest airport for Dibbin
H.E. Project, is about 25 km from Balipara.

1.2 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

1.2.1 Dibbin HE Project envisages construction of:


• A gated dam 27 m high located just downstream of the confluence of Ditya Bung
river with Bichom river. The length of the dam will be 143 m consisting of 78 m of
overflow section and 32 m of non-overflow section on the left bank and 33 m on the
right bank. The reservoir upstream of dam will have a live storage of 0.21 Mcum to
enable operation of one unit for peaking for 2.0 hours during morning as well as
evening hours of non-monsoon period.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 5


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

• A spillway with 5 bays of 11.1 m clear opening each and 4.5 m wide piers
controlled by 5 nos. radial gates each of size 11.1 m x 14 m.
• An energy dissipation arrangement of stilling basin type of length 97 m.
• A desilting tank 100 m long and 135 m wide divided into two compartments.
• A head race tunnel 5.0 m diameter and 4.43 km long.
• A surge shaft at the outlet of the head race tunnel 13.7 m diameter and 60.33 m
height.
• Two pressure shafts 3 m diameter and 50 m long and thereafter 2 surface penstocks
of 3.0 m diameter and 103 m length.
• A surface power house located on the left bank of Bichom having installation of 2
units of 50 MW each with Francis type turbine designed for a net head of 150 m .
• A short length of tail race channel to discharge the tail waters of Dibbin HE project
into Ditch Bru.

A vicinity map showing 13 projects in Kameng basin is placed at Annexure 1.1 and a
conceptual layout map at Annexure 1.2.

1.3 HYDROLOGY
The catchment area at Dibbin HE project dam site is a 607 sq. km. Dibbin project falls
in Bichom sub-basin. Within Dibbin project area, there is no hydro meteorological
network. However a G&D site is available at Bichom dam site and at this G&D site
Bichom flow series is available for 13 years. Catchment area of Bichom river at
Bichom G&D site is 2277 sq km. Therefore flow series for Dibbin HE project has been
arrived at on proportionate catchment area basis and is used for the PFR purpose of this
hydro electric project. The Bichom series has been transformed into 10 daily discharge
series for Dibbin dam site on catchment area proportionate basis and taking into
account rainfall variability 100 year design flood has been considered for design of
diversion structure. The probable 100 year flood works out to 3740 cumecs. The design
flood values have been estimated by Hydro-meteorological approach. The study needs
to be reviewed at the DPR stage when site specific short term rainfall-runoff data as
well as discharge data would become available.

1.4 POWER POTENTIAL STUDIES


1.4.1 The annual energy generation in 90% and 50% dependable years has been computed
using 10-daily discharge series generated for Dibbin HE project diversion dam site.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 6
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Annual energies were calculated for different installed capacities and the optimum
capacity was determined as 100 MW for this scheme. The annual energy generation in
a 90% dependable year would be 335.72 MU as detailed below:
Particulars 90% Dependable Year
Annual Generation
Annual Energy Generation (GWh) 335.72
Annual Load Factor (%) 38.32
Generation during Lean Flow Season (Nov-Apr)
Power output (MW) 19.95
Lean Load Factor (%) 19.95

1.4.2 A live storage of 0.21 Mcum has been provided in the pondage to enable operation of
two unit of the power house for peaking for 2.0 hours during morning hours and 2.0
hours during evening hours during non-monsoon period. The power station will operate
as a base load station during the monsoon period.

1.5 POWER EVACUATION

The power generated at Dibbin HE project will be evacuated through LILO


arrangement of already approved 220 kV double circuit lines from Utung to the
switchyard of Kameng HE project (under construction). This power will be transmitted
to the Bhalukpong pooling point on 400 kV double circuit lines, which in turn, will be
transmitted to the National Grid.

1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS


1.6.1 The predominant landuse in the vicinity of project area is forest. The dense forests
constitute more than 48% of the total area and area under open forest and scrubs cover
about 16% and 13% area, respectively. Agricultural and settlements landuse/landcover
accounts for than 16% of the study area. Shifting cultivation also covers more than 7%
of the project area.

1.6.2 The proposed diversion structure is 27 m high, the proposed reservoir would lead to
submergence of only 6.4 ha of land, which is comprised mainly of barren waste land
and degraded forests on the left bank slopes and open forest on the right bank hence it

would not lead to the submergence of any human habitation.


PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 7
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

1.7 ESTIMATES OF THE COST


The project is estimated to cost Rs. 371.52 crores including IDC at May 2004 price
level. The preliminary cost estimate of the project has been prepared as per guidelines
of CEA/CWC. The break down of the cost estimates is given below:
Civil works 216.22 crores
E&M works 104.62 crores
Sub-Total (Generation) 320.84 crores
Transmission works Not included
Total (Hard Cost) 320.84 crores
Interest During Construction 50.68 crores
Grand Total 371.52 crores

1.8 FINANCIAL ASPECT


Dibbin HE project, with an estimated cost of Rs. 371.52 crores (including IDC of 50.68
crores) and design energy of 355.72 GWh in a 90% dependable year is proposed to be
completed in a period of 4½ years (excluding 30 months of pre-construction activities).
The tariff has been worked out considering a debt-equity ratio of 70:30, 16% return on
equity, and annual interest rate on loan at 10%. The tariff at the power house busbars
for the first year has been worked out to Rs. 2.53/kWh (with 12% free power) and Rs.
2.23/kWh (without free power) and levelised tariff for 35 years have been worked out
to Rs. 2.04 / kWh (with 12% free power) and Rs 1.79/kWh (without 12% free power).

1.9 CONCLUSION
Dibbin Hydro Electric Project involves simple civil works and could be completed in
4½ years (excluding 30 months of pre-construction activities). The project would afford
design energy of 335.72 GWh at the power house busbars in a 90% dependable year.
The cost per MW installed work out Rs. 3.71 crores. The Preliminary Feasibility Report
indicates that the scheme merit consideration for taking up detailed Survey,
Investigation and preparation of DPR.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 8


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - II
Project Background

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 9


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

2.1 ARUNACHAL PRADESH

2.1.1 Arunachal Pradesh – the Land of the Rising Sun – with an area of 83,743 sq. km. is the
largest state in the North eastern region sharing international boundaries with Bhutan in
the west, China in the north and Myanmar in the east. The states of Assam and
Nagaland flank its Southern and South eastern borders. Forest covers about 82% area of
the State and numerous turbulent streams, roaring rivers, deep gorges, lofty mountains,
snow clad peaks and rich diversity of flora and fauna characterize the landscape. The
climate varies from sub-tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the north with
large areas experiencing snowfalls during winter. The heights of the mountain peaks
vary, the highest peak being Kangte (7090 above MSL) in West Kameng District. The
major rivers that drain the area with their numerous tributaries are Siang, Kameng,
Subansiri, Kamla, Lohit, Dibang, Noa - Dehing and Tirap. The State is administratively
divided into 15 districts. The state capital is at Itanagar at an altitude of 530 m above
MSL. It is named after the brick fort built by Ahom King of Assam in the 14th century.

2.1.2 A wide variety of altitudinal gradients and climatic conditions have given rise to varied
eco-systems which form the habitat of diverse plant wealth and wild life in the State.
Due to its high species diversity, the region has been identified as a global hot spot for
bio-diversity conservation. The pre-dominant forest types occurring in the state are
Tropical Semi Evergreen, Tropical Wet Evergreen, Sub-tropical, Pine, Temperate and
Sub-Alpine / Alpine Forests. There are also degraded forests and grass lands.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 10
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

2.1.3 The State harbors a rich variety of wildlife which includes four major cats namely tiger,
leopard clouded leopard and snow leopard. The region is home to seven species of
primates, large mammals like elephants, gaur and wild buffalo. High altitude animals
include musk deer, bharal, Himalayan black bear, red panda etc. The State animal is
Mithun (Bos Frontails) existing both in wild and semi-domesticated form. This animal
has religious significance and intimate relation with socio-cultural life of the people.
The bird fauna of the State include more than 500 species. This is the richest state for
pheasants with some species found at different altitudes. The rivers contain a wealth of
fishes. The State also abounds in a variety of reptiles and amphibians.

2.1.4 The forests of the State cover about 82% of the State’s geographical area of which 960
sq.km. have been set aside as protected area comprising two national parks (Namdapa
and Mouling) and nine wildlife sanctuaries.

2.1.5 The population of Arunachal Pradesh is 1091117 (2001 census). The people are of
Mongoloid stock with heritage of arts and crafts, enchanting folk songs with their own
distinct and diverse culture, dialects and lifestyles. There are 20 major tribes in the
State namely Adi, Nyishi, Apatani, Bugun, Galo, Hrusso, Koro, Meyor, Monpa, Tagin,
Mishmi, Sajolang, Sartang, Tai Khamti, Yobin, Singpho, Sherduken, Khamba,
Tangshang and Memba. The State has a literacy rate of 54.74%.

2.2 THE RIVER SYSTEM


2.2.1 The Kameng river which is also known as Jia - Bhareli in its lower reaches originates in
the upper Himalayan ranges at an elevation of about 4800 m. The river has a total
length of about 198 km. and drains about 12,500 sq. km. of catchment area into the
Brahmaputra river about 10 km upstream of Tezpur town in Assam. During the course
of its long journey it is joined by several major tributaries namely Bichom, Digien,
Tenga, Pachuk and Pakke which originate at high altitudes. Map of Kameng River
Basin is attached as Annexure 8.2.

2.2.2 The rainfall in the basin is quite high and varies from about 1000 mm in higher reaches
to about 5750 mm in the foot hills spread over 8-9 months excepting the dry days in
winter. The upper regions also receive precipitation from snow clad mountains which
contribute to the river flow during lean period. On this account fairly high perennial
discharge continues to be available in the river all the year around. Such a favorable
river discharge pattern and the fact that a total fall of more than 3000 m is available in
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 11
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

the river system make it very attractive for developing a series of hydro-electric power
stations on the main river and its tributaries. A 600 MW hydro electric project is
currently being constructed by NEEPCO which will bring waters from Bichom and
Tenga rivers through a tunnel to a power station at Kimi with tail race discharging into
Kameng river.

2.3 THE PROJECT


2.3.1 Dibbin H.E. Project is located in the upper reach of river Bichom which is a major
tributary of Kameng river. It envisages construction of a gated dam 21m high near
village Dibbin where the river bed level is at EL 1160 m and is situated in West
Kameng District. The waters of river Bichom will be diverted through a tunnel to a
surface power house on the right bank of Bichom river near Nachibin village. Installed
capacity planned for the power house is 100 MW.

2.3.2 The proposed reservoir would lead to submergence of 6.4 ha of land which is mainly
under barren waste land and degraded forests / scrub. Very little submergence area is
under dense forest.

2.3.3 The human settlements in the project area are scattered.

2.3.4 There are no monuments of archeological or national importance which would be


affected by project activities directly or indirectly.

2.4 POWER SCENARIO


2.4.1 The per capita power consumption of Arunachal Pradesh is below 100 kWh as
compared to the national average of 373 kWh. The State plans to harness its enormous
natural resources like forests and hydro power and exploit its mineral wealth to usher in
an era of economic development and raise the per capita electricity consumption to 500
kWh by the end of Eleventh Five year Plan period i.e. 2012. The State’s generating
capacity was only 32.03 MW hydro and 28.63 MW diesel till now which has increased
substantially with the completion of 405 MW Ranganadi hydro power project. 600 MW
Kameng hydro project and 1600 MW Subansiri Project are under construction and
these projects will provide electricity not only to Arunachal Pradesh and other states in
the north-eastern region but also to other power starved regions of the country.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 12


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

2.4.2 The power scenario has therefore to be viewed in the national perspective. According to
50000 MW Hydropower Initiative of the Ministry of Power, the energy requirement of
the country in 2002-03 was 5,45,674 MkWh of which only 4,97,589 MkWh were
available, leaving a shortfall of 8.8%. While the peaking requirement was 81,492 MW,
a peak of only 71,547 MW could be met leaving a shortage of 12.2%. The regionwise
shortage of energy and peaking capacity is depicted in the following graph:

Energy and Peak Load Shortages


25
19.1
20
14.4
15 13
10.7
10 7.5 8.6 7.9 7.8
3.1
5
0 -0.7 -1.6 -1.6
NR WR SR ER NERs Overall
-5
Supply Shortages Peak Deficit

Source: Blue print for Power Sector Development – MoP 2001

2.4.3 Against the present installed generating capacity of 1,07,973 MW, the share of hydro,
with 26,910 MW capacity, is only 25%. Thermal (coal, gas and diesel) accounts for the
maximum share of 71% with 76,607 MW. Nuclear capacity is about 2.5% with 2720
MW and wind 1,736 MW i.e. 1.6%. This is graphically depicted below:

Shares in Installed Capacity - March, 2003

25%

Hydro, 26910 MW
Gas, 11633 MW
Diesel, 1173 MW
Wind, 1736 MW
58%
11% Nuclear, 2720 MW
Coal, 63801 MW
1% Source : 50000 MW Hydro-electric
2% Initiative – May 2003
3%

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 13


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

2.4.4 Most of the regions of the country are suffering from power shortages leading to
irregular and unreliable supply. The problem becomes acute during peak hours. Based
on the projections made in the 16th Electric Power Survey, an additional generating
capacity of over 100,000 MW needs to be added to ensure “Power on Demand” by
2012. This, in effect, means doubling the existing capacity which has been created in
the last half a century in the next ten years. Not only has the capacity to be added but
also the present hydro-thermal imbalance of 25:75 has to be corrected and brought to
40:60 to meet the peak load requirements, achieve frequency and voltage stability and
provide system operating flexibility under changing seasonal and diurnal load pattern.
For achieving a 40:60 hydro thermal ratio in an installed capacity of around 200,000
MW the total requirement of hydro capacity will be 80,000 MW which means that
53,000 MW additional hydro capacity has to be created in the next 10 years.

2.5 NECESSITY OF THE PROJECT


2.5.1 According to categorization of schemes by CEA the Category ‘A’ schemes in different
river basins all over India total to 7800 MW as shown in the table below:
River Basin-wise Summary of Categorisation of the Schemes Ranked by CEA
S.No. River System Category A Category B Category C Total
Nos MW Nos MW Nos MW Nos MW
1. Indus 11 4088 51 8811 17 6080 79 18979
2. Ganga 20 2023 54 9616 1 600 75 12239
3. Central Indian 3 283 9 1425 1 186 13 1894
4. East Flowing 11 1412 26 6469 2 88 39 7969
5. West Flowing 1 35 10 958 14 1508 25 2501
6. Brahmaputra 52 7800 97 42574 19 12954 168 63328
Source: 50000 MW Hydro-electric Initiative – May 2003

2.5.2 The entire Category ‘A’ schemes needs to be taken up for completion by 2012. Out of
the above, Arunachal Pradesh has 31 schemes with a total installed capacity of 5047
MW against which NEEPCO has been allotted 15 schemes with a total installed
capacity of 3220 MW. There is therefore scope for development of all these projects
subject to their technical and economic feasibility. NEEPCO has already carried out
pre-feasibility studies for six projects totaling to 2460 MW and has now taken up
similar studies for six more projects as per directive of the Government of India.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 14


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Construction of 100 MW Dibbin H.E. Project on high priority is justified on the basis
of pre-feasibility studies carried out by NEEPCO.

2.6 INFRASTRUCTURE
2.6.1 Power Evacuation

A 400 kV sub-station for evacuation of power from Rangnadi project has been
constructed. Power will be transported to 400 kV Balipara substation already
constructed by PGCIL from where it will be taken to other regions. A 400 kV
substation is also planned at Khuppi for transmission of 600 MW power from Kameng
hydro – electric project power to Balipara and onwards to other regions. A power map
of North-eastern region and Sikkim prepared by PGCI is attached as Annexure 8.1 in
Chapter VIII. The State government has also taken steps to construct a state grid at 132
kV covering all the districts and to electrify all villages up to the inter-state and
international borders. The power evacuation facilities will need to be upgraded and
augmented substantially as new projects are taken up.

A number of major hydro electric power stations are planned in the Kameng Valley. As
only a small portion of the power generated at these stations will be utilized in
Arunachal Pradesh itself, it will be appropriate to interconnect these stations and take
the pooled power to Bhalukpong sub-station for being exported to other regions of the
country. Scheme for evacuation of power from Dibbin HE Project is given in Chapter
VIII – Power Evacuation.

Communications
2.6.2 The State has a network of about 15,000 km of roads including border roads for access
to all areas of the State.
2.6.3 The dam site of Dibbin H.E. Project is located in the upper reach of river Bichom
where the river bed level is EL 1160 m just downstream of confluence of Bichom Chu
with Difya Ru with its co-ordinates at 92°31' 16" E and 27°27'00" N. The dam site is
approachable through PWD road from Rupa upto Nafra and then a foot path of about
15Km upto Dibbin village. Power house site is located near Nachibin village. Nafra is
connected to Rupa town by a PWD road. Upto Rupa town the road from Balipara is
maintained by Border Roads Task Force (BRTF) of the Government of India. Balipara,
in turn is connected to Tezpur on the National Highway No. 52. Tezpur which is the
nearest airport for Dibbin H.E. Project, is about 25 km from Balipara.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 15
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

2.6.4 The state highway from Rupa to Nafra is metalled and black topped, but considerable
portion of the road needs improvement. Beyond Nafra, a new road of about 15 Km is
required to be constructed for movement of mechanized equipment and transport of
heavy electro-mechanical equipment for Dibbin H.E. Project right upto power house
site as well as to dam site.

2.6.5 Telecommunication facilities in the State comprise 94 telephone exchanges, 70 of


which have STD facilities. In addition 695 PCO’s have STD facilities. Internet
connections are also available.

2.6.6 Central assistance is being provided for infrastructural development in the State and is
being utilized for accelerated development.

2.7 PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS


2.7.1 Arunachal Pradesh is very rich in natural resources. The state has a strong base for
mainstream and downstream industries based on:
(a) Abundant resources of hydro power potential, biodiversity of rich forests,
tourism, horticulture and floriculture.
(b) Access to the large markets in south-east Asian countries if traditional trade
routes are re-established and developed.

2.7.2 Rich Natural Resources


Rich natural resources of the state can be converted into real goods if limitations, which
the State is confronted with, are overcome. A study commissioned by the State
Government has listed various limitations to the development. The important ones are:
(i) Gestation period of the projects is much higher as compared to other States of
the country.
(ii) Prolonged rainy season leading to less effective working time per year for
building infrastructure.
(iii) Higher cost due to long distance of transportation.
(iv) Inadequate industrial infrastructure, lack of industrial experience and non-
availability of technical expertise.
(v) Reluctance of investors.
(vi) Prohibitive cost of laying power line for longer distances.
(vii) Inadequate investment in exploration of untapped natural resources.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 16
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

2.7.3 The State is fully seized of these problems and has taken various steps to encourage
investment. The industrial policy encourages establishment of industries in the private
and cooperative sectors for the accelerated development of the State. The incentives
include:
• Central capital investment subsidy scheme;
• Transport subsidy scheme;
• Central interest subsidy scheme;
• Comprehensive insurance scheme, etc.

2.7.4 Incentives have also been announced by the State government to encourage private
sector participation (both Indian and foreign) in the development of hydro-electric / gas
based power projects. The state is thus poised for accelerated development and is an
attractive destination for investment.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 17


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - III
Project Area

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 18


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

3.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT INCLUDING RIVER SYSTEM

River System
3.1.1 Arunachal Pradesh is divided into five river valleys; the Kameng, the Subansiri, the
Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these are fed by snow from the Himalayas and
countless rivers and rivulets. Kameng river basin covers almost the entire West
Kameng and East Kameng districts as also a part of Lower Subansiri district. A number
of tributaries like Bichom, Tenga, Pachi, Papu and Pachuk contribute to River Kameng
before it joins River Brahmaputra about 10 kms upstream of Tezpur. The river acquires
the name Jia-Bhareli in the last 50 km before it joins River Brahmaputra.

