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acamma parnu crDd kgÚ{ v.t.

to surprise, to amaze, to
astonish
acanak crfgs adv. suddenly, abruptly,
unexpectedly
acano crfgf] n. cutting board for meat
acanu crfgÚ n. cutting board for meat
acar crf/ n. hot and sour pickle, pickles,
chutney, salsa
acar cfrf/ n. conduct, behaviour
acaran crf/)f n. conduct, behaviour,
practice
accer cRr]/ n. letter [of the alphabet],
[written] character, [except
numerals], alphabet,
syllable
acel cr]n adv. these days, nowadays,
recently, presently
achut c%Út adj. untouchable, of lowest
caste
achuti c%ÚtL n. untouchable, lowest caste
achutoddhar c%Útf]$f/ n. reformation of
untouchables
ad cf* n. support, prop
adalat cbfnt n. law court
adambar cf*Da/ n. conceit, ostentation
adan-pradan cfbfg–k|bfg n. giving and taking of things,
exchange, social
communication, give and
take
adarniya cfb/)fLo adj. respectable, deserving
honour
adarniya sadasya cfb/)fLo ;b:o n. honorary member
adarsh cfbz{ n. ideal, value
adarvaci cfb/jfrL adj. polite
adaunu c*fpgÚ v.t. to support, to hold up, to
stop
adda c*\*f n. office; court of law
adesh cfb]z n. order, instruction,
command
adha cfwf adj. half
adhai baje c(fO ah] adv. half past two
adhaini c(fOgL n. the senior woman in a

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palace harem
adham cwd adj. mean, low, wretched, base,
vile
adhar cfwf/ n. foundation, basis, support
adharat cfwf/ft n. midnight
adharbhut cfwf/e'^ adj. basic, fundamental
adharit cfwfl/t adj. based upon
adharit cha cfwfl/t % based upon
adharma cwd{ n. sinfulness, irreligiousness
adhi cfwL adj. almost a half
adhikar clwsf/ n. right, authority, procession,
proprietorship
adhikari clwsf/L n. officer, one having
authority, magistrate,
proprietor
adhikrit clws[t adj. authorised, vested with
authority
adhiraj clw/fh n. supreme ruler, sovereign,
overlord
adhirajkumar clw/fhsÚdf/ n. prince
adhirajya clw/fHo n. sovereignty, empire,
kingdom
adhiveshan clwa]zg n. session, meeting, sitting
adhogati cwf]ult n. fall, downfall, degradation
adhunik cfwÚlgs adj. modern, recent, current
adhyaksha cWoIf n. chief, master, director,
chairman, superintendent,
supervisor
adhyay cWofo n. chapter, section, canto
adhyayan cWoog n. study, learning, tuition,
perusal
adi cflb n./adj. beginning, primary, origin,
first, basic; etcetera, etc.
adijati cflbhflt n. tribe, tribal, autoethon
adikal cflbsfn n. primeval time
adikaran cflbsf/g n. first cause, fundamental
cause
adikavi cflbslj n. first poet, pioneer poet
adikavya cflbsfJo n. first epic, Ramayana
adinu cl*gÚ v.i. to stop
adityavar cflbtojf/ n. Sunday

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adivasi cflbjfl; n. aborigine, original
inhabitant
adkalnu c*\sNgÚ v.t. to guess
adkanu c*\sgÚ v.i. to get stuck, to be stopped,
to be halted
adkaunu c*\sfpgÚ v.t. to cause to stick
adnu c*\gÚ v.i. to stop, to cease moving
aduva cbÚjf n. ginger
advittiya clålQo adj. unparalleled, second-to-
none
agadha cufw adj. unfathomable, bottomless,
deep
agadi cufl* postp. in front of, before, ahead,
toward the front, first
agadi badhaunu cufl* a(fpgÚ v.t. to lead forward
agadi badhnu cufl* a(\gÚ v.i. to advance, to move
forward
agal-bagal cun–aun adv. from left to right, on both
sides
agami cfufdL adj. coming, forthcoming,
ensuing
agati cult n. decline, lack of progress
age cfu] adj. before, future, in furute
agena cu]gf n. fireplace, hearth
ageno cu]gf] n. fireplace
aghadi c#fl* in front of, before, toward
the front, first
aghat cf#ft n. blow, assault
aghaun cf#f}+ adv. next year
aghaunu c#fpgÚ v.i. to be satisfied with eating
aghi cl# already, before, previously,
formerly, facing, in front of,
ago,
aghi lagnu cl# nfUgÚ v.t. to go first, to go ahead, to
lead, to guide
aghi nai cl# g} adv. already, long ago
aghi sarnu cl# ;gÚ[{ v.i. to advance, to volunteer, to
incite, to instigate
aghi-aghi cl#–cl# a long time ago, in times
gone by
aghillo cl#Nnf] adj. first, former, front, anterior,

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last, previous
aghiltira cl#lNt/ adv. in front of, facing
aghi-pachi cl#–kl% some other time, before, on
other occasions, generally,
usually, in single file, one
after another, sequentially,
surrounded by
aghisamma cl#;Dd adv. until recently
aglo cUnf] adj. tall, high
aglo cfUnf] n. latch, bolt
aglyaunu cUNofpgÚ v.t. to lock, to pull to [a door]
agni clUg n. fire
agnikand clUgsf)* n. fire, conflagration
ago cfuf] n. fire
agraha cfu|x n. desire, longing, craving,
zeal, urging, insistence
agulto cuÚN^f] n. piece of burning wood
aguva cuÚjf n./adv. leader, leading
agya cf!f n. order, command,
instruction, permission
agyakari cf!fsf/L adj. obedient
agyan v!fg n./adj. ignorance; ignorant
agyat c!ft adj. unknown, secret, obscure
ahan cx int. no
ahangkar cx°f/ n. arrogance, conceit
ahar cfxf/ n. food, diet
ahara cfxf/f n. food, diet
ahat cfxt adj. struck, beaten
ahile clxn] adv. now, this time
aimai cfOdfO{ n. woman
ain P]g n. law, legal code, rule
aina P]gf n. mirror, looking glass, pane
of glass
aincatana P]+rftfgf adj. out of control, controlled by
outsideforces
ainselu P];]nÚ n. yellow raspberry
aipugnu cfOkÚUgÚ v.i. to arrive
aitavar cfOtjf/ n. Sunday

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aitihasik P]ltxfl;s adj. historical
aja cfh adv. today
aja bihana cfh laxfgf comp. this morning
ajabholi cfhef]ln adv. nowadays
ajakal cfhsfn adv. nowadays
ajan chfg adj. ignorant
ajang chª adj. huge, very big, enormous,
formidable
ajat chft adj. outcaste, low caste, not
born
ajatshatru chftzqÚ adj. having no enemy
ajha c´ adv. still, yet, moreover, now
ajhai c´} conj. even then, even now
ajivan cfhLjg adj. throughout life, for a whole
life-time
akad cs* n. insistence, obstinacy,
stubbornness, persistence
akado cs*f] adj. obstinate, stubborn
akal csn wisdom, intelligence,
cleverness, knowledge,
skilful, clever, wise
akalpaniya csNkgLo adj. unimaginable, unthinkable,
inconceivable
akamakaunu csdsfpgÚ v.i. to hesitate, to pause
akamakka csdSs adj. confused, baffled,
disconcerted,
dumbfounded, perplexed
akamakka parnu csdSs kfg{ v.t. to be confused, to be
baffled, to be in a
quandary, to be taken
aback, to be disconcerted,
to be rattled, to hesitate, to
pause
akangksha cfsfª\Iff n. aspiration
akanksha cfsf+Iff n. wish, desire, intention
akantak cs)^s adj. free from trouble,
unobstructed, thornless
akapat csk^ adj. guiltless, frank, open
akar cfsf/ n. size, shape, form, outline
akaraniya cs/)fLo adj. improper, unfit to be
performed
akarma csd{ n. unnecessary act, wicked

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act
akarmak csd{s adj. intransitive
akarmanya csd{)o adj. idle, useless, good for
nothing
akarmi csdL{ n. a do nothing, sinner, evil-
doer, rogue, villain
akarna cs)f{ deaf, having no ear
akarna csg{ n. official record, document,
list of official records
akarsan cfsif{)f n. attraction
akartavya cst{Jo adj. improper, unfit to be done
akartha csfy{ adj. without cause, pointlessly,
in vain
akash cfsfz n. sky, space
akashe tara-marg cfsfz] tf/–dfu{ n. cable railway
akashvani cfsfZjf)fL n. radio broadcast
akasmat cs:dft adv. suddenly, accidentally,
unexpectedly, all of a
sudden
akasmik cfsl:ds adj. sudden, abrupt, accidental,
casual
akathaniya csygLo adj. inexpressible,
indescribable,
inexpressible, obscene,
indecent
akathya csYo adj. inexpressible,
indescribable,
inexpressible, obscene,
indecent, filthy, unutterable
akavat csjt n. duty, God
akbar csa/ n. name of the third Indian
Moghul Emperor
akbare csa/] adj. pungent chilli, extraordinary
hot
akbari csa/L adj. related to Akbar, pure,
unadulterated
akelo cs]nf] adj. alone
akhabar cvaf/ n. newspaper
akhir cflv/ adv. at last, eventually
akkal cSsn n. knowledge, cleverness,
thought
akkali cSsnL adj. clever, intelligent
akkase cSsf;] adj. sky-blue

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akkasinu cSsfl;gÚ v.i. to fly up
akraman cfqmd)f n. attack, invasion
akrista cfs[i^ adj. attracted, drawn, charmed
akriti cfs[lt n. size, shape, form, outline
aksar cS;/ adv. often, frequently, usually,
many, a lot
akshansh cIff+z n. latitude
akshar cIf/ n. letter [of the alphabet],
[written] character, [except
numerals], alphabet,
syllable
aksijan clS;hg n. oxygen
alag cnu separate, different
alainci cn}+rL n. cardamom
alangkar cn°f/ n. embellishment
alasya cfn:o n. laziness, idleness
alchi cN%L adj. lazy, idle
alekha cfn]v n. writing, script, anything
written
algyaunu cNUofpgÚ v.t. tho lift, to raise, to release,
to set free
alhad cfNxfb n. delight, fulfilment
ali cln adj. a bit, a little, few
ali cfnL n. ridge at the edge of a field-
terrace
alikati clnslt adj. a little, a small quantity
alilo clnnf] adj. lacking salt, tasteless
aljhanu cN´gÚ v.i. to get caught up in
aljhaunu cN´fpgÚ v.t. to entangle
alkatra cnsqf n. asphalt
allare cNnf/] n. rover
almalaunu cNdnfpgÚ v.t. to confuse, to lead astray
almalinu cndlngÚ v.i. to be bewildered, to be
amazed, to be confused
almari cfNdf/L n. shelves, cupboard
alocana cfnf]rgf n. criticism, critique
alocanatmak cfnf]rgfTds adj. critical

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alok cfnf]s n. enlightenment, light,
brightness
alpamat cNkdt n. minority
alsi cN;L adj. lazy, idle
alu cfnÚ n. potato
alu tachnu cfnÚ tf%\gÚ v.t. to peel off potatoes
alubakhada cfnÚav*f n. plum-tree
am cfd adj. common, general
ama cfdf n. mother
amai cfd} n. grandmother [rural]
amaju cfdfh' n. husband's elder sister
amala cdnf n. a kind of fruit [sour-sweet]
amanav cdfgj adj. inhuman
amanya cdfGo adj. unaccepted, unobeyed
amar cd/ adj. immortal, undying
amarkosh cd/sf]z n. (a Sanskrit dictionary
compiled by Amar Singh)
amba cDaf n. guava
amdani cfDbfgL n. income
amdani badhaune cfdbfgL a(fpg] n. income generating
amilo cldnf] adj. sour
amir cdL/ adj. wealthy, rich
amiri cdL/L adj. wealthy, rich
amkhora cDvf]/f n. brass pot for drinking from,
tumbler
amnirvacan cfdlgjf{rg n. general elections
amol cdf]n adj. priceless, invaluable
amrit cd[t n./adj. elixir, nectar; immortal
amulya cd'No adj. priceless, invaluable
amurta cd't{ adj. formless
an c int. yes
anadarvaci cgfb/jfrL adj. non-honorific [ling.]
anadi cgflb adj. having no beginning, self-
born
analamaya cgndo adj. fiery
anand cfgGb n. happiness
anandi cfgGbL adj. happy

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ananta cgGt adj. infinite, endless
anar cgf/ n. pomegranate
anarsa cg;f{ n. a kind if sweet bread made
of rice flour, sugar and
butter
anashan cgzg n. fasting
anatha cgfy adj. uncared for, orphaned
anautha cgf}&f adj. queer, unusual,
extraordinary
anautho cgf}&f] adj. queer, unusual,
extraordinary, strange,
peculiar
anautikta cgf}ltQmf n. immorality
anavarat cgj/t adj. unceasing, constant
anbhaunu cGefpgÚ v.t. to say good-bye to the
couple in marriage, to send
away a bride
ancal c~rn n. zone
ancal adalat c~rn cbfnt n. zonal court
ancal nyayadhish c~rn GofofwLif n. zonal judge
ancal prashasan c~rn k|zf;g n. zonal administration
ancal sabha c~rn ;ef n. zonal assembly
ancaladhish c~rnfwLz n. zonal commissioner
ancetnu cr]&\gÚ v.t. to discipline, to impress, to
press, to push with force
anda cG*f n. egg
andaji cGbfhL adv. appropriately, about
anderi c*]/L n. castor-oil plant
andha cGwf adj. blind
andhabhakta cGweQm n. blind follower, superstitious
person
andhakar cGwsf/ n. darkness
andheri cw]/L adj. dark, gloomy
andhi cflw n. storm, strong wind
andhiyar cflwof/ n. sharer of half the land or
crop
andhopan cGwf]kg n. blindness
andhyaro cWof/f] n./adj. dark, gloomy, sad,
darkness, ignorance, gloom
andolan cfGbf]ng n. agitation, riot, movement

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andra cfGb|f n. entrails
anduva c*Újf n. not castrated animal
aneka cg]s adj. several, many
ang cfª n. part, body, portion, limb,
procedure
anga pugnu cé kÚUgÚ to be the procedure
complete
anga-bhanga cé–eé n. mutilation of a limb
anga-bhanga garnu cé–eé ugÚ{ v.t. to amputate, to dismember,
to mutilate
angacched céR%]b n. amputation
angalnu cuNgÚ v.t. to adopt, to accept, to
follow, to embrace, to hug
angalo cufnf] n. hug, embrace, armful, the
bent arm
angan cfug n. yard, courtyard, house,
home
angar cuf/ n. cinder, ember, the black
substance of charcoal
anga-raksha cé/Iff n. protection of body
anga-rakshak cé/Ifs n. body guard
angethi cu]&L n. iron or clay vessel to carry
fire, portable fireplace
anggur cu'/ n. grape
anghi cf#L n. storm, whirlwind, hurricane
angikar céLsf/ n. acceptance
angikar garnu céLsf/ ugÚ{ v.t. to accept, to follow
angikrit c+uLs[t adj. adopted, agreed, promised
angikrit nagarikta c+uLs[t gful/stf n. adopted citizenship
angikrit nepali c+uLs[t g]kfnL gful/stf n. adopted Nepali citizenship
nagarikta
anginti cglulGt adj. countless
angka c° n. numeral, digit, issue,
number [of a periodical],
mark [in an examination],
score, points [in a game],
act [in a drama]
angka ra akshar c° / cIf/ figure and letter
angka ra aksharle c° / cIf/n] af]nfpgÚ to call by figure and word
bolaunu
angka-ganit c°ul)ft n. arithmetic, mathematics

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angkamal c°dfn n. embrace
angkapatra c+skq n. label, fillet
angkit c+lst adj. marked, written, endorsed,
encounted
angkuran c+sÚ/)f n. germination, beginning
angocha cuf]%f n. towel, napkin
angrej c+u|]h n. Englishman, Westerner,
white man
angreji c+u|]hL n./adj. English, British, English
language
angsha c+z n. share, division, fragment,
ingredient, contribution,
element, portion, clause,
sub-clause
angshadan c+zbfg n. contribution, donation
angshadhar c+zw/ n. share-holder, heir
angshako hak c+zsf] xs n. heirship, right to the
paternal property
angshiyar c+lzof/ n. co-heir, sharer, partner
angul c+uÚn n. finger, a finger's breadth
anguli mudra c+uÚnL dÚb|f n. fingerprint, nameprinted
ring
anguli pratimudra c+uÚnL k|ltdÚb|f n. finger impression
angur c+uÚ/ n. grape
ani clg conj. and, then, and then
anicchit clglR%t adj. undesired, unwished for
anikal clgsfn n. famine
anil clgn n. wind
anivarya clgjfo{ adj. inevitable
anjali c~hnL n. the open palms of the
hands held together and
slightly cupped, a double
handful, offering in worship,
tribute
anjuli c~hÚnL n. the open palms of the
hands held together and
slightly cupped, a double
handful, offering in worship,
tribute
anka c+s n. numeral, digit, issue,
number [of a periodical],
mark [in an examination],
score, points [in a game],

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act [in a drama]
ankai csfO{ n. estimate, evaluation
ankanaunu cGsgfpgÚ v.i. to hesitate
ankha cfvf n. eye
ankhako nani cfvfsf] gfgL n. pupil
ankhibhuin cfvfLe'O n. eyebrow
ankuro csÚ/f] n. shoot, seedling, bud, fresh
shoot of a plant
ankush c+sÚz n. hook
anmaunu cGdfpgÚ v.t. to say good-bye to the
couple in marriage, to send
away a bride
anna cGg n. grain, food
anna-bhandar cGge)*f/ n. granary
anp cfk n. mango
anshu cfz' n. tear, teardrop
ant cf& n. courage, boldness
anta cf&f n. wheat flour
anta cGt n. end, conclusion
anta garnu cGt ugÚ{ v.t. to end, to finisch
antai cGt} adv. elsewhere
antar cGt/ n./adj. difference, interval; inner,
inter-
antaral rajya cGt/fn /fHof n. buffer state
antardeshiya c+tb]{zLo adj. inland, domestic
antardeshiya jalpath c+tb]{zLo hnky n. inland waterways
antardeshiya patra c+tb]{zLo kq n. inland letter
antardeshiya vanijya c+tb]{zLo jfl)fHo n. internal trade
antardhvans c+tWj{; n. sabotage
antargat cGtu{t adj. included, comprised
antargrasta c+tu|{:t adj. involved
antarik cfGtl/s adj. interior, inner, internal
antariksha cGt/LIf n. space, universe
antarmukhi cGtdÚ{lv adj. introvert, inward-looking
antarrastriya cGt/f{li^«o adj. international
antarrastriya kanun cGt/f{li^«o sfg'g n. international law
antarrastriya cGt/f{li^«o dÚb|sf]if n. International Monetary

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mudrakos Fund [IMF]
antarvarta cGtjf{tf{ n. interview
antarvasan c+tjf{;g n. internship, confinement
within prescribed limits
antarvasi c+tjf{;L n. internee
antarvasit c+tjf{l;t adj. interned
antarvasit garnu c+tjf{l;t ugÚ{ v.t. to intern
antarvirodh cGt/lj/f]w n. self-contradiction, inner
contradiction
antastha desh cGt:y b]z n. buffer state
anthanabbe cG&fgAa] num. ninety-eight, 98
anthaunna cG&fpGg num. fifty-eight, 58
anthyaunu c&ØfpgÚ v.t. to catch firmly, to seize, to
clutch, to grasp firmly
anti c+lt n. ultimatum
antim clGtd adj. last, final, conclusive,
ultimate
antis clGt; adj. last
antnu cf^\gÚ v.i. to dare, to take the risk
antya cGTo n./adj. end, last run
antyesti cGTo]lit n. the last rites after death,
funeral ceremony,
obsequies
anubhav cgÚej n. experience, feeling,
sensation
anubhavi cgÚelj adj. experienced
anubhuti cgÚe'lt n. real knowledge,
experience, sensation
anudan cgÚbfg n. grant
anugaman cgÚudg n. follow-up
anuhar agÚxf/ n. face, countenance
anukramnika cgÚqmdl0fsf n. contents, list of contents
anukul cgÚs'n adj. favourable, agreeable,
friendly
anuman cgÚdfg n. inference, guess,
presumption
anumati cgÚdlt n. permission, consent,
assent
anupasthit cgÚkl:yt adj. absent
anupras cgÚk|f; n. alliteration

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anurodh cgÚ/f]w n. request, entreaty, prayer
anurodh garnu cgÚ/f]w ugÚ{ v.t. to request, to ask for, to
pray
anurup cgÚ¿k adj. resembling, corresponding,
similar, analogous,
congruous
anusandhan cgÚ;Gwfg n. research, investigation
anusar cgÚ;f/ postp. according to, in accordance
with, equivalent to, in
conformity with
anusaran cgÚ;/)f n. compliance, accordance
anushasan cgÚzf;g n. discipline, instruction
anuvad cgÚjfb n. translation, immitation
anuvakta cgÚjQmf n. translator
anuvar cgÚjf/ n. face, countenance
anveshan cGj]z)f n. exploration
anya cGo adj. other
anyatra cGoq adj. elsewhere, somewhere
else, in some other place
anyaya cGofo n. injustice
apaci ckrL adj. undigested, undigestible
apadha ck( adj. illiterate, unlettered
apaharan ckx/)f n. abduction, kidnapping,
usurpation
apanaunu ckgfpgÚ v.t. to adopt, to make use of, to
apply
aparadh ck/fw n. crime, offence, guilt, fault,
sin
aparadhi ck/fwL n./adj. criminal, wrongdoer
aparicit ckl/lrt adj. unknown, unfamiliar
aparjhat ck/´& adv. suddenly, surprisingly, all of
a sudden
apas cfk; n. those close to oneself,
relatives
apashoc ckzf]r n. regret, sorrow
apasma cfk;df adj. among each other, among
themselves
aphai cfkm} adv. self, personally
aphisar clkm;/ n. officer
aphno cfkm\Gff] adj. one's own

