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# Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

## Definition of key terms

Response Spectrum: It reflects frequency content, amplitude of ground motion and effect of subsequent
filtering by the structure.
Acceleration Spectrum: Is a plot of natural period of vibration of a single degree of freedom (SDOF)
oscillator with a specific value of damping versus peak absolute acceleration of oscillator mass when
subjected to a base acceleration equal to earthquake accelerogram i.e. ground acceleration.
Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA): The value of the spectral acceleration at zero periods, known as zero
period acceleration (ZPA) is the PGA.
Shallow earthquake: Earthquake classification based upon focal depth within (0-71 km).
Magnitude: Is a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.
Richter Magnitude (ML): estimate of earthquake magnitude based upon seismic waves radiated. Richter
inferred that the larger the intrinsic energy of earthquake, the larger is the amplitude motion at a given
distance.
Modified Mercalli Index (MMI): Intensity scales to seek information on the severity of effects of an
earthquake.

## MMI= ( 1.5 M 3.9 log 10 R+3.9 ) 0.6 --------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.1

Intraplate earthquake: Some seismic regions of the earth are far away from the plate boundaries and this
seismicity is referred to as Intraplate Seismicity. So, the earthquake occurring within a plate is known as
Intraplate earthquake.
Single degree freedom structure
Peak ground Displacement (PGD)

PGD=10(m5)

( 30R )mm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.2

## Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)

PGV =

2 MMI5 mm

7
sec

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.3

## Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)

PGA=

PGV
g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.4
750

## RSD max=1.4PGD (g)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.5
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## Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

Velocity Response Spectrum (RSV)

## RSV max=1.8PGV (mm/sec )

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.5
Elastic acceleration response spectrum (RSA)

## RSA max =2.5PGA ( g) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------eqn.7

Analytical Approach
S.I
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Parameters
Hypocentral Distance
Magnitude
Modified Mercali Index
Peak Ground
Displacement
Peak Ground Velocity
Peak Ground
Acceleration
Max RSD
Max RSV
Max RSA

Value

Units

Remark

30.000000
6.000000
6.539227

Km

given parameter
given parameter
Eqn. 1

10.000000

mm

Eqn. 2

66.431711

mm/sec

Eqn. 3

0.088576

Eqn. 4

14.000000
119.577080
0.221439

mm
mm/sec
mm/sq.sec

Eqn. 5
Eqn. 6
Eqn. 7

RSA max =

2
RSV max
t1

## So, t1 = 0.345863 sec

Similarly at second time period t2 RSV max = RSD max

RSV max=

2
RSD max
t2

## So, t2 = 0.735631 sec

RSA at time period t = 1.5 sec
Since at t = 1.5 sec, max. Displacement is still 14.00 mm (since 1.5 sec > t 2)
Hence response velocity =

RSV =

2
14=58.643063 mm/sec
1.5

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## Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

RSA=

2
RSV =245.6434879 mm /sec 2 = 0.02504011g
1.5

Since,
Displacement of structure at time t1 = 6.582217 mm

## //*****----Done By Roshan Sharma EDC2012077----*****//

Table 1: Tabulation of ground displacement, acceleration and velocity w.r.t time period
S.I
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Time Period
(sec)
0
0.01
0.1
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.176
0.204
0.232
0.26
0.288
0.316
0.344
0.345863
0.372
0.4
0.428
0.456
0.484
0.512
0.54
0.568
0.596
0.624
0.652
0.68
0.734

Ground
Displacement
(mm)
0.00230
0.19258
1.90510
2.09538
2.28566
2.47594
3.35123
3.88401
4.41680
4.94958
5.48236
6.01515
6.54793
6.58338
7.08072
7.61350
8.14628
8.67907
9.21185
9.74464
10.27742
10.81020
11.34299
11.87577
12.40856
12.94134
13.96885

Ground Acceleration
(mm/sec2)
0.0886
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.221439
0.205880529
0.191468892
0.17894289
0.167955169
0.158238754
0.149585072
0.141828809
0.134837248
0.128502612
0.122736469
0.117465578
0.11262876
0.104574704

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Ground Velocity
(mm/sec)
0
3.4573
34.57349233
38.03084156
41.48819079
44.94554002
60.84934649
70.52992434
80.2105022
89.89108005
99.5716579
109.2522357
118.9328136
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178
119.5769178

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

0.735637
0.736
0.764
0.792
0.82
0.848
0.876
0.904
0.932
0.96
0.988
1.016
1.044
1.072
1.1
1.128
1.156
1.184
1.212
1.24
1.268
1.296
1.324
1.352
1.38
1.408
1.436
1.464
1.492
1.5
1.548
1.576
1.604
1.632
1.66
1.688
1.716
1.744
1.772
1.8
1.828
1.856
1.884