3.1.2 The Bishum Chu originates in the glaciated areas in the Greater Himalayan range at an
altitude of about 5,650m. It drains a number of glacial lakes in the upper reaches.
Bishum Chu flows generally in the southward direction and is joined by a number of
streams both on left and right banks up to the proposed project site. Kachho Bung is the
first major left bank tributary of Bishum Chu. Further downstream it is joined by
another stream named Sama Bung. Chang Dimung Chu and Mijung Chu are main right
bank tributaries of Bishum Chu. Immediately upstream of the proposed dam site
Bishum Chu is joined by Deyang Bung on its left bank. The catchment area of Bishum
Chu up to the proposed dam site is 607 sq km. Total length of the river from its origin
up to dam site is about 44 km.

BED SLOPE OF BICHOM RIVER

6000

5000

4000
Elevation (M)

3000

2000

1000

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Distance (KM)

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 19


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

3.1.3 Bhareli/Kameng River in its total route of about 200 km carries the discharge of all its
major and minor tributaries and drains a total catchment of about 8,540 sq.km. upto
Bhareli II proposed dam site. The catchment area extends across international border
and some of the tributaries have origin in Bhutan/ Tibet. About 20% of the total
catchment area in the upper reaches remains snow bound throughout the year and keeps
contributing to the river flow during the lean months in the form of glacial melt. The
remaining catchment area of about 80% is rain fed. The basin receives varying amounts
of rainfall, ranging from a minimum of 1000 mm in the upper reaches to about 5700
mm in the foot hills annually and the average rainfall is fairly high. The river flow in
the Kameng river system is, therefore, quite large and the variation in river flows in
different months is not as large as in the case of purely rain fed rivers. Comparatively
less variation in flow and high discharge and bed slope make the river suitable for
setting up a number of hydro electric schemes.

3.1.4 The catchment is covered by thick forest which gives the advantage of maximum
runoff of the rain water into the river and also ensures minimum inflow of silt. The
Kameng river system passes through a thick forest cover having rich bio-diversity. The
area has a number of species of flora and fauna and abundant aquatic life in the river.

3.1.5 The Kameng in its upper reaches generally flows in north-south direction. Taking large
turns in its course, Kameng River flows in narrow valleys upto Seppa town, the head
quarters of East Kameng District after which it widens out. In the reach upto Seppa
town, the river is joined by a number of tributaries viz Para, Pachi, Pache, Pachuk etc.
About 18 km downstream of Seppa town, the river is joined by one of its major
tributaries, the Bichom. The combined river then takes a turn and flows in the westerly
direction. About 35 km downstream of the confluence of Bichom, the Kameng river
takes a ‘U’ bend and starts flowing in the easterly direction. Downstream of confluence
of Dikhu Nala, the Kameng River takes a north south course and finally meets River
Brahmaputra about 10 kms. upstream of Tezpur.

3.1.6 The Kameng basin spreads over an area of 12500 sq.km. The tributaries/ sub-tributaries
drain catchment areas ranging from 4600 sq.km. to 280 sq.km. The drop in elevation
from the origin to the confluence with the main river is from about 4800 m to about 120
m. The major tributaries of Kameng River, namely Bichom, Digien, Tenga, Pakke,

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 20


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Pachuk etc. originate at high altitudes and present good possibilities for the
development of a number of large hydro electric projects.

3.1.7 From consideration of power development in Kameng river system, it has been
observed that the main Kameng, Bichom and Tenga rivers have large possibilities both
by regulation of water as well as development through run-of-the-river schemes.
Possibilities of regulation of water are more attractive on the main Kameng river as
well as Bichom and Tenga rivers. By and large, various rivers of Kameng basin lend
themselves to hydro electric development as run-of-the-river or storage schemes by
constructing diversion structures in the narrow gorges and diverting the river waters
through tunnel/channel to the power house. Map of Kameng river system depicting
locations of proposed hydro electric schemes is enclosed as Annexure 8.2.

Project Features

3.1.8 Dibbin H.E. Project is proposed on the upper reaches of Bichom river which is also
known as Bichom chu in its upper reaches and is in West Kameng District. The
catchment area of Bichom river upto Dibbin Dam site is 607 sq.km. It is a run of the
river scheme and involves diversion of Bichom river water through a 4.43 km long
tunnel to a surface power house located on the right bank of Bichom river near
Nachibin village. The dam site is located just downstream of confluence of Bichom chu
with Difya Ru with its co-ordinates at 92°31' 16" E and 27°27'00" N.

3.1.9 A 27 m high dam is proposed with its deepest foundation at a level of EL 1160m to
utilize a gross head of 165m for hydro power generation. The PWD road from Rupa
town to Nafra and the proposed road from Nafra to Dibbin would provide access to
both dam site and power house site of Dibbin Hydro Electric project. The length of the
link roads to be constructed from the existing new PWD road to dam site and Power
house site would be approximately 15Km.

3.1.10 Exposed rocks appear to be present on both the banks of the river. Steep slope of both
the banks indicate presence of stable rocks on both the banks.

3.1.11 It is estimated that the project will receive an inflow of about 932.26 Mcum in a 90%
dependable year and the design flood for the project is estimated at 3740 cumecs. The
installed capacity of Dibbin Hydro Electric project would be 100 MW.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 21


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

3.1.12 Dibbin Hydro Electric project is envisaged as a run of the river scheme with 27 m high
dam. The dam is expected to have the deepest foundation at EL 1160 m. The crest level
of the dam is kept at EL 1171 m. The length of the dam at top would be around 143 m.
In order to provide a little storage to meet the diurnal variation in the demand of water
of turbines in the power station during lean months, the dam would be provided with
five numbers of radial gates of size 11.1 m x 14 m.

3.1.13 The water conductor system would comprise a desilting basin to eliminate silt particles
above 200 microns size, a tunnel intake, 4.43km long head race tunnel of 5 m diameter,
a surge shaft and two penstock of 3 m diameter 143 m long. A surface power house
with an installed capacity of 2 x 50 MW is proposed on the right bank of Bichom river
near Nachibin village.

3.2 SOCIO – ECONOMIC AND OTHER ASPECTS


3.2.1 On 15th August 1947 when India became an independent nation, North East Frontier
Agency (NEFA) became a Union Territory and acquired the name of Arunachal
Pradesh. In 1975 it acquired a legislature and finally on 20th February 1987 it became
the 25th State of the Union of India. The State has an area of 83,743 sq. km and a
population of 1, 09,117 (according to 2001 census) giving an average density of just 13
people per sq. km.

The State has been developing steadily through Five Year Plans with emphasis on
development of infrastructure such as roads and bridges, buildings, educational
institutions, hospitals and health care units etc. The economy of the State is largely
agrarian. Other areas important to the economy of the state are horticulture, forest and
small and medium scale industries.

3.2.2 The state of Arunachal Pradesh is bestowed with rich natural resources which include
rich forest area, mineral resources like dolomite, limestone, graphite, marble etc.
Development of hydro projects will give ample scope for development of agro- based
industries and industries with basic mineral resources. Other socio-economic benefits to
the people, from these projects will include employment to workers, development of
communications, markets and other benefits consequent to large scale construction
activity.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 22


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

3.2.3 The Gross State Domestic Product of the State during 2000-01 as per quick estimates was
estimated as follows:
(Rs. in lakhs)
Particulars At current prices At constant prices
Primary Sector 65,186 39,062
Secondary Sector 36,796 24,919
Tertiary Sector 76,318 46,598
GSDP 178,300 1,10,579

The per capita income during 2000-01 at current prices was Rs. 16,343 and at constant
prices Rs. 10,136. The share of primary sector has come down from 46.19% in 1990-91
to 35.33% in 2000-01 while that of tertiary (services) sector has increased from 32.25%
to 42.14% during the same period. The share of the secondary sector (manufacturing,
construction etc.) has remained almost the same. Transport, tourism and public
administration has contributed to the increase in the tertiary sector.

3.2.4 Arunachal Pradesh is largely rural with 94 percent of its population living in villages
scattered all over the state. The indigenous people are tribes with rich and glorious
heritage of arts and crafts. The State has 20 major tribes and a number of sub-tribes
having their own ethos, dialects and cultural identities which present a unique scenario
of unity in diversity. Most of the tribal communities are ethnically similar having
derived from an original common stock but their geographical isolation from each other
has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress and
customs.

3.2.5 The total literacy in the State has risen from 41.57% in 1991 to 54.74% in 2001. The
State has 12 towns and 3649 villages. As against the decadal (1991-2001) growth rate
of 21.34% at the national level, population of the State has grown by 26.21%. The sex
ratio of Arunachal Pradesh at 901 female to 1000 males is lower than the national
average of 933.

Tribes
3.2.6 There are about 20 major tribes with a number of sub-tribes in Arunachal Pradesh.
Larger tribes are Adi, Akas, Apatanis, Buguns, Singhpos, Membas, Mishmis, Mijis,
Thongsas, Hrusso, Monpas, Nyishi, Sherdukpens, Tagins, Khamti, Yobin, Wanchos,
Noctes.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 23


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Cultural Group
3.2.7 The people of Arunachal Pradesh may be divided into three cultural groups on the basis
of their socio-religious activities.
(i) The Monpas and Sherkukpens of Tawang and West Kameng districts follow the
lamaistic tradition of Mahayana Buddhism. These communities have richly
decorated Buddhist temples called “Gompas”. They practice terrace cultivation
and also breed herds of Yak and mountain sheep. Membas and Khambas living
in northern borders are culturally similar. Khamtis and Singphos inhabiting the
eastern part of the State are Buddhists of Hinayana sect.
(ii) The Adis, Akas, Apatinis, Bangnis, Nishis, Mishmis, Mijis, Thongsas, etc.
worship Sun and Moon Gods (Donyi-Polo and Abo-Tani), and are the original
ancestors for most tribes. They traditionally practice “Jhumming” or shifting
cultivation and paddy-cum-pisiculture.
(iii) Noctes and Wanchos adjoining Nagaland practice elementary form of
Vaishnavism

Social Structure
3.2.8 The tribals of Arunachal Pradesh have highly ordered and organized system of
functioning in their village. All matters relating to the community as a whole are
decided at the village level. The traditional village Panchayat of an Adi Village is
locally known as “Kebang”. It is a judicio-administrative body consisting of mature
and influential elders and looks after the administration of justice in the society by
settling all matters of dispute. Similar self-governing institutions exist among other
tribes. They are variously called as “Jong” among the Sherdukpens, “Mel” among the
Akas, “Buliang” among the Apatanis etc.

Economic Development
3.2.9 Arunachal Pradesh could be justifiably called the power house of India with a total
untapped hydro power potential of 49,126 MW from 89 identified schemes. The State
and Central Governments encourage private sector participation (both Indian and
Foreign) in the development of hydro-electric power projects. National Hydro-electric
Power Corporation (NHPC) a Government of India enterprise and North East Electric
Power Corporation (NEEPCO) also a Government of India enterprise for power
development in the north-eastern region have been entrusted with the task of
developing hydro as well as gas based power projects. NEEPCO has recently
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 24
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

completed 405 MW Ranganadi hydro-electric power project and NHPC has taken up
the construction of 1600 MW Subansiri project. NEEPCO is developing 600 MW
Kameng Hydro-electric power project from the waters of Bichom / Tenga rivers which
are tributaries of Kameng river. In addition 31 schemes with power potential of 5047
MW which have been identified as Category ‘A’ schemes are being investigated in
Arunachal Pradesh. Out of these, 15 schemes with a power potential of 3945 MW are
being investigated by NEEPCO. All these schemes are on Kameng river system. All
these projects are planned to be completed by the year 2012. The state is therefore
poised to become a major exporter of power to other regions of the country.

3.2.10 The state has also prepared its own State development plan and proposes to increase the
present per capita consumption of about 100 kWh of electricity to 500 kWh by the time
the above mentioned hydro projects are completed. The State is already in the process
of creating 132 kV State power grid with distribution centres in every district. 400 kV
lines and switchyards will also be constructed for evacuation of power from hydro
electric projects to various distribution centres and also outside the Sate for which the
Power Grid Corporation of India is preparing a plan of action. The State Government
has decided to electrify all its villages by conventional or non-conventional energy by
the year 2012 and provide electricity to all.

3.2.11 Dibbin Hydro Electric Project will have an installation of 2 x 50 MW to generate


335.72 MU of electricity in a 90% dependable year. The project would provide benefits
of free power to Arunachal Pradesh amounting to 12% power generated. The
development of project will enhance the quality of life of the people living in and
around the project by way of development of roads and communication, availability of
reliable, dependable, un-interrupted power for development of small/medium
industries, development of tourism etc.

3.2.12 The State has rich tourism potential with high snow clad mountains, numerous
turbulent streams, roaring rivers, deep gorges, endless variety of flora and fauna and
places of scenic beauty. Being conscious of the importance of tourism as a vehicle of
economic development the State has recognized tourism as a thrust area and has opened
up a number of tourist circuits including the Tawang monastery on the Indo-China
border.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 25


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Mineral Resources
3.2.13 Geologically, Arunachal Pradesh is the least explored state but preliminary studies of
geological formations promise important mineral deposits in considerable quantities.
Coal occurs in Kameng, Subansiri, Siang and Lohit districts; graphite in Lohit and
Subansiri districts and flux grade limestone in Lohit district. Marble is also available.
Oil has been reported from Kharsang, Manubhun, Ningpru and a few wells have turned
oil producing. The mineral resources are capable of supporting following industries:
• Fertilizer plant, refractory unit based on dolomite deposits
• Calcium carbide and cement manufacturing plant
• Gasification and coking plants
• Refractory, pencil and abrasives units based on graphite deposits
• Cutting and polishing units of decorative and building stones like granite,
granodiorite, marble and gemstones

Agro-industries
3.2.14 The industries identified are (i) sugar mill, (ii) alcohol based on molasses, (iii) beer
brewing, (iv) dehydrated ginger (v) frozen vegetables and spices (vi) mushroom
processing (vii) mini-paper plant (viii) newsprint from bamboo, bamboo board and
tiles and (ix) medicines based on wide variety of medicinal plants.

Art and Craft


3.2.15 Arunachal Pradesh is a land of beautiful handicrafts comprising a wide range and
variety. Different tribes specialize in different articles. The main products are:
i) Weaving is the occupation of women folk and products exhibit beautiful sense
of colour combination. Notable products are Sherdukpen shawls, Apatini
jackets and scarves, Adi skirts, jackets and bags, Mishmi shawls, blouses and
jackets and Wancho bags.
ii) Cane and bamboo work of very high standard including hats of different shapes
and sizes, baskets, elaborately woven brassiere of cane and fiber, bamboo mugs
etc.
iii) Carpet making is the specialty of the Monpas. They produce unique
combinations of colour and design.
iv) Wood carving by Monpas consisting of beautiful cups, dishes, fruit bowls etc.
Wooden masks are also carved by Khambas and Membas of West Siang.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 26


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

v) Ornaments are mostly made of beads. Notches and Wanchos weave them into
attractive designs. Silver ornaments are a specialty of the Mishmis.
vi) Wood carving – unique and artistic articles are produced in Tirap, Upper and
West Siang, Lohit and Tawang.

3.3 Dibbin Hydro Electric Project will thus provide the much needed infrastructure to the
State for its all round development and improvement in the quality of life of its people.
The project will also be a valuable source of hydro power to the rest of the country.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 27


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Chapter IV
Topographical and Geotechnical Aspects

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 28


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.1.1 The Dibbin hydro-electric Project is a run off the river scheme on Bishum river,
Kameng basin, in East Kameng district. The scheme envisages the construction of a 27
m high dam at El. 1160m on Bishum river, just close to its confluence with Difya river,
an approximately 4.43km. long Head Race Tunnel leading to a Power House to
generate 100MW of power, by utilizing a gross head of 165m.

4.1.2 The prefeasibility stage geotechnical evaluation of the scheme has been done on the
basis of traverses taken in the project area and work done by earlier Geologists.

4.2 LOCATION
The coordinates of the dam site are given below :

Latitude Longitude
Dam site 270 27' 00" 920 31' 16"

4.3 GEOMORPHOLOGY/PHYSIOGRAPHY
4.3.1 The East Kameng District lies in the eastern most part of the Himalaya, referred to as
the Arunachal Himalaya (formerly NEFA Himalaya). This part of Himalaya rises rather
abruptly from the Brahmaputra Plain at a general elevation of 100m above sea level to
the heights of about 7000 m. It is divisible into east-west trending three geomorphic
zones viz. Sub-Himalaya in the south, Lesser or Lower Himalaya and Higher Himalaya
in the north. Each zone is characterised by different geology and tectonic history. The
Sub-Himalaya is the southern most geomorphic zone comprising chiefly of the
Cenozoic sediments - the Siwalik Group, and also called as the Siwalik hills. It rises
rather abruptly from the Brahmaputra Plain along the Foot Hill Fault/Thrust (FHF)
(concealed under Quaternary sediments). The Main Boundary Fault (MBF), also
referred to as the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), forms its tectonic limit with the Lesser
Himalaya. It is characterised by parallel ridges trending east-west with northern dip
slopes and obsequent escarps facing south.

4.3.2 The Lesser Himalaya is a broad zone that lies between the Sub-Himalaya in the south
and the Higher Himalaya in the north, and comprises, thick Proterozoic sequences,
excepting a narrow zone of Early Permian succession along its southern part close to
the Sub-Himalaya. This zone is also referred to as the Lower Himalaya. The MBF and
the Main Central Thrust (MCT) define its southern and northern limits with the Sub-
Himalaya and the Higher Himalaya respectively. It is also sometimes informally
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 29
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

subdivided into Inner Lesser Himalaya and Outer Lesser Himalaya, the former lying to
the south of the Higher Himalaya comprises mainly of Paleoproterozoic - The Bomdila
Group and Ziro Gneises and Mesoproterozoic - The Dirang Formation. The Outer
Lesser Himalaya is the zone that lies immediately to the north of the Sub-Himalaya. It
is made-up of Early Permian rocks Lower Gondwana Group. It is characterised by
dendritic drainage with broad V-shaped valleys at places filled by Quaternary deposits
forming terraces.

4.3.3 The Higher Himalaya is a narrow zone that lies between the Lesser Himalaya in the
south and the Tethys Himalaya in the north. It is chiefly made up the Archaean-
Paleoproterozoic sequence constituting the Central Crystalline and Mesoproterozoic -
the Dar formation, which forms the basement for the Phaenerozoic succession of the
Tethys Himalaya, this physiographic region is also referred to as the Himadari or
Greater Himalaya (Singh, 1971). The southern limit is defined by the MCT while in the
north imperceptibly passes into the Tethys Himalaya. This zone is characterised by
highly rugged topography with some snow-bound high peaks.

4.3.4 Drainage : The Kameng River (also known as Bhareli) is one of the principal
tributaries of the mighty Brahmaputra River of the district draining about 9,860 km2 of
western Arunchal Himalaya through its network of smaller streams such as Tenga,
Bichom, Papu, Pacha, Pachi, Para, Wacha rivers. It originates from the southeastern
slopes of Higher Himalaya and drains the Dafla Hill in the Lesser Himalaya, and cuts
deep gorge through the Siwalik rocks of the Sub-Himalaya. It enters the Brahmaputra
Plain near Bhalukpong. The Kameng (Bhareli) River and its tributaries are transverse
rivers excepting small stretches where it is subsequent to the structural weak planes
such as MBF.

