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Original Title: Response Spectrum

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Response Spectrum: It reflects frequency content, amplitude of ground motion and effect of subsequent

filtering by the structure.

Acceleration Spectrum: Is a plot of natural period of vibration of a single degree of freedom (SDOF)

oscillator with a specific value of damping versus peak absolute acceleration of oscillator mass when

subjected to a base acceleration equal to earthquake accelerogram i.e. ground acceleration.

Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA): The value of the spectral acceleration at zero periods, known as zero

period acceleration (ZPA) is the PGA.

Shallow earthquake: Earthquake classification based upon focal depth within (0-71 km).

Magnitude: Is a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.

Richter Magnitude (ML): estimate of earthquake magnitude based upon seismic waves radiated. Richter

inferred that the larger the intrinsic energy of earthquake, the larger is the amplitude motion at a given

distance.

Modified Mercalli Index (MMI): Intensity scales to seek information on the severity of effects of an

earthquake.

Intraplate earthquake: Some seismic regions of the earth are far away from the plate boundaries and this

seismicity is referred to as Intraplate Seismicity. So, the earthquake occurring within a plate is known as

Intraplate earthquake.

Single degree freedom structure

Peak ground Displacement (PGD)

PGD=10(m5)

( 30R )mm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.2

PGV =

2 MMI5 mm

7

sec

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.3

PGA=

PGV

g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.4

750

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.5

Page 1 of 12

Velocity Response Spectrum (RSV)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.5

Elastic acceleration response spectrum (RSA)

Analytical Approach

S.I

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Parameters

Hypocentral Distance

Magnitude

Modified Mercali Index

Peak Ground

Displacement

Peak Ground Velocity

Peak Ground

Acceleration

Max RSD

Max RSV

Max RSA

Value

Units

Remark

30.000000

6.000000

6.539227

Km

given parameter

given parameter

Eqn. 1

10.000000

mm

Eqn. 2

66.431711

mm/sec

Eqn. 3

0.088576

Eqn. 4

14.000000

119.577080

0.221439

mm

mm/sec

mm/sq.sec

Eqn. 5

Eqn. 6

Eqn. 7

RSA max =

2

RSV max

t1

Similarly at second time period t2 RSV max = RSD max

RSV max=

2

RSD max

t2

RSA at time period t = 1.5 sec

Since at t = 1.5 sec, max. Displacement is still 14.00 mm (since 1.5 sec > t 2)

Hence response velocity =

RSV =

2

14=58.643063 mm/sec

1.5

Page 2 of 12

RSA=

2

RSV =245.6434879 mm /sec 2 = 0.02504011g

1.5

Since,

Displacement of structure at time t1 = 6.582217 mm

Table 1: Tabulation of ground displacement, acceleration and velocity w.r.t time period

S.I

No

.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Time Period

(sec)

0

0.01

0.1

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.176

0.204

0.232

0.26

0.288

0.316

0.344

0.345863

0.372

0.4

0.428

0.456

0.484

0.512

0.54

0.568

0.596

0.624

0.652

0.68

0.734

Ground

Displacement

(mm)

0.00230

0.19258

1.90510

2.09538

2.28566

2.47594

3.35123

3.88401

4.41680

4.94958

5.48236

6.01515

6.54793

6.58338

7.08072

7.61350

8.14628

8.67907

9.21185

9.74464

10.27742

10.81020

11.34299

11.87577

12.40856

12.94134

13.96885

Ground Acceleration

(mm/sec2)

0.0886

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.221439

0.205880529

0.191468892

0.17894289

0.167955169

0.158238754

0.149585072

0.141828809

0.134837248

0.128502612

0.122736469

0.117465578

0.11262876

0.104574704

Page 3 of 12

Ground Velocity

(mm/sec)