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aphnu cfkm\Gf' adj. one's own
apil ckLn n. appeal, contradiction,
objection
aprakashit ck|sflzt adj. unpublished
apratyashik ck|Toflzs adj. unexpected, sudden
apravasi cfk|jf;L n. immigrant
apsara cK;/f n. nymph, fairy, spirit
apurva ck'j{ adj. new, strange
arab c/a num. one billion, 1.00.00.00.000
arajakta c/fhstf n. anarchy
arakshan cf/If)f n. reservation
aram cf/fd n. comfort, rest
arambha cf/De n. beginning, start
are c/] (reported speech marker)
arini cC)fL adj. free from debt
arje cfh]{ n. prophecy, prediction,
forecast
arko csf]{ adj. another, next, second
arop cf/f]k n. imputation, allegation,
insinuation, accusation
arpanu ck{gÚ v.t. to offer up, to dedicate
artha cy{ n. finance, wealth, nmeaning,
significance, import,
interpretation, explanation
arthadanda cy{b)* n. fine
artha-mantri cy{dGqL n. minister of finance
arthashastra cy{zf:q n. economics, political
economy
arthat cyf{t adv. that is to say, in other
words, i.e.
arthik cfly{s adj. economic, financial
arthik matava cfly{s dxTj n. economic importance
arthyaunu cYof{pgÚ v.t. to make sense of, to
understand
arti ctL{ n. advice, counsel, lesson,
instruction, precept, moral
lesson, admonition
aru cf¿ n. peach
aru c¿ adj. another, more, either,
further

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aru kohi c¿ sf]xL someone else
arubakhada cf¿av*f n. plum
asabhya c;Eo adj. uncivilised, uncultured
asadh c;f( n. Asadh or Asar, third month
of the Nepali year [June-
July]
asadharan c;fwf/)f adj. unusual, uncommon
asadhya c;fWo adj. very, extremely
asahamati c;xdlt n. disagreement, dissent,
discordance
asahaya c;xfo adj. helpless
asal c;n adj. real, true, pure,
unadulterated, morally
good
asali c;nL adj. real, genuine
asam cf;fd n. Assam
asaman cf;dfg n. sky
asamanta c;dfGtf n. inequality
asamaya c;do n. untimeliness, bad or
unfitting time
asamayik c;fdlos adj. inopportune, untimely,
inconvenient
asambhava c;Dej adj. impossible
asan cf;g n. seat, stool, office, post,
posture, throne
asanggati c;+ult n. incoherence, irrelevance,
absurdity, irrationality,
incompatibility, anomaly
asankhya c;+Vo adj. innumerable, countless,
beyond number
asanna cf;Gg adj. imminent, impencing, near,
close
asantusta c;GtÚi& adj. dissatisfied, discontented,
displeased, reluctant
asantusti c;GtÚli& n. dissatisfaction
asapas cf;kf; adv. nearabout, nearby
asaphal c;kmn adj. unsuccessful, failure
asar c;f/ n. Asadh or Asar, third month
of the Nepali year [June-
July]
asar c;/ n. effect, influence, mark,
authority

17
asat c;t\ adj. evil, bad, non-existent,
illusory
ash cfz n. hope
asha cfzf n. hope
ashangka cfz+sf n. suspicion, doubt, fear,
dread
ashanti czflGt n. lack of peace, unrest
ashaya cfzo n. meaning, aim, intention,
purport
ashcarya cfZro{ n. wonder, surprise,
astonishment
ashcaryalagdo cfZro{nfUbf] adj. surprising
ashiksha clzIff n. illiteracy
ashikshit clzlIft adj. uneducated, unlettered,
illiterate
ashirvacan cfzLj{rg n. blessing, benediction
ashirvacan cfzLj{rg n. blessing
ashirvad cfzLjf{b n. blessing, benediction
ashirvad cfzLjf{b n. blessing
ashis cflzif n. blessing, benediction
ashis dinu cflzif lbgÚ v.t. to bless
ashlil cZnLn adj. indecent, vulgar
ashram cf>d n. hermitage, residential
institute
ashraya cf>o n. dependence, resort,
reliance, retreat
ashrit cfl>t postp. depending on, relying on
ashu cfzÚ adj. quick, speedily, immediate,
swift
ashuddha czÚ$ adj. impure
ashutos cfzÚtf]if adj. contended, easily pleased
ashvin cflZjg n. Ashvin or Asoj, fifth month
of the Nepali year
[September-October]
asi c;L eighty, 80
asima c;Ld adj. boundless, unlimited
asimit c;Lldt adj. boundless, unlimited
asoj c;f]h n. Ashvin or Asoj, fifth month
of the Nepali year
[September-October]

18
aspast c:ki& adj. not clear, indistinct, vague,
dim, obscure, blurred,
ambiguous
aspastata c:ki&tf n. lack of clarity, uncertainty,
haziness
aspatal c:ktfn n. hospital
astaunu c:tfpgÚ v.i. to set [sun, moon or star]
astha cf:yf n. faith, reverence, veneration
asthipanjar cl:ykGh/ n. skeleton
asti cl:t adv. the day before yesterday,
recently, the other day
astiko bihibar cl:tsf] laxLaf/ last Thursday
astitva cl:tTj n. existence, being, entity
astrashastra a:qz:q n. weaponry, armament,
arms, weapons
astreliya c:&«]lnof n. Australien
asuvidha c;'ljwf n. inconvenience
asvabhavik c:jefljs adj. unnatural
asvasth c:j:y adj. unhealthy.morbid
asvikar c:jLsf/ n. non-acceptance, rejection,
refusal, denial
atah ctM conj. hence, therefore, thus
atainu c^fOgÚ v.i. to fit into, to be contained
atal c^n adj. firm, irrevocable, resolute,
unwavering, steadfast, still,
unmoving
atangka cft° n. fear, terror, panic, phobea,
suffering
atangkit cftl°t adj. terrified
ataunu c^fpgÚ v.i. to fit into, to be contained
ateri c^]/L adj. headstrong, obstinate
ath cf& num. eight, 8
athara c&f/ adj. eighteen, 18
athasi c&f;L adj. eighty-eight, 88
athaun cf&f}+ adj. eighth
athava cyjf conj. or
athcalis c&rfnL; adj. forty-eight, 48
athhattar c&xQ/ adj. seventy-eight, 78
athsatthi c&;&\&L adj. sixty-eight, 68

19
athtis c&tL; adj. thirty-eight, 38
ati clt adj. very much, exceeding,
extremely, beyond
atikraman cltqmd)f n. infringement,
contravention, violation
atirikta cltl/Qm adv. extra, additional, excessive
atit ctLt n./adv. past, gone
atithighar cltly#/ n. guest house, guest
chamber
atithishala cltlyzfnf n. guest house, guest
chamber
atma cfTdf n. mind, heart, intellect, soul
atmabhiman cfTdfledfg n. self-respect, self-esteem
atmabodhak cfTdfaf]ws adj. reflexive [linguistics]
atmahatya cfTdxTof n. suicide, self-murder, self-
killing
atmanirbhar cfTdlge{/ n. self-dependence, self-
support
atmasamman cfTd;Ddfg n. self-respect, self-regard
atmavibhorta cfTdljef]/tf n. fascination
atmavishvas cfTdljZjf; n. self-confidence
atripti ct[lKt n. insatiability, lack of
appeasement
attalika c§flnsf n. balcony, verandah
attar cQ/ n. scent, fragrance
atthais a&&fO{; adj. twenty-eight, 28
attinu cflQgÚ v.i. to be frightened, to be
nerveous
atur cftÚ/ adj. sick, wounded, impatient,
anxious
atut c^Ú^ adj. unbroken, continuous,
continual
atuva c^'jf n. ginger
atyacar cTofrf/ n. atrocity, tyranny, excess,
outrage, oppression
atyanta cToGt adj. a lot, much, very much,
exceedingly, utterly,
extremely
atyavashyak cTofjZos adj. very necessary, essential
atyukti cToÚlQm n. hyperbole, exaggeration
au cf} conj. and

20
aucitya cf}lrTo n. propriety, appropriateness,
validity
audyogik cf}Bf]lus adj. industrial
aunlo cf}+nf] n. finger
aunlyaunu cf}+NofpgÚ v.t. to point at
aunsi cf}+;L n. new moon, last day of the
dark half of the month
aunu cfpgÚ v.i. to come
aupacarik cf}krfl/s adj. formal, ceremonial
aupacarik adarvaci cf}krfl/s cfb/jfrL adj. formally polite [linguistics]
ausadhipasal cf}iflwk;n n. chemist's (shop),
pharmacy, drugstore
avadhi cjlw n. periode, time, limit, term,
duration
avahela cjx]nf n. neglect, disdain, contempt
avahelna cjx]ngf n. neglect, disdain, contempt
avaj cfjfh n. voice, sound, report, uproar
avakash cjsfz n. free time
avalamban cjnDag n. support, reliance
avalokan cjnf]sg n. look, gaze
avanati cjglt n. decline, downfall
avarodh cj/f]w n. obstruction, hindrance,
impediment, restraint,
taboo
avas cfjf; n. dwelling, place of residence
avasar cj;/ n. opportunity, chance,
occasion, scope
avasar paunu cj;/ kfpgÚ v.t. to take a chance
avashya cjZo adv. certainly
avashyak cfjZos adj. necessary, needful,
inevitable
avashyakta cfjZostf n. necessity, need,
requirement
avastha cj:yf n. condition, state, age,
phase, despondency
avasyakta cfj:oQm n. need, necessity,
requirement
avat-javat cfjt–hfjt n. coming and going,
connection, transmigration
avicchinna cljlRrGg adj. uninterrupted, continuous

21
avikasit cljsl;t adj. undeveloped
avishvas cljZjf; n. distrust, disbelief, non-
confidence, suspicion,
doubt
aviskar cfljisf/ n. discovery, invention
avivekpurna cljj]sk')f{ adj. without reason, for no
reason, unfounded
avyavastha cJoj:yf n. disorder
ayaram gayaram cfof/fd uof/fd n. frequent defectionist
ayarlaind cfo/n})* n. Ireland
ayog cfof]u n. commission
ayojana cfof]hgf n. project
ba af n. father [colloquially]
babu afaÚ n. father
bacaunu arfpgÚ v.t. to save, to defend, to spare
bada a*f adj. big, large, gigantic, og
great size
bada hakim a*f xflsd n. district officer
badal afbn n. cloud
badam abfd n. peanut
badamash abdfz adj. wicked, immoral,
mischievous
badanam abgfd adj. caluminated, infamous
badha afwf n. hinderance, obstacle,
obstruction
badhak afws adj. hindering, obstructing
badharnu a(fgÚ{ v.t. sweep
badhaunu a(fpgÚ v.t. to increase, to make
bigger, to enlarge
badhi a(L adj. more, larger, higher
badhiya al(of adj. fine, nice, superior,
excellent, of good quality
badhnu a(\gÚ v.i. to increase, to grow, to
advance, to go forward, to
flourish
badi abL n. the dark half of a lunar
month; evil, wickedness
bado a*f] adj. big, large, gigantic
bagainca au}+rf n. garden, orchard
bagbani afuafgL n. gardening, horticulture

22
baggi aUuL n. horse carriage
bagh af# n. tiger
bagha af#f n. obstacle
bagnu aUgÚ v.i. to flow, to glide
bagvani afujfgL n. horticulture
bahadur axfbÚ/ adj. brave, bold, courageous,
defiant
bahas ax; n. discussion, argumentation,
debate
bahattar axQ/ num. seventy-two, 72
bahek afx]s postp. except, besides
bahini alxgL n. younger sister
bahinijvain alxgLHjfO n. younger sister's husband
bahira aflx/ postp. outside, at another place
bahira samet aflx/ ;d]t even outside
bahirapatti aflx/kl§ n. outside
bahiro alx/f] adj. deaf
bahiskar alxifsf/ n. expulsion, removal,
exclusion, ex-
communication
bahra afx| num. twelve, 12
bahraun afx|f}+ adj. twelfth
bahudaliya axÚblno adj. multiparty
bahudaliya vyavastha axÚblno joj:yf n. multiparty system
bahumat axÚdt n. majority
bahumulya axÚd'No adj. valuable, expensive, very
costly
bahun afxÚg n. Brahmin
baijani a}hgL adj. purple
baink a}° n. bank
bais afO{; num. twenty-two, 22
baisatthi a};&\&L num. sixty-two, 62
baishakh a}zfv n. first month of the Nepali
calendar [April/May]
baithak a}&s n. meeting, session, living
room, sitting room,
reception room
baj afh n. hawk

23
baje ah] o'clock
baje afh] n. grandfather
bajet ah]& n. budget
bajhnu a´\gÚ v.i. to quarrel, to wrangle
bajnu aHgÚ v.i. to sound, to chime
bajyai aHo} n. grandmother [lower class],
woman's mother-in-law
[lower class], a Brahmin
woman, an old woman
bakas afs; n. box
bakas as; n. present, gift, reward
bakhat avt n. time, period, moment,
opportunity
bakhri afv|L n. she-goat
bakhro afv|f] n. goat
bakkulo aSsÚnf] n. crane
baklo afSnf] adj. thick
baksanu aS;gÚ v.t. to give, to present [as a
present or reward by a high
standing personality like
the king]
bal an n. strength, power, force,
might
bal afn n. child, boy
balatkar anfTsf/ n. rape
bali anL adj. strong, powerful
bali afnL n. standig crops, harvest
balika afLnsf n. young girl
balistha aln:& adj. strong, powerful, stout
baliyo alnof] adj. strong, powerful, stout
balkrishna sama afns[i)f ;d n. Bal Krishna Sama [a
famous Nepali poet]
balnu aNgÚ v.i. to burn, to blaze, to catch
fire
balnu afNgÚ v.t. to kindle, to light, to burn
balti afN&L n. bucket
balun afnÚg n. a kind of folk song
balyakal afNosfn n. childhood
bamojim adf]lhd adv. according to, in accordance

24
with, accordingly
bamojit adf]lht adj. according to, in accordance
with, accordingly
banaunu agfpgÚ v.t. to make, to build, to repair
bancaro aGr/f] n. axe
bancnu afRgÚ v.i. to survive
banda bhayo aGb eof] comp. it is closed, it is shut
banda garnu aGb ugÚ{ v.t. to close, to shut
bandakopi aGbfsf]kL n. cabbage
bandar afb/ n. monkey
bandel ab]n n. wild pig
bandhan aGwg n. imprisonment
bandhnu afWgÚ v.t. to bind, to tie up, to fasten
bandi aGbL n. hostage, prisoner
bandighar aGbL#/ n. prison, jail
bandigriha aGbLu[x n. prison, jail
bandikhana aGbLvfgf n. prison, jail
bandnu af*\gÚ v.t. to part, to divide, to share,
to partition
banel ag]n n. wild pig
bango aféf] adj. crooked, bent, twisted
bangur a+uÚ/ n. pig
bani afgL n. habit, disposition, character
banki afsL n. remainder, left over,
residue
bannu aGgÚ v.i. to be ready, to be made
bans af; n. bamboo
bansko purda af“:sf] k'bf{ n. bamboo curtain
bar af/ n. fence, temporary wall
bar af/ n. weekday [of the Nepali
calendar]
bara a/f n. great-grandfather
barbar aa{/ n./adj. barbarian, savage,
barbarisch, wild
barbarta aa{/tf n. barbarity
bare af/] postp. about, realting to,
concerning
bari af/L n. dry field, garden

25
barkha av{f n. rains, rainy season,
monsoon
barnu afgÚ{ v.t. to observe, to abstain from
baru a? better, rather, or
barulo af?nf] n. wasp
basai sarai a;fO{ ;/fO{ n. migration
basalnu a;fNgÚ v.t. to cause to sit, to make
someone sit
basanta a;Gt n. spring
basaunu a;fpgÚ v.t. to cause to sit, to make
someone sit
basinda afl;Gbf n. inhabitant, resident
basnu a:gÚ v.i. to sit, to settle, to remain
basobas a;f]af; n. residence, place of
residence
basovas a;f]jf; n. residence, place of
residence
bata af& postp. from, by
bata marnu aft dfgÚ{ v.i. to talk
batas atf; n. wind, air
batho af&f] adj. intelligent, clever
bato af^f] n. road, path, way
bato lagnu af^f] nfUgÚ v.t. to set off
battai a§fO{ n. quail
batti aQL n. lamp
battis aQL; num. thirty-two, 32
batuko a^Úsf] n. cup, bowl
baulaha af}nfxf adj. mad, lunatic
baunna afpGg num. fifty-two, 52
bayalis aofnL; num. forty-two, 42
bayan aofg n. description, narration,
account
bayan afof adj. left
bayanabbe aofgAa] num. ninety-two, 92
bayasi aof;L num. eighty-two, 82
becnu a]RgÚ v.t. to sell, to dispose off
beglo a]Unf] adj. separated
behornu a]xf]gÚ{ v.i. to bear, to make use of, to

26
look after, to afford
bela a]nf n. time, occasion
beluka a]nÚsf n./adj. evening, in the evening,
after sunset
bemajja a]dHhf adj. not pleasing
benci a]GrL n. bench
bensi a]+;L n. valley, lowland, lower
portion of a hill
bepar a]kf/ n. trade, commerce
bepar garnu a]kf/ ugÚ{ v.t. to trade, to sell
bepari a]kf/L n. trader, merchant
ber a]/ n. time, delay, late
berojgar a]/f]huf/ n. unemployment
bes a]; adj. good, very good
besar a];f/ n. turmeric
besari a];/L adv. nicely, abundantly,
profusely, plentifully,
excessively
bevasta a]jf:tf adj. indifferent, unmindful,
unconcerned, careless
bhada ef*f n. rent, hire, fare, freight
bhadai eb} n. woman's brother's daughter
bhadau ebf} n. fifth month of the Nepali
year [August-September]
bhadgaun efbufp n. Bhaktapur, Bhadgaon [an
ancient town east of
Kathmandu]
bhadkinu e*\lsgÚ v.i. to be frightened, to feel
shy, to go astray
bhado ebf] n. woman's brother's son
bhadra eb| n. fifth month of the Nepali
year [August-September]
bhagnu efUgÚ v.i. to flee, to run away
bhai efO n. younger brother
bhai-bharadar efOef/fbf/ n. king's address towards his
royal relatives
bhaibuhari efOaÚxf/L n. younger brother's wife
bhain eO n. ground, earth, floor
bhainsi e}+;L n. water buffalo [female]
bhajan efhg n. receptacle, object, dividing

27
bhaka efsf n. promise
bhakta eQm n./adj. devotee; devoted, pious
bhaktapur eQmkÚ/ n. Bhaktapur, Bhadgaon [an
ancient town east of
Kathmandu]
bhakti elQm n. devotion, worship,
veneration
bhaktiman elQmdfg n./adj. devotee; devoted, pious
bhakundo khelnu esÚ)*f] v]NgÚ v.t. to play football
bhala efnf n. spear, lance, pike
bhalai enfO{ n. welfare, well-being,
goodness, gentleness
bhale mujur efn] dÚhÚ/ n. peacock
bhalu efn" n. bear
bhanda eGbf postp. compared to [used for
construction of
comparative]
bhandakunda ef*fsÚ*f n. pots and pans
bhandaphor e)*fkmf]]/ n. unmasking, unveiling,
disclosure, revelation,
betrayal
bhandar e)*f/ n. store room
bhandnu ef*\gÚ v.t. to spoil, to ruin (morally)
bhando ef*f] n. cooking pot, vessel, pot
bhane eg] conj. if, on the other hand
bhangero eu]/f] n. sparrow
bhanij eflgh n. sister's son
bhanje buhari efGh] aÚxf/L n. sister's son's wife
bhanje jvain efGh] HjfO{+ n. sister's daughter's husband
bhanji efGhL n. sister's daughter
bhanjo efGhf] n. sister's son
bhanjyang e~Hofª n. narrow valley, defile,
mountain pass
bhanne eGg] adj. called, named
bhansa efG;f n. kitchen
bhansar eG;f/ n. customs, customs duties,
office of the customs
department
bhanubhakta acarya efgÚeQm cfrfo{ n. Bhanubhakta Acharya [a
famous Nepali poet]

28
bhar e/ n. trust, faith, fullness
bhar parnu e/ kgÚ{ v.t. to trust
bharadar ef/fbf/ n. a high official
bharadari sabha ef/fbf/L ;ef n. assembly of high officials or
nobility in early Shah and
Rana times
bharat ef/t n. India
bharatiya ef/tLo adj. Indian
bhare e/] postp. later in the day, afterwards
bhari ef/L adj. heavy, weighty
bhari el/ adj. full to the brim, full
bharibharau el/e/fp adj. full to the brim, full
bharipurna el/k')f{ adj. full to the brim, full
bharkar ev{/ adv. right now
bharopeli ef/f]k]nL adj. indoeuropean
bharopiya ef/f]kLo adj. indoeuropean
bharosa e/f];f n. hope, trust, reliance
bhartsana eT;{gf n. reproach, abuse
bharya efof{ n. wife, female consort
bharyang e¥ofª n. stairs
bhasa efiff n. language
bhasan efif)f n. speech, lecture
bhasan dinu efif)f lbgÚ v.t. to give a lecture
bhasavigyan efifflj!fg n. linguistics, philosophy
bhat eft n. boiled rice
bhatamas e^df; n. soyabean
bhatiji elthL n. man's brother's daughter
bhatijo elthf] n. man's brother's son
bhattarak e§f/s adj. revered, respectable
bhau efp n. price, value, rate
bhaugolik ef}uf]lns adj. geographic, geographical
bhaugolik mahatva ef}uf]lns dxTj n. geographical importance
bhauju efph' n. elder brother's wife
bhava efj n. thought, mental state,
feeling, sentiment, musing
bhavan ejg n. house, mansion, palace

29
bhavan nirman kala ejfg lgdf{)f snf architecture
bhavana efjgf n. thought, mental state,
feeling, sentiment, musing
bhavavacak nam efjjfrs gfd n. abstract [linguistics]
bhavya eJo adj. grand, pompous,
splendorous
bhedo e]*f] n. sheep
bhek e]s n. neighbourhood, locality,
area
bhela e]nf n. gathering (of people)
bhet e]& n. meeting, visit, interview
bhet hunu e]& xÚgÚ v.t. to meet, to bump into
someone
bhetnu e]&\gÚ v.i./v.t. to meet, to get, to find, to
come across
bhijnu leHgÚ v.i. to get wet
bhiksha leIff n. begging, alm, charity
bhinaju legfhÚ n. elder sister's husband
bhinnata leGgtf n. difference
bhitra leq postp. inside, within, in
bhitrinu lelqgÚ v.i. to enter, to penetrate
bhitriya lelqof adj. counted as a member of
the family or group
bhitte leQ] wall
bhitto leQf] n. side of the wall
bhogate ef]u^] n. grapefruit
bhogdan ef]ubfg n. help, assistance
bhojan ef]hg n. food
bhojnalaya ef]hgfno n. kitchen, cafe, canteen,
dining room
bhok ef]s n. hunger
bhok lagnu ef]s nfugÚ to be hungry
bhokaunu ef]sfpgÚ v.i. to be hungry
bholi ef]ln adv. tomorrow
bhote ef]^] n. Tibetan, Bhote
bhraman e|d)f n. travel, travelling, roaming
bhrasta e|i^ adj. fallen, spoilt, polluted,
defiled
bhrastacar e|i^frf/ n. corruption, corrupt practice