4.4 REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF EAST KAMENG DISTRICT


4.4.1 The generalised stratigraphy as worked out by Kumar (1997) in the East Kameng
district, Arunachal Pradesh, is given in Table 1. There is no record of Archaean rocks
from this part. The Sela Group is oldest poly-phase deformed sequence of
metasediments, which is tenatively considered to be of Early Paleoproterozoic age. Its
southern limit is defined by a major tectonic plane-the Main Central Thrust (MCT),
which separates it from the Dirang Formation (Mesoproterozoic). The Bomdila Group
comprises low to medium-grade metasediments, which includes quartzite with
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 30
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

penecontemporaneous mafic metavolcanics and carbonates. It is extensively intruded


by Late Paleoproterozoic granites - The Ziro Gneisses, ultramafic and mafic dykes and
sills, and by Late Cambrain Biotite Granite. The Ziro Gneisses includes acid magmatic
rocks of two phases, one dated at 1,900 Ma and the other at 1,600 Ma. the Bomdila
Group is unconformably overlain by the Dirang Formation. The Siwalik Group forming
the Sub-Himalaya is tectonically overlain by the Lower Gondwana Group (Bhareli
Formation) along the Main Boundary Fault.
Table 1. Generalised Stratigraphy, East Kameng District
Arunachal Pradesh (After Kumar, 1997)
Age Group Formation Member Lithology
Holocene Newer Channel Unoxidised sediments of Active
Alluvium Alluvium (T0) Channel.
Newer Terrace Boulders, cobbles, pebbles with
Alluvium (T1) unoxidised sand and sandy clay.
Middle to Late Older High level Boulders, cobbles, pebbles with
Pleistocene Alluvium Terraces (T2,T3) oxidised sand and sandy clay.
Early Pleistocenets Siwalik Subansiri Sandstone, grey micaeous with
Miocene (Up. Siwalik) salt and pepper texture and
calcareous concretions, clay and
claystone in upper part.
Dafla Sandstone, hard, greyish white to
(Up. Siwalik) greenish grey and khaki shale
alternations
Kimi Sandstone hard, greyish white to
(Lr. Siwalik) greenish calc. sandstone and red
shale
Early Permian Lower Bhareli Upper Feldspathic Sandstone, black to
Gondwana carbonaceous, shale with
impersistent lenticular coal.
Lower Arkosic silicified sandstone,
siltstone and black carbonaceous
shale & thin lenticular
impersistent coal.
Bichom Sessa Grey to black tuffaceous shale
bleaching to ash grey with minor
bands of quartzite. Poorly
fossiliferous.
Bomte Grey to black shale with
calcareous & phosphatic nodules
(coal balls), cherty nodules.
Richly fossiliferous.
Rilu Diamictite/pebbly mudstone,
greenish grey with minor bands of
shale.
Miri D Quartzite/feldspathic sandstone,
purple, pinkish, white to greyish
white & purple micaceous shale.
C Diamictite, grey to greenish with
angular clasts grey to purple
quartzite, slate/phyllite, limestone
& granite.
B Quartzite/feldspathic sandstone,
purple to pinkish, white with
purple silty shale
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 31
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000
Age Group Formation Member Lithology
A Oligomictic conglomerate
containing grit to cobble size
rounded to subrounded clasts of
quartzite, pinkish to greyish white
coloured.
Cambrian Deed Biotite granite (500+19Ma)
Granite gneiss
Mesoproterozoic Dirang Low-grade metasediments
comprising garnet-muscovite-
biotite schist, phyllite, sericite
quartzite, calc-silicate, tremolite-
actinolite marble.
Mafic sills & dykes
Ziro Geneisses (Biotite grantie
gneiss 1914+25Ma & Tourmaline
bearing leuco-granite 1676+122
Ma) Ultramafic dykes and sills.
Paleoproterozoic Bomdila Chilliepam Niumi Crystalline limestone, dolostone/
dolomite, quartzite & green
phyllite, carbonaceous phyllite,
chlorite/ actinoalite-hornblende
phyllite with thin beds of marble.
Kabak Dolomite, with black phyllite.
Oligomictic conglomerate with
clasts of quartzite.
Tenga Jameri Quartzite with thin bands of
phyllite.
Along Mafic metavolcanics, drab green
chlorite phyllite.
Khetabari Quartzite schistose to massive,
garnet mica sachist, para-
amphibolite
Schistose quartzite, acid tuff,
phyllite, carbonaceous &
graphitic phyllite, marble & calc-
silicate.
Se La Galensiniak Kyantite-sillimanite+stanurolite
gneiss and schist, quartzite,
migmatite.
Taliha Calc-silicate marble, graphitic
schist, amphibolite, sillimanite
gneiss.

4.5 TECTONICS
4.5.1 Taking into consideration the stratigraphy and structure, the Arunachal Himalaya has
been divided into two broad tectonic divisions, viz. the Frontal Fold Belt (FFB) made
up of Siwalik Group and forming the Sub-Himalaya, and the Main Himalayan Belt
(MHB) comprising Paleoproterozoic to Middle Eocene sediments and associated acid
magmatic rocks forming the Lesser Himalaya and Higher Himalaya. The two belts are
separated by the MBF (Kumar, 1997). The MHB is further subdivided into two zones-
zone I and Zone II, the former forming the Higher Himalaya and the latter Lesser
Himalaya.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 32
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

4.5.2 Within MHB, the data on structures within Zone I is scanty, while the rock sequences
of Zone II shows structures related to 4 or 5 (D1,2,3,4,5) deformational episodes. Of these,
the first three deformations (D1,2,3) are restricted to the Bomdila group and associated
acidic intrusions, and Dirang Formation. The first two deformations (D1,2) have been
related to the Luliangian and Zhongyuean orogenic movements during Late
Paleoproterozoic, and the latter (D3) to Mesoproterozoic deformation. The oldest
deformation (D1) is restricted to the Khetabari Formation only. The folds (F1) related to
deformation (D1) are isoclinal to reclined often rootless with angular to subangular
thick hinges, straight attenuated limbs. It is accompanied with metamorphism (M1) of
almandine-amphibolite facies and development of schistosity parallel to bedding. the
folds (F2) developed during deformation (D2) are superimposed over F1 and are of
regional dimensions. These are moderately tight to open asymmetrical, trend in ENE -
WSW direction where not re-oriented and are accompanied with development of strong
schistosity, matamorphism (M2) of green schist facies, and acidic intrusions of
Proterozoic age. The deformation (D3) is post Dirang Formation but pre sedimentation
of the Lower Gondwana Group, and the folds (F3), where not re-oriented, are isoclinal,
reclined or asymmetrical with axial plane striking NNE-SSW to NE-SW and plunging
towards north. Fourth deformation (D4) gave rise to large scale asymmetrical upright to
overturned folds (F4) having ENE-WSW trending axial plain dipping towards north.
Since this deformation has folded not only the Lower Gondwana sequence into an
overturned isoclinal syncline but also the Yinkiong Formation (Paleocene-Early
Eocene) it marks the initiation of the Himalayan Orogeny (HOM-1) related to strong
compressional orogenic movements due to collision of the Gondwana Plate with Asian
Plate along the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. The deformation (D5) refolded all the earlier
doformational structures. The associated folds (F5) are generally open broad,
asymmetrical with axial plane trending NNW-SSE. This deformation is related to
collision of the Central Burmese Plate with the Gondwana and Asian Plate along the
Tidding Suture in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh but before the development of
Foredeep.

4.5.3 The folds (F6) are restricted to FFB and are post Kimin Formation (Upper Siwalik) but
pre-Older Alluvium and are thus related to deformation (D6) during last phase of the
Himalayan Orogeny (HOM 4) in early Middle Pleistocene which resulted in the

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 33


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

development of the Sub-Himilaya. The folds are doubly plunging trending in ENE-
WSW to NE-SW.

4.6 NEOTECTONICS, SEISMICITY & EARTHQUAKES


4.6.1 It is under continuous stress field and still undergoing crustal adjustments since the last
phase of Himalayan Orogeny about 45 millions years ago. these Crustal
adjustments/movements - the Neotectonic activity, is identifiable in the form of block
movements resulting in reactivation of some existing major tectonic movements and
development of cross-faults, and release of stress waves causing earthquakes.
4.6.2 In the area of the two cross - the Bomdila Fault (Nandi, 2001) and the Roing Fault
(Kumar, 1997) have been recorded which post date Himalayan Orogeny and have
affected the sedimentation of the Quarternay sediments in the Brahmaputra Plain and
continue in the area of three proposed hydroelectric schemes, East Kameng District viz.
Dibbin, Phanchung and Tarang Warang in the East Kameng District Arunachal
Himalaya.

4.7 SEISMICITY
4.7.1 The Arunachal Pradesh in the northeastern region of India, situated at the tri-junction of
three plates, viz. Indian Indo-Burmese and Eurasian, falls in seismic zone-V. Seismicity
in the Eastern Himalaya is relatively sparse, and earthquake events are more
concentrated in areas traversed by cross-faults/lineaments (Nandi, 2001). They occur in
diffused pattern having post-collisional intracratonic characteristics. The earthquakes
events (total 974), occurring between 1964-1993, having magnitude > 4 have shallow
focal depth i.e. < 70 km. except for few events. The earthquake of 1947 (epicentre at
280 30' : 940 00') having magnitude M=7.5 was recorded from this domain. Nandi
(2001) has also related microseismicity of Zero area to a deep seated N.W. trending
fault running parallel to the Bomdila and Roing Fault.

4.8 GEOTECHNICAL APPRAISAL


4.8.1 In the project area the rocks exposed belong to the Zero Gneisses (Bomdila Gneiss,
Kaura and Basu Roy, 1981) and the Dirang Formation (MAP-
DIB4-1). The Zero Gneisses include undifferentiated augen gneiss, quartz-biotite
gneiss intrusive in the Tenga Formation of the Bomdila Group. It encloses enclaves of
quartzite of the Tenga Formation. The Dirang Formation comprises a basal unit of
garnetiferous mica schist, quartzite and phyllite at the base and an upper unit of ochre
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 34
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

schist, carbonaceous schist, laminated flaggy quartzite calc schist, marble and phyllite
white crystalline marble intercalated with phyllitic and carbonaceous schist are exposed
on the left bank of the Diggin River.

4.8.2 Dam site : the proposed 27 m high dam is located on Bishum river, north east of village
Dibbin (270 27' 00" : 920 31' 16"). The bed rock is quartz-biotite schist with occasional
bands of quartzite. The rocks in the unweathered condition will be suitable for founding
the structure. The right bank is steep whereas the left bank is gentle. The dam axis shall
have to be fixed after carrying out detailed geological mapping on a contour plan. Two
or three shallow drill holes will be required to determine the depth of fresh and sound
rock.

4.8.3 Head Race Tunnel alignment : A tentative geological section has been prepared along
the approximately 4.43 km. long tunnel alignment (MAP - DIB 4-2). The rock cover
over the tunnel shall vary from 100m to 500m. The rocks inferred to be encountered in
the tunnel are predominantly schist and quartzite of Dirang Formation. The rocks are
expected to be of fair to good tennelling media. Problems could be encountered when
shear zones, charged with water would be encountered. A study of the toposheet
indicated that the drainage pattern of the area encompassing the tunnel alignment is
"Radial" indicating a domal structure. This feature shall have to be studied in detail in
field by taking traverses close to the tunnel alignment.

4.8.4 Power house site : The site is located on the left bank of the Ditchi Bru close to the
confluence with Bishum Chu. The power house appears to be located on a river terrace
deposit. A drill hole at this site may be put down to determine the depth and nature of
the bed rock. The project is located in Zone V as per the Seismic Zoning Map of India
prepared by the Indian Standard Institution (IS : 1893 - 1984)

4.9 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


The geological features and rock outcrops of gneiss and quartzite in hills and on river
bed show good prospect for development of stone quarries at various location of work
sites for production of sized coarse aggregates as well as produced sand of proper
qualities and standard. Based on the reconnaissance survey conducted during the site
visit it was observed that sufficient quantity of material of suitable quality would be
available for use in concrete as coarse and fine aggregate subject to testing of material

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 35


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

from identified potential sources for complete range of physical parameters like
abrasion, impact, crushing values, alkali aggregate reaction, flakeness index, elongation
index, specific gravity, water absorption, fineness modulus, silt and clay contents and
organic impurities. Further a portion of excavated rock from the tunnel is also proposed
to be used for construction. River sand deposits would be tested for its suitability for
use as fine aggregate in concrete and crushed sand may also be used to obtain well-
graded sand.

4.10 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


4.10.1 The Dibbin H.E. Project involves, construction of a 27m high diversion dam on Bishum
River, an approximately 4.43 km. long Head Race Tunnel (H.R.T.) and a power house
for the generation of 100MW of power utilizing a gross head of 165m Prefeasibility
stage studies have been carried out on the basis of field traverses and available
geological data.

4.10.2 The project is located in Lesser Himalayas with complex, geological and geotectonic
setting and in Zone V as per the seismic Zoning Map of India prepared by Indian
Standard Institution (IS : 1893 - 1984). The rocks exposed in the Project Area belong to
Zero Gneisses and the Dirang Formation. The Zero

4.10.3 Gneisses include undifferentrated augen gneiss, quartz-biotite gneiss intrusive in the
Tenga Formation of the Bomdila Group. the Dirang Formation includes, at the base
ganetiferous mica schist, quartzite, and phyllite and an overlying unit of ochre schist
carb schist, laminated flaggy quartzite, calc schist, marble and phyllite.

4.10.4 At the proposed 27m high dam site, the inferred bed rock is quartz-biotite schist with
occasional bands of quartzite. The site appears prima-facie suitable. To fix the dam axis
detailed geological mapping would be required and drilling of two or three shallow
holes to determine the depth to fresh and sound rock.

4.10.5 The approximately 4.43 km. long H.R.T. shall encounter predominantly schist and
quartzite of Dirang Formation. These rocks, generally shall not pose tunnelling problem
except when shear zones charged with water would be encountered. The rock cover
over the tunnel shall vary from 100m to 500m. The drainage patterin the the H.R.T.
alignment area is 'Radial' which would require detail field studies to evaluate its
implication on tunnelling.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 36
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

4.10.6 The power house site is located on the left bank of Ditchi Bru close to the confluence
with Bishum Chu, on river terrace material. Drilling of one hole has been suggested at
this site.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 37


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER-V
Hydrology

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 38


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

5.1 GENERAL

5.1.1 The hydrological inputs play a very vital role in planning, execution and operation of
any water resources development project. The hydrological studies are carried out at all
the stages of project development starting from the pre-feasibility stage and are
continued even during the operation of the project. Hydrological studies usually cover
the assessment of quantities of available water and its time variation, estimation of
design flood usually required for the hydraulic design as well as safety of the structure
and sedimentation studies, important from life point view of the project as well as its
effect on the live storage.

5.1.2 The river Brahmaputra is one of the biggest river in the world. The total length of
Brahmaputra river in India is 885 km and its drainage basin in India is 1,95,000 sq. km.
There are 25 principal north bank tributaries of this river. The major one are Subansiri,
the Manas, the Dibang, the Dhansiri, the Torsa, and the Teesta etc. The kameng is one
of these 25 principal north tributaries of this river. The State of Arunachal Pradesh is
enriched with tributaries like Tawang Chu, Kameng, Subansiri, Dihang etc. which
originates from the mighty Himalayas. These are perennial in nature and carry them
floods almost every year during monsoon and as such have huge-hydro potential. The
Kameng river is one of the river system and its drainage area lies in India
approximately between longitudes 92º-00´-00" to 93º-20´-55" E and latitudes 26º-38´-
00” to 28º-59´-50" N. The drainage area of the Kameng is about 10,777 sq. km. The
river Pachu, Bichom, Papu and Pakhe are the main tributaries of the Kameng. The
Kameng originates at an elevation of 6000 m. The Central Electricity Authority (CEA)
has identified about 31 probable potential sites in the Kameng basin. An index map of
the some of the identified hydro electric potential is shown in Plate-I.

5.2 BASIN CHARACTERISTICS

The topography of the Kameng Basin in upper reaches divides itself in to two distinct
zones i.e. Greater Himalayas and Lower Himalayas. The Greater Himalayas abounds
with Glaciers and mostly are covered with permanent snow above elevation 5000 m
while lower regions in Himalayas are generally rain fed. The topography of the basin is
hilly with steep slopes in upper regions and moderately plain areas in lower regions.
The areas in hilly regions are low in fertility due to rock out-crops, boulders and
gravels. The majors tributaries in the basin are perennial due to runoff from snow melt
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 39
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

and as such offer great hydro-power potential, but in lower reaches good agricultural
land are available in adequate quantities.

5.3 METEOROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF KAMENG BASIN

5.3.1 The climate of the basin varies from severe cold to tropical depending upon the altitude
of the area and extent of exposure to sun. The valleys are warm during summer and
experience severe cold during winter due to heavy snow fall in high altitudes. The
temperature in upper reaches in winter falls below 0ºC. The normal annual temperature
for the basin is less than 20º C.

5.3.2 The wind direction is southward to North in the monsoon and northward to South in the
winter season. The rainfall pattern is monsoon type with major portion of precipitation
occurring during May to October due to tropical cyclones/ storms/ depressions
originating from Bay of Bengal. About 85% of the rainfall occurs during monsoon
period. The Normal annual rainfall is 2500 mm. The normal annual Isohyetal map is at
Plate-II. No snowfall data is available in the basin. The worked out average annual
rainfall from all the RG stations available in the basin is about 2310 mm.

5.4 PROJECT PROPOSAL


It is a run off the river scheme envisages to divert the river water by constructing a
weir/barrage of approximate 27 m height across the upper reaches of river Bichom, a
tributary of Kameng river with an installation capacity of 100 MW. The location of
the proposed project is Latitude 27º-27´-0" N and Longitude 92º-31´-16" E. This
project is proposed to be located very near to Dibbin village and about 5 km
downstream of proposed Utung HE scheme. The index plan showing the location of
project components is shown in as Plate-III.

5.5 WATER AVAILABILITY STUDIES

5.5.1 Water Availability Studies is one of the most important aspect for success of any Hydro
Power project and this forms the basis for development of water resources of a river to
its maximum potential. The feasibility of a project very much depends on the studies on
water availability at various levels of dependability and variations of flow over
considerably long period.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 40


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

5.5.2 For carrying out this studies, the working group constituted by the Government of India
for setting “Guidelines for Planning and Design of multipurpose project”, 1980 has
recommended the following guidelines pertaining to hydrological data requirement for
water availability studies:
Sl. No. Type of Project Minimum length of data
1. Diversion Project 10 years
2. Within a year storage project 25 years
3. Over the year storage project 40 years

5.5.3 The above guidelines mainly for the preparations of Detail Project Report, can not be
strictly adhered to as several times the data required may not be available at the project
site. Therefore data of the nearby stations becomes necessary to use. It is generally
observed that hydrological data at the project site is seldom available for the desired
length and therefore in such cases the extension of the run off series by using data at
nearby upstream or down stream sites is based by using some statistical method. In the
absence of hydro meteorological data within the basin, the data of adjacent basins may
also be used, if hydro meteorological similarity exists.

Catchment Area and River

5.5.4 The proposed weir site is located on the river Bichom. This river originates at an
elevation of 5400 m and flows generally in the S-SE direction for about 90 km to join
the Tenga river. The total catchment area up to proposed scheme is 607 sq. km., out of
which snow cover area is 34 sq km.

5.5.5 The stream length of the river up to project site is 44 km with an equivalent slope of 1
in 16. The catchment area map of Dibbin hydro project is shown as Annexure 9.1. The
elevation in the catchment ranges from 5400 m in the upper reaches to around 1160 m
near the project site.