14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000

0.104109806
0.104007136
0.096523275
0.089819039
0.083789782
0.078347846
0.073419353
0.068941687
0.064861493
0.061133083
0.05771715
0.054579726
0.051691337
0.049026309
0.04656219
0.044279282
0.042160242
0.040189755
0.038354253
0.036641681
0.035041304
0.03354353
0.032139772
0.030822324
0.029584252
0.028419305
0.027321836
0.026286733
0.025309357
0.025040111
0.023511311
0.022683305
0.021898282
0.021153316
0.020445728
0.01977306
0.01913305
0.018523617
0.017942846
0.017388966
0.016860342
0.016355462
0.015872925
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119.5760875
119.5171118
115.1369035
111.0664069
107.2738955
103.7318329
100.4162035
97.30596715
94.38261191
91.62978573
89.03299018
86.5793251
84.25727423
82.05652453
79.967813
77.98279637
76.09393971
74.29442086
72.5780481
70.93918895
69.37270844
67.87391536
66.43851533
65.06256975
63.74245964
62.47485391
61.25668127
60.0851054
58.95750288
58.64306287
56.82467332
55.81509791
54.84076951
53.89987396
52.99071946
52.11172648
51.26141859
50.43841416
49.64141891
48.86921906
48.12067522
47.39471676
46.69033668

71
72
73
74
75

1.912
1.94
1.968
1.996
2.024

14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000
14.00000

0.015411432
0.014969776
0.014546837
0.014141572
0.01375301

46.00658698
45.34257438
44.69745645
44.07043803
43.46076794

## Displacement Response Spectrum

RSD
16.00000
14.00000
12.00000
10.00000
Displacement (mm)

8.00000
6.00000
4.00000
2.00000
0.00000

0.5

1.5

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2.5

## Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

RSV
140
120
100
80
Velocity (mm/sec2)

60
40
20
0

0.5

1.5

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2.5

RSA
0.25

0.2

0.15

Acceleration

0.1

0.05

0.5

1
Time (sec)

Results
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1.5

2.5

## Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

1. First Corner Period (t1) = 0.3459 sec
2. Second Corner Period (t2) = 0.735631 sec
3. RSA for RSA for a single degree of freedom structure with a natural time period of 1.5sec
from the Spectrum = 0.025040111 g
4. Displacement of the structure at the first corner period (t1) = 6.58338 mm

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## Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

Newmark-Hall Approach
In 1973 N.M. Newmark and W.J. Hall observed that some spectral ordinates in a response spectrum
is affected more by peak ground velocity or peak ground displacement rather than by peak ground
acceleration. Hence, he suggested normalization procedure in which different regions spectrum are
normalized by different measures of ground motion intensity.
Basic argument:
The response spectrum of a structure to ground motion depends on amplitude, duration and
frequency content of the motion, thus it cannot be expected that a design spectrum built on the basis
of peak ground acceleration alone will envelope the response spectra obtained directly from the
ground motion records.

Table 2: Newmark-Hall Amplification Factors for the Construction of Elastic Design Spectra
Damping
(% critical)
1
2
3
5
7
10
20

## Structural response amplification factors

Median
A
3.21
2.74
2.46
2.12
1.89
1.64
1.17

+ One Sigma
V
2.31
2.03
1.86
1.65
1.51
1.37
1.08

D
1.82
1.63
1.52
1.39
1.29
1.2
1.01

A
4.38
3.66
3.24
2.71
2.36
1.99
1.26

V
3.38
2.92
2.64
2.3
2.08
1.84
1.37

D
2.73
2.42
2.24
2.01
1.85
1.69
1.38

Source: Newmark, N.M. and Hall, W.J., Earthquake Spectra and Design, Earthquake Engineering Research
Institute, Oakland, CA, 1982
Procedure:
Site under consideration and taking for 5% damping and both amplification factors from table 2
Thus the desired spectrum may be obtained by drawing lines perpendicular to acceleration, velocity, and
displacement axes through ordinates equal to (0.088576 * 2.12) g, (1.65*66.431711) mm/sec, and
(1.39*1.39) mm.

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## Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

//*****----Done By Sanjit Kumar EDC2011041----*****//

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## Design of Earthquake Resistant Structure: Assignment-I

References

1. Bozorgnia, Y., and Bertero, V.V. Earthquake Engineering from Engineering Seismology to
Performance-Based Engineering, chapter 9 Design Spectrum, pg. (360-364)
2. Newmark, N.M. and Hall, W.J. (1982). Earthquake Spectra and Design, EERI Monograph,
Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, California, U.S.A.
3. Agarwal, P., and Shrikhande, M., Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, chapter 5, pg.

(101-105)

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