30
bhrastacari e|i^frf/L n. corrupt person
bhugarbha vigyan e'ue{ lj!fg n. geology
bhugolko anusandhan e'uf]nsf] cgÚ;Gwfg sfo{ n. geological survey
karya
bhuin eÚO n. ground, floor, surface of the
earth
bhuin e'O n. ground, floor, surface of the
earth
bhuincalo e'Orfnf] n. earthquake
bhuinkatahar e"Os&x/ n. pineapple
bhuja eÚhf n. boild rice [upper class]
bhuknu eÚSgÚ v.i. to bark
bhu-ksharan e"If/)f n. soil erosion
bhulnu eÚNgÚ v.i./v.t. to forget, to make a
mistake, to be attached
bhumi e'ld n. ground, floor, surface of the
earth
bhumigat eÚldut n. underground
bhumika e'ldsf n. preface, introduction,
foreword
bhundi e*L n. stomach
bhu-parivestit desh e'kl/j]li&t b]z n. land-locked country
bhusuno eÚ;Úgf] n. gnat
bhutang e'^fª n. Bhutan
bhuteko makai eÚ^]sf] ds} n. popcorn
bhuteko masu eÚ^]sf] df;Ú n. fried meat
bhutla eÚTn n. fur, hair
bhutnu eÚ^\gÚ v.t. to fry
bhutpurva e'tk'j{ adj. past, former, previous
bhutuva eÚ^Újf n. fried meat
bhyaguto EofuÚtf] n. frog
bhyaunu EofpgÚ v.i. to find time
bic aLr n./postp. middle, centre, during,
among
bicar larf/ n. thought, consideration, idea
bicchi laR%L n. scorpion
bigauti lauf}tL n. beestings, the milk of the
animal after bearing a calf
biha laxf n. marriage, wedding,

31
matrimony
bihaite laxfOt] adj. married, wedded
bihana laxfg n./adv. morning; in the morning
bihivar lalxjf/ n. Thursday
bij aLh n. seed
bijaropan aLhf/f]k)f n. laying of the foundation
stone, cornerstone
ceremony
bijuli lahÚnL n. electricity, lightening
bikha lav n. poison, venom
bilkul lansÚn adj. entirely, fully, completely
binti laGtL n. request, prayer
bintipatra lalGtkq n. application, petition
biralo la/fnf] n. cat
birami la/fdL n./adj. patient, illness, ill
birta latf{ n. free-hold land
birtaval latf{jfn n. owner of free-hold land
bis aL; num. twenty, 20
bitaunu latfpgÚ v.t. to spend
biu aLp n. seed
biunjhanu lap´gÚ v.t. to wake up
bodi af]*L n. a kind of bean, blackeye
bean
boknu af]SgÚ v.t. to carry, to lift, to conceive
boko af]sf] n. he-goat
bolaunu af]nfpgÚ v.t. to call, to invite
bolbala af]nafnf n. all in all, all powerful
bolcal af]nrfn n. conversation, talk
bolcalma af]nrfndf in everyday language
bolinu af]lngÚ v.i. to be spoken
bolivacan af]nLjrg n. conversation, talk
bolnu af]NgÚ v.i. to speak
brihaspatibar a[x:kltaf/ n. Thursday
brihat a[xt adj. big, large, huge
buddhi aÚl$ n. knowledge, intellect, mental
power, wisdom
buddhical aÚl$rfn n. chess

32
buddhijivi aÚl$hLjL adj. intelligent, learned
budha ba a''(f af n. grandfather [lower class]
budhavar aÚwjf/ n. Wednesday
budhi ama a'(L cfdf n. grandmother [lower class]
budhi aunlo a'(L cf}+nf] n. thumb
budho a'(f] adj. old [person]
buhari a'xf/L n. son's wife, daughter-in-law
buingal aÚOun n. upper storey of a house,
attic, garret
bujhaunu aÚ´fpgÚ v.t. to explain, to make over
bunda aÚbf n. main point, main issue
burundi aÚ?)*L n. Burundi
butta aÚ§f n. design
buva aÚjf n. father, papa
bvanso Ajf;f] n. wolf
byadmintan Aof*ldG^g n. badminton
cabaunu rafpgÚ v.t. to chew
cadhaunu r(fpgÚ v.t. to cause to ride, to offer [to
superiors]
cadhnu r(\gÚ v.t. to climb, to mount, to ride
cadnu r*\gÚ v.t. to mount, to go up, to
ascend, to ride, to improve
caharnu rxfgÚ{ v.t. to loiter, to linger, to walk
about, to spend time idly by
moving about
cahinu rflxgÚ v.i. to be necessary, to be
required
cait r}t n. twelfth month of the Nepali
year [March-April]
caitra r}q n. twelfth month of the Nepali
year [March-April]
cakhaunu rvfpgÚ v.t. to cause to taste
cakhnu rfVgÚ v.t. to taste
cakku rSsÚ n. knife, cutting knife
cakramarg rqmdfu{ n. ringroad
cal rfn n. movement
calak rnfs adj. clever, sly, cunning, shrewd
calakh rnfv adj. clever, sly, cunning, shrewd

33
calan rng n. custom, habit, style,
conduct
calan rnfg n. despatch, consignment
calan garnu rng ugÚ{ v.t. to use
calaunu rnfpgÚ v.t. to cause to move, to put to
use, to move, to despatch
calis rfln; num. forty, 40
callo rNnf] n. young chicken
calnu rNgÚ v.i. to move, to be current, to
be in use, to work, to flirt
caltika rNtLsf adj. common, normal, in
circulation
camada rd*f n. skin, hide
camal rfdn n. husked but uncooked rice
camca rDrf n. spoon
camero rd]/f] n. bat, vampire
camkanu rDsgÚ v.i. to glitter, to shine
camkaunu rDsfpgÚ v.t. to polish, to cause to shine
camkilo rlDsnf] adj. bright
camsur rD;Ú/ n. [a kind of pungent
vegetable eaten raw as
herbal medicine]
canakya rf)fSo n. [name of Kautilya, the
author of the ancient
Arthashastra]
cancun rfgrÚg adj. about, a little,
miscellaneous
canda rGbf n. donation
candai rf*} adv. soon
candi rfñbL n. silver
cando rfñ*f] adj. quick, fast, soon,
immediately
candrama rGb|df n. moon
cangunarayan rfuÚgf/fo)f n. Changunarayan [an ancient
site in the eastern part of
the Kathmandu valley]
cap rfk n. arc, segment of a circle,
semi-circle, rainbow
car rf/ num. four, 4
caraitira rf/}lt/ adv. on all (four) sides
caran r/)f n. foot, leg, a quarter of a

34
stanza
caraunu r/fpgÚ v.t. to make graze
carca rrf{ n. talk, enquiry, query, praise,
remark, commendation
carit rl/t n. character, conduct,
manners, behaviour, work,
occupation
caritra rl/q n. character, conduct,
manners, behaviour, work,
occupation
carkanu rs{gÚ v.t. to crack, to split, to break
carkaunu rsf{pgÚ v.t. to cause to crack, to cause
to split
carkha rvf{ n. spinning wheel
carko rsf]{ adj. hard, bitter, heavy, difficult,
loud, piquant. lively,
excessive, high
carnu rgÚ{ v.i. to graze
caro r/f] n. bird
cartarph rf/tkm{ adv. on all (four) sides
cartira rf/lt/ adv. on all (four) sides
cataunu r^fpgÚ v.t. to cause to lick
catnu rf^\gÚ v.i. to lick
caubar rf}a/ adj. four times
caubis rf}aL; num. twenty-four, 24
cauda rf}*f n./adj. width, breadth; wide
caudai rf}*fO n./adj. width, breadth; wide
caudha rf}w num. fourteen, 14
cauhattar rf}xQ/ num. seventy-four, 74
cauka rf}sf n. eating place surrounding
the store
cauntis rf}+tL; num. thirty-four, 34
caupattai rf}k§} adj. exceedingly, exceptionally
cauranabbe rf}/fgAa] num. ninety-four, 94
caurasi rf}/f;L num. eighty-four, 84
causatthi rf};^\&L num. sicty-four, 64
cautara rf}tf/f n. sincere and benevolent
member of the royal family
cautariya rf}tl/of n. member of the royal family

35
cautarph rf}tkm{ adv. on all (four) sides
cautho rf}yf] adj. fourth
cavalis rjfnL; num. forty-four, 44
cavanna rjGg num. fifty-four, 54
cavaunu rjfpgÚ v.t. to chew
cehara r]x/f n. face, appearance,
countenance
celi r]nL n. female disciple, female
pupil
celibeti becvikhat r]lna]^L a]rljvt n. girls trafficking
cepang r]kfª n. Chepang [a Nepalese
nationality]
cetana r]tgf n. intelligence,
consciousness, animation,
rationality, spirit
cetauni r]tfpgL n. to warn
cetavani r]tfjgL n. warning
cetnu r]TgÚ v.i. to be conscious, to recover
the senses, to be on the
alert
cha % num. six, 6
cha patra % kq adj. sixfold
chabbis %AaL; num. twenty-six, 26
chadnu %fb\gÚ v.i./v.t. to throw up, to vomit
chadnu %f*\gÚ v.t. to leave, to leave out
chahari %xf/L shade, shelter, protection
chahattar %xQ/ num. seventy-six, 76
chaisatthi %};&\7L num. sixty-six, 66
chaitaun %}^f}+ adj. sixth
chakkinu %lSsgÚ v.i. to be deceived, to be
astonished
chakyaunu %sØfpgÚ v.t. to tell lies, to deceive
chala %fnf n. skin
chalnu %NgÚ v.t. to deceive, to trick
chalphal %nkmn n. discussion, debate
chalphal garnu %nkmn ugÚ{ v.t. to discuss
chamnu %fDgÚ v.t. to touch, to feel
chana %fgf n. roof

36
chanavin %fgjLg n. selection, search, scrutiny,
choice
chand %Gb n. meter, prosody, intention
channe %fGg] n. filter, strainer
channu %fGgÚ v.t. to choose, to select, to
sieve
chantyal %GYofn n. Chantyal [a Nepali
nationality]
chapakhana %fkfvfgf n. press, printing press
chapanna %kGg num. fifty-six, 56
chapinu %flkgÚ v.i. to be published
chapnu %fKgÚ v.t. to print, to publish
charnu %gÚ{ v.t. to scatter, to disperse
chata %ftf n. umbrella
chati %ftL n. chest, breast, bravery,
courage
chatra %fq n. scholar, disciple, pupil
chatravas %fqfjf; n. hostel, boarding house,
lodging
chattis %QL; num. thirty-six, 36
chaunu %fpgÚ v.t. to cover, to roof
chauro %fp/f] n. cub, puppy, kitten
chaya %fof n. shade, shadow, reflection
chayalis %ofnL; num. forty-six, 46
chayan %fof n. shade, shadow, reflection
chayanabbe %ofgAa] num. ninety-six, 96
chayasi %of;L num. eighty-six, 86
cheknu %]SgÚ v.t. to stop, to hinder
chetri %]qL n. Chetri, Kshatriya [the
second highest class
(varna) of the Hindu social
hierarchy]
chimeki l%d]sL n. neighbour
chindi l%+*L n. cellar, basement
chiraunu l%/fpgÚ v.t. to cause to go through
chirkemirke l%s]{lds]{ adj. spotted
chirnu l%gÚ{ v.i. to go through, to bore
through
chito l%^f] adj. quick, smart

37
chodnu %f]*\gÚ v.t. to leave, to leave out, to
abandon, to relinquish, to
give up
chopnu %f]KgÚ v.t. to cover, to hide
chori %f]/L n. daughter
choro %f]/f] n. son
choto %f]&f] adj. short, small, condensed
chunu %ÚgÚ v.t. to touch
churavaji %Ú/fjfhL n. exchange of dagger-blows
chuskar %Ú:s/ n. tell-tale, backbiter
chutkara %Ú^sf/f n. release, freedom, rescue
chutnu %Ú^\gÚ v.i. to be left, to separate
chuvachut %Újf%'t n. untouchability,
contamination
cihan lrxfg n. grave, graveyard, cemetry,
tomb, burial ground
cijbij lrhlah n. goods, furniture, wares
cikitsa lrlsT;f n. treatment, remedy,
medication, therapy
cikitsalaya lrlsT;fno n. hospital, dispensary
cil rLn n. eagle
cimotnu lrdf]&^gÚ v.t. to pinch, to nip
cin rLg n. China
cinari lrgf/L n. identity, acquaintance,
intimacy, familiarity
cinaunu lrgfpgÚ v.t. to introduce, to cause to
recognize
ciniyan lrglof adj. Chinese
cinnu lrGgÚ v.t. to recognize, to know, to
identify, to distinguish
cinta lrGtf n. woory, anxiety, care,
concern, reflection
cintan lrGtg n. thinking, study, reflection,
contemplation, meditation
cintit lrlGtt adj. sad
ciplo lrKnf] adj. slippery
cirnu lrgÚ{ v.t. to split, to rip up
ciso lr;f] adj. cold, wet, moistened, damp
ciso pani lr;f] kfgL n. cold water

38
cithi lr&L n. letter, written message
citra lrq n. picture, painting,
illustration, image
citta lrQ n. mind, feeling, spirit, heart,
attention, memory, thought
cittha lr^\&f n. lottery, game of chance
citthi lr^\&L n. letter, written message
cituva lrt'jf n. leopard, panther
ciundo lrp*f] n. chin
ciura lrp/f n. flattened rice, beaten rice
ciya lrof n. tea
cod-patra rf]*–kq n. written consent of divorce,
quitclaim
cok rf]s n. courtyard
cokhinu rf]lvgÚ v.i. to be pure
cor rf]/ n. thief, robber, swindler
cornu rf]gÚ{ v.t. to steal
cot rf]^ n. wound, bruise, hurt, mental
agony
cucuro rÚrÚ/f] n. peak, summit, highest point
cuda r'*f n. crown, crest
cudamani r'*fdl)f n. a kind of valuable ornament
or jewel worn on the head
cuhinu rÚlxgÚ v.i. to drip, to leak
cuhunu rÚxÚgÚ v.i. to drip, to leak
culensi rÚn]+;L n. a curved instrument for
cutting and preparing
vegetables for cooking
culo rÚnf] n. cooking place, stove
cultho rÚN&f] n. plaited hair, interwoven hair
cumnu rÚDgÚ v.t. to kiss, to caress
cuna rÚgf n. lime
cunauti rÚgf}tL n. challenge
cunav rÚgfj n. election, selection
cunavi rÚgfjL adj. electoral
cup lagnu r'k nfUgÚ v.i. to be quiet
curot rÚ/f]^ n. cigarette
cusnu rÚ:gÚ v.t. to suck

39
cutai rÚ^fO n. beating, thrashing
cutnu rÚ^\gÚ v.t. to thrash, to beat
cyankhla RofVnf n. ground corn
cyatnu RofTgÚ v.t. to tear
cyau Rofp n. mushroom
dabau bafp n. pressure
dabi bfaL n. claim, demand
dadhnu *(\gÚ v.i. to burn, to be burnt up
dadu *f*Ú n. ladle
daguraunu buÚ/fpgÚ v.t. to cause to run
dagurnu buÚgÚ{ v.i. to run, to hasten, to race
daha bx n. pond, lake
dahi bxL n. yoghurt
dahine bflxg] adj. right
dahri bfx|L n. beard
dai bfO n. elder brother
dailo b}nf] n. door, gate, passage,
entrance
daju bfhÚ n. elder brother
dajyu bfHo' n. elder brother
daknu *fSgÚ v.t. to call, to invite
daksha bIf adj. dexterous, able, astute
dakshin koriya blIf)f sf]l/of n. Südkorea
dal bfn n. different kinds of lentils
dal bn n. party, group, crowd
dalal bnfn n. broker, tout, middleman
dalbal bnan n. the whole party, army,
strenght
dalbandi bnaGbL n. party politics, group politics
dalcini bfnrLgL n. cinnamon
dalit blnt n. Dalit, untouchable (as seen
by the Bahuns)
dallo *Nnf] n. round thing, cloth, lump
dalo *fnf] n. basket
dalpati bnklt n. party leader, chief,
commander
dalvihinata bnljxLgtf n. independence from party,

40
non-party
daman bdg n. suppression, oppression
dampati bDklt n. husband and wife
damphu *Dkm" n. a kind of drum
dan bfg n. donation, gift, religious gift,
contribution
danda *f*f n. hill, hillock, pole of a roof
danda *f* n. fine, penalty, punishment
dandalnu **fNgÚ n. back
dandi *f*L n. pole, staff (of a palanquin)
dando *f*f] n. hill, hillock, the pole of a
roof
danphe *fkm] n. the nine-coloured
Himalayan pheasant [the
National Bird of Nepal]
dant bft n. tooth
dant majhnu bft df´\gÚ v.t. to clean teeth
dant malnu bft dNgÚ v.t. to clean teeth
dant maskaunu bft d:sfpgÚ v.t. to clean teeth
dantko burus bftsf] aÚ?; n. tooth brush
dantmanjan bGtdGhg n. tooth paste
danuvar bgÚjf/ n. Dhanuwar [a Nepali
nationality]
dapha bkmf n. section of a law
dar */ n. fear, dread, alarm, risk,
danger
daraj b/fh n. cupboard
daraunu */fpgÚ v.i. to frighten, to be frightened
darbar b/af/ n. palace, royal court
dari bf/L n. beard
dari b/L n. cotton rug
daridra bl/b| adj. poor, needy, penurious
darim bfl/d n. pomegranate
darja bhf{ n. class, standard, position,
rank
darjan bh{g n. dozen
darjiling nfhL{lnª n. Darjeeling
darlagdo */nfUbf] adj. dreadful, terrible,
dangerous

41
darle */n] out of fear
darshan bz{g n. audience, appearance,
vision
das b; num. ten, 10
das bf; n. slave, servant, dependent
dasana *;gf n. cotton rug for lying on,
mattress
dasaun b;f}+ adj. tenth
dashak sarvanam bzs ;j{gfd n. demonstrative pronoun
dasi b;L n. proof, evidence
dasta bf;tf n. slavery, servitude, bondage
dastavej b:tj]h n. document, deed
data bftf giver, donor, benefactor
datri sanstha bft[ ;+:yf n. donor agency
daudaha bf}*fxf n. touring, travelling,
inspection
daura bfp/f n. firewood, fuel, dried wood
dava bfjf n. claim, demand
daya bof n. kindness, favour, mercy,
pity, sympathy
daya aunu bof cfpgÚ to pity, to feel pity
dayan bfof adj. right
dayaniya bogLo adj. pitiable, arousing pity
debre b]a]| adj. left, reverse, opposite
dedh baje *]( ah] adv. half past one
dekhaunu b]vfpgÚ v.t. to show
dekhi b]lv postp. from, after, owing to
dekhinu b]lvgÚ v.i. to be seen, to appear
dekhnu b]VgÚ v.t. to see
dera *]/f n. residence, booth, camp
desh b]z n. land, country, region
deshantar b]zGt/ n. terrestrial longitude; foreign
country
deshbhakta b]zeQm n. patriot
deshbhakti b]zelQm n. patriotism
deshraksha b]z/Iff n. national defence
devar b]j/ n. husband's younger brother

42
devarani b]j/fgL n. husband's younger
brother's wife
devata b]j^f n. god
dhadas (f*; n. encouragement, hope,
assurance
dhago wfuf] n. thread
dhakane (sg] n. rice fried in butter and
cooked in milk
dhakdhakyaunu (s(sØfpgÚ v.t. to push down, to tap
dhaknu (fSgÚ v.t. to hide, to cover, to conceal
dhamilo wldnf] adj. dim, not clear, dirty, muddy
dhamki wDsL n. threatening, threat, reproof
dhan wg n. wealth, property, riches
dhan wfg n. unhusked Reis
dhanca (frf n. design, way, method, make
up, manner
dhandha wGwf n. occupation, business,
profession
dhandhali wfwnL n. chaos, chaotic state
dhani wfgL adj. golden
dhani wgL adj. rich
dhaniyan wlgof n. coriander
dhaniyanko sag wlgofsf] ;fu n. coriander green
dhantnu (f^\gÚ v.i. to tell a lie, to deceive
dhapaunu wkfpgÚ v.t. to drive away, to chase
dhara wf/f n. water tap, torrent, current
of water
dharahara w/x/f n. tower
dharan wf/)f n. holding, wielding
dharana wf/)ff n. determination, thought,
memory
dharatal w/ftn n. surface (of the earth)
dharke ws]{ adj. striped
dharma wd{ n. religion, duty, creed, faith
dharmadeva wdb]j n. Dharmadeva [a Licchavi
king, father of Manadeva I]
dharmadhikari wdf{lwsf/L n. an official responsible for
jurisdiction
dharmagranth wd{u|Gy n. religious text