Data Availability

(i) Rainfall Data


5.5.6 There are 8 rain gauge stations for which rainfall data is available for varying period.
An IMD rain gauge station at Bomdila existed for the period 1970 to 1976 and it has
been discontinued since 1976. Some of the RG stations functioning presently are

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 41


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

owned by different agencies. Only one SRRG station Khuppi was in existence during
period 1969 to 1981. The location of the RG stations are shown in the Plate-IV. The
Table.5.1 shows the present status of the rainfall data available in the Kameng basin:
Table. 5.1
Rainfall Data Availability
Sl. No. Rain gauge Station Duration
1. Buragaon 1971 to 1981
2. Bichom 1969 to 1981
3. Jameri Point 1977 to 1981
4. Khuppi 1969 to 1981
5. Bomdila 1970 to 1976
6. Seppa 1993 to 2002
7. Lumla 1999 to 2002
8. Bhalukpong 1985 to 2003

5.5.7 There is no RG station within the Project catchment. The Normal Annual Rainfall for
this basin is taken as 2500 mm, which is the value taken from the available IMD
normal Isohyetal map. The worked out average annual rainfall for the Kameng basin
from all the rainfall stations shown above is 2300 mm, which is approximately equal to
the value recommended by IMD in its normal Isohyetal map. However, the value 2500
mm is more representative than the 2300 mm, as it has been averaged over the 30 years
period.

(ii) Gauge and Discharge Data


5.5.8 The daily gauge and discharge data as observed by CWC is available at four G & D
sites as presented in Table no. 5.2 below:
Table – 5.2
Gauge and Discharge data
Sl. No. G & D Site Data availability
Mar.'69 to Jul.'81
1. Bichom dam site Mar. '89 to May '89
Jan.'90 to Dec.'92
Jan.'69 to Jul.'81
*Jan. '90 to Dec. '90
2. Jameri Point
*Jan. '91 to Dec. '92
Apl.'01 to May '01
3. Tenga dam site Jan.'69 to May '72
4. Bhalukpong May '90 to May '02
*- some data is missing.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 42


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

(iii) Sediment Data


5.5.9 The detail of the sediment data status is shown in the Table no. 5.3.
Table – 5.3
Sediment Data
Sl. No. Station Period
1. Bichom dam site 1969-80
2. Jameri Point 1970-80
3. Tenga dam site 1969

The above silt data have been observed once in a month.

5.6 METHODOLOGY

The Bichom sub basin is having some hydro meteorological data. The flow data
available at Bichom dam site (catchment area 2277 sq. km.), about 35 km downstream
for the period 1969-1981 is being used to finalise the flow series at Dibbin project site
on proportionate catchment area basis.

Consistency

5.6.1 The Bichom flow series is available for the 13 years period. The validation of this flow
series based on the representative catchment rainfall is not possible, since rainfall data
is available only for two stations i.e. Buragaon and Bichom dam site. These both RG
stations are located on the lower reach of the Bichom catchment (Catchment area 2277
sq. km.) and very near to Bichom G & D also. There is no RG station in the upper
reaches of the catchment. Therefore the Bichom flow series can not be validated
externally in the absence of representative catchment rainfall with the help of rainfall
data available within this sub basin.

5.6.2 In the absence of representative catchment rainfall, rainfall data available with the IMD
has been explored. The normal annual rainfall for the Kameng basin is 2500 mm as
given in the normal annual isohyetal map (as shown in the Plate-2) published by IMD.
Presently, this normal annual rainfall value has been considered.

5.6.3 In order to validate the Bichom flow series externally in the absence of representative
catchment rainfall for the Pre-Feasibility Planning purpose, the normal annual rainfall
is considered. The average annual runoff at the Bichom G & D site is 1792 mm. The
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 43
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

normal annual rainfall of 2500 mm is taken for the Kameng basin. The estimated run
off factor is 0.72. The worked out runoff factor indicates that in the absence of any
other option to validate this flow series, the Bichom series can be used for the PFR
purpose of this hydro project.

Proposed Flow Series for the Scheme

5.6.4 The proposed scheme is located on the upper reaches of Bichom river. The discharge
data is available for 13 years at Bichom G & D site. Since no site specific flow data is
available for the present scheme, therefore to arrive the yield series at Dibbin project
site, the flow data available at Bichom dam site is being used to arrive the yield series
at the project site. The 10 daily flow sequences of Bichom are shown in Annexure. 5.1.

5.6.5 The Bichom series has been transformed on the catchment area proportionate basis.
The catchment area factor is 0.27. The derived 10 daily series for the 13 years by using
Bichom Flow series based on the catchment area proportionate basis is shown in the
Annexure. 5.2.

5.6.6 This proposed 10 daily series for the Dibbin hydro scheme is being used for PFR
purpose and will be reviewed at the DPR stage, when site specific observed flow data
as well as representative catchment rainfall will be available.

5.7 DESIGN FLOOD STUDIES

General

5.7.1 The estimation of design flood for the design of different types of structures is a very
significant component of hydrological studies. The design flood and highest flood level
are very much essential for fixing the water way and foundation depth of any hydraulic
structure. Therefore, accurate estimation of this hydrological parameter is very
important from cost point view of the structure as well as safety of the structure and
risk of population involved to the downstream as well as upstream of the structure.

5.7.2 For a diversion structure, 100-year design flood is considered. For designing the free
board of these diversion structures, 500 year return period flood or standard project
flood value is considered for hydraulic design calculations. In the case of storage
project, SPF or PMF flood should be considered depending upon the height of the

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 44


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

structure or storage upstream. The 100-year return period flood has been worked out for
the present scheme.

Design Flood Methods

5.7.3 The various methods for estimation of design flood are as follows:
(i) Flood formulae and Enveloping curves
(ii) Flood frequency analysis
(iii) Hydro-meteorological approach (unit hydrograph method)

5.7.4 The empirical formulae like Dickens, Ryves, Inglis etc. are inherently deficient as
these do not take in to account the varying physiographic, meteorologic and hydrologic
characteristics from catchment to catchment. Therefore the first approach have limited
application. The second approach is useful in the case of long term flow data
availability at the project site. The last approach is based on the observed short interval
rainfall runoff data and is the most reliable.

5.7.5 For the present study hydro-meteorological approach is followed for the estimation of
design flood. As this sub basin is not having any observed rainfall runoff data, therefore
synthetic unit hydrograph approach based on flood estimation report is used.

Design Flood Studies by Hydro-meteorological Approach

5.7.8 This approach involves the estimation of design storm hyetograph and the catchment
response function i.e. unit hydrograph (UG).

5.7.9 The UG of a catchment is defined as the direct run off hydrograph resulting from one unit
of effective rainfall uniformly distributed over the whole basin at a uniform rate for unit
duration. This method is suitable for small and medium sized catchments having area
from 25 sq. km. to 5000 sq. km. The UG is best derived from the observed hydrograph
at the project site resulting from a storm. In the absence of observed short interval
rainfall- runoff data, synthetic unit hydrograph (SUG) are derived with the physical
characteristics of the basin.

(i) Derivation of Unit Hydrograph by Regional Approach


5.7.10 The Central Water Commission in association with India Meteorological Department,
Research Design and Standard Organisation under ministry of Railway, and Ministry of
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 45
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Surface Transport have brought out several Flood Estimation reports for different hydro
meteorological homogeneous sub-zones covering almost whole country. These reports
have developed unit hydrograph parameters synthetically through a set of regression
equations using different physiographic parameters of the sub-zone. For the present
studies, “Flood Estimation Report For North Brahmaputra sub-zone 2(a), 1991” is used,
as the project under consideration falls in this zone.

5.7.11 The different synthetic unit hydrograph (SUG) parameters as recommended by the
CWC sub zonal report 2(a) are given in Table 5.4.
Table – 5.4
SUG Parameters
Parameters Formulae Value
−0.409
 LL 
qp 2.272 c  0.79 cumec/sq.km.
 S 
tp 2.614(q P )
−0.940
3.26 hrs
W50 2.08 (q P )
−1.065
2.67 hrs
W75 1.028 (q P )
−1.071
1.32 hrs
WR50 0.856 (q P )
−0.865
1.05 hrs
WR75 0.44 (q P )
−0.918
0.55 hrs
TB 5.428 (t P )
0.852
14.84 hrs
Qp q P xA 480.38 cumec
The above SUG parameters have been evaluated by considering catchment area i.e. 607
sq. km.

S=
∑ L (D i i −1 + Di )
2
L
Where;
S Equivalent slope of the river up to project site in m/km
Di-1, Di Depths between the river bed profile ( L-section ) based on the
levels of (i-1) and the ith contours at the intersection points and the
level of the base line (datum) drawn at the point of study in meters
L Length of the longest stream in km
Li Length of the ith segment in km
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 46
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

The detail calculations showing computations of equivalent slope, SUG parameters are
shown in Annexure 5.3 and Annexure 5.4. The equivalent slope of the stream is 63.60
m/km.

(ii) Design Storm


5.7.13 The details of the storm are given as in the following sections.

(iii) Design Storm Depth


5.7.14 The 100 year 24 hour return period rainfall has been estimated from Isopluvial map
given in sub zone report – 2(a). It is 260 mm approximately. The Isopluvial curve has
not been extended throughout the Kameng basin. Therefore the value choosen is a
approximate one.

(iv) Design Storm Duration


5.7.15 As per the recommendation given in sub zone report , the duration of storm has been
taken equal to base width of Synthetic Unit Graph (SUG). Therefore the design storm
duration is 15 hours. Therefore 24 hour Point rainfall has been converted to 15 hour
Point Rainfall by choosing conversion factor of 0.88 from Figure 10 given in sub zone
report.

(v) Areal Correction Factor


5.7.16 As per the practice , for the given rain fed catchment area 607 Km2, this factor worked
out is 0.86 and 15 hour point rainfall value have been converted to areal rainfall by
using this factor. The final value is 197 mm.

(vi) Time Distribution Coefficients


5.7.17 The Temporal Distribution of the 15 hour storm has been adopted from the subzonal
report- 2(a). The storm distribution is shown in the Table 5.5 as follows:

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 47


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Table – 5.5
Time Distribution Coefficients
Distribution of 15 Distribution of 15
Time Time
hours Rainfall hours Rainfall

1 0.19 10 0.86

2 0.34 11 0.89

3 0.45 12 0.92

4 0.53 13 0.95

5 0.61 14 0.97

6 0.68 15 1.00

7 0.74

8 0.78

9 0.82

(vii) Design Loss Rate


5.7.18 A design loss rate of 0.24 cm / hour has been adopted as per the
recommendation of sub-zone report 2(a).

(ix) Critical Sequence of Rainfall Excess


5.7.20 The critical sequence of the rainfall excess should be characteristic of the area under
study. The effective hourly rainfall increments are arranged in such a manner that
maximum rainfall increment is put against the maximum SUG ordinate and so on. In
order for convolution, this resulting rainfall sequence is reversed.

(x) Convolution
5.7.21 In order to get detail flood hydrograph, the SUG ordinates at unit interval are multiplied
by each oh the critical rainfall excess and lagged by one hour duration at a time.

(xi) Computation of Unit Hydrograph


5.7.22 Using the basic physiographic parameters (L, Lc, A and S ), the different SUG
parameters are derived and unit hydrograph is plotted adjusting its volume to 1 cm
effective rainfall. The derived SUG ordinates are shown in is shown in Annexure 5.5
and graph is as Figure 5.1. While adjusting the hydrograph, the recommendations made
in report 2 (a) are kept in consideration.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 48


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

5.7.23 The surface flow hydrograph has been as per the standard practice. After the rainfall
excess shown in Annexure 5.6, increment have been arranged in critical sequence by
reversing and convoluting. The base flows are added to the ordinates of the surface
flow hydrograph to obtain the total flood hydrograph. The derived flood hydrograph is
shown in Figure 5.2.

5.7.34 The convolution is given in Annexure 5.7. The estimated 100-year return period flood
is 3740 cumec.

5.8 SEDIMENTATION STUDY


5.8.1 The sedimentation studies are required for storage reservoir in order to assess the
feasible / economic life of a reservoir, its distribution in different zones as well as to
decide effective location of different outlets.

5.8.2 In case of run off the river schemes, where there is no provision for water storage, this
study in detail is not needed. But generative units of hydro power station are likely to
be suffered because of high erosive action of silt in water. These damages have been
more severe in case of power station located in Himalayan regions. The problem
becomes more critical during the monsoon due to high increase in silt content.

5.8.3 The diversion structures without storage, diverts silt laden water in to the water
conductor. Some of the silt would get removed through the desilting arrangements at
the diversion struture itself. A desilting chamber generally excludes the silt particle
larger than certain sizes to minimize the erosive action of silt on the under water
components of the generating machines. The silt samples in water during monsoon are
to be collected as a part of hydrological investigations. The grainsize distribution and
the chemical properties of the silt are analysed. The analysis helps in the design of
desilting chamber and informations collected would be useful for machines used .Copy
of Comments on Hydrology Chapter and their replies have been attached as
Annexure 5.8

5.9 LIMITATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS


(i) The water availability studies has been carried out by using the Bichom flow
series. The proposed yield series is not based on site specific data. Therefore,
this 10 daily derived flow series is being used for planning purpose. This flow

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 49


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

series needs to be reviewed when site specific observed flow series of longer
periods would become available.

(ii) During the review studies, the proper consistency check (both internal and
external) is to be exercised in order to validate the observed flow data. To carry
out the validation studies, this sub basin needs a good net work of hydro
meteorological stations also. At the DPR stage, extent of precision of flow
measurements, limitations of observations as well as other constraints would
need special attention. The use of hydro meteorological data of existing stations
as well as identification and establishment of new stations may be carried out at
the DPR stage. A minimum of gauge, discharge and one ORG & SRRG station
need to be installed at the earliest at the project site.

(iii) The design flood values have been estimated by hydro-meteorological


approach. The SUG is based on the physiographic parameters of the basin
derived from the regression equations of sub-zone report 2(a). The flood peak
value obtained is being used for preliminary design purpose. The studies needs
to be reviewed at the DPR stage, when site specific short term rainfall – runoff
data would become available. Therefore, at the project site short interval rainfall
– runoff data observations needs special attention at the earliest to derive a
reliable unit hydrograph and estimate new hydrological design parameters.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 50


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Chapter VI
Conceptual Layout and Planning

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 51


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1.1 Dibbin Hydro Electric project is proposed on river Bichom, in its upper reaches which
is a tributary of Kameng river in west Kameng District. The scheme envisages
construction of a gated dam 27 m high located just downstream of the confluence of
Difya river with Bichom river with its co-ordinates at 92°31'16"E and 27°27'00"N to
divert the river water Bichom into the water conductor system. The water conductor
system would comprise a surface desilting basin 100 m long to remove silt particles
above 200 microns, a head race tunnel of 5.0 m diameter, 4.43 km long, a surge shaft of
13.7m diameter, 60.33 m high and 2 nos. 3.0 m diameter pressure shaft 50 m long each
and 2 surface penstocks of 3.0 m diameter and 103 m long each. The installed capacity
of the project would be 100 MW (3x50 MW) and the annual energy generation from
the project in a 90% dependable year is assessed as 335.72 MU. The layout of the
project is shown in drawing NP-PFR-DB - 601.

6.1.2 Pre-feasibility report has been prepared on the basis of study of 1:50,000 scale
toposheets of survey of India covering the project area, reports of GSI in respect of
regional geology, observation made during site visit, available recorded observed data
of rain gauge and gauge discharge stations, at various locations of Kameng basin
maintained by NEEPCO and information from local sources where possible. The
present outline of project layout and locations of various components have been
prepared/identified on the basis of blown up digitized map of available 1:50000
toposheets. Larger scale toposheets of survey of India covering Kameng basin are not
available. It has been considered that during detailed filed investigation stage, contour
map of whole area of the project in 1:10 000 scale in 5 m contour interval will be got
prepared through survey of India. Location of various structures including dimensions
indicated in this report on the basis of 1:50,000 scale map will therefore have to be
reviewed again during DPR stage when 1:10,000 scale toposheets will be ready.

6.2 RIVER DIVERSION WORK


6.2.1 No record regarding small floods which might have occurred during lean season of the
year is available. From the record of average 10-daily discharge data from mid
November to April of 13 years it is seen that in most of the years average discharge is
of the order of 25 cumecs. It was therefore considered to go for a diversion system
which will be able to handle 75/80 cumecs of flows of non-monsoon months which is

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 52


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

equivalent to 3 times the recorded flood. General topography of dam site and slope of
hill sides do not encourage going for channel for diversion of lean period flows.

6.2.2 Considering those facts, the diversion system has been contemplated to be consisted of
a diversion tunnel along with upstream and downstream coffer dams so that lean season
flows upto 80 cumecs can pass through the diversion tunnel without spilling over the
coffer dam. The corresponding velocity in diversion tunnel under that condition will be
around 9.5 m/sec.

6.2.3 Considering the topography, favourable site condition for locating an adit and
availability of road communication, the main components of the project, viz, HRT
alignment, surge shaft, penstock route and power house site have been identified on the
right bank. Since HRT is on the right bank, the diversion tunnel has been tentatively
fixed on the opposite bank. Detailed layout of diversion tunnel will be worked out
during DPR / Pre construction stage of the project.

6.2.4 For the construction of the diversion dam and appurtenant works, the river diversion is
proposed to be done through a 3.3 m diameter diversion tunnel located on the right
bank of the river. In order to work in the river bed during the working months of the
year, the diversion works namely coffer dams and diversion tunnel have been designed
for passing occasional lean season floods during the working months in a manner
which will not result long interruptions of works and it will also be able to handle
monsoon floods of reasonable size.

6.2.5 A concrete lined diversion tunnel of 3.3 m diameter horse shoe shaped and 275 m long
has been proposed to divert the diversion flood. The diversion tunnel is expected to
pass through rock strata consisting quartz biotite schist with occasional bends of
quartzite which are folded and well foliated. In view of this, initial/immediate support
is proposed to be provided by 100 mm thick (average) shotcrete followed by 25 mm
diameter, 3.5 m long rock bolts at 1500mm centre to centre at a spacing of 3 m centre
to centre (staggered) or at any other spacing or pattern as warranted by site conditions.
300 mm thick concrete lining has been proposed throughout the length of the tunnel
with M-20 concrete. The tunnel inlet is proposed with a gate of 3.3m x 3.3m. The gate
will be operated by means of a rope drum hoist at the time of plugging the diversion
tunnel. Subsequent to concrete lining, the rock behind the liner will be suitably grouted
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 53
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

by drilling holes at suitable intervals. Detailed layout of diversion tunnel will be


worked out during DPR / Pre construction stage of the project.

6.2.6 Suitable coffer dams located approximately 75 m upstream and 150 m downstream
from the dam axis constructed with a combination of pair of masonry walls with in
between space filled with boulder colcrete, both walls and colcrete raised in stages,
have been proposed. The top of the coffer dams has been kept as 4 m so as to provide
sufficient space for movement of vehicles during construction of the dam. The
upstream coffer dam will be of 6 m high with a base width of 11 m. The downstream
coffer dam will be of 5 m high with a base width of 11 m. The cross-sections of
upstream and downstream coffer dams are shown in drawing No. NP-PFR-DB-610.

6.3 DIVERSION DAM


Dam
6.3.1 In the absence of large scale contour maps and detailed geological explorations, the
selection of type of dam as well as the location has been made on the basis of
observations made during reconnaissance of site. General geo-technical features rule
out the prospect of making any earth dam. Absence of any saddle on any of the sides of
the river rejects the possibility of separate chute spillway. Considering this fact, the
prospect of a rockfill dam was not encouraging.

6.3.2 During reconnaissance a few locations for suitable dam site were seen and on the basis
of those site observations regarding width of the river valley, availability of granite
gneiss, providing suitable abutment conditions for a concrete gravity dam, suitability of
accommodation of moderate sized spillway in the river section itself, the present site
was selected for a concrete gravity dam. Likely quantum of discharge during various
months, available head and topographical features of upstream side of the river valley
revealed by 1:50000 scale maps do not show the prospect of a big sized project with
even a moderate sized reservoir. Ungated dam would have been the best answer had
there been no problem of presence of silt in river water thereby giving likelihood of
deposition of silt upto dam crest. Considering this, a gated dam has been proposed.
Incidentally the gates provide a scope to have a little diurnal storage which may enable
the power station to run purely as a peaking station during lean months. The valley at
dam site is narrow and gorge width can accommodate the overflow section within the
river portion. The bed rock is quartz- biotite schist with occasional bands of quartizite.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 54
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

The rocks in the unweathered condition will be suitable for founding the struture. The
right bank is steep where as left bank is gentle. Location of dam axis will be fine tuned
after carrying out detailed geological mapping on a contour plan. Two or three shallow
drill holes will be requied to determine the depth of fresh sound rock.