0

3.4573

34.57349233

38.03084156

41.48819079

44.94554002

60.84934649

70.52992434

80.2105022

89.89108005

99.5716579

109.2522357

118.9328136

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

119.5769178

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

0.735637

0.736

0.764

0.792

0.82

0.848

0.876

0.904

0.932

0.96

0.988

1.016

1.044

1.072

1.1

1.128

1.156

1.184

1.212

1.24

1.268

1.296

1.324

1.352

1.38

1.408

1.436

1.464

1.492

1.5

1.548

1.576

1.604

1.632

1.66

1.688

1.716

1.744

1.772

1.8

1.828

1.856

1.884

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

0.104109806

0.104007136

0.096523275

0.089819039

0.083789782

0.078347846

0.073419353

0.068941687

0.064861493

0.061133083

0.05771715

0.054579726

0.051691337

0.049026309

0.04656219

0.044279282

0.042160242

0.040189755

0.038354253

0.036641681

0.035041304

0.03354353

0.032139772

0.030822324

0.029584252

0.028419305

0.027321836

0.026286733

0.025309357

0.025040111

0.023511311

0.022683305

0.021898282

0.021153316

0.020445728

0.01977306

0.01913305

0.018523617

0.017942846

0.017388966

0.016860342

0.016355462

0.015872925

Page 4 of 12

119.5760875

119.5171118

115.1369035

111.0664069

107.2738955

103.7318329

100.4162035

97.30596715

94.38261191

91.62978573

89.03299018

86.5793251

84.25727423

82.05652453

79.967813

77.98279637

76.09393971

74.29442086

72.5780481

70.93918895

69.37270844

67.87391536

66.43851533

65.06256975

63.74245964

62.47485391

61.25668127

60.0851054

58.95750288

58.64306287

56.82467332

55.81509791

54.84076951

53.89987396

52.99071946

52.11172648

51.26141859

50.43841416

49.64141891

48.86921906

48.12067522

47.39471676

46.69033668

71

72

73

74

75

1.912

1.94

1.968

1.996

2.024

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

14.00000

0.015411432

0.014969776

0.014546837

0.014141572

0.01375301

46.00658698

45.34257438

44.69745645

44.07043803

43.46076794

RSD

16.00000

14.00000

12.00000

10.00000

Displacement (mm)

8.00000

6.00000

4.00000

2.00000

0.00000

0.5

1.5

Page 5 of 12

2.5

RSV

140

120

100

80

Velocity (mm/sec2)

60

40

20

0

0.5

1.5

Page 6 of 12

2.5

RSA

0.25

0.2

0.15

Acceleration

0.1

0.05

0.5

1

Time (sec)

Results

Page 7 of 12

1.5

2.5

1. First Corner Period (t1) = 0.3459 sec

2. Second Corner Period (t2) = 0.735631 sec

3. RSA for RSA for a single degree of freedom structure with a natural time period of 1.5sec

from the Spectrum = 0.025040111 g

4. Displacement of the structure at the first corner period (t1) = 6.58338 mm

Page 8 of 12

Newmark-Hall Approach

In 1973 N.M. Newmark and W.J. Hall observed that some spectral ordinates in a response spectrum

is affected more by peak ground velocity or peak ground displacement rather than by peak ground

acceleration. Hence, he suggested normalization procedure in which different regions spectrum are

normalized by different measures of ground motion intensity.

Basic argument:

The response spectrum of a structure to ground motion depends on amplitude, duration and

frequency content of the motion, thus it cannot be expected that a design spectrum built on the basis

of peak ground acceleration alone will envelope the response spectra obtained directly from the

ground motion records.

Table 2: Newmark-Hall Amplification Factors for the Construction of Elastic Design Spectra

Damping

(% critical)

1

2

3

5

7

10

20

Median

A

3.21

2.74

2.46

2.12

1.89

1.64

1.17

+ One Sigma

V

2.31

2.03

1.86

1.65

1.51

1.37

1.08

D

1.82

1.63

1.52

1.39

1.29

1.2

1.01

A

4.38

3.66

3.24

2.71

2.36

1.99

1.26

V

3.38

2.92

2.64

2.3

2.08

1.84

1.37

D

2.73

2.42

2.24

2.01

1.85

1.69

1.38

Source: Newmark, N.M. and Hall, W.J., Earthquake Spectra and Design, Earthquake Engineering Research

Institute, Oakland, CA, 1982

Procedure:

Site under consideration and taking for 5% damping and both amplification factors from table 2

Thus the desired spectrum may be obtained by drawing lines perpendicular to acceleration, velocity, and

displacement axes through ordinates equal to (0.088576 * 2.12) g, (1.65*66.431711) mm/sec, and

(1.39*1.39) mm.

Page 9 of 12

Page 10 of 12

//*****----Done By Sanjit Kumar EDC2011041----*****//

Page 11 of 12

References

1. Bozorgnia, Y., and Bertero, V.V. Earthquake Engineering from Engineering Seismology to

Performance-Based Engineering, chapter 9 Design Spectrum, pg. (360-364)

2. Newmark, N.M. and Hall, W.J. (1982). Earthquake Spectra and Design, EERI Monograph,

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, California, U.S.A.

3. Agarwal, P., and Shrikhande, M., Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, chapter 5, pg.

(101-105)

Page 12 of 12

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