43
dharmashala wd{zfnf n. resthouse [for religious
puposes]
dharmavacak nam wd{jfrs gfd n. abstract noun [ling.]
dharmik wld{s adj. religious, related to dharma
dharmik sthan wld{s :yfg n. religious centre
dharna wgf{ n. the act of waiting for
something
dharo wf/f] n. spring of water, current of
water, stream of people
dhatu wftÚ n. metal
dhau wfp n. ore
dherai w]/} adj. much, many, a lot
dherai aghi w]/} cl# adv. long time ago
dherai logne hunu w]/} nf]Ug] xÚgÚ comp. to practice polyandry
dherai vivaha w]/} ljjfx n. polgamy
dherai vivaha garnu w]/} ljjfx ugÚ{ comp. to practice polygamy
dheraijaso w]/}h;f] adj. many, a lot
dhiki l(sL n. a machine for husking rice
dhimal lwdfn n. Dhimal [a Nepali
nationality]
dhindo l(+*f] n. boiled flour paste
dhoka (f]sf n. door, gate, gateway
dhukka (ÚSs adj. free from axiety, secure
dhukur ('ÚsÚ/ n. dove
dhukuti ('ÚsÚ^L n. barn, storehouse, treasury
dhunga (Ú+uf n. stone
dhup w"k n. sun, sunshine, incence
dhusro wÚ;|f] adj. ash-coloured, grey
dhvanse Wjf;] adj. dark-brown, soot-coloured
dhyan Wofg n. meditation, contemplation
didi lbbL n. elder sister
digo bLuf] adj. sustainable
din lbg n. day
dinahun lbgxÚ adj. daily
dinbhari lbgel/ for the whole day
dinu lbgÚ v.t. to give
dirgha bL#{ adj. large, wide, tall, huge, deep

44
dirghakalin bL#{sfnLg adj. sustained, chronic, long
term
disha lbzf n. direction
diunso lbp;f] adv. at the day time
divas lbj; n. day
dobar bf]a/ adj. double, twice, twofold
dohori bf]xf]/L adj. pertaining to both sides
doklo bf]Snf] adj. double
doko *f]sf] n. a big basket carried on the
back
doreto *f]/]&f] n. footpath, way to walk
dori *f]/L n. cord, rope
dosi bf]ifL adj. defective, faulty, guilty,
sinful
dosro bf];|f] adj. second
dravyavacak nam b|Jojfrs gfd n. material noun
dristi b[l:& n. sight, vision, looking
dristikon b[l:&sf])f n. viewpoint, visual angle
dublaunu bÚAnfpgÚ v.i. to get thin, to be weak
dublo bÚAnf] adj. weak, thin, lean, skiny
dubnu *ÚAgÚ v.i. to drown, to sink
dubulki marnu *'ÚaÚNsL dfgÚ{ v.t. to take the plunge
dudh bÚw n. milk
dugdha bÚUw n. milk
dugdhasar bÚUw;f/ n. cheese
dugurnu bÚuÚgÚ{ v.i. to run
duhkhi bÚMvL adj. sad
duhunu bÚxÚgÚ v.t. to milk
dui bÚO{ num. two, 2
dura bÚ/f n. Dura [a Nepali nationality]
duragraha bÚ/fu|x n. prejudice, improper attempt
durdarshita b'/blz{tf n. far-sightedness, prudence,
sagacity
durgam bÚu{d adj. remote
dursancar bÚ/;rf/ n. telecommunication
durvavahar bÚj{jxf/ n. misconduct, misbehaviour
dusti b'l:t adj. defective, corrupted,

45
defiled, contaminated,
polluted
dut b't n. ambassador, massenger,
courier
dvandva åFb n. couple, duel, quarrel
dvara åf/f postp. from, by
dvija låh n. twice-born, Brahman,
oviparous
dvitiya purus vacak låtLo kÚ?if jfrs n. second person [ling.]
dvitiyardha låtLofw{ n. second half
dyotak Bf]ts adj. making clear, showing,
manifesting, enlightening,
indicating
e P int. hey! listen!
eghara P#f/ num. eleven, 11
egharaun P#f/f}+ adj. eleventh
ejan Phg ditto, loc cit.
ek Ps num. one, 1
ek baji Ps aflh adv. once
ek chin Ps l%g adv. for a moment, for a short
time
ek coti Ps rf]l^ adv. once
ek khep Ps v]k adv. once
ek na ek Ps g Ps one or other
ek palta Ps kN& adv. once
ek saya dui Ps ;o bÚO{ num. one hundred and two, 102
ek saya ek Ps ;o Ps num. one hundred and one, 101
ekaarkalai Psfcsf{nfO{ adv. each other
ekabihana Psflaxfg adv. very early in the morning
ekadeshma Psfb]zdf in any country
ekaki PsfsL adj. alone, solitary
ekanabbe PsfgAa] num. ninety-one, 91
ekanta PsfGt n./adj. solitude, loneliness; alone,
lonely
ekanunna PsfpGg num. fifty-one, 51
ekasi Psf;L num. eighty-one, 81
ekatira Psflt/ adv. to one side, on the one
hand

46
ekcalis PsrfnL; num. forty-one, 41
ekdam Psbd adv. very
ekedami Ps]*dL n. academy
ekhattar PsxQm/ num. seventy-one, 71
ekikaran PsLs/)f n. integration, amalgamation,
unification
ekikrit PsLs[t integrated, united, unified
ekkai coti PSs} rf]l^ adv. at the same time, at once
ekkais PSsfO{; num. twenty-one, 21
ekkasi PSsfl; adv. suddenly, at once, all at
once
eklai Psn} adv. alone, only
eklauti Psnf}^L adj. monopolistic
eklo PSnf] adj. lone, solitary, alone, single
eknas Psgf; adj. similar, in the same way,
monotonous, uniform, all
the same
ekohorinu Psf]xf]l/gÚ v.i. to concentrate on one thing
only
eksaro Ps;/f] adj. single, without cover, once
eksatthi Ps;^\&L num. sixty-one, 61
ekta Pstf n. oneness, unity, union,
sameness, solidarity
ektak Ps^s adv. incessant, continuous
ektis PstL; num. thirty-one, 31
ektrit Pslqt adj. united, gathered
eproc Pk|f]r n. approach
eshiyali PlzofnL adj. Asian
esiyayi Pl;ofoL adj. Asian
euta Pp^f adj. one [non-human]
euta tukra jagga Pp&f ^Úqmf hUuf a small plot of land
evamastu Pjd:t' adv. so be it; Amen
evan Pj+ conj. and, as also
gada ubf n. club, mace, bludgeon
gadagad ubub adj. glad, happy, pleased, joyful
gadar ub/ n. mutiny, rebellion, revolt
gadda u@f n. soft and thick bed, mattress
gaddar u@f/ adj. revolutionary

47
gaddar u@/ n. mud, dirt, swamp
gaddar-posh u@/–kf]z n. door mat for rubbing off
mud
gaddi u@L n. throne, saddle cloth,
cushion
gaddu u@Ú n./adv. a bear's cub; useless, good
for nothing, worthless
gadgad ub\ub\ thick mud or any thick
substance, muddy,
swampy
gadha uwf n. donkey, ass
gadhapaccisi uwfklRr;L n. adolescence, an
unexperienced age
gadinarasing u*\*Lg/l;ª adj. enthroned, installed as king
gadnu uf*\gÚ v.t. to bury
gadryak-gudruk ub\¥ofs–uÚb|'s n. sound produced by the
trampling of feet or hoofs
gadryamma ub\¥ofDd n. terrible sound produced by
the fall of heavy things
gadya uB n. prose, ordinary writing
gadya-kavita uBsljtf n. prose poetry
gadya-kavya uBsfJo n. prose, belles lettres
gagri ufu|L n. a metal water-vessel
gagro ufu|f] n. a large earthenware or
metal jar for water
gahak ufxs n. buyer, customer, purchaser
gahaki ufxsL n. buyer, customer, purchaser
gahat uxt n. lentils
gahiro ulx/f] adj. deep, profound, solemn
gahraun ux|f}+ adj. heavy, weighty
gahro ufx|f] adj. difficult, arduous, hard
gahrungo ux|Ú+uf] adj. heavy, weighty
gahun uxÚñ n. wheat
gai ufO{ n. cow
gaibastu ufO{j:tÚ n. cattle
gaihra u}x| adj. all, whole
gainda u}+*f n. rhinoceros
gair sarkari sanstha u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf n. Non Government

48
Organization, NGO
gairaprajatantrik u}/k|hftflGqs adj. undemocratic, non-
democratic
gajar ufh/ n. carrot
gala ufnf n. cheeks
galainca un}+rf n. carpet
galat unt adj. wrong
gali ufnL n. rebuke, abuse, reproof
gali ufln n. rebuke, abuse, reproof
gali garnu ufnL ugÚ{ v.t. to tell off, to insult
galli uNnL n. lane, by-lane
gamarkyaunu udSØf{pgÚ v.t. to clutch, to seize
gambhir uDeL/ adj. deep, grave, far down
ganagan ugug n. grumbling, murmuring,
prattling
ganaganahat ugugfx^ n. grumbling, murmuring,
prattling
ganaganaunu ugugfpgÚ v.i. to grumble, to mumur
ganatantra u)ftGq n. republic, republican system
of government
ganathan ugyg n. idle talk, gossip, a long tale
ganathanaunu ugygfpgÚ v.t. to talk nonsense, to gossip
gandagi uGbuL n. filth, dirt, impurity
gandha uGw n. smell, odour, stink, scent,
perfume
gandhadravya uGwb|Jo a sweet scented substance
gandhak uGws n. sulphur, brim-stone
gandhakshat uGwfIft n. sandal-wood, tice, etc. for
puja
gandharva uGwj{ n. a celestian or heavenly
musician, a class of demi-
god
gandharva-ved uGwj{j]b n. science of Music
gandharva-vidya uGwjljBf n. music, the science of music
gandharva-vivaha uGwj{ljjfx n. a kind of marriage by
mutual agreement, love
marriage
gandhi uGwL a perfumer, one who sells
essences or scented oils,
scented, perfumed, having
a sweet smell

49
gandhik ulGws n. the scent of perfumery
merchant
gandyaulo u*Øfnf] n. earthworm
gangato uu^f] n. crab
ganja ufhf n. marijuana
ganjagol uGhuf]n n. confusion, topsy-turvey,
chaos
ganji uGhL n. sweater, vest, jacket,
undershirt
ganjipha uGhLkmf n. a kind of playing cards or
ist game
gannu uGgÚ v.t. to count, to reckon, to
deem
gans ufñ; n. mouthful, morsel
gansnu uf:gÚ v.t. to join together
ganti uGtL n. number, reckoning,
attendance
gapashap ukzk n. prattle, tittle-tattle
gapphad uKkm* prattler, braggart, tattler
garaunu u/fpgÚ v.t. to cause to do
garbha ue{ n. womb, foetus, embryo
garerai chadnu u/]/} %f*\gÚ v.t. to perform at all cost
garib u/La n./adj. poor, penniless, humble,
needy
garibi u/LaL n. poverty, penury, humility
garjan-tarjan uh{gth{g n. threat, intimidation
garjanu uh{gÚ v.i. to thunder, to roar, to
bluster
garmi udL{ n. heat, warmth
garna chodnu ug{ %f]*\gÚ v.t. to stop to do something
garna dinu ug{ lbgÚ v.t. ro allow to do something, to
cause to do something
garna thalnu ug{ yfNgÚ v.t. to start to do something
garnu ugÚ{ v.t. to do
garo uf/f] n. wall
gate ut] n. date [according to the
Nepali calendar]
gatha ufyf n. story, tale, verse, song, lay
gathakar ufyfsf/ n. author of a narrative tale
gathan u&g n. formation, construction; act

50
of building,modelling or
shaping
gathaso uyf;f] n. long tale of oneself,
nonsense
gati ult n. speed, motion, movement,
condition, circumstance,
position
gatihara ultxf/f adj. lazy, sedentary, idle,
stagnant
gatiman ultdfg n. speed, movement, full
motion
gatishil ultzLn n. speed, movement, full
motion
gatividhi ultljlw n. activity, movements,
frequentation, state of
things, position of progress
gatta uQ adj. hopeless, having nothing
gattam uQd adj. hopeless, having nothing
gatvar uTj/ adj. transitory, perishable,
mortal
gaun ufp n. village
gaun uf})f adj. secondary, subordinate,
indirect, inferior, expressing
associate quality
gaun vikas samiti ufp ljsf; ;ldlt n. Village Development
Committee, VDC
gaunghar ufp#/ n. neighbour, villager
gaunnivasi ufplgjf;L n. villager
gaunthali uf}+ynL n. swallow
gayab ufoa adj. missing, vanished,
dissappeared
geru u]? adj. ochre, red-brown
ghadi #*L n. clock, watch
ghailo #}nf] n. a large water-vessel, a
huge pitcher
ghaite #fOt] adj. hurt
gham #fd n. sunshine, heat of the sun
ghan #g n. large hammer, cloud,
solidity
ghana #gf adj. thik, dense, solid, grumous
ghanta #)^ n. clock, watch
ghantaghar #)^#/ n. clocktower

51
ghanti #f^L n. throat, mountain pass, vale
ghar #/ n. house
ghar hernu #/ x]gÚ{ to run the household, to do
the housework
gharelu udyog #/]nú pBf]u n. cottage industry
ghatak #^s n. factor, component,
constitutent, ingredient
ghatana #^gf n. incident, event, accident,
episode
ghataunu #^fpgÚ v.t. to cause to decrease, to
subtract
ghati #f^L n. throat, mountain pass, vale
ghati #^L adj. less, few, little
ghatnu #^\gÚ v.i. to decrease, to lesson, to
decline
ghatta #§ n. corn mill, water mill
ghatu #f^Ú n. a Gurung dance
ghau #fp n. wound, sore, hurt, injury,
ulcer
ghiu l#p n. melted butter
ghoda #f]*f n. horse, pony, hammer of a
gun
ghoral #f]/n n. Himalayan wild goat
ghosana #F]if)ff n. declaration, proclamation,
announcement
ghosanapatra #F]if)ffkq n. manifesto
ghosit #f]lift adj. declared, proclaimed
ghumnu #ÚDgÚ v.i. to move about, to roam, to
turn round, to go around
ghunda #Ú*f n. knee
ghus #'; n. bribe, emolument, graft
ghyampo £ofDkf] n. a large clay jar, a store-jar
giddha lu$ n. vulture
gija luhf n. gum
gilo uLnf] adj. soft, overripe, overcooked
girnu lugÚ{ v.i. to fall, to drop, to come
down, to be degraded
glas Unf; n. glass
gobar uf]a/ n. cowdung [used as plaster
on the floor of the house]

52
godam uf]bfd n. godown, storehouse,
granery
godamel uf]*d]n n. weeding, removal of weeds
godavari uf]bfj/L n. Godavari [a village in
Kathmandu valley]
godnu uf]b\gÚ v.t. to beat severely
godnu uf]*\gÚ v.t. to weed, to remove weeds
gohi uf]xL n. crocodile
golbhinda uf]lNe+*f n. tomato
goli uf]nL n. a small ball, bullet
goli gantho uf]nL uf&f] n. ankle bone
golidvara mrityudanda uf]nLåf/f d[ToÚb)* n. death penalty by shooting
goman sarp uf]dg ;k{ n. cobra
gopalprasad rimal uf]kfnk|;fb l/dfn n. Gopal Prasad Rimal [ a
famous Nepali poet]
gopya uf]Ko adj. confidential, secret, private
goro uf]/f] adj. fair-complexioned, white
[skin]
goru uf]? n. ox [castrated]
gosthi uf]i&L n. symposium, small
assembly, discourse
goth uf]& n. cowshed, byre
graha u|x n. planet, evil star, eclipse
grahan u|x)f n. acceptance, reception, act
of receiving or holding
gram u|fd n. village
grenait u|]gfO^ n. granite
griha u[x n. house, abode, residence,
dwelling
gulaphi uÚnfkmL adj. pink, rose-coloured
guliyo uÚlnof] adj. sweet, sugary
gumaraha uÚd/fx adj. misled, astray
gumaunu uÚdfpgÚ v.t. to lose, to forfeit
gun uÚ)f n. quality, virtue, merit,
attainment
gunabodhak uÚ)faf]ws adj. qualitative [gram.]
gundri uÚGb|L n. mat made of rice, wheat or
corn-straw
gundruk uÚGb|Ús n. fermented and dried
vegetables

53
gupta uÚKt adj. obscure, hidden, secret,
private
guptacar uÚKtr/ n. spy, emissary
gupti uÚKtL n. spy, detective
guru uÚ? n. spiritual teacher, master,
guide
gurung uÚ?ª n. Tamu, Gurung [a Nepali
nationality]
guruvar uÚ?jf/ n. Thursday
guthi u"&L n. a religious or benevolent
society, trust, pledge
gyan !fg n. knowledge, intelligence,
understanding, wisdom
gyani !fgL n./adj. learned, intelligent,
informed, erudite
gyapan !fkg n. memorandum
habba xAaf n. might, power, capacity,
strength
habbe xAa] n. might, power, capacity,
strength
hackanu xRsgÚ v.i. to get frightened, to
hesitate, to be scared
had xf* n. bone
hade badam xf*] abfd n. almond
hadpa x*\k n. confiscation, taking one's
property illegally,
misappropriation
hadtal x*tfn n. strike, picket
haisiyat x}l;ot n. ability, status, merit,
capacity
hajar xhf/ num. one thousand, 1,000
hajurama xhÚ/cfdf n. grandmother
hajurba xhÚ/af n. grandfather [rural]
hajurbuva xhÚ/aÚjf n. grandfather
hajurmuma xhÚ/dÚdf n. grandmother [upper class]
hak xs n. right, authority, claim
hal xfn n./adj. present time, present
condition, description
halkhabar xfnva/ n. news current affair
halla xNnf n. noise, turmoil, uproar,
tumult
halnu xfNgÚ v.t. to put, to serve

54
haluka xnÚsf adj. light (in weight)
haluko xnÚsf] adj. light [weight]
halungo xnÚéf] adj. light [weight]
haluva xnÚjf n. flour boiled in water and
mixed with butter and sugar
haluvabed xnÚjfa]b n. a kind of sweet fruit
hamala xdnf n. attack, invasion, assault
hamro xfd|f] pron. our (m.)
hango xfuf] n. branch, offspring
haninu xflggÚ v.i. to run very fast, to fly very
fast
hanknu xfSgÚ v.t. to drive, to challenge, to
exaggerate
hannu xfGgÚ v.t. to strike, to shoot, to jump
hans xf; n. duck, goose, swan
hansa x+; n. soul, vital air, life; duck,
swan, goose
hansaunu x+;fpgÚ v.t. to cause to laugh
hanseuli x;]pnL n. laughter, joke, jest, fun,
spott
hansilo xl;nf] adj. humerous, cheerful,
frolicsome, jolly, jovial, gay,
merry
hans-kukhura palan xf;sÚvÚ/f kfng n. poultry farming
hanso xf;f] n. laughter, laugh
hanssi x:;L n. laughter, joke, fun
hara x/ adj. every, everyone
haraunu x/fpgÚ v.i. to lose, to defeat
harayo x/fof] it has got lost
harbakhat x/avt adv. always, ever
hardam x/bd adv. always, ever
hariya makai xl/of ds} n. corn on the cob
hariyo xl/of] adj. green
hartakarta xtf{stf{ n. one who is all in all, the
Almighty
hasil xfl;n adj. obtained, acquired
hastagat x:tut adj. received, obtained
hastakala x:tsnf n. handicraft, hand-work
hastakshar x:tfIf/ n. signature, one's own

55
handwriting
hastakshep x:tIf]k n. interference, interruption
hat xft n. hand
hat aunu xft cfpgÚ comp. to fall into someone's
hands
hat halnu xft xfNgÚ to lend a hand
hatiyar xltof/ n. weapon
hatkelo xTs]nf] n. palm
hatnu x^\gÚ v.i. to retreat, to go away, to
get out of the way
hatteri xQ]/L adv. word used for expressing
surprise or sorrow
hatti xfQL n. elephant
hatya xTof n. murder, killing, slaughter
hava xjf n. air, wind, breeze
hava xfjf n. air, wind, breeze
havai xjfO{ adj. airy, relating to air
havai jahaj xjfO{ hxfh n. airplane
havai marg xjfO{ dfu{ n. air route
havai-dank xjfO{*fs n. air letter, aerograph
havajahaj xfjfhxfh n. aeroplane, airplane
havan xjg n. fire sacrifice
havapani xfjfkfgL n. climate, weather
havas xj;\ o.k. [a word to indicate
obedience]
hemanta x]dGt n. late autumn, beginning of
the cold season
hernu x]gÚ{ v.t. to see, to look at, to watch
herpher x]/km]/ n. change, exchange,
alteration, transfer
hijo lxhf] adv. yesterday
hijo rati lxhf] /ftL adv. last night
hijoaja lxhf]cfh adv. nowadays
himalaya pradesh lxdfno k|b]z n. Himalayan region
himarekha lxd/]vf n. snowline
himasrot bhaeko nadi lxd;|f]t ePsf] gbL n. meltwater river
him-marubhumi lxdd?e'ld n. tundra
hina xLg adj. low, vile, inferior, degraded,

56
base, humble
hindi lxGbL n. Hindi
hindnu lx+*\gÚ v.i. to walk, to go, to move, to
start, to set off
hira xL/f n. diamond
hit lxt n. gain, benefit
hiun lxp n. snow
hoco xf]rf] adj. short, low
hodabaji xf]*afhL n. contest, gambling, betting
hosh xf]z n. sense, sensibility,
intelligence
hosh garnu xf]z ugÚ{ v.t. to be cautious
hoshiyar xf]lzof/ adj. cautious, careful
hoshiyari xf]lzof/L n. cautiousness, carefulness,
prudence
hotel xf]^]n n. hotel
hridaya x[bo n. heart, mind, will
hukka xÚSsf n. water pipe, Hookka
hulak adda xÚnfs c*\* n. post office
hundi xÚlb postp. during
huri xÚ/L n. strong wind, storm
huri calnu xÚ/L rNgÚ to be stormy
hyolmo xØf]ndf] n. Hyolmo [a Nepalese
nationality]
iccha OR%f n. wish, desire
icchit OlR%t adj. desired, wished for
icchuk OR%"s adj. interested
ijjat OHht n. honour, status
ikh O{v n. jealousy, envy, vengeance
ikh phernu O{v km]g" { v.t. to take revenge
ilaka Onfsf n. jurisdiction, possession,
limit, area under control
ilam Onfd n. Ilam (a district in Eastern
Nepal)
ilame Onfd] n. inhabitant of Ilam
iman O{dfg n. truth, belief, faith, honesty
imandar O{dfgbf/ adj. honest, trustworthy, faithful
imandar Odfgbf/ adj. honest, faithful