6.3.3 With the study of toposheets, a few sites were seen and on the basis of satellite imagery
and digitised maps, observations on width of the river, general conditions of abutment
and river bed, the present location has been selected. However, during DPR stage
detailed investigation would be carried out not only at this site but also at other
locations which could have existed but might have been missed during this study.

Reservoir
6.3.4 The height of the dam from the river bed level is 27 m upto FRL. The bed level of the
river at the dam site is EL 1160 m FRL of reservoir is EL 1185m. The top of the dam in
the non-overflow block is kept at EL 1187 m. The length of the dam at the top would
be 143 m consisting of 78 m of overflow section and 32 of non-overflow section on the
left bank and 33m on the right bank. From the study of the area from satellite imagery
and digitized maps and also from GSI report on regional geology, it has been found that
there appears to be no apprehension regarding either the presence of karstic limestone
or pulverized coal bands or other frival materials which in presence of impounded
water may create water path for huge leakage of water from the reservoir. Considering,
these facts, it is observed that the site is competent to hold a reservoir.

6.3.5 The project is envisaged as a run-of-the river scheme. The power station would operate
as a base load station during monsoon period. However during the lean season utilizing
available live storage, it would be possible to operate both the units of the power station
at peak load for about 2 hours during morning as well as during evening. Keeping this
in view the MDDL has been kept at EL1179 m to give a live storage of 0.21 Mcum.
This will also take care of diurnal fluctuations of load.

Spillway
6.3.6 The overflow section is 78 m long. The spillway would comprise 5 bays each of 11.1 m
clear opening and 4.5 m wide piers. The spillway is controlled by 5 nos. radial gates
each of size 11.1 m x 14 m operated by means of rope drum hoists. The spillway is
designed to pass a design flood of 3740 cumec (this value of design flood has already
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 55
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

been cleared by CWC). The crest of the spillway has been kept at EL 1171 m. The
spillway has been given a parabolic shape profile corresponding to the equation
x1.85=18.85y. A road bridge at the top with EL 1187 m over the spillway bays has been
provided. The bottom level of the inlet channel to desilting task has been kept about 4.1
m above spillway crest. Because of this arrangement any silt deposit if accumulated at
the mouth of inlet channel will be flushed out whenever radial gates will be opened. In
case such deposits are not completely cleared by opening radial gates manual cleaning
of mouth will also be much easier with this arrangement, keeping bottom of inlet
channel sufficiently above spillway. The pondage created after construction of dam will
be small and in view of silt content in the river, the reservoir is bound to be silted upto
the crest level after a few years, whatever arrangement for silt removal may be made.
However the brighter aspect is that MDDL is kept 8.0 m above dam crest level, a fact
which ensures negligible reduction in live storage even after a considerable long period
of use. Considering above facts no provision for separate silt flushing under-sluices on
the bottom part of the body of dam has been made during PFR stage. Suitable silt
flushing arrangement shall be made during DPR stage when more realistic data
regarding silt contents in river water will be available.

6.3.7 Spillway length has been so proportioned that despite spillway section is dwarf the
same will not be a submerged spillway under design flood. The excavation line shown
is tentative. After geological investigation during DPR stage the same will be finalized
and the stability of overflow section along with pier, blockwise, will have to be
reviewed.
Energy Dissipation Arrangement
6.3.8 From the available 1:50,000 scale contour map it is not possible to generate a tail water
rating curve. From the available information regarding geology of river bed and from
the fact that the height of the over flow section is only 11m it is considered that the
right choice for energy dissipation structure would be of stilling basin type. Hence, the
energy dissipation arrangement for the purpose of PFR, has been considered to be of
stilling basin type. The appropriate type will however has to be decided on the basis of
detailed data obtained from detailed field investigations during DPR stage. The length
of the stilling basin has been kept 97 m. Cross section of the spillway and the upstream
views of gated dam are shown in drawing No. NP-PFR-DB-602. Copy of the comments
received from CWC and replies are attached as Annexure 6.1.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 56
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Non-Overflow Section
6.3.9 The non-overflow section would consist of one block each of 32 m length on left bank
and 33 m on the right bank. Both sides of the river are very thinly populated and there
is not even a single small town within 30/40 km. New roads will be made for the
purpose of construction of this project. The road over the concrete dam will be used
only for purpose of operation and maintenance after commissioning of the project.
Therefore two-way roadway has not been considered. The top width of non-overflow
section has been kept as 44.3 m and the downstream slope of the dam is kept as 0.9:1.
Copper and PVC/rubber joint seals would be provided in the contraction joints between
overflow and non-overflow sections. A 1.5 m x 2.25 m size foundation gallery has been
provided throughout the length of the dam. As it is a dam of short height the same will
also function as inspection and drainage gallery. The project area falls in seismic zone
V of India and an earthquake parameter of 0.24g acceleration for horizontal and 0.15g
acceleration for vertical have been considered. However, during DPR / Pre-construction
stage, site specific seismic studies will be carried out and information derived will be
kept in view at the time of construction level design.

6.4 DESILTING TANK


As Bichom river is carrying large quantity of silt during monsoon season, in order to
eliminate silt particles above 200 microns size, a desilting tank of 135 m width at top
and 100 m length is proposed. Water from the reservoir is drawn into the desilting
basin through an inlet channel of 50 m length. The bottom width of channel is kept as
8.5 m with side slopes of 1:1. The depth of the water in the channel is kept as 8.5 m at
FRL and 2.5 m at MDDL to give a water way of 27.5 sq.m Bottom and side slope of
the channel would be concrete lined. Inlet channel will be designed for passing a
discharge of 83.5 cumecs. Desilting tank will be divided into two basins by providing
an intermediate wall so that one basin could be closed during lean season for the
purpose of maintenance, manual cleaning etc while the other basin is in operation.
Depth of flow of water in the desilting tank is kept as 12 m and a free board of 600 mm
is provided. The proposed desilting tank is a surface type one. Therefore when the
water inside narrower inlet channel is entering into a much wider desilting basin or
water from the wider desilting basin is discharging into a much narrower outlet
channel, end streamlines at the junction of those structures even if get separated from
the side surface will not cause any problem unlike what happens in closed conduits.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 57


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Therefore neither the shape nor the length of transition should have any appreciable
bearing. Transition length of water conductor system between intake channel and
desilting tank is kept as 20 m. For the purpose of maintenance of one half of desilting
tank without closing the power station, fixed wheel type gates of size 12.35 m x 8.8 m
will be provided both on the upstream side as well as on the downstream side of both
the halves of the desilting tank. These gates will be operated by gantry crane of suitable
capacity. The details of desilting chamber and intake channel are shown in drawing
No. NP-PFR-DB-603 and NP-PFR-DB-604.

6.5 INTAKE CHANNEL AND POWER INTAKE


6.5.1 From desilting chamber an intake channel of 50 m length would be provided upto
power intake pond. The intake structure would comprise one intake to convey the
design discharge of 75.4 cumec. One number of intake gate of 5.0 m width and 5.0 m
height is provided. This gate will be operated by rope drum hoist. A semi-circular trash
rack with 6 trash rack bays of 2.33 m wide opening and 11.5 m height. Rock bars with
opening of 100mm centre to centre has been provided at the intake structure upstream
of intake gate to prevent floating material entering into water conductor system. The
details are shown in Drg. No. NP-PFR-DB-605.

6.6 HEAD RACE TUNNEL


6.6.1 The water coming out of desilting basin is conveyed to the head race tunnel through a
75 m long power channel of the same cross section as the intake channel. Maximum
velocity in the channel is kept as 3.05 m/sec. A modified horse shoe shape section
tunnel has been considered. The tunnel will be of 5.0 m diameter and 4.43 km long
having a slope of 1 in 150 and is designed to carry a discharge of 75.4 cumecs. Care has
been taken to align the tunnel in such a way so that 100 to 500 m of rock cover is
available above the tunnel overt. The alignment of the tunnel passes through rocks of
schist and quartzite of Dirang formation. These rocks are expected to be fair to good
tunneling media in general except for reaches where shear zones and local faults are
encountered. The problem faced may be more if these are water charged. 4.43 km
length of tunnel is proposed to be excavated from four faces one at the inlet of the
tunnel, one from the outlet of the tunnel and 2 faces from the intermediate adit. The
length of intermediate adit is 160 m.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 58


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

6.6.2 The excavated tunnel section is proposed to be supported by 50 to 75 mm shotcrete


followed by 3.5m long rock bolts at 1500mm c/c in a row at spacing of 3m centre to
centre staggered in 50% length of the tunnel. The remaining 50% length of the tunnel
will be provided with 100 mm shotcrete followed by rock bolts 3.5m long at 1500mm
c/c in a row at a spacing of 3m centre to centre (staggered). It is envisaged that 10%
length of the tunnel will be supported by steel ribs with RCC lagging. The head race
tunnel is proposed to be lined with 300 mm thick plain M-20 concrete. Low pressure
cement slurry is proposed to be injected for contact grouting through 45 mm diameter
holes inside the rock to be followed by high pressure consolidation grouting through 45
mm diameter and 3 m long grout holes to reduce outside hydrostatic pressure on the
tunnel lining. In sheared and fractured reaches 45 mm diameter, 3500 mm long
pressure relief holes will be drilled to allow drainage of outside water. Cross-section of
the tunnel is shown in drawing no NP-PFR-DB-606.

6.7 SURGE SHAFT


Presence of Ditchi bru stream down stream of power house indicated a possibility of
locating a forebay in lieu of surge shaft by suitably shifting the present power house
location slightly downstream. However, in the absence of large scale contour maps the
feasibility of such aspect could not be examined during PFR stage. This will be looked
into during DPR stage when large scale contour maps will be available. A surge shaft
of 13.7 m diameter and 60.33 m height with upper expansion chamber of 20 m
diameter and a lower expansion chamber of 5 m diameter 50m long has been proposed
at the outlet of the head race tunnel. Location, type, size and layout, have been fixed on
the basis of preliminary transient studies during PFR stage. Detailed transient studies
would be made on the basis of realistic data on machine discharge, closing / opening
time of wicket gates as well as closing time of PRV etc obtained from the manufacturer
during DPR/ construction stage and final design will be made accordingly. Top level of
surge shaft is kept as EL 1202.00 m and will be open to atmosphere. The details of
surge shaft are shown in drawing no. NP-PFR-DB-607. The excavated section of surge
shaft will be supported with shotcrete of 100 mm thick and rock bolt of 6 m long at
suitable intervals. The thickness of concrete lining around the surge shaft will be 1m
with reinforcements. Provision for consolidation grouting has been kept to improve the
rock mass around the surge shaft. Contact grouting will also be carried out throughout

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 59


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

the height of surge shaft to ensure proper contact between concrete lining and the
surrounding rock.

6.8 PENSTOCKS
From the surge shaft two-pressure shafts of 3.0 m diameter and 50 m long each are
provided. The diameter of the tunnels to be excavated for accommodating 3.0 m
diameter steel liners would be 5.0 m. From the pressure shafts two penstocks of 3.0 m
diameter 103 m long each would take off. The steel liner will conform to ASTM 285
grade C and the maximum thickness of liner envisaged is 18 mm. Penstock will be
provided with anchor blocks at the locations where change of direction takes place and
will be supported by saddle supports at suitable intervals. To take care of temperature
variations, the penstocks will be provided with expansion joints in between anchor
blocks.

6.9 POWER HOUSE


6.9.1 The surface power house is located on the left bank of Bichom river with its
coordinates at 27024'36"N and 92031'12"E. It will have installation of 2 generating units
of 50 MW each with Francis type turbine. The units are spaced at 12.5 m centre to
centre. The centre line of distributor is kept at EL 1015 m. The minimum tail water
level (TWL) is envisaged as EL 1020 m. Considering the fact that the catchment area is
only 607 sq.km HFL at power house is not expected to be above EL 1022 m. One
number electrically operated overhead travelling crane of 150/30 T capacity (EOT) is
provided for handling the heavy parts. Generator floor level is kept at EL 1026.2 m In
addition to generator and turbine floor, the machine hall will be provided with 2 more
floors. All the floors will be suitably connected by staircases and elevator. The width of
the machine hall is kept as 16 m; the length of service bay is kept as 18 m and is
connected by an approach road from the main road. The control room, LT room,
battery room, cable spreading room, stores etc. are located on the upstream side of the
machine hall. Main inlet valve of power station will be of valve butterfly type

6.9.2 For the maintenance of the units, each unit will be provided with a gate groove for
lowering a sliding type gate at its tail end which will be operated by means of a
traveling gantry crane over the rails. The gate will be operated with the help of a lifting
beam.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 60


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

3 nos., 11/220 kV, 3-phase, 41.66 MVA step up transformers, one 220/33 kV, 3 phase,
5 MVA station auxiliary transformer and two 33/11kV, 3 phase, 2.5 MVA station
transformers will be located at the far end of the power house. A 220 kV switchyard
will be located on this side of the power house for evacuation of power from Dibbin HE
project. Cross section and plan at turbine floor of the power house are shown in
drawing no. NP-PFR-DB-608 and NP-PFR-DB-609 respectively.

6.10 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT


Two nos. of Francis type turbine of 50 MW rating with synchronous speed of 500 rpm
and bhp of 45000 is proposed for a design head of 150 m and design discharge of 18.50
cumecs. The runner diameter is 1800mm and the diameter of the stator frame will be
around 4500 mm. The elevation of the centre line of distributor is kept at EL 1015 m.
Runner outlet diameter will be around 1700 mm and guide vane center line diameter
will be around 2200 mm. Inner diameter of generator Barrel will be around 6500 mm.
Weight of assembled rotor is expected to be around 110 T.

6.11 TAIL RACE CHANNEL


A short length of tailrace channel will discharge the tail waters of Dibbin Hydro
Electric Project back to Bichom river through Ditchi Bru nallah. It has not been
possible to work out the layout of tailrace on the basis of 1:50,000 maps available at
present. This will be done during DPR stage when larger scale toposheets will be
available.

6.12 FURTHER STUDIES


• Large-scale topographical maps are to be prepared for various components of the
project by conducting detailed topographical survey.
• Requirement of construction sluices may be examined during DPR stage.
• Detailed geological investigations are to be carried out in the form of geological
mapping, geo-physical examination and drilling.
• Diversion arrangements including estimation of diversion flood needs to be
reviewed during DPR stage based on additional G&D data and field investigations.
• Location of dam site may be reviewed during DPR stage with reference to
additional data obtained from further investigation.
• Based on geological investigations and large scale topographical maps and stage
discharge curve of the river energy dissipation arrangements may please be

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 61


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

reviewed during DPR stage. Model studies need to be carried out for energy
dissipation arrangement.
• Seismic studies are to be carried out during the DPR stage.
• Based on IMD data flood estimates to be a carried out during DPR stage.
• Tail water rating curves are to be established.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 62


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Chapter VII
Power Potential Studies

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 63


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.1.1 The Dibbin Hydro Electric project is a run of the river scheme across river Bichom in
Kameng basin. The scheme is located on the upper reach of Bichom river in west
Kameng District. It envisages construction of a diversion dam 27 m high located
downstream of confluence of Difya river with Bichom river near Dibbin village with
the co-ordinates at 92° 31'16" E and 27° 27' 00" N to divert the water of river Bichom
into a water conductor system. The topography does not offer possibilities of pondage
and the project is planned purely as a run-of-the-river scheme with diurnal pondage to
give peaking of 100 MW for 2 hours in the morning as well as in the evening during
lean season. Pondage available upto FRL is only 0.262 million cubic meter. It would
operate as a base load station during monsoon period.

7.1.2 The water conductor system would comprise a surface-desilting basin to remove silt
particles above 200 microns, a tunnel of 5.0 m diameter 4.43 km long, a surge shaft and
2 nos of pressure shaft/ penstock of 3 m diameter, 143 m long each. The crest level of
the proposed dam across river Bichom would be kept at EL 1171 m with 14m high
sluice type gates to pass the design flood. Layout of the project is shown in drawing
NP-PFR-DB-601 under Chapter VI

7.2 FIXATION OF FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL

The crest level of the proposed dam across river Bichom is kept at EL 1171 m.
Upstream of Dibbin project a 70 MW scheme namely Nazong HE scheme has been
envisaged by CEA across river Bichom. The FRL of this scheme is kept same as that as
TWL of upstream project namely Utung HE project and TWL of Nazong HE project is
kept as EL 1185 m. Accordingly the full reservoir level of Dibbin HE project is kept at
EL 1185 on pondage available at FRL is 0.26 Mcum.

7.3 FIXATION OF MINIMUM DRAW DOWN LEVEL

The bed level of the river at dam site is EL 1160 m. Spillway crest of the dam is kept at
EL 1171 m. For any storage project, the volume of sediment and its level of deposition
are assessed after a certain fixed time horizon. This study is generally not done in detail
for diversion/ run of the river schemes. Since Dibbin Hydro Electric Project is on the
virgin stream and located on the upper reach of Bichom river, a sedimentation rate of
1.0 mm/year is adopted for this scheme. Taking into consideration the silt
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 64
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

accumulation, the bottom of the inlet at the intake is fixed at EL 1165 m. The tunnel
diameter proposed is 5.0 m. Considering the water cushion over the bell mouth, the
MDDL is kept at EL 1179 m. Live storage available between FRL and MDDL is 0.21
Mcum. Area capacity table is presented in table 7.19. During the monsoon season the
power station would run as a base load station. However, during lean season both the
units of the power station will operate only for 2.0 hours during morning hours and
another 2.0 hours during evening hours. This would be equivalent to 400 MW hours per
day.

7.4 FIXATION OF TAIL WATER LEVEL

A surface power house is proposed on the left bank of Bichom river with its
coordinates at 920 31'12" E and 270 24' 36" N. At this location the bed level of the river
is observed as EL 1015 m. The lowest level of the powerhouse is kept EL 1008.5 m.
With a provision of 1.5 m thick concrete below the draft tube, the lowest level of draft
tube would be around EL 1010.3m. As Francis type turbine is proposed for this project,
by a rough estimate, the height of the centre line of the unit from the lowest level of
draft tube would be around 4.7 m. The centre line of the unit works out to EL 1015 m.
The minimum tail water level works out to EL 1020 m considering the suction head
required. However during HFL conditions of the river, the maximum tail water level
would be around EL 1022m. For power potential studies tail water level of EL 1020 m
is considered.

7.5 DISCHARGE DATA


Dibbin project falls in Bichom sub-basin. Within Dibbin project area, there is no hydro
meteorological net work. However a G&D site is available at Bichom dam site and at
this G&D site Bichom flow series are available for 13 years. Catchment area of Bichom
river at Bichom G&D site are 2277 sq km. Therefore flow series for Dibbin Hydro
Electric project has been arrived at on proportionate catchment area basis and is used
for the PFR purpose of this hydro electric project.

Discharge data thus arrived has been used for carrying out power potential studies and
unrestricted energy generation has been calculated for all the 13 years and arranged in
descending order. Then the percentage dependability has been calculated corresponding
to each year as per the formula n / (n+1) x 100% where n is the total number of years.
Hence the year corresponding to 90% dependability has been selected as the 90%
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 65
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

dependable year. The discharge data for 90% dependable year and 50% dependable
year are given in Table7.13 and 7.3 respectively. To consider the silt flushing
operations of the desilting basin, the inflow for the month of June to October has been
reduced by 10% of the available discharge for power generation. Reservoir area being
small, evaporation loss is not considered at PFR stage. During DPR stage when details
are available, evaporation loss would be taken account.