57
imandari O{dfgbf/L n. honesty, faithfulness,
integrity
indonesia OG*f]g]l;of n. Indonesien
indriya OlGb|o n. sense, sense organ
inklab OGSnfa n. revolution
int O+{^ n. brick
irada O/fbf n. wish, desire, will, plan,
intention
irsya O{iof{ n. jealousy, envy
irsyalu O{iof{n" adj. jealous, envious
ishara Ozf/f n. gesture, sign, indication,
wink
ishvar O{Zj/ n. God, the Lord
iskus O:s"; n. a kind of vegetable
ispat O:kft n. steel
ista Oi^ adj. wished, desired
itar Ot/ adj. other
itihas Oltxf; n. history
itihasik Oltxfl;s adj. historical
itihaskar Oltxf;sf/ n. historian
itrinu OlqgÚ v.i. to be mischievous, to talk
mischievously about sex
ityadi OTofbL conj. etcetera, etc.
iyarphon Oo/kmf{g n. earphone, hearing-aid
jado hf*f] n./adj. coolness, winter, chill, cold
jaga hu n. foundation, ground work
jagaran hfu/)f n. awakening, wakefulness
jagat jut n. universe, the world
jagga hUUff n. landland, field, estate
jagir hfuL/ n. employment, Job, service,
monthly salary, wages
jagnu hfUgÚ v.i. to wake up, to be alert, to
be angry
jahaj hxfh n. ship, vessel
jahan hxf pron. where
jahan hxfg n. family, members of the
family
jal hn n. water

58
jalaunu hnfpgÚ v.t. to set fire to
jali hfnL n./adj. 1. forgerer, netting, web, film;
imitated, forged
jalnu hNgÚ v.i. to burn, to be kindled
jal-shakti hnzlQm n. water power
jalvayu hnjfo" n. climate
jalvayuko prabhav hnjfo"sf] k|efj n. climatical influence
jal-vibhajak hnljefhs n. watershed
jama hfd n. congestion, dregs, rusts
jama hdf adv. tol, in sum, altogether
jamaunu hdfpgÚ v.t. to make solid, to freeze
jamin hdLg n. land, field
jamma hDdf adv. tol, in sum, altogether
jamnu hDgÚ v.i. to be frozen
jana hgf n. (counting word for persons)
jana-andolan hgcf+bf]ng n. popular movement,
people's movement
janacetana hgr]tgf n. ethnic consciousness,
national consciousness
janaganana hgu)fgf n. census
janai hg} n. sacred thread of a
Brahman
jana-jagaran hghfu/)f n. popular awakening,
renaissance
janajati hghflt n. ethnic group, nationality
janajivan hghLjg n. public life, public living
janakari hfgsf/L n. knowledge, information
janapakshiya hgkIfLo adj. related to the people
janapravad hgk|jfb n. hearsay, rumour, common
talk
jana-sahabhagita hg;xeflutf n. popular participation
janasamaksha hg;dIf comp. in public
janasankhya hg;+Vof n. population
janashruti hg>"lt n. rumour, hearsay, common
talk
janasvasthya hg:jf:Yo n. public health
janata hgtf n. people, public, mass,
mankind
janatantravad hgtGqjfb n. democracy

59
janatantrik hgtlGqs adj. democratic, democratical
janavad hgjfb n. a political principle in which
the supreme administrator
must be elected by
common people
janavar hgfj/ n. animal, beast
janc hfr n. exam, test
jancnu hfRgÚ v.t. to test, to examine
jand hf* n. beer
jangal jamaune kam h+un hdfpg] sfd n. afforestation,
reafforestation
jangal tayar parne h+un tof/ kfg]{ n. afforestation,
reafforestation
jangali hénL adj. savage, wild, beastly
janieko hflgPsf] adj. known
janjal h~hfn n. worldly domestic affairs,
family, wife and children
janma hGd n. birth, life, nativity,
production
janmabhumi hGde'ld n. birthplace
janmadar hGdb/ n. birth rate
janmadata hGdbftf n. father, progenitor, producer
janmanu hGdgÚ v.i. to be born
janmat hgdt n. public opinion
janmathalo hGdynf] n. birth-place, place where
born
janmaunu hGdfpgÚ v.t. to give birth to
janmeko hGd]sf] adj. born
jannu hfGgÚ v.t. to know, to understand
jantantra hgtGq n. people's democracy
janto hftf] n. handmill for grinding corn
etc.
janu hfgÚ v.i. to go
japan hfkfg n. Japan
japnu hKgÚ v.t. to mutter prayers, to repeat
mantra or prayer, to tell
beads
jarayo h/fof] n. a kind of deer
jari hf/L adj. proceeding, continued,
current, in force

60
jarimana h/Ldfgf n. fine, punishment, money
penalty
jarivana h/Ljfgf n. fine, punishment, money
penalty
jaruri h?/L adj. urgent, immediate
jasta h:tf n. tin
jastai h:t} conj. as for example, i.e., like
jasto h:tf] conj. as for example, i.e., like
jasto dekhincha h:tf] b]lvG% comp. it looks like
jasto sunincha h:tf] ;"lgG% comp. it sounds like
jat hft n. class, caste, kind, sort
jati hlt adv. that much, about
jativacak nam hfltjfrs gfd n. generic term
jatiya hftLo adj. national, pertaining to the
nation
jatpat hftkft n. caste system
jau hf} n. barley
javab hjfa n. answer
javan hjfg n. young man, youth
javaph hjfkm n. answer
javaphdehi hjfkmb]xL n. responsibility,
accountability, obligation
jaya ho n. victory, conquest, triumph,
gain, profit
jayaprakash malla hok|sfz dNn n. Jayaprakash Malla [the last
Malla king of Kathmandu]
jehandar h]xGbf/ adj. intelligent, wise
jel h]n n. jail, prison
jeth h]& n. second month of the Nepali
year [May-June]
jethaju h]&fh" n. husband's elder brother
jethan h]&fg n. elder brother' wife
jethani didi h]&fgL lbbL n. husband's elder brother's
wife
jethi sasu h]&L ;f;" n. wife's elder sister
jetho h]&f] n. eldest [of brothers]
jhagada ´u*f n. quarrel, dispute, squabble
jhalkanu ´NsgÚ v.i. to mshine, to glitter, to
glisten

61
jhalmal ´ndn adj. bright, resplendent, brilliant
jhamtanu ´D^gÚ v.t. to spring upon, to assault
jhan ´g adv. more
jhan jhan ´g ´g more and more
jhanda ´)*f n. flag, banner
jhangad ´fu* n. Jhangad [a Nepalese
nationality]
jhantnu ´f^g
\ Ú v.t. to thresh (paddy), to rebuke
jharnu ´gÚ{ v.i. to fall, to descend, to go
down
jhaskanu ´:sgÚ v.i. to be startled, to get
frightened all of a sudden,
to feel sudden alarm
jhiknu l´SgÚ v.t. to take out, to take off
jhinge macha l´+u] df%f n. shrimp
jhingo k´+uf] n. fly, housefly
jhol ´f]n n. broth, soup
jhuknu ´"SgÚ v.i. to bow down, to stoop
jhunda ´")*f n. group, assembly, bond
jhutho ´'&f] adj. untrue, false
jhuto ´'^f] adj. untrue, false
jhyal ´\ofn n. window
jhyalkhana ´\ofnvfgf n. jail, prison
jibro lha|f] n. tongue
jilla lhNnf n. district
jilla pramukh adhikari lhNnf k|d'v clwsf/L n. Chief District Officer, CDO
jilla vikas samiti lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt n. District Development
Committee, DDC
jimma lhDdf n. responsibility, care, custody
jimmevari lhDd]jf/L n. responsibility
jindagi lhGbuL n. life
jira hL/f n. cumin
jirel lh/]n n. Jirel [a Nepalese
nationality]
jit hLt n. victory, triumph, success
jitnu lhTgÚ to win
jiu hLp n. body, person, frame
jiundo lhpbf] adj. living, alive, lively

62
jiunu lhpgÚ v.i. to live
jivajantu hLjhGt" n. living being, animal
jivan hLjg n. life, existence, animation
jivani hLjgL n. life-story, biography
jivanshaili hLjgz}nL n. way of life, habits, lifestyle
jivjantu hLjhGt" n. animal, living being
joban hf]ag n. youth, puberty, flower of
youth
jod hf]* n. power, strength; join,
addition, total, the sum total
jodi hf]*L n. couple
jodnu hf]*\gÚ v.t. to add, to join
joi hf]O{ n. wife [rural]
jokhnu hf]VgÚ v.t. to weigh
jotnu hf]TgÚ v.t. to plow, to harness
juhar h"xf/ n. jewel, jewellery, gem
juka h"sf n. leeches, tapeworms
juktanu h"QmgÚ v.i. to be forthcoming, to be
collected, to be united, to
be entangled
julus h"n"; n. procession, marching
jumra h"d|f n. lice
jun h'g n. moon
jun h"g pron. which, whichever
junaph h"gfkm n. presence
junar hÚgf/ n. orange
junelo hÚg]nf] n. large millet
junga hÚuf n. moustache
junkiri h'gsL/L n. firefly
junsukai hÚg;Ús} pron. whichever, whatsoever
juramuraunu hÚ/dÚ/fpgÚ v.i. to be active, to be alert
jut hÚ^ adj. group, party
jutaunu hÚ^fpgÚ v.t. to collect, to gather
juthyaunu hÚ&ØfpgÚ v.t. to get dirty, so soil
jutnu hÚ^\gÚ v.i. to be collected, to be united

63
jutta hÚQf n. shoe, slipper, boot
juva hÚjf n. game, gamble
juva khelnu hÚjf v]NgÚ to gamble
jvain HjfO n. daughter's husband, son-
in-law
jyada Hofbf adj. too much, in excess,
excessive
jyadai Hjfb} adj. extremely
jyestha Ho]i& n. second month of the Nepali
year (May-June)
jyotirvidya Hof]ltlj{B n. astronomy, astrology
jyotis Hof]ltif n. astronomy, astrology
jyotisi Hof]ltifL n. astrologer, astronomer
kabja sAhf n. possession, occupation
kacauro srf}/f] n. cup
kachuva s%Újf n. turtle, tortoise
kacinggal slr+un n. quarrel
kada s*f adj. hard, harsh, cruel, unkind
kadam sbd n. step, footstep
kadar sb/ n. respect, value, appreciation
kag sfu n. crow, raven
kagati sfutL n. lime
kahalaunu sxnfpgÚ v.i. to be called, to be famous
kahan sxf pron. where? in what place?
kahan pani sxf klg adv. nowhere, not anywhere
kahani sxfgL n. saying, proverb, story
kahile slxn] pron. when? at what time?
kahile kahin slxn] sxL+ adv. sometimes, from time to
time
kahin sxL+ adv. wherever
kahin kahin sxL+ sxL+ adv. at some places, in many a
place
kahinlo sflx+nf] n. fourth eldest [of brothers]
kaid s}b n. imprisonment, jail
kaid garnu s}b ugÚ{ v.t. to arrest
kaidi s}bL n. prisoner, captive, convict
kaidkhana s}bvfgf n. prison, jail

64
kailo s}nf] adj. light-brown [hair]
kainyo sfOof] n. comb
kaiphat s}kmt n. statement, remark,
description
kaiphiyat s}lkmot n. statement, remark,
description
kaiyaun s}of}+ adj. innumerable, many, several
kaiyun s}o" adj. innumerable, many, several
kaj sfh n. work, duty, job, occupation
kaju sfh' n. cashew nut
kaka sfsf n. father's brother
kakh sfv n. position formed while sitting
cross-legged on the floor,
side of the body above the
hip, lap
kakhi sfvL n. arm-pit
kaki sfsL n. father's brother's wife
kakrinu slqmgÚ v.i. to become stiff by cold, to
be numbed
kakryaunu sqmØfpgÚ v.t. to make numbed
kal sfn n. time, period, era, age,
season, death
kala snf n. art, craft, technics
kalaha snx n. quarrel, scramble, dispute,
fray
kalakar snfsf/ n. artist, technician
kalakaushal snfsf}zn n. state of being skilful
kale sfn] n. a dark skinned human
being
kaleji sn]hL adj. dark-red
kalejo sn]hf] n. liver
kaligad sflnu* n. artisan
kalij sflnh n. pheasant
kalilo slnnf] adj. ender, soft, delicate, young
kalo sfnf] adj. black
kalo dal sfnf] bfn n. black lentils
kalo mas sfnf] df; n. black lentils
kalpa sNk n. era
kalpana sNkgf n. imagination, fiction,

65
supposition, assumption
kalpanashakti sNkgfzlQm n. powers of imagination
kalyan sNof)f n. welfare, good
kalyanakari sNof)fsf/L adj. propitious, auspicious,
beneficial, good
kam sfd n. work, duty, job, occupation
kam sd adj. little, less, small
kam garnu sfd ugÚ{ v.t. to work
kamai sdfO n. income, returns, mode of
earning
kamaunu sdfpgÚ v.t. to earn, to acquire wealth,
to cultivate
kamdar sfdbf/ n. worker, labourer, porter,
helper
kamej sd]h n. shirt
kamero sd]/f] n. white clay used in painting
walls
kamilo sldnf] n. ant
kamjori sdhf]/L n. weakness, debility,
deficiency
kamkaj sfdsfh n. business, occupation, work
kammal sDdn n. blanket
kammar sDd/ n. waist
kamnu sfdgÚ v.i. to tremble, to shiver
kamta sDtf adj. less, insufficient, short
kamti sDtL adj. less, insufficient, short
kan sfg n. ear
kancat sGr& n. temple
kanchi sfG%L n. last born female child, nice
young girl
kancho sfG%f] n. youngest [of brothers]
kanco sfrf] adj. raw, unripe, immature
kand sf)* n. chapter, branch, incident
kandha sfw shoulder
kandhinu sflwgÚ v.i. to be fatt [with eating]
kando sf*f] n. thorn
kanggal séfn adj. poor, penniless, penurious
kanka loti sfGsf nf]tL n. ear lobes

66
kankro sfqmf] n. cucumber
kano sfgf] adj. blind in one eye, one-eyed
kanparo sGkf/f] n. temple
kanso sf;f] n. bronze
kanta sf^f n. fork
kantipur sflGtkÚ/ Kantipur [an old name for
Kathmandu]
kanun sfg'g n. law, regulation
kanun bamojit sfg'g adf]lht according to the law, in
conformity with the law
kapada sk*f n. cloth, clothing, apparel,
wear
kapal skfn n. hair of the head, head
kapal kornu skfn sf]gÚ{ v.t. to comb the hair
kapal nuhaunu skfn gÚxfpgÚ v.t. rinse hair
kaphal sfkmn n. a fruit like strawberry but
with a hard pit
kaphi skmL n. coffee
kapnu sKgÚ v.t. to carve, to chisel
kar sf/ n. car
kar s/ n. tax
kara sf/f n. imprisonment, confinement
karadanda sf/fb)* n. prison sentence
karagar sf/fuf/ n. prison, jail
karagriha sf/fu[x n. prison, jail
karai s/fO{ n. cooking pot [with a wide
mouth]
karamat s/fdt n. miracle
karan sf/)f n. cause, motive, purpose,
reason, occasion, origin
karaunu s/fpgÚ v.i. to shout
karavas sf/fjf; n. prison sentence
kardata s/bftf n. tributory, tax-paying, tax-
payer
karelo s/]nf] n. a bitter vegetable, bitter
gourd
karib s/La adv. almost, aproximately
karigar sf/Lu/ n. artisan
karkhana sf/vfgf n. workshop, factory,

67
manufactory
karma sd{ n. deed, act, work
karmacari sdf{rf/L n. employee, officer
karod s/f]* num. crore, 10 million,
10.000.000
kartavya st{Jo n. duty, task
kartik sflt{s n. seventh month of the
Nepali year (October-
November)
karuva s?jf n. brass pot with a spout
karya sfo{ n. action, act, duty,
occupation, profession,
function, role
karya samiti sfo{ ;ldlt n. working committee
karyakarini sfo{sfl/)fL adj. executive
karyakram sfo{qmd n. programme, schedule
karyalaya sfof{no n. workshop, office
karyanvayan sfof{Gjog n. execution, implementation
karyapalika sfo{kflnsf n. executive
karyashala sfo{zfnf n. workshop
kasari s;/L pron. how? in what way?
kasaundi s;f}+*L n. cooking pot [with a narrow
mouth]
kasle lagyo? s:n] nfUof] < comp. who has taken it?
kasnu s:gÚ v.t. to tighten, to pull firmly
kast si^ n. pain, distress, trouble,
hardship
kasturi s:t'/L n. muskdeer
katahar s^x/ n. jack fruit
kataunu s^fpgÚ v.t. to cause to be cut, to cause
to be beheaded
katauro s^f}/f] n. cup
katha syf n. story, tale, fable, narrative
katha halnu syf xfNgÚ comp. to tell a story
kathan syg n. utterance, narration,
statement
kathin sl&gÚ adj. difficult, hard, arduous, not
easy
kathinai sl&gfO{ n. difficulty
kathit slyt adj. said, narrated, told

68
kathor s&f]/ adj. hard, harsh, rigid, unkind,
cruel
kati slt pron. how much? how many?
kati baje ? slt ah] < comp. at which time?
kati bajyo? slt aHof] < comp. what's the time?
kati bhayo? slt eof] < comp. how much is it?
katima? sltdf < comp. for how much?
katinu sfl^gÚ v.i. to be cut
katipaya sltko adj. some, few
katnu sf^\gÚ v.t. to cut, to chop, to cancel
kattar s§/ adj. diehard, orthodox
kauli sfpnL n. cauliflower
kavi slj n. poet
kavita sljtf n. poem
kayam sfod adj. fixed, settled, firm, steady
kayam garnu sfod ugÚ{ comp. to fix a date
ke s] < pron. what?
kehi s]xL adj. something
kehi kurako anurodh s]xL s'/fsf] cgÚ/f]w ugÚ{ comp. to ask for, to request
garnu
kehi kurako mato s]xL sÚ/fsf] dtf] ldNgÚ comp. to agree upon, to arrange
milnu
kehi kurama anurodh s]xL sÚ/fdf cgÚ/f]w ugÚ{ comp. to ask for, to request
garnu
kehi kurama mato s]xL sÚ/fdf dtf] ldNgÚ comp. to agree upon, to arrange
milnu
kelaunu s]nfpgÚ v.t. to sift, to remove impurities
kendrit s]lGb|t adj. centered
kera s]/f n. banana
kerau s]/fp n. pea
kesari s];/L adj. saffron-coloured
kesh s]z n. hair of the head
ketaketima s]^fs]^Ldf comp. in childhood
keti s]^L n. girl
keto s]^f] n. boy
keval s]jn adv. only, mere, all, whole

69
khabar va/ n. message
khabarkagat va/sfut n. newspaper
khacar vRr/ n. mule
khada v*f adj. erect, upright
khadkundo v*\s*
Ú f] n. a very large cooking vessel
with rings on two sides to
hold
khadukunlo v*Úsn
Ú f] n. a very large cooking vessel
with rings on two sides to
hold
khadyanna vfBfGg n. food grains
khagat vfut n. paper
khairo v}/f] adj. brown
khaja vfhf n. snack
khajasaja vfhf;fhf n. snack
khajur vhÚ/ n. date
khala vfnf n. the outer layer of skin
khaldo vfN*f] n. valley, ditch, trench, pit,
hole
khali vfnL adj. only, mere, merely, alone
khamba vDaf n. pillar, pole, post
khanaunu vgfpgÚ v.t. to cause to be dug
khanci vfrL n. Khanchi [one of the former
mini stets of western Nepal]
khanco vfrf] n. requirement, need,
necessity
khand v)* n. part, section, chapter,
division, piece, canto
khandan v)*g n. refutation, rebuttal,
repudiation, denial
khandit vl)*t adj. broken into pieces, split
khanekura vfg] sÚ/f n. food
khani vflg n. mine
khanij vlgh n. minerals
khanij padartha vlgh kbfy{ n. mineral product
khaninu vlggÚ v.i. to be poured out
khannu vGgÚ v.t. to dig
khanu vfgÚ v.t. to eat
khanyaunu vGofpgÚ v.t. to pour out

70
khapat vkt n. consumption, sale, demand
khappar vKk/ n. skull
kharab v/fa adj. bad, wicked, spoiled,
naughty
kharab v/a num. 100 billion,
1.00.00.00.00.000
kharani v/fgL ashes, ash-coloured
kharau v/fp n. wooden sandal, wooden
slipper
kharaunu v/fpgÚ v.t. to fry hard, to overparch
kharayo v/fof] n. hare
kharca vr{ n. expense, expenditure,
disbursement, oulay
kharidnu vl/*\gÚ v.t. to buy, to purchase
kharij vfl/h adj. dismissed, rejected,
discharged
khas vf; adj. real, true, particular, proper
khasaunu v;fpgÚ v.t. to cause to fall
khasi v;L n. castrated he-goat
khasnu v:gÚ v.i. to fall, to die
khasro v;|f] adj. rough, coarse, frank
khat vf^ n. bed stead
khatam vtd n. end, finish, conclusion,
death
khednu v]b\gÚ v.t. to chase
khel v]n n. play, game
kheladi v]nf*L n. player
khelaunu v]nfpgÚ v.t. to cause to play
khelnu v]NgÚ v.t. to play, to act
kher v]/ n. time, length of time,
destruction, loss, waste
kheri v]l/ postp. during
kheti v]tL n. agriculture, cultivation
kheti garnu v]tL ugÚ{ v.t. to till the ground, to carry
out agriculture
khetikamai v]tLsdfO n. agricultural income
kheti-pati v]tLkftL n. agriculture, cultivation
khicadi lvr*L n. a mixture of rice and lentils
cooked together

71
khicalo lvrnf] n. interference, meddling;
disturbance, quarrel,
turmoil
khicolo lvrf]nf] n. meddling, quarrel,
interference
khir vL/ n. rice pudding
khoi vf]O pron. where (is it) ?
khoj vf]h n. search, quest, pursuit
khoji vf]hL n. inquiry
khojkhabar vf]hva/ n. trace, quest, search,
enquiry
khojnu vf]HgÚ v.t. to search
kholnu vf]NgÚ v.i./v.t. to open, to unfasten, to
explain, to annotate
kholo vf]nf] n. small river
khopo vf]kf] n. a small hole in the wall for
keeping things
khoriya vf]l/of n. uncultivated land, nature
reserve
khorsani vf];f{gL n. chilli, hot pepper
khosuva vf];Újf n. thieve, one who snatches
khudkila vÚ*\lsnf n. steps
khukuri vÚsÚ/L n. a Nepalesed curved knife
khumcinu vÚlDrgÚ v.i. to shrink
khunda vÚ*f n. a kind of sword, a kind of
scimitar
khushi vÚzL pleasure, delight,
cheerfulness, glad, happy
khusi vÚ;L adj. happy
khutrukka vÚqÚSs n. the sound produced by little
articles when dropped
khutto vÚ§f] n. leg
khuvaunu vÚjfpgÚ v.t. to feed
ki ls conj. or, either; word to denote
interrogation or doubt
kilakile lsnlsn] n. uvula
kimbu lsDaÚ n. mulberry
kina lsg pron. why?
kinabhane lsgeg] conj. because
kinamel garnu lsgd]n ugÚ{ v.t. to go shopping, to buy

72
kinnu lsGgÚ v.t. to buy
kintu lsGtÚ conj. but, only, without
kinvadanti ls+jbGtL n. rumour, hearsay, false
report, popular talk, vague
talk, tradition
kira sL/f n. worm
kiraya ls/fof n. hire, rent
kiro sL/f] n. insect, worm
kirtiman sLlt{dfg adj. renowned, famous,
celebrated
kisam ls;d n. kind, sort, class, species
kisan ls;fg n. farmer, peasant
kisim lsl;d n. kind, sort, class, species
kismis ls;ld; n. raisins
kisti ls:tL n. tray
kitli lsTnL n. kettle
kitnu ls^\gÚ v.t. to grind teeth, to gnash, to
decide, to fix, to specify, to
resolve
kodali sf]bfnL n. spade (with short handle)
kodalo sf]bfnf] n. spade (with long handle)
kodo sf]bf] n. a kind of millet
kohi sf]xL adj. anybody, anyone, someone
koila sf]Onf n. coal
koili sf]OnL n. cuckoo
kop sf]k n. anger, wrath
kop-bhajan sf]kefhg n. victim of anger
kopila sf]lknf n. bud
koriya sf]l/of n. Korea
kornu sf]gÚ{ v.t. to scratch
kos sf]; n. a measure of length
(distance of about 2 miles)
koshish sf]lzz n. endeavour, attempt,
exertion, effort
koshish garnu sf]lzz ugÚ{ v.t. to try
kot sf]^ n. coat
kotha sf]^f n. room
kotparva sf]tkj{ n. (a histsorical event: Jang

73
Bahadur's coup of 1846
that brought the Rana
family into power)
kotparva pashcat sf]tkj{ kZrft after the coup of 1846
kotyaunu sf]^ØfpgÚ v.t. to prick, to scratch
kram qmd n. series, chain, order,
method
kramashah qmdzM adj. step by step, by degree,
serially, successively
krambodhak qmdaf]ws n. ordinal number
kramjor qmdhf]/ adj. weak, ineffective
kranti qmflGt n. revolution, pace,
movement, declination,
invading, surpassing
krishna paksha s[i)f kIf comp. dark fortnight, the phase of
the waning moon
krisi s[lif n. agriculture
krisi utpadan s[lif pTkfbg n. agricultural production
kritagya s[t! adj. thankful, grateful
kriyakalap lqmofsnfk n. functions, rites, ceremonies
kriyapad lqmofkb n. verb
kriyayogi lqmofof]uL n. adverb
kshamata Ifdtf n. ability, capacity, might,
power
kshetra If]q n. file, plot of land, area
kshetraphal If]qkmn n. products of the land, field
crops, area
kucakra sÚrqm n. intrigue, a secret plot
kuco sÚrf] n. broom
kucyaunu sÚRofpgÚ v.t. to crush
kudnu sÚb\gÚ v.i. to run
kuhino s'Úlxgf] n. elbow
kuhuno sÚxÚgf] n. elbow
kuhunu sÚxÚgÚ v.i. to rot
kukhurako bhale sÚvÚ/fsf] efn] n. cock, rooster
kukhurako pothi sÚvÚ/fsf] kf]yL n. hen
kukhuri sÚvÚ/L n. hen
kukhuro sÚvÚ/f] n. chicken
kukur sÚsÚ/ n. dog

74
kul sÚn n. race, generation, family,
clan, dynasty, parentage
kumari sÚdf/L n. princess, unmarried women
kun sÚg adj. which, what
kuncahin sÚgrflx+ adj. which one?
kund sÚ)* n. pond, tank
kundnu sÚb\gÚ v.t. to hew, to carve
kunni sÚlGg adv. I don't know, perhaps,
maybe
kuposan sÚkf]if)f n. malnutrition
kura sÚ/f n. word, matter, affair, talk
kurakani sÚ/fsfgL n. conversation, talk, chat
kurauni sÚ/fpgL n. milk boiled down till nearly
solid
kurnu sÚgÚ{ v.t. to wait,to attend
kursi sÚ;L{ n. chair
kushal sÚzn n./adj. happiness, wellbeing;
skilful, proficient, expert
kushasan sÚzf;g n. bad government,
maladministration
kusti sÚ:tL n. wrestling
kusti khelnu sÚ:tL v]NgÚ to wrestle
kutapita sÚ^lk^ n. beating, exchange of blows
kutnaitik kshetra sÚ^g}lts If]q n. strategical area
kutnu sÚ^\gÚ v.t. to beat, to hit
kuva sÚjf n. well
kvartj Sjf^\{h n. quartz
kyare Sof/] I suppose
labh nfe n. value, profit, gain, earning,
advantage
lacar nfrf/ adj. unable, helpless, obliged
ladain n*fO{+ n. war, battle, fighting, strife
ladnu n*\gÚ v.i./v.t. to fight, to struggle, to fall
down
lagabhaga nueu adv. about, nearly,
approximately, almost
lagaeko nufPsf] adj. used
lagani nufgL n. investment
lagaunu nufpgÚ v.t. to use, to put on, to wear,

75
to set up, to cause to work
lagayat nufot postp. including, together with
laghukatha n#Úsyf n. short story
laghu-katha n#Úsyf n. short story
lagnu nfUgÚ v.i. to appear, to begin, to start,
to join
lagu nfuÚ adj. intoxicating, exciting
lahad nx* n. entertainment, diversion of
mind, amusement, joke
lahad aunu nx* cfpgÚ to wish
lahar nx/ n. ripple, small wave, surge,
undulation
lahari nx/fL n. ripple, small wave, surge,
undulation
laihernu nfOx]gÚ{ v.t. to try on [clothes]
laijanu n}hfgÚ v.t. to carry, to take away
laj nfh n. shame, shyness, modesty
lajja nHhf n. shame, shyness,
dishonour, ignominy,
scandal, disgrace
lakh nfv num. one hundred thousand,
1.00.000
lakkhan nSvg adj. one hundred thousand,
1.00.000
laksha nIf adj. one hundred thousand,
1.00.000
lakshmiprasad nIdfLk|;fb b]jsf]^f n. Lakshmi Prasad Devkota [a
devkota famous Nepali poet]
lakshya nIo n. aim, target, goal
lalitpur nlntkÚ/ n. Lalitpur, Patan [a
neighbouring town of
Kathmandu]
lam nfd n. a long line, a queue
lamai ndfO n. length
lamba nDaf adj. long
lamkanu nDsgÚ v.i. to walk with long steps, to
stride
lamkhutte nfDvÚ§] n. mosquito
lamo nfdf] adj. long
lampasar nDk;f/ adj. prostrate, stretched out
lamtann ndtGg adj. prostrate, stretched out

76
lanchana nfG%gf n. stigma, blame, slander
lanu nfgÚ v.t. to take away, to remove
lapakka nkSs adv. adhering, attaching,
stricking
lapsi nK;L n. a kind of sour fruit
larbarinu na{l/gÚ v.i. to reel, to stagger, to sway
lash nfz n. carcass, dead body
lasun n;Úg n. garlic
latanpatan n^gk^g n. deceit, fraud
lataramma n^/Dd adj. in bunches, in clusters
lato nf^f] adj. dumb
latti nfQL n. kick
launu nfpgÚ v.t. to put on (clothes), to ware
lauro nf}/f] n. stick
lek n]s n. hilly region, the higher
slope of a mountain
lekha n]v n. prose composition, writing,
essay, article
lekhak n]vs n. author, writer
lekhinu n]lvgÚ v.i. to be written
lekhnath paudyal n]vgfy kf}*Øfn n. Lekh Nath Paudyal [a
famous Nepali poet]
lekhpadh n]vk( n. reading and writing, study
leninvad n]lggjfb n. Leninism
licchavi lnR%lj n. Licchavi [an early ruling
dynasty of the Kathmandu
valley]
licchavikal lnR%ljsfn n. Licchavi era
ligalige lnulnu] n. uvula
likhat lnvt adj. written
likhit lnlvt adj. written
lila nLnf n. a play, amusement,
diversion
lilam lnnd n. auction
limbu lnDa' n. Limbu [a Nepali nationality]
ling lné n. gender [gram.]
linu lngÚ v.t. to take, to acquire, to
accept
lipi lnlk n. script, writing, handwriting

77
lobh nf]e n. greed, covetousness,
temptation
lobhi nf]eL adj. greedy, stingy, covetous
logne nf]Ug] n. husband [common]
lognemanche nf]Ug]dfG%] n. man, male person
lognemanis nf]Ug]dflg; n. man, male person
lohota nf]xf]&f n. a small metal water-pot
lok nf]s n. world, the three worlds
[heaven, earth, hell],
people
loktantra nf]stGq n. democracy
luga nÚuf n. clothes, clothing
luga dhunu nÚuf w'gÚ v.t. wash clothes
luga lagaunu nÚuf nufpgÚ v.t. put on clothes
luga launu nÚuf nfpgÚ v.t. put on clothes
luga phernu nÚuf km]gÚ{ v.t. change clothes
luga phukalnu nÚuf kmÚsfNgÚ v.t. take off clothes
luga phukaunu nÚuf kmÚsfpgÚ v.t. take off clothes
luknu nÚSgÚ v.i. to hide
lvang Njfª n. clove
lyaunu NofpgÚ v.t. to bring, to fetch
ma df postp. in, at, on, among
macan drfg n. stage
maccinu dlRrgÚ v.i. to swing
macha df%f n. fish
macha marnu df%f dfgÚ{ v.t. to fish
madat dinu dbt lbgÚ v.t. to help, to assist
madhes dw]; n. the Tarai (the southern flat
land along the Indian
border)
madhya-din dWo–lbg n. noon
madhyakalin dWosfnLg adj. mediaeval
madhyam dfWod n. medium
madhyamik yug dfWolds oÚu n. middle ages
madhyanha dWofGx n. noon
madhyarat dWo/ft n. midnight

78
madhyavadhi nirvacan dWofjlw lgjf{rg n. mid-term elections
madhye dWo] postp. amongin the middle, at the
centre, in between, within,
inside
mag dfu n. demand, claim
magaj duh n. brain
magar du/ n. Magar [a Nepali nationality]
magh df# n. tenth month of the Nepali
year [January/February]
magne dfUg] n. beggar
magnu dfUgÚ v.t. to ask for
maha dx n. honey
mahadhiveshan dxflwj]zg n. general assembly, general
meeting
mahajan dxfhg n. moneylender, rich man,
virtuous man
mahakavi dxfslj n. great poet [a title for
Bhanubhakta Acharya]
mahal dxn n. palace
mahango dxuf] adj. expensive
mahasul dx;'n n. cess, tax, rate, custom,
octroi
mahasus dx;'; n./adj. feeling, experience,
understanding
mahatta dxQf n. greatness, magnitude,
gravity, glory, importance
mahattva dxj n. greatness, magnitude,
gravity, glory, importance
mahattvakanksha dxjsf+Iff n. high ambition, great desire
mahattvakankshi dxjsf+IfL adj. ambitious
mahattvapurna dxjk')f{ adj. superb, royal, regal, palmy,
magnanimous, generous
mahila dlxnf n. woman
mahilo dflxnf] n. second eldest [of brothers]
mahima dlxdf n. exaltation
mahina dxLgf n. month
mahina dlxgf n. month
maida d}bf n. fine flour
maidan d}bfg n. an open field
maiju dfOh' n. mother's brother's wife

79
mailo d}nf] adj. dirty
mailo dfOnf] n. second eldest [of brothers]
main batti d}g aQL n. candle
maina d}gf n. a name applied to several
different sturnoid passerine
birds of India and countries
further east, belonging to
the genera Acridotheres
and Eulabes
maiyan d}of n. princess; a word used
affectionately for
addressing a daughter
maja dhf n. happiness, enjoyment,
rejoicing
majako dhfsf] adj. pleased, funny
majha df´ n. middle, centre
majhi df´L n. Majhi [a Nepali nationality]
majhnu df´\gÚ v.t. to clean
makai ds} n. corn, maize
makal dsn n. a small moveable
earthenware stove used for
heating
malai man parcha dnfO{ dg k%{ comp. I like
malai man pardaina dnfO{ dg kb{}g comp. I don't like
malai thah chaina dnfO{ yfxf %}g comp. I don't know
malesiya dn]l;of n. Malaysia
malilo dlnnf] adj. fertile, manured
maltal dfntfn n. article, goods
mama dfdf n. mother's brother
man dg n. mind, thought, mental
state, heart, feeling
man aunu dg cfpgÚ to long, to wish
manadeva dfgb]j n. Manadeva [name of
several kings of the
Licchavi era]
manahi dgfxL n. prohibition, control
manai dgfO{ n. prohibition, control
mananiya dfggLo adj. honorable, respectable,
venerable
manasib dgfl;a adj. right, just, proper,
reasonable, fit

80
manaunu dgfpgÚ v.t. to celebrate
manav dfgj n. mankind, man, human
being
manavshastra dfgjzf:q n. anthropology
manbodhak dfgaf]ws adj. honorific [grammar]
manc d~r n. dais, raised platform, stage
mancari d~r/L n. cluster of buds and flowers,
flower bud
manche dfG%] n. man, person
mandro dfGb|f] n. large bamboo or cane mat
mangal d+un n. the planet Mars
mangalvar d+unjf/ n. Tuesday
mangga dfu n. demand, requirement,
requisition
manglavar d+Unjf/ n. Tuesday
mangoliya d+uf]lnof Mongolei
mangsir d+u;L/ n. eighth month of the Nepali
year [November/December]
mani dfgL adj. respectable, respectful
manis dflg; n. man, person
mannu dfGgÚ v.t. to respect, to worship, to
accept, to observe
manoranjan dgf]/~hg n. amusement, entertainment,
recreation
manovigyan dgf]lj!fg n. psychology
manovigyanik dgf]lj!flgs adj. psychological
manparaunu dgk/fpgÚ v.t. to like, to approve, to prefer
mansthiti dgl:ylt n. mental state
mantavya dGtJo n. view, opinion, remark, note,
comment
mantralaya dGqfno n. ministery
mantri dGqL n. minister
manyata dfGotf n. recognition, validity,
accredition
mapdanda dfkb)* n. touchstone, standard
maramar df/fdf/ n. fight
marathi d/f&L n. Marathi
marg dfu{ n. eighth month of the Nepali
year [November/December]

81
maric dl/r n. black pepper
marka dsf{ n. loss, harm, damage
marnu dfgÚ{ v.t. to kill, to slaughter
masala d;nf n. spices
masauda d;f}bf n. draft, rough copy
masi d;L n. ink
masino dl;gf] adj. fine, thin, mild, gentle,
delicate
mast d:t adj. drunk, intoxicated
mastira dfl:t/ n./adv. above, up
masu df;Ú n. meat
mat dt n. vote, opinion, voice,
dogma, belief
matabhed dte]b n. difference of opinion
matako df^fsf] adj. earthen
matganana dtu)fgf n. counting of votes
mathi dfly postp. above
mathlo tala dfYnf] tnf n. upper floor
matnu dfTgÚ v.i. to get drunk
mato dtf] n. consultation, counsel,
opinion
mato df^f] n. earth, clay, soil
matoko sarvekshan df^f]sf] ;j]{If)f n. soil survey
matribhakta dfq[eQm n. a devotee of one's mother
matribhasa dfq[efiff n. mother tongue
matriprem dfq[k|]d n. mother love
maulik df}lns adj. original
mauna df}g n. silence, taciturnity, mum
mauri df}/L n. bee, honeybee
mausam df};d n. weather, season, monsoon
mausimi df}l;dL adj. seasonal
mausuph df};'km pron. personal address towards
the king [royal honorific
pronoun]
maya dfof n. love
maya garnu dfof ugÚ{ v.t. to love
mece d]r] n. Meche [a Nepali nationality]

82
meghalaya d]#fno n. Meghalaya [a Northeast
Indian state]
mehanat d]xgt n. industry, labour, hard work
mehel d]x]n n. a fruit
mel d]n n. meeting, unity, concord,
harmony, intimacy,
friendship, union, alliance
meva d]jf n. melon
midiya ldl*of n. media
mihi ldxL adj. fine, fine spun, finely
pulverized; soft, tender,
smooth
mihinet ldlxg]t n. labour, industry, work, toil
mihineti ldlxg]tL adj. industrious, hardworking,
busy, active
milaunu ldnfpgÚ v.t. to reconcile, to resolve, to
arbitrate, to bring about an
agreement, to cause to
join, to mix, to adjust, to
solve, to balance
milnu ldNgÚ v.i. to agree, to fit in, to mingle
to mix up, to befit
mirg ldu{ n. deer
misaunu ld;fpgÚ v.t. to mingle, to mix up
together
misri ld;|L n. sugar candy, rockcandy
mit dLt n. friend (ritually concluded)
mit lagaunu dLt nufpgÚ v.t. to make friends (ritually)
mithai ld&fO{ n. sweets
mitho dL&f] adj. delicious, tasteful, tasty
miti ldlt n. date, day, limit, time
mohani df]xgL n. charm, enchantment
mohi df]xL n. buttermilk
mohi parnu df]xL kfgÚ{ v.t. to make buttermilk
moja df]hf n. socks, stocking, hose
moren df]/]g n. moraine
mosam df];d n. orange
motamoti df]^fdf]&L adj. near about, approximately
motar df]^/ n. car
motar haknu df]t/ xfSgÚ v.t. to drive a car

83
motaunu df]^fpgÚ v.i. to get fat
moto df]^f] adj. fat
mrig d[u n. deer
mrityu d[ToÚ n. death
mrityuko danda d[ToÚsf] b)* n. death penalty
mudda dÚ@f n. law-suite, case
mudki dÚ*\sL n. blow of a fist
mudra dÚb|f n. seal, coin, gesture
mudrak dÚb|s n. printer
mudrakshar dÚb|fIf/ n. printing type
mudralaya dÚb|fno n. press, printing place
mudran dÚb|)f n. act of printing
muhan dÚxfg n. source of a river or an
irrigation canal
muhar dÚxf/ n. facade
muhurta dÚx't{ n. a division of time (48
minutes), auspicious
moment, a moment, a
while, a very short time
mukam dÚsfd n. halting place, halt, dwelling,
place of residence,
camping place
mukh dÚv n. mouth, face
mukh dhunu dÚv wÚgÚ v.t. wash and clean the face
mukhyat dÚVot adv. chiefly, mainly, principally,
primarily
mukta dÚQm adj. liberated, released
mukta garnu dÚQm ugÚ{ v.t. to free
mul d'n n. root, source, origin
mula d'nf n. radish
mulak d'ns postp. based on, depending on,
growing from, emanating
from, originating from
mulatah d'ntM adv. basically, fundamentally,
primarily, essentially
mulayat dÚnfot adj. soft
mulsadak d'n;*s n. main road
muluk dÚnÚs n. country, realm, kingdom
mulvasi d'njf;L n. native, original inhabitant

84
mulya d'No n. cost, price, worth, value
mulyangkan d'Nofég n. valuation, estimation
muma dÚdf n. mother [used by upper
class only]
munal dÚgfn n. a kind of bird from the
mountains
mung dÚª n. a kind of Lentils, mung
bean
muni dÚlg postp. below, under
muntira dÚlGt/ postp. downwards, below, under
musaldhare sÚ;nwf/] adj. torrential, heavy
muskaunu dÚ:sfpgÚ v.i. to smile
muskuraunu dÚ:sÚ/fpgÚ v.t. to smile
muso d';f] n. mouse, rat
musoko dulo d';f]sf] bÚnf] n. mousehole
musuro dÚ;Ú/f] n. a kind of lentils
muthi dÚ&L n. fist
mutu dÚ^Ú n. heart
mvain DjfO n. kiss
mvain khanu DjfO vfgÚ to kiss
myaun garnu dofp ugÚ{ v.t. to mew
na g conj. neither, nor
nabbe gAa] num. ninety, 90
nac gfr n. dance
nacnu gfRgÚ v.i. to dance
nadi gbL n. river
nagar gu/ n. town, city
nagarik gful/s adj. civil, urban, metropolitan
nagarik shastra gful/s zf:q n. civics, civic studies
nagarpalika gu/kflnsf n. municipality, municipal
committee
nai g} part. a particle used after the
word to give emphasis
nain gfO{+ interj. no, negation
naitikta g}ltstf n. morals, morality, ethics
naito gfO^f] n. navel
najar gh/ n. eye, vision, sight, look,
glance

85
najarana gh/fgf n. gift, present
najarana gh/fgf n. gift, present, presentation
najayaj gfhfoh adj. improper
najik ghLs adj. near, close to, next to
najitnu glhTgÚ v.t. not to win
nak gfs n. nose
nakka pora gfs\sf kf]/f n. nostrils
nakkal gSsn n. copy, fashion
naksha gSzf n. pattern, map, plan, chart
nalikhutto glnvÚ§f] n. shin-bone
nam gfd n. name, noun
namak gfds adj. named, bearing the name
of
namasthanik gfd:yflgs adj. independent from a noun
namdar gfdbf/ adj. famous well known
namkaran gfds/)f n. naming ceremony, baptism
namkarma gfdsd{ n. naming ceremony, baptism
nam-namasi gfdgfdf;L n. name and address
namnishan gfdlgzfg adj. name, trace, mark; name
and address
namyogi gfdof]uL n. postposition
nanda gGb n. husband's younger sister
nandebhai gGb]efO n. husband's younger sister's
husband
nang gª n. nail
nangge gfé] adj. naked, uncovered
nanggo gféf] adj. naked, uncovered
nani gfgL n. baby
napunsakling gkÚ+;slnª n. neuter [grammar]
nara gf/f n. slogan, striking word,
phrase
naram g/d adj. soft, delicate, kind, gentle
naramro g/fd|f] adj. bad, not good
nardan gb{g n. neck
narendra g/]Gb| n. king
naresh g/]z n. king
nari gf/L n. wrist, pulse