7.6 OPERATING HEAD

7.6.1 Full reservoir level has been kept at EL 1185 and MDDL is kept at EL 1179 m. The
power station would operate as base load station during monsoon period. But during
lean season, utilizing the available live storage, it could be possible to operate at a peak
load of 100 MW for about 2.0 hours (in a 90% dependable year) during morning hours
as well as during evening hours. The net operating head is arrived at by:

During Monsoon

Net operating head = FRL-TWL-Headloss

= 1185 – 1020 – 11.8 = 153.2 m

During Lean Season

Net operating head= MDDL + 2/3(FRL - MDDL) – TWL – Head loss in WCS

= 1179m + 2/3(1185 – 1179) – 1020 – 11.8

= 151.24 m.

Maximum Head loss in water conductor system is worked out as 11.8 m.


Hence net head of 151.24 m is considered

7.6.2 In the absence of tail water rating curve, variation in the level of tail water has not been
considered in the power potential studies.

7.7 EFFICIENCY

Combined efficiency of turbine and generator is taken as 92%.

7.8 INSTALLED CAPACITY

7.8.1 On the basis of average 10-daily inflows of Dibbin, the annual energy generation in
million units in a 90% and 50% dependable year are presented in Table 7.13 and 7.3.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 66


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

From these tables it could be seen that 10-daily average power varies from 9.67 MW to
120.46 MW in a 90% dependable year and from 17.75 MW to 123.55 MW in a 50%
year. The average lean flow power output (from November to April) in a 90%
dependable year is 19.95 MW and in a 50% dependable year is 24.83 MW. For
determining the optimum size of installed capacity, annual energy with varying
installed capacities from 60 MW to 130 MW were calculated for 90% and 50%
dependable years. The outcome of such assessment is presented in the same Tables
7.13 and 7.3.

7.8.2 Considering the average lean flow power output and increase in annual energy
corresponding to increase per mega watt installed capacity, an installed capacity of 100
MW has been selected.

7.8.3 Design discharge corresponding to 100 MW works out to 76.2 cumecs.

7.9 ENERGY GENERATION

7.9.1 The un-restricted energy generation in a 90% dependable year (XI) and 50%
dependable year (I) is also shown in Tables 7.13 and 7.3 respectively. Total energy
generation for 100 MW installed capacity in a 90% dependable year, and 50%
dependable year is 335.72 MU and 408.86 MU respectively. Energy generation un-
restricted as well as restricted to 100 MW installed capacity for other 11 years out of 13
years of discharge series derived (I to XIII) for Dibbin Hydro Electric Project are
shown in Tables 7.4 to 7.12, 7.14 & 7.15 respectively.

7.10 UNIT SIZE


Since the project is located in a remote area and would involve construction of about 15
km of road and equipment has to be transported through PWD road having many
bridges/ culverts with low load classification, the unit size of 50 MW each having
Francis type turbine has been proposed for Dibbin Hydro Electric project keeping in
view the likely transportation constraints. A copy of comments and their replies have
been attached as Annexure 7.1.

7.11 SUMMARY OF RESULTS


• Dibbin Hydro Electric project is envisaged as a RoR scheme.
• Water availability in a 90% dependable year = 932.26 Mcum.
• Project will have installation of 2 units of 50 MW each.
• Net head is 151.24 m.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 67
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

• Design discharge = 76.2 cumecs


• Full Reservoir level = EL 1185 m.
• Minimum draw down level = EL 1179 m.
• Tail water level = EL 1020 m
• Annual Energy generation in a 90% dependable year = 335.72 MU.
• Annual energy for tariff = 332.00 MU.
• Annual load factor = 38.32
• Lean flow load factor = 19.95

7.12 FURTHER STUDIES


Further studies are required in respect of:
1. G&D site needs to be established near dam site in order to check the derived
discharge data. Silt measurements also need to be taken.
2. The PWD road from Rupa to Nafra (53 km) needs to be improved and a link road
from Nafra to Dibbin (15 km) is to be constructed. This road will also give
approach to the power house.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 68


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - VIII
Power Evacuation

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 69


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

8.1 APPRAISAL OF EXISTING POWER EVACUATION FACILITIES


8.1.1 Arunachal Pradesh has an installed capacity of 437.03 MW of hydro-electric power
(including the recently commissioned 405 MW Ranganadi Hydro-electric Project) and
28.63 MW of diesel power. 600 MW Kameng HE project is under construction. NHPC
has also started work on 1600 MW Subansiri project located close to Arunachal-Assam
border for which independent power evacuation measures to Siliguri in West Bengal
will be needed. Power from Ranganadi and Kameng projects is proposed to be
evacuated through independent 400 kV transmission lines to 400 kV Balipara sub-
station of Power Grid Corporation (PGCIL) in Assam north of River Brahmaputra.
Bhalukpong will be the pooling station from which power from North-eastern region
will be transmitted to other regions of the country. Bhalukpong pooling point can be
connected to Balipara 400 kV substation by a 400 kV double circuit line and the major
power may be taken outside the region from Bhalukpong pooling point itself over
HVDC/800 kV lines as may be determined through detailed system studies keeping in
view the limitations of availability of corridor through the chicken neck. A 400 kV
double circuit line connects Balipara to Bongaigaon in Assam and from Bongaigaon it
connects Malda sub-station in West Bengal in the Eastern Grid. The local requirements
of Arunachal Pradesh are met from 132 kV transmission line already existing between
Ranganadi hydro electric project and Nirjuli and Ziro.

8.1.2 A power map of North-eastern region prepared by PGCIL is enclosed Annexure 8.1
which shows 400 kV, 220 kV and 132 kV transmission systems already existing and
under construction in Arunachal Pradesh. The132 kV network is proposed to cover all
parts of the State. This 132 kV state grid will be augmented as necessary for supplying
power to different parts of the SEB from new hydro-electric projects.

8.2 PROPOSED EVACUATION SYSTEM TO NEAREST FACILITY


8.2.1 The 50,000 MW Hydro-electric Power initiative prepared by the Ministry of Power,
Government of India has identified 41 hydro-electric projects with a total capacity of
5718 MW for development in the North-eastern region as Category ‘A’ schemes. Out
of these, 31 schemes with a capacity of 5047 MW are in Arunachal Pradesh. NEEPCO
has been entrusted with the preparation of pre-feasibility studies for 18 schemes in the
North-eastern region out of which 15 schemes are in Kameng basin in Arunachal
Pradesh.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 70


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

8.2.2 The peak load requirement of Arunachal Pradesh at the end of tenth plan has been
assessed by CEA in Sixteenth Electric Power Survey as 97 MW and as 136 MW at end
of eleventh plan. The requirements for north-east region as a whole are assessed as
1875 MW at end of tenth plan and 2789 MW at end of eleventh plan. As the total
power generated from all hydro-electric schemes in the north-east region will be around
33,000 MW, it is clear that the bulk of the power generated by these hydro-electric
projects including those in Arunachal Pradesh will have to be exported to different load
centers of Northern, Southern and Western regions of the country for meeting peak
loads in a predominantly thermal power grid. The power generated from the Kameng
Basin schemes will therefore need to be brought to Bhalukpong for transmission to
other regions on PGCIL network.

8.2.3 It has been indicated by PGCIL that power generated by the various hydro electric
schemes in Arunachal Pradesh will have to be pooled at strategic locations from where
they can be brought to Balipara sub-station through high capacity transmission system
for onward transmission outside the region. For these high capacity lines, technologies
like 800 kV, 600 kV HVDC bipole lines and other state of art technologies like multi-
circuit towers, very high conductor temperature lines using conductors like INVAR will
need to be explored. PGCIL in due course will decide appropriate technologies for
maximum utilization of the limited right of way available in the chicken neck area in
the Darjeeling district of West Bengal where national highways, railway lines and
existing transmission lines are already jostling for space.

8.2.4 The power generated at Dibbin HE project will be evacuated through LILO
arrangement of already approved 220 kV double circuit lines from Utung to the
switchyard of Kameng HE project (under construction), which in turn, will be
transmitted to the National Grid. Location of the proposed scheme on the Kameng river
system is shown as Annexure 8.2. This scheme is only indicative and the voltage levels,
line configuration and routing etc will be determined by detailed power system studies
on the basis of total power to be transmitted when all the 15 schemes proposed in the
valley materialize, which may necessitate adjustments in voltage levels or configuration
of the transmission system. Since the transmission lines will pass through mountainous
terrain and thick forest area, right of way problems will have to be taken into
consideration for determining the line route and configuration etc.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 71


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

8.2.5 Considering the fact that the Kameng HEP will come up early, the construction power
for Dibbin HE project is proposed to be supplied from Kameng pooling station on 33
kV line.

8.2.6 A detailed conceptual layout of power evacuation plan for all the schemes in Kameng
basin including 600 MW Kameng Hydro electric projects (under construction) is
attached as Annexure 8.3.

8.2.7 A single line diagram showing the proposed 220 kV surface switchyard configuration
at Dibbin H. E. Project is attached as Annexure 8.4.

8.2.8 The comments on power evacuation system have been incorporated and a copy of the
comments received is attached as Annexure 8.5.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 72


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - IX
Environment Studies

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 73


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

9.1 GENERAL INFORMATION

The salient features of the proposed Dibbin H.E. Scheme of 100 MW are briefly
described below.

9.1.1 Site Information


Dibbin H.E. scheme is located in the upper catchment of Bishum Chu and is proposed
immediately downstream of the confluence of Dakhri Bru with Bishom river in West
Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh (Annexure 9.1). The proposed scheme is located

between longitude 92o 31’ 16’’E and latitude 27o 27’ 00’’N. The riverbed level at the
proposed dam site is 1660m and full reservoir level (FRL) has been kept at 1185m. A
gated dam 27 m high is located just downstream of the confluence Difya Bung river

with Bichom, about 130m downstream of its confluence with Deyang Bung is
proposed. Dibbin H.E. scheme involves diversion of water of Bishum Chu through a
4.43 km long head race tunnel with a power house located upstream of the confluence

of Dibru Bru with Bishum Chu near village Dibbin. The scheme envisages power
generation of 100 MW.

9.1.2 Geographical Location

Village : Dibbin

Circle : Nafra
Block : Nafra-Buragaon
District : West Kameng

State : Arunachal Pradesh


The project site is approachable from Rupa town by a metalled road via Nafra – the
Circle headquarters and Nakhu and Bishum villages by a footpath.

9.2 SUBMERGENCE AREA

As the proposed diversion structure is 27 m high, the proposed reservoir would lead to
submergence of only 6.4 ha of land, which is comprised mainly of barren waste land
and degraded forests on the left bank slopes and open forest on the right bank

(Annexure 9.2). It would not lead to the submergence of any human habitation.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 74
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

9.3 RIVER SYSTEM


The Bishum Chu originates in the glaciated areas in the Greater Himalayan range at an
altitude of about 5,650m (Annexure 9.1). It drains a number of glacial lakes in the
upper reaches. Bishum Chu flows generally in the southward direction and is joined by
a number of streams both on left and right banks up to the proposed project site.
Kachho Bung is the first major left bank tributary of Bishum Chu. Further downstream
it is joined by another stream named Sama Bung. Chang Dimung Chu and Mijung Chu
are main right bank tributaries of Bishum Chu. Immediately upstream of the proposed
dam site Bishum Chu is joined by Deyang Bung on its left bank.

The catchment area of Bishum Chu up to the proposed dam site is 607 sq km. Total
length of the river from its origin up to dam site is about 44 km.

9.4 SEISMICITY
Several tectonic belts with characteristic litho-stratigraphic attributes traverse the
Arunachal Himalaya. Main Central Thrust (MCT) and Main Boundary Fault (MBF) are
the two major crustal discontinuities that extend throughout the Arunachal Himalaya.
These form the closest seismic source zone for the evaluation of seismic hazard in the
vicinity of the proposed project sites. This is particularly so in the comprehensive
tectonic environment of ENE~WSW to NE~SW trending Arunachal Himalayan belt,
which could cause major earthquakes with strike-slip mechanism. The proposed project
falls in Miri~Buxa Belt as per the tectonic classification given by Sinha Roy & Singh
(2002).

The proposed Dibbin H.E. project lies in the Zone V as per


the seismic zoning map of India incorporated in Indian Standard Criteria for
Earthquake Resistant Design Structures (IS: 1893 ~ 1970) and within intensity zone X
(Modified Mercalli Scale) on the Maximum Intensity Map prepared by Kaila and
Sarkar (1978) (Annexure 9.3). The area lies in the iso-seismal zones VIII-IX (MM) of
Assam earthquake of 1950. The region has experienced more than 750 earthquakes of
magnitude M 5-7 and more than 70 earthquakes of magnitude M 7-8.

The earthquakes occurring between MBT and MCT are evenly distributed along the
Himalayan front. They tend to concentrate in areas traversed by fractures/faults across
the strike of Himalaya. Permo-Carboniferrous (Gondwana) formation overlying
Proterozoic formations is separated from Siwalik formations by MBT. Different
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 75
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

seismo-tectonic domains that may have bearing on the project area : a) Mishmi
Tectonic Domain, b) Kopili-Bomdila Tectonic Domain, c) Sylhet Domain, d) Indo-
Burma Plate Boundary Domain and e) Shillong Plateau Domain.

The gamut of strike-slip environment in and around the project area is generally
affected by the contributions of RIS factor to the existing natural seismicity of the
region. As the reservoir is negligible, it would, therefore, not lead to any reservoir
induced seismicity (RIS).

9.5 EXISTING LANDUSE / LANDCOVER AROUND THE PROPOSED DAM SITE


The landuse/landcover pattern within 7 km radius of proposed dam site was interpreted
from LISS-III scene of Path/Row 112/52 of 22-Nov-2002 and PAN B scene of
Path/Row 111/52 of 22-Jan-2002. LISS and PAN scenes of the area covering 7 km
radius of project site are given in Annexure 9.4 and 9.5. In the present studies the first
level landuse/landcover mapping of the 7km area around the project site was
undertaken and the same (classified landuse/landcover map prepared from these two
scenes) has been given in Annexure 9.6. Area covered by various landuse/landcover
types is given in Table 9.1 and Annexure 9.7. The predominant landuse in the vicinity
of project area is forest. The dense forests constitute more than 48% of the total area
and area under open forest and scrubs cover about 16% and 13% area, respectively.
Agricultural and settlements landuse/landcover accounts for than 16% of the study area.
Shifting cultivation also covers more than 7% of the project area.

Table 9.1 Area (ha) under different landuse/landcover categories


in 7 km radius area of Dibbin H.E. project site

Landuse/landcover category Area (ha)

Dense Forest 9757.21


Open Forest 3226.87
Scrub 2527.37
Cultivation/ Settlements 3189.72
Shifting Cultivation 1392.25

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 76


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

7%

16%

48%

13%

16%
Dense Forest Open Forest Scrub Cultivation/Settlements Shifting Cultivations

Annexure 9.7 Percent area under various landuse/landcover categories in 7km radius
area of Dibbin H.E. project site

Most of the 6.4 ha of land to be submerged is mainly under open forest and degraded
forests/scrub. No dense forest areas are likely to be affected by the submergence.

9.6 FOREST TYPES IN THE VICINITY OF PROJECT AREA


The forests in the vicinity of the project site belong to Sub-tropical pine forest,
Temperate Broad-leaved forest, Temperate Conifer forest and Sub-alpine forest types.
The Subtropical Pine forests occur between altitudes of 1,200m and 1,800m. The
predominant species of conifers are represented by Pinus merkusii, P. roxburghii and
P. wallichaina and Tsuga dumosa. These forests occur with occasional patches of
broad-leaf species like Alnus nepalensis, Betula alnoides, etc. Blue pine (Pinus
wallichiana) is found higher up on the ridges and at higher altitudes. There is very little
area under cultivation upstream of the project site. The ground flora is comprised of
Ajuga sp., Berberis sp., Colebrookia oppositifolia, Daphne cyclea, Elsholtzia sp.,
Osbeckia sp. and Potentilla sp. Only in the areas downstream of dam site agriculture is
practiced in the vicinity of small villages like Dibbin and Dishing. Most of the forested
areas in the project area are unclassified forests. There is very little shifting cultivation
in this area. At higher elevations Temperate Broad-leaved forests are predominant.
These forests are comprised of plant species like Alnus nepalensis, Quercus lamellosa,
Q. lineata, Q. griffithii, Betula alnoides, Engelhardtia spicata, Exbucklandia populnea,
Cornus centroversa, Michelia cathcartii, Michelia excelsa, Populus gamblei and a
number of species of Castanopsis indica, Acer, Magnolia, etc. The middle storey is
represented by species of Prunus, Rubus, Spiraea, Symplocos, Rhododendron, etc. The

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 77


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

shrubby layer is comprised of Debregeasia longifolia, Mahonia semiserrata,


Vaccinium sprengelii, etc. Temperate Conifer forests are found above 2,800m up to
3,500m. These forests are comprised of Abies densa, Tsuga dumosa, etc.

Dense Mixed Oak-conifer forests in the area are comprised of Castanea tribuloides var.
armata, Clausena heptaphylla, Engelhardtia spicata, Pinus khasiana, P. wallichiana,
Quercus semiserrata, Q. spicata, Rhus succedanea and Toona ciliata. Dense thickets
of tall bamboos alongwith some small trees and woody shrubs comprise the second
storey of these forests. Coriaria nepalensis, Eupatorium odoratum, Eurya acuminata,
Leea indica, Lyonia ovalifolia, Rhododendron sp., etc. are important constituents of this
layer. Wild banana (Musa acuminata) also occurs in shaded and damp areas. Among
climbers Cissus discolor, C. repens, Rubus sp., Smilax aspericaulis and Vitis sp. are
predominant in these forests. Herbaceous flora is represented by Ageratum conyzoides,
Arthraxon hispidus, Arundinella nepalensis, Asparagus filicinus, Brachiaria ramosa,
Carex sp., Colocasia affinis, Curcuma angustifolia, Cyperus niveus, Desmodium sp.,
Dichrocephala bicolor, Eupatorium adenophorum, Hedychium acuminatum, Urtica
dioica etc. Furthermore rich density of ferns is also found in this area.

Towards the powerhouse site trees are represented by Callicarpa arborea, Castanea
tribuloides var. barbata, Pinus khasiana, Quercus lamelosa, etc. Second storey is
represented by many woody tree and some shrubby species. Important among these are
Leea aequata, Lyonia ovalifolia, Melastoma hispida, Rhus javanica, Rhododendron sp.
and Xanthoxylum alatum. Among climbers are Cissus discolor, C. repens, Entada
phaseoloides, Rubus sp., and Vitis sp. Agriculture is practiced at lower slopes near the
proposed site.