86
narival gl/jn n. coconut
naso g;f] n. vein
naspati g:kftL n. pear
nata gftf n. relationship, alliance
natadar gftfbf/ n. relative
nati gflt n. grandson
natija glthf n. result, consequence
natini gfltgL n. granddaughter
natishitosna gfltzLtf]i)f adj. temperate, moderate
nau g} num. nine, 9
naun gfp n. name
naun caleka gfp rn]sf adj. well known, famous
nauni gf}gL n. butter
navaun gjf}+ adj. ninth
nayakatva gfosTj n. leadership, hegemony
nayan gof adj. new
nebharo g]ef/f] n. fig
nepalganj g]kfnuGh n. Nepalganj [a town in the
western Tarai]
nera g]/ adj. near, near by, close by, not
far
neri g]l/ adj. near, near by, close by, not
far
neta g]tf n. leader, guide, chief
netritva g]t[Tj n. leadership, guidance, lead
nevar g]jf/ n. Newar [a Nepali nationality]
nibandha lgaGw n. article, essay, dissertation,
thesis, bond, fixation
nibhnu lgEgÚ v.i. to go out, to be
extinguished
nibuva lgaÚjf n. lemon
nico gLrf] adj. low, inferior, mean,
worthless
nidaunu lgbfpgÚ v.i. to go to sleep, to become
numb
nidhan lgwfg n./adj. destruction, death, poor
nidhar lgwf/ n. forehead
nidho lgwf] n. confirmation, settlement,
decision, final word,

87
resolution
nihsantan lgM;Gtfg adj. childless, without offspring
nihun lgxÚ n. excuse, pretence, pretext
niji kshetra lghL If]q n. private sector
nikai lgs} adj. much
nikat lgs^ adj. near, near by, close by, not
far
nikaya lgsfo n. body, system
niko lgsf] adj. cured, well
nilo gLnf] adj. blue
nimitta lgldQ n./postp. for, for the sake of, for the
cause of, cause, motive,
account, reason
nimnalikhit lgDglnlvt adj. undermentioned, following,
mentioned below
nimti lglDt postp. for, for the sake of
ninda lgGbf n. reflection, condemnation,
slander, calumny,
vilification, censure, blame
nindan lgGbg n. vilification
niptara lgk^f/f n. disposal, settlement,
reconciliation, conclusion
nipun lgkÚ)f adj. dexterous, skilful, clever
nir gL/ adj. indigo
nira lg/ adj. near, near by, close by, not
far
nirakaran lg/fs/)f n. abrogation, annulment,
removal
nirakshar lg/If/ adj. illiterate
nirantar lg/Gt/ adj. continuous, constant,
incessant, ceaseless
nirantarta lg/Gt/tf n. continuity, continuation
niraparadh lg/k/fw adj. innocent, faultless, guiltless
nirarthak lg/y{s n. meaningless, vain, useless,
fruitless, insignificant,
worthless, futile
nirdaya lgb{o adj. cruel, brutal, merciless,
unkind
nirdayata lgb{otf n. cruelty, unkindness,
severity, brutality
nirdesh lgb]{z n. instruction, order, indication

88
nirdeshak lgb]{zs n. director (of an institute or
center)
nirdeshan lgb]{zg n. instruction, order, indication
nirman lgdf{)f n. construction, creation,
manufacture, formation,
framing, act of building or
making
nirmata lgdf{tf n. maker, producer,
manufacturer, builder,
creator
nirmit lgld{t adj. made, formed, built,
created
nirnaya lg)f{o n. decision, resolution,
discernment,
ascertainment,
determination
nirogi lg/f]uL adj. healthy, in good health, not
ill
nirvacan lgjf{rg n. election
nis lg; n. gneiss
nisedh bhumi lgif]w e'ld n. forbidden land
nishcal lgZrn adj. fixed, still, firm, motionless,
immovable
nishcaya lgZro n. sure knowledge, resolution,
determination, confidence
nishcit lglZrt adj. sure, unfailing, without
doubt
nishcit lglZrt ;+Vofaf]ws n. definitive numeral
sankhyabodhak
niskantak lgis)^s adj. thornless, free from
troubles
niskanu lg:sgÚ v.i. to come out, to appear
nisto lg:tf] adj. plain, bland
nitamba lgtDa n. hip
niti gLlt n. policy, morality, manners
niun lgp n. pretext, excuse
nivaran lgjf/)f n. prevention, preclusion,
redress, deterrence,
determent
nivas lgjf; n. home, residence, abode,
dwelling
nivasi lgjf;L n. inhabitant, resident, inmate,
native
niyam lgod n. rule, usage, regulation,

89
practice
niyantran lgoGq)f n. control, restraint
niyati lgolt n. fate, luck, fortune, destiny,
predestination
niyukta lgoÚQm adj. appointed, wmployed,
posted
niyukti lgoÚlQm n. appointment, employment
niyutta lgoÚQ adj. appointed, engaged,
employed, devoted,
nominated, assigned
nokar gf]s/ n. servant
nuhaune kotha gÚxfpg] sf]&f n. bathroom
nuhaunu gÚxfpgÚ v.t. take a bath
nun g'g n. salt
nunilo gÚlgnf] adj. salty
nyauri Gofp/L n. mongoose
nyaya Gofo n. justice, equity, logic, reason
nyayadhish GofofwLz n. judge, justice
nyayadhish GofofwLz n. judge, justice
nyayalaya Gofofno n. court of justice
nyayapalika Gofokflnsf n. judiciary
nyuntam Go'gtd adj. minimum, minimal
ochyan cf]%Øfg n. bed, bedding,sleeping-mat,
quilt
ochyaunu cf]%\ØfpgÚ v.t. to spread bedding, to
spread a rug,to spread a
mat
odhan cf]wfg n. three-legged iron stand for
putting a cooking vessel
over a fire
odhaunu cf](fpgÚ v.t. to cover up sombody else
odhne cf](g
\ ] n. blanket, bedcover, bedroll
odhnu cf](g
\ Ú v.i./v.t. to cover oneself up; to
wrap, to cover
ogatnu cf]u^\gÚ v.t. to occupy, to reserve, to
hinder
ohar dohar cf]x/ bf]x/ n. the act of coming and going
ohor dohor cf]xf]/ bf]xf]/ n. the act of coming and going
ohralnu cf]x|fNgÚ v.t. to cause to descend
oilaunu cf]OnfpgÚ v.i. to wither, to fade

90
oilinu cf]OlngÚ v.t. to be withered
oiranu cf]O/gÚ v.i. to drop, to fall headlong
oiraunu cf]O/fpgÚ v.t. to cause to drop, to cause
to fall [in large quantity]
oirini cf]Ol/gÚ v.i. to drop, to fall [in large
quantity]
oirinu cf]Ol/gÚ v.i. to flow continually
ojhel cf]´]n adj. hidden, screened off
okatnu cf]s^\gÚ v.t. to occupy, to reserve, to
hinder
okhar cf]v/ n. walnut
okhati cf]vtL n. medicine
orlanu cf]n{gÚ v.i. to comedown, to descend
orlinu cf]ln{gÚ v.i. to comedown, to descend
osarinu cf];fl/gÚ v.i. to be moved from one
place to another
osarnu cf];fgÚ{ v.t. to move something from
one place to another
oth cf]& n. lip, lips
pacadi krfl* postp. behind
pacas krf; num. fifty, 50
pacasi krf;L num. eighty-five, 85
pacchim klR%d n. west
paccis kRrL; num. twenty-five, 25
pachadi k%fl* postp. behind, later, in the back
pachattar krxQ/ num. seventy-five, 75
pachaute k%f}^] adj. late, hinder, backward
pachi kl% postp. behind, later, in the back
pachi hatnu kl% x^\gÚ v.i. to move back
pachi janu kl% hfgÚ v.i. to follow
pachi sarnu kl% ;gÚ{ v.i. to step back, to step down
pachillo kl%Nnf] adj. last, hindermost, back, rear
pachipachi kl%kl% adv. immediately after, next
pacpanna kRkGg num. fifty-five, 55
pad kb n. foot, step, foot-step, word
padadhikari kbflwsf/L n. official, officer, authority
padartha kbfy{ n. meaning of a word, matter

91
padarthavacak nam kbfy{jfrs gfd n. objective term
padavi kbjL n. title, designation; post, rank
padhai k(fO n. study, method of reading or
teaching
padhaunu k(fpgÚ v.t. to teach
padhelekheka k(]n]v]sf adj. educated, able to read and
write
padhnu k(\gÚ v.t. to lear, to read, to study
padina klbgf n. mint
pagal kfun n. a mad man
pagalkhana kfunvfgf n. mad-house
pagalnu kufNgÚ v.t. to melt
paglanu kUngÚ v.i. to melt
pahad kxf* n. mountain, hill
pahadi pradesh kxf*L k|b]z n. hilly region
pahenlo kx]+nf] adj. yellow
pahican klxrfg n. recognition, acquaintance,
identity
pahilo klxnf] adj. first
pahiran klx/g n. costume, suit, dress,
clothes, garments
pahuna kfxÚgf n. visitor, guest
painsatthi k}+;^\&L num. sixty-five, 65
paintalis k}+tfnL; num. forty-five, 45
paintis k}+tL; num. thirty-five, 35
paitalo k}tfnf] n. sole
pajani khgL n. arrangement, setting in
order, overhauling [the
annual festival during which
appointments of
government officials were
renewed for the ensuing
year]
pakaunu ksfpgÚ v.t. to cook
pakeko kfs]sf] adj. ripe, cooked, mature
paket ks]^ n. pocket
pakhala kvfnf n. diarrhoea
pakhalnu kvfNgÚ v.t. to rinse
pakheta kv]^f n. wing

92
pakhura kfvÚ/f n. arm
pakka kSsf adj. 1. certain, sure, true; durable,
strong; careful
pakka garnu kSsf ugÚ{ v.t. to confirm to make sure
pakku kSsÚ n. meat fried in butter
paknu kfSgÚ v.i. to be ripe, to ripen, to be
cooked
pako kfsf] adj. aged, experienced
pakranu kqmgÚ v.t. to catch, to hold, to arrest,
to capture, to seize, to
catch on, to understand
pakrau kqmfp n. capture, arrest, seizure
paksha kIf n. wing, part, party
palnu kfNgÚ v.t. to take care of, to raise, to
bring up, to nourish, to
keep, to tame
palpa kfNkf n. Palpa [former mini-state,
currently a district of Nepal]
paltan kN^g n. regiment, batallion
palunggo kfn'¨f] n. spinach
pan kfg n. the leaf of the betal nut
eaten with areca nut and
lime
pana kfgf n. leaf (of a book)
panati kgftL n. great-grandson
panc kfr num. five, 5
panc patra kfr kq adj. fivefold
pancanabbe kGrfgAa] num. ninety-five, 95
pancangga k~rfé n. almanac (of Hindu
astrology)
pancaun kfrf}+ adj. fifth
pancayat kGrfot n. village assembly to decide
disputes, an assembly of
elected representatives
panchaunu kG%fpgÚ v.t. to evade, to push aside
pandhra kGw| num. fifteen, 15
pani klg adv. also, too, even
pani kfgL n. water, rain
pani ... pani klg » klg adv. as well as
pani pareka vela kfgL k/]sf] j]nf comp. when it rains

93
pani parnu kfgL kgÚ{ v.t. to rain
paniun klgp n. a flat spoon used for ladling
out rice
panjaa kGhf n. a combination of five
fingers, gloves, covering of
the hands
panjika kl~hsf n. register, list, calender
pankha k+vf n. wing, feather; fan
pantha kGy n. path, sect, religious order
panthi kGyL n. traveller, sectarian
pap kfk n. sin
papi kfkL adj. sinful, profligate, criminal
par kf/ n. end, other side, limit,
accomplishment,
renunciation, release, relief,
deliverance, liberation
para k/ adv. aside, separate, beyond,
further
paraghaun k/f#f}+ adv. after two years
parajaya k/fho n. defeat
parajit k/flht adj. defeated, vanquished,
overthrown
parajit k/flht adj. defeated, overthrown
parakram k/fqmd n. power, strength, valour,
prowess
parakrami k/fqmdL adj. heroic, gallant, valiant,
brave
param k/d adj. best, supreme, uttermost,
extreme
paramdham k/dwfd n. heaven, paradise, the next
world; death, demise
paramgati k/dult n. liberation, salvation
parampad k/dkb n. liberation, salvation
parampara k/Dk/f n. sequence, succession,
order
paramparagat k/Dk/fut adj. tradional
paramparik kf/Dkfl/s adj. traditional, hereditary
parampita k/dlktf n. the creator of all, God
parantu k/GtÚ n./adv. but, inspite, however, still,
the remaining life, end
parapacuke kf/kfrÚs] n. divorce, dissolution of
marriage

94
parar k/f/ adv. two years ago
pararastra k//fi^« n. foreign county, another
country
pararastra mantralaya k//fi^« dGqfno n. foreign ministry
pararastra mantri k//fi^« dGqL n. foreign minister
pararastriya k//fi^«Lo adj. foreign, alien, related to
another nation
paraspar k/:k/ adj. mutually, reciprocal, one
another
parca krf{ n. leaflet, settlement record
parda kbf{ n. curtain, screen, veil,
partition
pardabhitrai kbf{leq} comp. secretly
pardesh k/b]z adv. abroad
pardesh lagnu k/b]z nfUgÚ to go abroad
parela k/]nf n. eyelash
pareva k/]jf n. pigeon, young dove
pari kfl/ n. the other side [of the shore
or boundary]
pari kf/L n. the other side [of the shore
or boundary]
paribhasa kl/efiff n. definition, terminology
paricalan kl/rfng n. mobilization
paricaya kl/ro n. acquaintance, intimacy,
familiarity
paricched kl/R%]b n. part, division, section of a
book, chapter, paragraph
pariksha k/LIff n. examination, investigation
parikshan k/LIf)f n. examination, investigation
parimanbodhak kl/df)faf]ws adj. quantitative [grammar]
parinam kl/)ffd n. result, consequence
parinamsvarup kl/)ffd:j¿k conj. as a result of, with the
result of, consequently
parinati kl/)flt n. transformation, culmination,
form
paripati kl/kf^L n. tradition, method, mode,
arrangement, order
paripurti kl/kÚlt{ n. perfection, completion
parisad kl/ifb n. assembly, council, senate,
committee
parishist kl/lzi^ n. appendix, supplement

95
parishrami kl/>dL adj. laborious, industrious,
painstaking, hardworking,
diligent
paristhiti kl/l:ylt n. circumstances, situation,
condition, surrounding,
environment
parit kfl/t adj. resolved, decided,
concluded, passed (of a
motion, bill, etc.)
parityag kl/Tofu n. abandonment, abdication
parivar kl/jf/ n. family
parivartan kl/jt{g n. change, exchange
pariyojana kl/of]hgf n. project
parkhal kvf{n n. wall
parkhanu kv{gÚ v.t. to wait, to have patience
parkhinu klv{gÚ v.t. to wait, to have patience
parnu kgÚ{ v.i. to happen, to occur, to fall,
to ignite
parnu kfgÚ{ v.t. to put in, to lay, to ignite, to
cause, to make
paro kf/f] n. mercury
parsi kl;{ adv. the day after tomorrow
parti kf^L{ n. party
parti kendriya kamiti kf^L{ s]Gb|Lo sldlt n. central committee of a
party
parva kj{ n. festival, holiday, fête,
chapter, section, portion,
canto
parvat kj{t n. hill, mountain, rock
paryanta ko{Gt postp. till, until, unto, up to
paryatak ko{^s n. traveller, wanderer, tourist
paryatakharuko svarg ko{^s¿sf] :ju{ n. tourist paradise
paryatan ko{^g n. touring, tourism
pasal k;n n. shop, warehouse, booth
pasale k;n] n. shopkeeper, merchant,
vendor
pashcim klZrd n. west
pashupalan kzÚkfng n. animal husbandry
pashupati kzÚklt n. Pashupati
pasina k;Lgf n. sweat

96
paskanu k:sgÚ v.t. to serve [food]
pasnu k:gÚ v.t. to enter, to go in, to come
in
pata kf^ n. jute, hessian, silk, silk
threat
patak k^s n. times, occasion
patalo kf^nf] adj. thin
patan k^g n. packing, package
patan ktg n. fall, downfall, degradation
patan kf^g n. Lalitpur, Patan [a
neighbouring town of
Kathmandu]
patani k^gL n. irrigation
path kf^ n. lesson, reading, recital
path ky n. path, course
pathaunu k&fpgÚ v.t. to send, to despatch
pathi kf&L n. lamb [female]
patho kf&f] n. lamb [male]
pathshala kf&zfnf n. school, seminary
pathshalaya kf&zfnfof n. school, college, academy,
seminary
pati klt n. husband
patit kltt adj. fallen, degraded, outcaste
patni kTgL n. wife, better half, married
woman
patra kq n. page
patrakar kqsf/ n. journalist
patre cattan kq] r§fg n. sedimentary rock
patrika klqsf n. magazine, journal
patta kQf n. leaf, foliage, address
patthar kTy/ n. stone
patti k§L n. bandage
patti kl§ n. side
pattyaunu k§\ofpgÚ v.t. to plait, to fold
pau kfp n. a quarter
paune kf}g] adj. a quarter to
paunu kfpgÚ v.t. to get, to obtain, to receive,
to bear, to beget, to

97
produce
pauranik kf}/flgs adj. legendary
pauranu kf}/gÚ v.i. swim
pauri kf}/L n. swimming
pauri khelnu kf}/L v]NgÚ v.t. swim
pauroti kfp/f]^L n. bread
paus kf}if n. ninth month of the Nepali
year (December/January)
paustik kf}li^s n. nutrition
pesh k]z postp. in front of, before
pesha k]zf n. occupation
pesta k]:tf n. pestachio nut
pet k]^ n. stomach
peti k]^L n. belt, casket, small box,
small chest, girdle
phagun kmfuÚg n. eleventh month of the
Nepali year
(February/March)
phaida kmfO{bf n. advantage
phailanu km}ngÚ v.i. to spread, to be scattered
phailanu km}ngÚ v.i. to spread, to be scattered
phailinu km}lngÚ v.i. to spread, to be scattered
phaisala km};nf n. decision, judgement,
settlement, adjudication
phalam kmnfd n. iron
phalgun kmNuÚ)f n. eleventh month of the
Nepali year
(February/March)
phalnu kmfNgÚ v.t. to throw away
phalnu kmNgÚ v.i. to bear fruits; to cleanse, to
husk
phalphul kmnkm'n n. fruits and flowers
phalphul kheti kmnkm'n v]tL n. horticulture
phalsvarup kmn:j¿k postp. as a result of
phansi kmf;L n. execution by hanging,
noose
phapar kmfk/ n. buckwheat
pharak km/s n. difference, separation,
being apart
pharakilo km/flsnf] adj. spacious, roomy, extensive

98
pharar km/f/ n. absconding, fled
pharkanu kms{gÚ v.i. to return, to come back
pharsi km;L{ n. large yellow pumpkin
phastaunu km:^fpgÚ v.t. to develop, to become fat
phatyangro km^Øféf] n. cricket, grasshopper
pherabadal km]/abn n. change, modification
pheri km]l/ adv. again, once more, once
again
phesan km];g n. facion
phijinu lkmlhgÚ v.i. to spread
phikri garnu lkmqmL ugÚ{ v.t. to be worried
phila lkmnf n. thigh
philipins lkmlnlkG; n. Philippinen
phohor kmf]xf]/ adj. dirty, foul, filthy, obscene
phokso kmf]S;f] n. lungs
phranseli k|mfG;]nL adj. French
phul km'n n. flower
phul kmÚn n. egg
phulbari km'naf/L n. flower garden
phuleko kesh kmÚn]sf] s]z grey hair
phulkopi km'nsf]kL n. cauliflower
phupaju kmÚkfhÚ n. father's sister's husband
phupu kmÚk' n. father's sister
phurtilo kmÚlt{nf] adj. smart
phusro kmÚ;|f] adj. grey, grizzled
phutbal khelnu kmÚ^an v]NgÚ v.t. to play football
phyanknu km\ofSgÚ v.t. to throw away
phyauro km\ofp/f] n. fox
pidit kLl*t adj. afflicted, tortured,
distressed, oppressed
pindalu lk+*fnÚ n. a kind of root
pindulo lk+*Únf] n. calf of the leg
ping kLª n. swing
pir kL/ n. worry, anxiety, distress,
mental trouble, punishment

99
pira lk/f n. floor seat [of straw or wood]
piralnu lk/NgÚ v.i./v.t. to torment, to afflict, to
distress, to tease
piro lk/f] adj. hot [in taste]
pirolnu lk/f]NgÚ v.t. to torment, to afflict, to
distress, to tease
pita lktf n. father [Sanskritized]
pithiun lkl&p n. back
pitho kL&f] n. flour, powder
pitho kL&f] n. flour
pittal lkQn n. brass
pohor kf]xf]/ adv. last year
poi kf]O n. husband [rural]
poila kf]On n. running away with a man
without formal marriage
poila janu kf]On hfgÚ comp. run away with a man
pokhari kf]v/L n. pond, lake, reservoir
poleko masu kf]n]sf] df;Ú n. barbecued meat
pothi mujur kf]yL dÚhÚ/ n. peahen
potnu kf]TgÚ v.t. smear with red clay, paint
the floor wall, whitewash
poto kf]tf] n. a smearing rag
prabandhak k|aGws n. manager, writer of an
essay
prabhat k|eft n. daybreak, dawn
prabhav k|efj n. influence, effect, power,
strength, authority,
dominance
prabhavashali k|efjzfnL adj. powerful, strong, radiant
pracalan k|rng n. prevalence, custom, usage,
currency, movement
pracalit k|rlnt adj. prevalent, current,
customary, in practice, , in
vogue, recognised
pracar k|rf/ n. publicity, publication,
usage, advertisement,
announcement
pracarit k|rfl/t adj. propagated, publicised,
circulated, made current,
made prevalent, given
currency