The forests on the left bank slopes of Bichom river are dense. Important constituents of
these forests are Castanea tribuloides var. barbata, Clausena heptaphylla,
Engelhardtia spicata, Eurya acuminata, Leea compactiflora, Quercus lamelosa, Rhus
succedanea and Trema politoria. Second storey of these forests is comprised of tall
bamboo species and some shrubs like Boehmeria macrophylla, Casearia glomerata,
Melastoma hispida, Lyonia ovalifolia, Rhamnus nepalensis, Rubus ellipticus and
Viburnum sp.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 78


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

9.7 FAUNAL ELEMENTA AROUND THE PROJECT AREA


The project site falls in the warm temperate region of West Kameng district. The dense
coniferous forests belonging to Chir pine forests and dense mixed forests belonging to
East Himalayan Sub-tropical Wet Hill forests are endowed with good diversity of
animal life. The catchment in the vicinity of project area harbours a number of
mammalian species, which include primates, cats, dogs, civets, bear, weasel, otters,
martens, squirrels, porcupine, deer and pig. Panthera tigris (Tiger), Felis chaus (Jungle
cat), Suncus murinus (House shrew), Talpa micura (Eastern mole), Tupaia glis
(Common tree shrew), Petaurista petaurista (Giant flying squirrel), Pteropus giganteus
(Indian flying fox), Arctonyx collaris (Hog badger) Canis aurues (Asiatic jackal),
Lepus nigricollis (Blacknapped hare), Macaca mulata (Rhesus macaque), Macaca
assamensis (Assamese macaque) and Presbytis pileatus (Capped langur) constitute the
mammalian fauna of the area. The avifauna is comprised of hornbills, herons, jungle
fowls, pigeons, owls, cuckoos, kingfishers, crow, drongos, cranes, babblers, mynas,
parrotbill, magpies, owlets, flycatchers, flowerpeckers, etc. The reptiles are comprised
of species of tree snakes, cobra and kraits, etc. Fish fauna of Bishum Chu is comprised
of a few fish species. Trout is the most common fish of Bishom Chu. In addition to
trout commonly found fishes especially found downstream of the project site are Badis
badis, B. dario, Barileus barna, B. bendelisis, B. bola, Puntius chola and Chagunius
chagunio.

Among the various faunal species present in the catchment Panthera tigris (Tiger) and
Rhyticeros undulatus (Hornbill) are some of the endangered species found in the
vicinity of project area. However, no such species under endangered category is
reported in the vicinity of the proposed dam site.

9.8 EXISTANCE OF ANY PROTECTED AREA / ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES


The proposed project lies in the Nafra Circle. No part of the submergence area would
lie in any protected area and only unclassified forestland would be submerged.

There are no sites or monuments of archaeological or national importance, which


would be affected by the project activities directly or indirectly.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 79


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

9.9 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS


The human population in the project area is scanty and is comprised mainly of tribals.
The human settlements are scattered and the human population as per the 1991 census
up to different aerial distances from the project is given below.

Up to 2 km from Up to 2-5 km Up to 5-10 km


Population 251 776 2311
Households 47 148 465

9.10 RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ASPECTS


The proposed Dibbin H.E. scheme would result in the submergence of only 6.4 ha of
land area. The reservoir tail would extend for a distance of only 480m. Furthermore, the
project would not lead to the displacement of any family/ household or agricultural
land. Therefore, no relief and rehabilitation plan would be required.

9.11 RECOMMENDATIONS AND MITIGATION MEASURES


As there is no protected area in the vicinity of the proposed project and submergence
also is negligible (6.4 ha) no negative environmental impacts are foreseen due to the
project.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 80


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - X
Infrastructure

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 81


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

10.1 THE PROJECT

Dibbin Hydro Electric project is proposed in the highest reach of river Bichom, in West
Kameng District. The scheme envisages construction of a of 27 m high diversion dam
located just downstream of the confluence of Bichom chu with Difya Ru with its co-
ordinates at 92° 31' 16" E and 27°27'00" N to divert the water of river Bichom into the
water conductor system. The water conductor system would comprise a surface
desilting basin to remove silt particles above 200 microns, a head race tunnel of 5.0 m
diameter, 4.43 km long, a surge shaft, two penstocks of 3m diameter 143m long each.
The installed capacity of the project would be 100 MW (2x50MW) and the annual
energy generation from the project in a 90% dependable year is assessed as 335.72MU.

10.2 ACCESS ROADS

10.2.1 The dam site is located just downstream of confluence of Bichom chu with Difya Ru
with the river bed at EL 1160 m. The existing PWD road runs from Rupa town to Nafra
village (53 km). Then a new road from Nafra to dam site near Dibbin (15 km) would
provide access to both dam site and power house site of Dibbin Hydro Electric Project.
The length of link roads to be constructed from the existing PWD road to dam site and
power house site would be approximately 15 km. Rupa town is connected to Balipara
town in Assam by a State highway which is maintained by Border Roads Task Force
(BRTF) of the Government of India. Balipara, in turn is connected to Tezpur on the
National Highway No. 52. Tezpur which is the nearest airport for Dibbin Hydro
Electric project is about 25 km from Balipara.

10.3 IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING STATE HIGHWAY / ROAD


10.3.1 The State highway from Rupa town to Nafra is metalled and black topped, though
considerable portion of this road needs improvement and widening. Beyond Nafra a
new road of about 15 km is required to be constructed for movement of mechanized
equipment and transport of heavy electromechanical equipment right upto power house
site as well as dam site.

10.3.2 The present width of the road from Rupa towards Nafra is only 3m. This should be
widened to 5 metre width to enable transportation of permanent equipment and
construction machinery. Some of the culverts also need to be upgraded to 40 R loading.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 82


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

10.4 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW ROADS

104.1 In order to approach powerhouse site as well as dam site of Dibbin Hydro Electric
Project on Bichom river, a link road taking off from the above mentioned PWD road
needs to be constructed. The length of the road will be approximately 15 km and width
will be 5 m formation width out of which 3 meter width will be metalled. The
alignment of the road will be taken with a suitable gradient not steeper than 1 in 16.

10.5 PROJECT ROADS


Main construction activities proposed to be taken up are construction of diversion
tunnel, 27 m high a diversion dam, desilting basin, head race tunnel (HRT) 5.0 m
diameter 4.43 km long, a surge shaft, a two penstocks of 3 m diameter 143m long each,
power house and tailrace channel. A number of access roads with 5 m formation width
and 3 m metalled taking off from the main project road need to be constructed to give
approach to different project components as detailed below:
a) Access road to dam site 1.0 km
b) Access road to project workshop 0.5 km
c) Access road to colony, office etc. near power house 1.0 km
d) Access road to quarry sites 1.5 km
e) Access road to dumping areas 2.0 km
f) Access road to magazine (left bank) 1.0 km
g) Access road to surge shaft 2.5 km
h) Access road to colony near dam site 0.5 km
i) Access road to power house site 1.0km
Total length of access roads 11.0 km
As the dam comes up, changes in alignments of access roads may be necessary.

10.6 CONSTRUCTION FACILITY

10.6.1 The river bed level at dam site is EL 1160 m. Keeping in view the silt carried by the
river, a gated dam is proposed. The crest level of the dam is kept at EL 1171m. The
height of the radial gates over the dam is envisaged as 14 m. Accordingly the full
reservoir level works out to EL 1185m.

The main project components are diversion tunnel, 27 m high diversion dam, desilting
basin, 4.43 km long tunnel, surge shaft, pressure shaft and two penstocks and a surface
powerhouse with 100 MW installation. Two construction facilities are proposed to be
located, one near the dam site and the other one near powerhouse site. These will
include a concrete batching and mixing plant, main stores (covered and uncovered),
workshop for maintenance of project equipment etc. The main project colony including
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 83
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

offices and permanent and temporary quarters for project staff will be located near
powerhouse site. A small project colony will be needed near dam site which will
include a site office, few permanent quarters for operating staff of dam and desilting
basin and temporary quarters.

10.7 PROJECT HEADQUARTERS, OFFICES AND COLONIES


10.7.1 The construction of the project is proposed to be undertaken through modern
construction equipment in order to save time. Major construction activities involved are
diversion tunnel, 27 m high diversion dam, desilting basin, power intake, head race
tunnel, surge shaft, pressure shaft, penstock, power house and tail race channel. All the
construction activities are to be taken up in a co-ordinated manner so as to complete the
project in a time bound manner. Contractors of high repute will be deployed for
achieving the targets in time. Departmental operations shall remain restricted to
infrastructure development, overall supervision, quantity and quality monitoring,
financial control and other construction aspects covering industrial relations and safety
aspects.

Project Headquarters
10.7.2 Project headquarter is proposed on a high terrace near power house on the right bank of
Bichom river near Nachibin village. Project office building, residential complex for the
project staff, guest house, transit camp and other utility services like shopping centre,
club, community centre etc will be developed at the project headquarters. Residential
and non-residential buildings are proposed to be constructed mostly in triple / double
storey blocks so as to accommodate maximum staff at one place with minimum area
coverage.

Semi Permanent / Temporary Accommodation


10.7.3 The facilities / structures, which shall be required only during the construction stage of
the project have been planned to be temporary nature for which design and
specification would be made accordingly. Contractors’ colonies will need to be
established on right bank of the river for which access roads and other facilities will be
provided by the project.

Temporary Accommodation near Dam Site


10.7.4 Suitable temporary accommodation near dam site will be made to accommodate staff
required during construction period of dam and appurtenant works. Facilities would be
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 84
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

developed for contractor’s camp also. Site office facilities and permanent
accommodation for the operating staff of dam and desilting basin will also be made.

Workshop, Fabrication Shop, Storage Yard


10.7.5 Central workshop for heavy earth moving equipment and transport vehicles will be
located and set up near powerhouse site. The workshop will be adequately fenced with
control of operation through entry and exit gates. The main parking and maintenance
yard will be created within this central workshop.

10.7.6 Fabrication shop for fabrication of penstocks and storage yard for storage of
powerhouse permanent equipment will be created near powerhouse. A double Nissan
shed is proposed for storage of powerhouse equipment.

10.7.7 Main warehouse for cement, steel and other materials including chemicals to be
procured by contractor will be located on the left bank and shall cater to the
requirements of all the complexes.

10.8 EXPLOSIVE MAGAZINE

One explosive magazine of 20 T capacity along with proportionate capacity of


detonators is proposed near the dam site to cater to the requirements of diversion
tunnel, head race tunnel and any other requirements for power house, desilting basin
etc.

10.9 SCHOOL, PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, BANK, PETROL PUMP

School and Primary Health Care Centre


10.9.1 School and Primary health care centre for project staff will be created close to Project
head quarters.

Bank and Post Office


10.9.2 A branch of a nationalized bank needs to be opened near the project head quarters
complex.

Petrol Pump
10.9.3 A petrol pump for providing petrol, diesel and lubricants to project vehicles /
equipment is proposed to be established near power house. The filling station will have
storage capacity for 12 kL petrol and 24 kL of diesel at a time. It will also stock
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 85
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

lubricants and small quantities of fast running spares for light vehicles at the project
site.

Water Supply
10.9.4 The raw water for construction purpose will be pumped from River Bichom. Suitable
water tanks at elevated locations will be constructed for supplying water for
construction needs.

10.9.5 The water supply for the project headquarters complex, labour camps at dam site and
power house site will be arranged by pumping the water from Bichom River which will
be treated and distributed as piped supply.

10.10 CONSTRUCTION POWER

10.10.1 Main activity of construction considering the requirement of construction power is


located near dam site and power house site. In addition, power supply will be
required for head quarters complex.

10.10.2 Construction power requirements for Dibbin Hydro Electric Project are divided into
two parts:
(i) Construction power for main works will be arranged by the contractors at their
work sites from 11 kV supply to be provided by the project, one at dam site and
one at power house site. Standby power supply arrangement shall be made by
the contractors.
(ii) Power requirement for construction and maintenance of infrastructure / works
which comprise :
a) Office complexes
b) Residential blocks
c) Primary health centre, School, Guest house, Transit Camp, Recreation
Centre etc.
d) Lighting and illumination load
e) Commercial complexes
10.10.3 Peak load power requirement for Dibbin HE project works out to be around 5 MW.
The nearest substation will be at Kameng HE Project, which is at a distance of about
40 km from the power house site; a 33 kV single circuit line will be drawn from
Kameng HE project to Dibbin power house site for supply of construction power.
Another 33 kV single circuit line will also be drawn from Dibbin power house site to
dam site for supply of construction power at dam complex.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 86


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

10.10.4 In order to avoid disruption of work at site, D.G. sets of following rating are to be
installed by the contractors as given below:
• Dam Site - 1 x 312.5 kVA
• Diversion tunnel /tunnel - 2 x 312.5 kVA
• Project Head Quarters - 1 x 312.5 kVA (to be arranged by the project)

10.11 TELE-COMMUNICATION

10.11.1 Large hydro electric projects need a reliable communication system so as to achieve
timely completion of various project activities.

10.11.2 No P&T communication system exists in the project area. Therefore, project will
need its own independent interference free, communication system comprising the
whole area of dam site, power house site and project head quarters. Facilities at
power house site will be further linked with the project head quarters to facilitate
communication between any location of the project from within and outside the
project area. Communication between different locations of the project will be
ensured.

10.11.3 The communication systems proposed are as under:


1. Both the 33/11 kV sub-stations at the project sites will be connected with
Kameng HE project sub-stations through PLCC.
2. Local EPABX of 100 lines at project head quarters covering project head
quarters, power house complex, dam complex.
3. Interconnection of EPABX system with radio / wireless / cables technology in
the manner to cover the whole project area under an umbrella to enable
communication from any part of the project to any other location within the
project including from the sites and mobile vehicles.
4. Satellite linked communication system at project head quarters, dam site and
power house site.

10.12 FURTHER STUDIES

• Topographical surveys in respect of Project roads are to be carried out


during DPR stage.
• Land required fro various project components and infrastructure facilities
are to be identified during DPR stage.
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 87
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

• Land for project colony, storage yard, explosive magazine etc. are to be
identified during DPR stage.
• Logistic survey is to be carried out in order to identify the areas of roads that
are to be improved / widened and bridges and culverts to be upgraded.
• Construction power arrangements are to be firmed up during DPR stage.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 88


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - XI
Construction Planning and Schedule

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 89


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.1.1 This chapter deals with the construction methods and the implementation planning
proposed for the main components of the projects in order to suitably match with the
construction schedule envisaged. The types, sizes and number of equipment/machines
required for construction of each component is broadly based on the nature and volume
of work to be carried out apart from the location of the component. The planning of
equipment is aimed to have least possible variety of equipment for efficient control and
optimum utilization of equipment. A project of such magnitude invariably needs
several different capacities of each type of equipment to match with the construction
schedule.

11.1.2 Power House and dam site could be accessed through link road from Rupa to Nafra (53
km), which needs to be improved, and a link road from Nafra to Dibbin (15 km) is to be
constructed. The length of the road to be constructed will be approximately 15 km and
width will be 5 m formation width out of which 3 meter width will be metalled.

11.2 BASIS OF STUDY

It is essential to optimize the construction cost vis-à-vis construction period taking into
consideration the price escalation and interest during construction so as to avoid time
over run to the extent possible.

11.3 MAJOR COMPONENT


Dibbin HE project is proposed in the upper reach of river Bichom, in West Kameng
District. The scheme envisages construction of a of 27 m high diversion dam located
just downstream of the confluence of Bichom chu with Difya Ru The deepest bed level
of the river at dam site is around EL 1160 m. The waters of river Bichom will be
diverted through a tunnel of 5.0 m diameter 4.43 km long to a surface power house on
the right bank of Bichom river near Nachibin village. Installed capacity planned for the
powerhouse is 100 MW. The FRL of the dam is kept at EL 1185 m. In addition to
HRT, the water conductor system would comprise a surface desilting basin to remove
silt particles above 200 microns, a tunnel of 5.0 m diameter 4.43 km long, a surge shaft
and 2 nos of pressure shaft/ penstock of 3 m diameter, 143 m long each.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 90


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

11.4 MATERIAL SOURCES


11.4.1 Based on the reconnaissance survey conducted during site visit, it is observed that
material of suitable quality may be available for use in concrete as coarse and fine
aggregate subject to testing of materials from the identified potential sources. Further, a
portion of muck from the diversion tunnel and HRT excavation is also proposed to be
used for production of concrete and for other uses. Priority would be given for using
excavated material to the extent possible so that quarrying operations can be limited to
the minimum extent possible.

11.4.2 The river sand deposits would be tested for its suitability for use as fine aggregate in
concrete. Secondly, crushed sand may also be used to obtain well graded sand.

11.4.3 The area for disposal of the excavated material has been considered at a distance of
1 km from dam, tunnel and power house sites for equipment planning purpose.

11.5 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS


Mechanized construction has been planned for almost all type of construction activities
so as to achieve consistent quality and planned progress. The bar chart showing all the
activities is enclosed as Annexure 11.1.

11.6 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS


11.6.1 All main civil works will be carried out through an EPC contract or be suitably divided
into optimum number of contract packages, as the works are to be executed through
award of contracts, taking into consideration the capabilities of eligible contractors.
Supply and erection of the penstocks and hydro-mechanical equipments i.e. intake gate,
draft tube gates, tailrace gates, spillway gates etc. will be a part of the civil works.
While deciding the optimum number of contracts for civil works, least interference
between different work areas and availability of sufficient space for different work
areas will be ensured, including adequate space for camps and construction facilities.
In such a case, diversion tunnel works will comprise one package and all civil works
including dam, tunnel and hydro mechanical works will form another package.
Alternatively diversion tunnel works also can be included as a part of civil and hydro
mechanical works package.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 91


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

11.6.2 Contracts for basic site infrastructure facilities will be awarded in advance so that the
same may be ready and available by the time the main civil contractor(s) starts
mobilization.

11.7 SCHEDULE OF WORKING HOURS


11.7.1 Equipment planning has been done based on the number of working days available,
which further depend upon climatic conditions in the project area. Normally 200
working days are considered as available based on 8 working months. However, in the
project area, the monsoon sets in during May and continues almost upto the end of
October. The working season has, therefore, been restricted to six months i.e. 150 days
considering 25 working days per month. Thus for over ground works i.e. Dam, power
house, tail race and appurtenant works a working season of six months has been
considered. The scheduled working hours with 150 working days accordingly works
out as under :
Single shift work/day = 150x7 = 1050 hours
Two shift work/day = 150x12= 1800 hours
Three shift work/day = 150x15 = 2250 hours

11.7.2 However, in respect of underground works, it is possible to carry out the works even
during rains. Therefore, works of diversion tunnel, HRT and surge shaft are planned to
continue throughout the year. Since the production capability would be effected during
the monsoon months especially for the supplies / services and muck disposal etc.,
suitable reduction in the progress has been taken into account for the year as a whole.
Therefore for planning purpose, 300 working days are considered for under ground
works.

11.7.3 Though two shift working is normally considered most economical, in this project, due
to shorter working season, three shift working has been planned for dam, power house,
tail race and appurtenant works. Underground works, in any case, is planned for three
shift working as these involve cyclic operations which do not follow normal pattern of
shift operation.

11.7.4 Provision for standby equipment has been considered as 10%, 20% and 30% for single
shift, two shifts and three shifts working respectively.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 92


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

11.8 CONSTRUCTION PERIOD


Survey and investigations and preparation of DPR (starting from the month of
November) and obtaining various clearances from statutory authorities, infrastructural
development, preparation of detailed design, technical specifications and tender
documents, power purchase agreement and financial closure are proposed to be
completed within 30 months. The main construction of the project is planned to be
completed in a period of 54 months. Broad details of various activities to be undertaken
under 3 stages have been shown in enclosed bar chart.

11.9 STAGE I ACTIVITIES

The zero date of the project has been taken as the day on which the Government selects
and allows the executing agency to proceed with various activities of this project. In
order to commence pre-construction ‘Survey and Investigations’, the commencement
date is assumed to be the beginning of a lean season. The activities considered for this
stage are:
1. Establishment of project organization
2. Obtaining Stage I clearance from MOEF (site clearance)
3. Hydro meteorological data collection
4. Preliminary topographical survey
5. Geological survey including sub-surface exploration
6. Preparation of feasibility report and obtaining CEA’s commercial viability.
The Stage I activities are proposed to be completed within 12 months time.

11.10 STAGE II ACTIVITIES


The stage II activities include completion of all residual pre-construction survey and
Investigation and creation of all infrastructural facilities like approach roads, buildings,
construction power. All statutory clearances like techno-economic clearance from CEA
and Environment & Forest clearance from MOEF is also obtained during this stage. All
the activities in this stage are aimed at achieving financial closure for the project so that
immediately after obtaining statutory clearances, construction of the project
components could be started by appointing a suitable turn-key contractor. This stage
would be completed within a period of 18 months after the techno-commercial viability
is accorded by CEA.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 93


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

11.11 STAGE III ACTIVITIES


The Stage III activities have been so planned that immediately after the financial
closure, notice for selecting the turnkey contractor can be published and a suitable
contractor is selected within 6 months time based on International competitive bidding.

11.12 RIVER DIVERSION WORK


11.12.1 For the construction of the diversion dam and appurtenant works, the river diversion
is proposed to be done through a 5 m diameter 4430 m long diversion tunnel located
on the left bank of the river. In order to work in the river bed all round the year, the
diversion works namely coffer dams and diversion tunnel have been designed for
passing a flood of 80 cumecs during the working seasons of non-monsoon months.

11.12.2 The excavation of tunnel is planned to be carried out by drill and blast method using
three boom jumbo, shortcreting machine, loaders, dumpers etc. For lining of the
tunnel, batching and mixing plant of suitable capacity, transit mixers, concrete pump,
grout pump, etc. will be used. Being 5.0 m diameter finished size, it is planned to
excavate diversion tunnel in full face.

11.12.3 Suitable coffer dams located approximately 75 m upstream and 150 m downstream
from the dam axis have been proposed. The top of the coffer dam has been kept as 4
m so as to provide sufficient space for movement of vehicles during construction of
the dam. The upstream coffer dam will be of 6 m high with a base width of 11 m. it
will be of masonry type with colcrete filling. The downstream coffer dam will be of 5
m high with a base width of 11 m.

11.12.4 Entire diversion activity is proposed to be completed within a period of 12 months.

11.13 DIVERSION DAM


11.13.1 Construction of a gated dam of 27 m high and 143 m length is proposed to be
commenced by starting excavation in the flanks. This work is proposed to be taken up
even before the river is diverted. The construction of dam would involve all activities
right from excavation, foundation preparation, curtain grouting, concreting of dam,
consisting of 78 m of overflow section, 32 m of non-overflow section, installation of
embedded parts for radial gates and stop logs and finally erection of radial gates. Dam

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 94


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

concreting is proposed to be done by installing a 30m³/hr batching plant and using


tower cranes for conveying concrete to the required locations.

11.13.2 The total quantity of concreting involved is 275.5 cubic meter. Average concrete
pouring rate of 5000 cubic meter per month is envisaged. The total construction
period for the dam including erection of radial gates is estimated as 36 months.

11.14 HEAD RACE TUNNEL


11.14.1 The head race tunnel of 5.0 m diameter and 4.43 km long is proposed to be
constructed from four faces by drill and blast method by using three boom drilling
jumbo. An intermediate adit 160 m long is envisaged to give two faces from the adit.
Full face tunneling would be undertaken. It is also proposed to deploy three single
boom rockbolters and three shotcrete machines with robo arm one each from inlet and
outlet face and one from the intermediate adit.

11.14.2 With a cycle time of 10 hours, an average progress of 5 m per day from each face is
envisaged. With this it is possible to achieve a progress of 100 m per month from
each face. Accordingly the tunnel excavation can be completed in a period of 15
months. Overt and invert lining and grouting of the tunnel will be completed in the
next 15 months.

11.15 SURGE SHAFT


11.15.1 A surge shaft of 13.7 m diameter and 60.33 m height with upper expansion chamber
20 m diameter and lower expansion gallery of 5 m diameter. 50 m long would be
excavated from top and mucking would be done by using mechanically operated
derrick and winches. It is ideal to use a raise borer from the top to bore a hole of 350
mm diameter and extend the same to 1.8 m diameter from bottom to top by attaching
a cutter. The excavated diameter of 1.8 m will be further increased to the full face
boring by drill and blast method.

11.15.2 The concrete lining of the shaft is proposed to be done from the bottom in lifts of 2m
each using slip form. Surge shaft will be completed along with HRT within a period
of 30 months.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 95


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

11.16 PRESSURE SHAFT


Two pressure shafts of 3 m diameter (encased in a tunnel of 5.0 m diameter) 50 m long
is envisaged. Pressure shaft would be excavated by drill and blast method by using two
boom drilling jumbo.

11.17 PENSTOCKS
Two penstocks of 3.0 m diameter, 93 m long each is envisaged. Fabrication and
erection of penstocks will be done in a period of 15 months.

11.18 POWER HOUSE


Proposed surface powerhouse involves 28000 m³ of concrete. A batching plant of
30m³/hr capacity will be installed near power house. By deploying adequate number of
excavators, loaders, hydraulic rock breaker, dozer transit mixers and dumpers,
powerhouse civil works is proposed to be completed in a period of 24 months.

11.19 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL WORKS


18 months period is envisaged for erection of E&M works and 2 months for
commissioning and synchronization.

11.20 SWITCHYARD
A 220 kV surface switchyard is located on the downstream side of the power house
with two generator transformer bays, two incoming bays, two outgoing bays, one bus
coupler bay and one auxiliary transformer bay.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 96


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - XII
Cost Estimate

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 97


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.2.1 Dibbin HE Project is proposed on river Bichom, in its upper reaches which is a
tributary of Kameng river in west District. The installed capacity of the project would
be 100 MW (2x50 MW) and the annual energy generation from the project in a 90%
dependable year is assessed as 335.72 MU. The scheme envisages construction of a
gated dam 27 m high located just downstream of the confluence of Ditya Bung river
with Bichom river with its co-ordinates at 92°31'16"E and 27°27'00"N to divert the
river water Bichom into the water conductor system.

12.2 COST ESTIMATE


12.2.2 The cost of the project excluding Interest During Construction (IDC) at September
2003 price level is estimated at Rs. 371.52 crores as per the Guidelines of the
Committee of CEA on Criteria for adoption of rates, cost of civil components and
electrical works for PFRs of hydroelectric projects. The cost abstract is enclosed as
Annexure 12.1. The cost does not include the cost of transmission line.

12.2.3 Construction period of 4 ½ years has been considered in the preparation of estimate.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 98


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

CHAPTER - XIII
Economic Evaluation

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 99


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

13.1 GENERAL

The benefits and financial evaluation of the project have been considered as per the
standard guidelines issued by the Government of India. The norms laid down by the
Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) for Hydro projects have also been
kept in view in this regard.

13.2 PROJECT BENEFITS

13.2.1 The scheme would afford on annual energy generation of 335.72 MU in a 90%
dependable year. In assessing the sale price of energy, design energy generation
calculated with 95% capacity availability in a 90% dependable year has been adopted.
The project would provide a valuable 100 MW of peaking capacity benefits through out
the year.

13.2.2 Table 13.1 below gives the project benefits:

Table-13.1

S.No Particulars Benefits


1. Annual Energy (MU) 335.72
2. Capacity Value (MW) 100.00

13.3 INPUTS DATA AND ASSUMPTIONS

Inputs data and assumptions considered for economic and financial evaluation of the
project including for calculation of IDC are shown is Annexure 13.1. Some key
assumptions are indicated below:
1. Auxiliary Consumption @ 0.5 %.
2. Transformation Losses @0.5 %.
3. Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Costs (including insurance) @ 1.5 %
4. Escalation in O&M Costs @ 6 %.
5. Depreciable value of Fixed Assets @ 90% of the value of Fixed Assets
6. Annual Rate of Depreciation as per straight line method (SLM).
7. Advance Against Depreciation (AAD) subject to ceiling of 1/12th of original
loan minus depreciation as per schedule to meet shortfall in the scheduled loan
repayment. The total depreciation including the AAD is, however, limited to
90% of the original cost of assets.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 100


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

8. Debt Equity Ratio 70:30.


9. Mode of Financing provides for Domestic borrowings.
10. Interest on Domestic Borrowings @ 10%.
11. Financing Charges on borrowings @ 1.5% of the total borrowings.
12. IDC calculated on the basis of above interest rates and financing charges
13. Rate of return on Equity @ 16%
14. Interest on W/C @12.50%
15. Tax concessions and rate as per the provisions of the I.T. Act in force.
16. Loan Repayment period 12 years.
17. Moratorium of one year from the year of commercial operation.

13.4 ESTIMATED COST AND PHASING

13.4.1 The cost of the project excluding Interest During Construction (IDC) at September
2003 price level is estimated at Rs. 32084.49 lakhs as per the Guidelines of the
Committee of CEA on Criteria for adoption of rates, cost of civil components and
electrical works for PFRs of hydroelectric projects

13.4.2 Including IDC, the total cost of the project is estimated at Rs. 37152.40lakhs

13.4.3 The project is envisaged to be completed in a period of 4 years and 6 months. The
expenditure of the project has accordingly been phased.

13.4.4 Annexure 13.2 gives the Breakdown of project Cost while Annexure 13.3 gives the
calculation of Interest During Construction (IDC).

13.5 DEPRECIATION

The depreciation is calculated according to Straight Line Method (SLM) as per the
Ministry of Power notification dated 29th March, 1994 as modified by the CERC under
its notification dated 30th May, 2003. The average rate as per SLM works out to 2.86%
Advance against depreciation (AAD), in addition to allowable depreciation, whenever
originally scheduled loan repayment exceeded the depreciation allowable as per the
schedule, calculated in the manner as specified in the CERC notification, is provided.
On repayment of entire loan, the remaining depreciable value is spread over the balance
useful life of the asset, as per the requirement of the notification.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 101


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

The calculation of depreciation including Advance Against Deprecation is given in


Annexure 13.4.

13.6 LOAN AMORTIZATION

The interest is calculated on quarterly reducing balance of principal. The entire loan is
repaid in eleven years.

The details of loan amortization over the debt - period are given in Annexure 13.5.
These details also include the Semi -annual and Annual repayment of principal and
payment of interest over the period of the debt.

13.7 WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS

The Working Capital Requirements is calculated in the manner as specified in the


Ministry of Power, GOI notification dated 30th March, 1992 read with the CERC
notification dated 30th May, 2003.

The calculation of Working Capital Requirements - is given in Annexure 13.6

13.8 ENERGY SALE PRICE

13.8.1 The cost of generation and sale price of energy is computed based on the given norms
and parameters in the Inputs and Assumptions with the present day capital cost of the
scheme. The cost of generation and sale price worked out is given in Table 13.2 and
13.3 below:

Table 13.2
Cost of Generation and Sale Price with 12% Royalty (Summary)
Years
S.No Particulars
1st 5th 10th 20th 30th 35th
1. Cost of Generation 1.87 1.58 1.22 0.55 0.67 0.73
(Rs./kWH)
2. Sale Price 2.53 2.24 1.89 1.39 1.51 1.57
(Rs./kWh)
3. Levelised Tariff 2.036
(Rs./kWh)

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 102


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

Table 13.3
Cost of Generation and Sale Price without 12% Royalty (Summary)
Years
S.No Particulars
1st 5th 10th 20th 30th 35th
1. Cost of Generation 1.64 1.39 1.07 0.48 0.59 0.64
(Rs./kWH)
2. Sale Price 2.23 1.97 1.66 1.22 1.33 1.38
(Rs./kWh)
3. Levelised Tariff 1.792
(Rs./kWh)

13.8.2 The details of computation of cost of generation and sale price of energy are given in
Annexure 13.7.

13.8.3 GOI’s Policy on Hydro Development announced in August, 1998 provides, among
others, for rationalization of Hydro Tariff by allowing premium on sale rate during
peak period. This will necessitate introduction of Peak and Non-peak tariff. CERC is
presently deliberating on concept and methodology of Peak and Non-peak tariff. This
aspect therefore needs to be considered later according to the concept and methodology
as may be finally approved.

13.9 ESTIMATES OF WORKING RESULTS

The estimates of Working Results of the project are given in Annexure 13.8.

The Development Surcharge shown at item N of Annexure 13.8 represents capital


income collected @ 5% on billable revenue (fixed costs) to be utilized for the purpose
of fresh capacity addition and project development activities and to be maintained in
the manner as provided in the CERC notification dated 30th May, 2003. This surcharge
will not be leviable for operations exclusively within the state.

13.10 INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR)

The Internal Rate Return (Project) works out to 10.001 %. The details regarding the
calculation of IRR (Project) are given in Annexure 13.9.

13.11 DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO (DSCR)

The Average Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) of the project works out to1.43.
The details of calculation of DSCR are given in Annexure 13.10

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 103


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

13.12 PAYBACK PERIOD

The payback period works out to 9.40 years. The details of calculation of payback
period are given in Annexure 13.11

13.13 CONCLUSION

On the basis of the inputs and assumptions as given, the project demonstrates positive
cash flow and as per the estimates of working results, the scheme is economically
viable and financially profitable. The annual benefits may further increase with the
incentives available for higher availability if the same could be achieved.

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 104


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000

1.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 5


1.4 POWER POTENTIAL STUDIES.............................................................................................................. 6
1.5 POWER EVACUATION ............................................................................................................................ 7
1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS ................................................................................................................ 7
1.7 ESTIMATES OF THE COST..................................................................................................................... 8
1.8 FINANCIAL ASPECT................................................................................................................................. 8
1.9 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................. 8
2.1 ARUNACHAL PRADESH........................................................................................................................10
2.2 THE RIVER SYSTEM ..............................................................................................................................11
2.3 THE PROJECT ..........................................................................................................................................12
2.4 POWER SCENARIO.................................................................................................................................12
2.5 NECESSITY OF THE PROJECT ...........................................................................................................14
2.6 INFRASTRUCTURE.................................................................................................................................15
2.7 PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS .............................................................................................................16
3.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT INCLUDING RIVER SYSTEM .......................................................19
3.2 SOCIO – ECONOMIC AND OTHER ASPECTS .................................................................................22
4.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................29
4.2 LOCATION ................................................................................................................................................29
4.3 GEOMORPHOLOGY/PHYSIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................29
4.4 REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF EAST KAMENG DISTRICT................................................................30
4.5 TECTONICS...............................................................................................................................................32
4.6 NEOTECTONICS, SEISMICITY & EARTHQUAKES ......................................................................34
4.7 SEISMICITY ..............................................................................................................................................34
4.8 GEOTECHNICAL APPRAISAL.............................................................................................................34
4.9 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS............................................................................................................35
4.10 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................36
5.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................................39
5.2 BASIN CHARACTERISTICS..................................................................................................................39
5.3 METEOROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF KAMENG BASIN ...........................................................40
5.4 PROJECT PROPOSAL ............................................................................................................................40
5.5 WATER AVAILABILITY STUDIES......................................................................................................40
5.6 METHODOLOGY .....................................................................................................................................43
5.7 DESIGN FLOOD STUDIES .....................................................................................................................44
6.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................52
6.2 RIVER DIVERSION WORK ...................................................................................................................52
6.3 DIVERSION DAM.....................................................................................................................................54
6.4 DESILTING TANK ...................................................................................................................................57
6.5 INTAKE CHANNEL AND POWER INTAKE ......................................................................................58
6.6 HEAD RACE TUNNEL ............................................................................................................................58
PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 105
DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000
6.7 SURGE SHAFT ..........................................................................................................................................59
6.8 PENSTOCKS ..............................................................................................................................................60
6.9 POWER HOUSE ........................................................................................................................................60
6.10 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT...........................................................................................61
6.11 TAIL RACE CHANNEL...........................................................................................................................61
6.12 FURTHER STUDIES ................................................................................................................................61
7.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................64
7.2 FIXATION OF FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL........................................................................................64
7.3 FIXATION OF MINIMUM DRAW DOWN LEVEL ...........................................................................64
7.4 FIXATION OF TAIL WATER LEVEL .................................................................................................65
7.5 DISCHARGE DATA .................................................................................................................................65
7.6 OPERATING HEAD .................................................................................................................................66
7.7 EFFICIENCY .............................................................................................................................................66
7.8 INSTALLED CAPACITY.........................................................................................................................66
7.9 ENERGY GENERATION ........................................................................................................................67
7.10 UNIT SIZE ..................................................................................................................................................67
7.11 SUMMARY OF RESULTS.......................................................................................................................67
7.12 FURTHER STUDIES ................................................................................................................................68
8.1 APPRAISAL OF EXISTING POWER EVACUATION FACILITIES ..............................................70
8.2 PROPOSED EVACUATION SYSTEM TO NEAREST FACILITY..................................................70
9.1 GENERAL INFORMATION ...................................................................................................................74
9.2 SUBMERGENCE AREA ..........................................................................................................................74
9.3 RIVER SYSTEM........................................................................................................................................75
9.4 SEISMICITY ..............................................................................................................................................75
9.5 EXISTING LANDUSE / LANDCOVER AROUND THE PROPOSED DAM SITE ........................76
9.6 FOREST TYPES IN THE VICINITY OF PROJECT AREA..............................................................77
9.7 FAUNAL ELEMENTA AROUND THE PROJECT AREA ................................................................79
9.8 EXISTANCE OF ANY PROTECTED AREA / ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES................................79
9.9 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS........................................................................................................................80
9.10 RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ASPECTS .....................................................................................80
9.11 RECOMMENDATIONS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ..............................................................80
10.1 THE PROJECT ..........................................................................................................................................81
10.1 THE PROJECT ..........................................................................................................................................82
10.2 ACCESS ROADS .......................................................................................................................................82
10.3 IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING STATE HIGHWAY / ROAD........................................................82
10.4 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW ROADS.....................................................................................................83
10.5 PROJECT ROADS ....................................................................................................................................83
10.6 CONSTRUCTION FACILITY.................................................................................................................83
10.7 PROJECT HEADQUARTERS, OFFICES AND COLONIES ............................................................84
10.8 EXPLOSIVE MAGAZINE .......................................................................................................................85

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 106


DIBBIN HE PROJECT (100 MW)

ISO 9001-2000
10.9 SCHOOL, PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, BANK, PETROL PUMP ...................................................85
10.10 CONSTRUCTION POWER .....................................................................................................................86
10.11 TELE-COMMUNICATION .....................................................................................................................87
10.12 FURTHER STUDIES ................................................................................................................................87
11.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................90
11.2 BASIS OF STUDY .....................................................................................................................................90
11.3 MAJOR COMPONENT............................................................................................................................90
11.4 MATERIAL SOURCES ............................................................................................................................91
11.5 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................................................................................91
11.6 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS...........................................................................................................91
11.7 SCHEDULE OF WORKING HOURS ....................................................................................................92
11.8 CONSTRUCTION PERIOD.....................................................................................................................93
11.9 STAGE I ACTIVITIES .............................................................................................................................93
11.10 STAGE II ACTIVITIES............................................................................................................................93
11.11 STAGE III ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................94
11.12 RIVER DIVERSION WORK ...................................................................................................................94
11.13 DIVERSION DAM.....................................................................................................................................94
11.14 HEAD RACE TUNNEL ............................................................................................................................95
11.15 SURGE SHAFT ..........................................................................................................................................95
11.17 PENSTOCKS ..............................................................................................................................................96
11.18 POWER HOUSE ........................................................................................................................................96
11.19 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL WORKS ....................................................................................................96
11.20 SWITCHYARD ..........................................................................................................................................96
12.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................98
12.2 COST ESTIMATE .....................................................................................................................................98
13.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................................99
13.1 GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................100
13.2 PROJECT BENEFITS.............................................................................................................................100
13.3 INPUTS DATA AND ASSUMPTIONS.................................................................................................100
13.4 ESTIMATED COST AND PHASING...................................................................................................101
13.5 DEPRECIATION .....................................................................................................................................101
13.6 LOAN AMORTIZATION.......................................................................................................................102
13.7 WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS..........................................................................................102
13.8 ENERGY SALE PRICE..........................................................................................................................102
13.9 ESTIMATES OF WORKING RESULTS.............................................................................................103
13.10 INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR)...............................................................................................103
13.11 DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO (DSCR).................................................................................103
13.12 PAYBACK PERIOD................................................................................................................................104
13.13 CONCLUSION .........................................................................................................................................104

PM’s 50,000 MW initiative 107