100
pracin k|frLg adj. ancient, old, antique, aged
pracinta k|frLgtf n. antiquity, ancientness
pradesh k|b]z n. province, region, realm,
country, territory, state
pradeshik kf|b]lzs adj. regional
pradhanmantri k|wfgdGqL n. Prime Minister
pradhannyayadhish k|wfgGofofwLz n. Chief Justice
pradhyapak k|fWofks n. college teacher, lecturer,
professor
pradurbhav k|fb"ef{j n. appearance, manifestation;
serious or terrible outbreak;
birth, prevalence
pradusan kb"if)f n. pollution
pragati k|ult n. progress, advancement
pragatishil k|ultzLn adj. progressive, modern
prahari k|x/L n. police
praja k|hf n. subject, tenant, people,
progeny
prajatantra k|hftGq n. democracy
prajatantrik k|hftflGqs adj. democratic
prakar k|sf/ n. kind, way, sort
prakash k|sfz n. light, manifestation,
publication
prakashak k|sfzs n. publisher
prakashan k|sfzg n. publication, publishing
prakashit k|sflzt adj. published
prakashkiya k|sfzsLo adj. related to the publisher
prakhyat k|Voft adj. renowned, famous,
celebrated, noted
prakriti k|fs[lt n. nature, talent
prakritik k|fs[lts adj. natural, physical, material
prakritik gyas k|fs[lts Uof; n. natural gas
prakritik vanaspati k|fs[lts jg:klt n. natural vegetation
prakriya k|lqmof n. process, procedure,
manner, method, technique
praman k|df)f n. proof, testimony, evidence,
attestation, ascertainment
pramanik k|dfl)fs adj. factual, true, genuine,
authoritative
pramanik k|fdfl)fs adj. factual, true, genuine,

101
authoritative
pramanit k|dfl)ft adj. certified
pramanpatra k|df)fkq n. certificate, testimonial,
permit
pramukh k|dÚv n. principal, chief, head
pranali k|)ffnL n. method, mode, way
pranta k|fGt n. border, end, extremity,
province
prapta k|fKt adj. obtained, received,
acquired
prapti k|flKt n. receipt, procuration,
acquisition, income, profit
prarambha k|f/De n. beginning, commencement,
inception, initiation, starting
point
prarthana k|fy{gf n. prayer, petition, request
prarthana garnu k|fy{gf ugÚ{ v.t. tp pray, to request
prasanga k|;é n. relation, connection,
association, discussion,
narration, context
prasar k|;f/ n. width, expansion, extent,
spreading, spread, diffusion
prashangsa k|z+;f n. praise, appreciation,
applause, laudation, eulogy
prashasan k|zf;g n. administration
prashasta k|z:t adj. abundant, sufficient,
enough
prashna k|Zg n. question
prashnarthak k|Zgfy{s ;j{gfd n. interrogative pronoun
sarvanam
prashnavali k|ZgfjnL n. questionnaire
prasiddha k|l;$ adj. famous, renowned,
glorious, illustrious,
celebrated
prastav k|:tfj n. proposal, suggestion;
preface, foreword,
preamble
prastavana k|:tfjgf n. introduction, prologue,
preface, foreword
prastut k|:tÚt adj. presented, submitted
pratam purusvacak k|td kÚ?ifjfrs n. first person [grammar]
pratha k|yf n. usage, practice, custom,
rule, fashion, method,

102
system
pratham k|yd adj. first, best, primitive
pratham purus k|yd kÚ?if n. first person [ling.]
prathamikta k|fyldstf n. priority, precedence
prati k|lt postp. towards, near to, against, in
opposition to
pratibaddha k|lta$ adj. restricted, banned,
conditioned, committed
pratibaddhata k|lta$tf n. commitment
pratibandhit k|ltalGwt adj. restricted, banned,
conditioned
pratibha k|ltef n. genius, intellect, wit,
intelligence, brilliance
pratibimba k|ltlaDa n. reflection, image, shadow
pratibimbit k|ltlalDat adj. reflected
pratigama k|ltufdf adj. retrogressive
pratik k|tLs n. symbol, fetish
pratikar k|ltsf/ n. retaliation, revenge
pratikatmak k|tLsfTds adj. symbolic, allegorical
pratikriya k|ltlqmof n. reaction
pratiksha k|tLIff n. expectation
pratinidhi k|ltlglw n. representative, substitute
pratinidhitva k|ltlglwTj n. representation, deputation,
delegacy
pratipaksha k|ltkIf n. opposition, rival side,
hostile camp, contesting
party
pratipakshi k|ltkIfL n. opponent, rival, contestant,
contralateral
pratishat k|ltzft n. percent percentage
pratishodh k|ltzf]w n. revenge, vengeance,
retaliation, vendetta, blood
feud
pratisparddha k|lt:k${ n. rivalry, contest, competition
prativedan k|ltj]bg n. report, representation
pratiyogita k|ltof]lutf n. rivalry, competition, hostility
pratyek k|To]s adj. every, everyone
pravacan k|jrg n. commentary, elucidation,
explanation
pravesh k|j]z n. entry, admission, access,

103
entrance
pravidhi k|ljlw n. technique
pravidhigya k|ljlw! n. technician
pravriti k|j[lt n. trend
pravritti k|j[lQ n. inclination of mind,
tendency
prayah k|foM adv. almost, nearly, often,
generally
prayas k|of; n. effort, attempt, endeavour
prayatna k|oTg n. effort, attempt, endeavour
prayog k|oF]u n. use, application, action,
effort, usage, example,
performance
pret k|]t n. dead, deceased, spirit of
the dead, evil spirit, ghost;
a very greedy person
pristhabhumi k[i&e'ld n. basis
prithvi k[YjL n. earth
priya lk|o adj. dear, lovely, beloved
pucchar kÚR%/ n. tail
pugnu kÚUgÚ v.i. to arrive at, to reach, to be
fulfilled, to be sufficient
puja garnu k'hf ugÚ{ v.t. to worship, to adore
puja kotha k'hf sf]&f n. prayer room, worshipping
room
punargathan kÚgu{&g n. reorganization, recasting
punarjivit kÚghL{ljt adj. revived, risen from the
dead
punarnirman kÚglg{df{)f reconstruction
punarvalikan kÚg/jnLsg n. revision, retrospect, review
punarvas kÚgjf{; n. rehabilitation
puniun kÚlgp n. a flat spoon used for ladling
out rice
punling kÚ+lné n. male [grammar]
pura k'/f adj. full, complete, entire, gross,
whole
purano kÚ/fgf] adj. old, ancient
purashcaran kÚ/Zr/)f n. repeating the name of a
deity
purashcarya kÚ/Zrof{ n. repeating the name of a
deity

104
puratatva kÚ/ftTj n. archaeology
puri kÚ/L n. bread cooked in butter
purkha kÚv{f n. ancestor, forefather
purna k')f{ adj. perfect, full, complete,
whole, accomplished,
sufficient, detailed
purnatah k')f{tM adv. completely, fully, perfectly,
totally
purnataya k')f{tof adj. completely, totally, fully,
entirely
purnima k'l)f{df n. full moon day
purohit kÚ/f]lxt n. family priest
purusartha kÚ?iffy{ n. manly achievement,
energy, vigour, valour
purusvacak sarvanam kÚ?ijfrs ;j{gfd n. personal pronoun
purvadhar k'jf{wf/ n. infrastructure
purvagraha k'jf{u|x n. prejudice
purvak k'j{s suff. together, with
purvi k'jL{ adj. eastern, eastern quarter
purviya k'jL{of adj. eastern
purviya k'jL{o adj. eastern
puryaunu kÚof{pgÚ v.t. to exort, to lead, to fulfil a
wish
pus kÚ; n. ninth month of the Nepali
year (December/January)
pusta kÚ:tf n. generation, succession
pustakalaya kÚ:tsfno n. library
pusti kÚli& n. nourishment, nutrition
putali kÚtnL n. butterfly
pval Kjfn n. hole, opening
pyaj Kofh n. onion
pyaro Kof/f] adj. loving, dear, beloved,
lovely, pleasant
pyau Kofp n. mushroom
racak /rs n. author, writer, maker
racana /rgf n. composition, production,
creation, formation
racanatmak /rgfTds adj. creative, constructive
racayita /rlotf n. composer, writer, author,

105
maker
racit /lrt adj. composed, made, formed,
manufactured, compiled,
constructed, built, invented,
fabricated
radhi /f(L n. coarse wollen rug
ragat /ut n. blood
ragat aunu /ut cfpgÚ to bleed
rahanu /xgÚ v.i. to remain, to dwell, to
inhabit
rahar /x/ n. a kind of lentils
rahasyamaya /x:odo adj. mysterious, secret, hidden
rahasyamaya /x:odo (éaf& adv. in a mysterious way
dhangabata
rahat /fxt n. comfort, relief
rai /fO{ n. Rai [a Nepali nationality]
raithane /}yfg] n. local inhabitant, aboriginee
raiti /}tL n. tenant, leaseholder, farmer
raja /fhf n. king, ruler, sovereign
rajaharuma /fhfx¿df comp. among kings
rajasva /fh:j n. revenue, royalty
rajdarbar /fhb/af/ n. the king's palace
rajdhani /fhwfgL n. capital
rajdut /fhb't n. ambassador
rajdutavas /fhb'tfjf; n. embassy
rajhans /hxf; n. swan
rajhans /fhxf; n. swan
raji /fhL adj. willing, pleased, desirous,
content, complacent
rajikhushi /fhLvÚzL n. willingness, acceptance
with much pleasure
rajinama /fhLgfdf n. agreement, compromise
rajkaj /fhsfh n. government work,
administration
rajkaji /fhsfhL adj. relating to government,
relating to administration
rajkanya /fhsGof n. princess
rajkarya /fhsfo{ n. public affair, affairs of state,
governance
rajkumar /fhsÚdf/ n. prince

106
rajkumari /fhsÚdf/L n. princess
rajnaitik /fhg}lts adj. political
rajnaitik gatividhi /fhg}lts ultljlw political movement
rajniti /fhgLlt n. politics, political science
rajnitigya /fhgLlt! n. politician
rajnitik /fhgLlts adj. political
rajnitik labh /fhgLlts nfe n. political importance
rajparisad /fhkl/ifb n. council of state
rajprasad /fhk|;fb n. palace
rajtantra /fhtGq n. monarchy, monarchical
system of government
rajvanshi /fhj+zL n. Rajvanshi [a Nepali
nationality]
rajya /fHo n. kingdom, state, territory
rajyadhikar /fHolwsf/ n. power of the state, jura
regia
rajyavati /fHojtL n. Rajyavati [mother of
Licchavi king Manadeva I]
rakhnu /fVgÚ v.t. to keep, to protect, to hold
raksha /Iff n. defence, protection, guard
raksi /S;L n. alcoholic drink
raktapatpurna /Stkftk")f{ adj. bloody
rakumari /fhsÚdf/L n. princess
ramailo /dfOnf] adj. pleasant
ramaunu /dfpgÚ v.i. to be pleased, to feel
happy, to feel delighted, to
be glad
ramnu /DgÚ v.i. to be pleased, to feel
happy, to feel delighted, to
be glad
ramro /fd|f] adj. good, beautiful
rang /é n. colour
rangamanc /éd~r n. stage
rangaunu /+ufpgÚ v.t. to colour, to paint, to dye,
to tint
rangicangi /+uLr+uL adj. multi-coloured
rangin /+uLg adj. coloured
rango /fuf] n. water buffalo [male]

107
rani /fgL n. queen
ranniti /)fgLlt n. strategy
rap /fk n. heat of the sun, heat of the
fire
ras /; n. juice, broth
rasiya /;Lof n. Russia
rastra /fi^« n. nation
rastrabhasa /fi^«efiff n. national language,
language of the nation
rastranayak /fi^«gfos n. head of state
rastravad /fi^«jfb n. nationalism
rastravadi /fi^«jfbL n./adj. a nationalist, nationalistic
rastriya /fli^«o adj. national
rastriya jagaran /fli^«o hfu/)f national awakening
rastriya rastra /fli^«o /fi^« nation-state
rastriyata /fli^«otf n. nationality, nationalism
rat /t postp. engaged in, employed in,
devoted to, absorbed in,
addicted to
rat /ft n. night
rat parcha /ft k%{ it's getting dark
rati /flt adv. at night
rato /ftf] adj. red
rato mato /ftf] df^f] n. red clay to paint the wall
raun /f}+ n. hair of the body
ravivar /ljjf/ n. Sunday
rayako sag /fofsf] ;fu n. mustard greens [large]
rel /]n n. rail
rica Crf n. verse, hymn
rihai l/xfO{ n. release, acquittal,
deliverance, discharge,
setting free
rijha l/´ n. gladness, happiness,
contentment
rina C)f n. debt, loan, due, obligation
rini C)fL n./adj. debtor, indebted
ris l/; n. anger, wrath, irritation
risaeko l/;fPsf] adj. angry

108
risaunu l/;fpgÚ v.i. to be angry, to get irritated
risi Clif n. sage, saint, wise ascetic
riti-thiti /Lltlylt n. social customs
rittinu l/lQgÚ v.i. to be emptied
ritto l/Qf] adj. empty, hollow
ritu CtÚ n. season of the year
rodh /f]w n. onbstruction, obstacle,
hindrance
rog /f]u n. sickness, disease, illness,
ailment
rogi /f]uL n. sick person
rojgar /f]huf/ n. business, trade,
employment, profession,
occupation
rok /f]s n. prohibition, restriction,
interdict
rokinu /f]lsgÚ v.i. to be stopped, to be
hindered
roknu /f]SgÚ v.t. to prohibit, to obstruct, to
hinder, to prevent, to stop
roti /f]^L n. bread [made of flour and
water without yeast]
ruci ¿lr n. interest, liking, taste
rugha ?#f n. cold, catarrh, chill
rugna ?U)f adj. ill, sick, unwell, indisposed,
motbid, diseased
runa man lagnu ?g dg nfUgÚ to feel like to wep
runu ?gÚ v.i. to weep, to cry
rup ¿k n. countenance, look, form,
shape, aspect, beauty,
guise, semblance,
appearance
rupantar ¿kfGt/ n. transformation, transition,
change of form,
metamorphosis, translation,
conversion
rupi ¿kL postp. having the form of, having
the shape of
rupiyan ?lkof n. Rupee
ruvanda ?jf)*f n. Ruanda
ruvaunu ?jfpgÚ v.i. to cause to weep
saba ;a adj. all, everything

109
sabai bhanda ;a} eGbf of all
sabaijaso ;a}h;f] pron. almost all
saber ;a]/ adj. early
saberai ;a]/} adv. early
sabha ;ef n. assembly, meeting,
gathering
sabhapati ;efklt n. chairman [of a meeting,
organization or party]
sabhyata ;Eotf n. civilization, civility,
politeness, courtesy, good
manner
sabik ;flas adj. former, previous
sabun ;faÚg n. soap
sabunko gaj ;faÚgsf] ufh n. soap foam
sabunko phinja ;faÚgsf] lkm+h n. soap foam
sabut ;a't n. proof, evidence, testimony,
demonstration
sacetak ;r]ts n. whip
saciv ;rLj n. secretary, advisor,
companion
sacivalaya ;lrjfno n. secretariat
sadak ;*s n. road [metalled]
sadan ;bg n. residence, house,
assembly hall
sadar ;b/ n. acceptance, approval,
sanction
sadar upatyaka ;b/ pkTosf n. central valley
sadashya ;bZo n. member
sadashyaharuprati ;bZox¿k|lt bdggLlt n. politics of oppression
daman-niti towards members
sadasya ;b:o n. member
sadasyata ;b:otf n. membership
sadbhavana ;b\efjgf n. friendship
sadhain ;w}+ adv. always
sadhan ;fwg n. material, resource,
medium, means,
equipment
sadhana ;fwgf n. devotes labour or striving,
object of devotion;
controlling spirit or ghost by
reciting sacred verses;

110
penance, propitiation
sadharan ;fwf/)f adj. common, simple, general
sadharan sabha ;fwf/)f ;ef n. general assembly
sadhe ;f(] adj. half past
sadiccha ;lbR%f n. good wishes, good will
sadupayog ;bÚkof]u n. utilization
sadyantra if*\oGq n. conspiracy, plot, intrigue
sagapat ;fukft n. (leafy) vegetables
sagar ;fu/ n. ocean, sea
sagar ;u/ n. sky, heaven
sagarkhand ;u/vG* n. sweet potato
sagarmatha ;u/dfyf n. Sagarmatha,
Chomolungma, Mount
Everest
sagaunu ;ufpgÚ v.t. to help, to assist, to aid
saghaunu ;#fpgÚ v.t. to help, to assist, to aid
saglo ;Unf] adj. whole, complete, undivided
sagsabji ;fu;AjL n. vegetables
sahabhagi ;xefuL n. partner, accomplice
sahabhagita ;xeflutf n. participation
sahalekhak ;xn]vs n. co-author
sahamat ;xdt n./adv. agreement, of one and the
same mind or opinion
sahamati ;xdlt n. agreement, concurrence,
content
sahan ;xg n. endurance, enduring,
bearing
sahanu ;xgÚ v.t. to forbear, to endure, to
brook, to sustain, to
withstand
sahara ;xf/f n. help, assistance, support
sahasrabdi ;x;|fAbL n. millennium
sahaya ;xfo n. help, assistance, support
sahayak ;xfos n. assistant, helper, colleague
sahayak nadi ;xfos gbL n. tributary (river)
sahayata ;xfotf n. help, assistance, support
sahayog ;xof]u n. cooperation
sahayog samiti ;xof]u ;ldlt n. cooperative society

111
sahayogi ;xof]uL n. colleague, supporter,
assistant, friend
sahinlo ;flx+nf] n. third eldest [of brothers]
sahitya ;flxTo n. literature
sahityakar ;flxTosf/ n. writer, author
sahityashastra ;flxTozf:q n. poetics, rhetoric, literature
sahityik ;flxlTos adj. literary
sahu ;fxÚ n. merchant, trader, money-
lender, banker
sahu ;fx' n. shopkeeper, merchant,
trader, businessman,
moneylender
sahuni ;fxÚgL n. shopkeeper (female)
saiddhantik ;}$flGts adj. according top principle,
theoretical
sainik ;}lgs adj. military
sainik viman ;}lgs ljdfg n. military plane
saintis ;}+tL; num. thirty-seven, 37
saja ;hf n. punishment, confinement,
penalty
sajaya ;hfo n. punishment, confinement,
penalty
sajha ;f´f n. cooperative, joint enterprise
sajilo ;lhnf] adj. easy, simple
sakali ;snL adj. original, true, pure, good,
genuine
sakbhar ;se/ adv. as much as possible
sakesamma cando ;s];Dd rf*f] comp. as fast as possible, as soon
as possible
saknu ;SgÚ v.t. to be able; to finish, to
complete
saksham ;Ifd adj. capable, competent
sakshar ;fIf/ adj. literate
saksharta ;fIf/tf n. literacy
sal ;fn n. year [of vikram samvat]
salabalaunu ;nanfpgÚ v.i. to move restlessly
salah ;nx n. locust
salai ;nfO{ n. matches
salaiko batta ;nfO{ a§f n. match-box
salakhala ;fnfvfnf adj. on the average

112
salana ;fnfgf adj. annually, every year, yearly
sali ;fnL n. wife's younger sister
salig ;flnu n. statue, effigy, idol, image
salik ;flns n. statue, effigy, idol, image
salinda ;flnGbf adj. annually, every year
sallaha ;Nnfx n. consultation, advice,
counsel, conference,
deliberation
sallahakar ;Nnfxsf/ advisor, consultant
salo ;fnf] n. wif's younger brother
samacar ;dfrf/ n. news, information
samadhan ;dfwfg n. solving the problem,
cracking the nuts, removel
of doubts
samagra ;du| adj. whole, all, entire, complete
samaj ;dfh n. society
samaj shastra ;dfh zf:q n. sociology
samajik ;fdflhs adj. social
samajvad ;fdfHjfb n. socialism
samajvadi ;fdfHjfbL n./adj. socialist
samajvadi rajya ;fdfHjfbL /fHo n. socialist state
samaksha ;dIf postp. before, in front of,
samalocana ;dfnf]rgf n. review
saman ;fdfg n. things, materials,
apparatus, tools,
belongings, appliances
saman ;dfg adj. similar, equal, alike,
uniform, equivalent,
identical, tantamount
samanta ;dfgtf n. equality, equivalence,
parity, similarity, likeness
samanti ;fdGtL adj. feudal, feudatory
samanvaya ;dGjo n. combination, union,
uniformity, harmony,
natural succession
samanya ;fdfGo adj. ordinary, general, common,
usual, trivial, insignificant
samanya ling ;fdfGo lné n. double gender
samanya nam ;fdfGo gfd n. generic term

113
samapta ;dfKt adj. finished, completed,
accomplished
samarpan ;dk{)f n. offering, dedication,
surrender, deliverynce,
disposal, assignment
samartha ;dy{ adj. mighty, powerful, strong,
able
samarthak ;dy{s n./adj. supporter, vindicator;
supporting
samarthan ;dy{g n. support, ratification,
corroboration
samarthata ;dy{tf n. capability, competence
samasta ;d:t adj. whole, entire, all
samasti ;dli^ n. collectiveness, totality,
aggregate
samastigat ;dli^ut adv. collectively
samasya ;d:o n. problem, dilemma
samasyagrasta ;d:ofu|:t adj. problematic
samata ;dtf n. equalness, similarity,
evenness
samatal ;dtn adj. plain, level, smooth, even,
flat; moderate
samay ;do n. time, period, season,
opportunity, leisure,
occasion
sambal ;Dan n. support
sambandha ;DaGw n. relation, relationship,
connection, association,
affinity
sambandhi ;DaGwL suff. related with, pertaining to
sambandhi sarvanam ;DaGwL ;j{gfd n. relative pronoun
sambhavana ;Defjgf n. possibility, probability
sambhavatah ;DejtM adv. possible, in all probability
sambhranta ;De|fGt adj. perplexed, confused,
bewildered
sambodhan ;Daf]wg n. address, calling aloud;
vocative case
samcar ;Drf/ n. news, information
samdhi ;DwL n. son's father-in-law,
daughter's father-in-law
samdhini ;lDwgL n. son's mother-in-law,
daughter's mother-in-law
samet ;d]t postp. with, together with,

114
including, included
saminya ;fdLGo adj. simple, common
samiti ;ldlt n. committee
samjhana ;D´gf n. remembrance,
reminiscence, memory
samma ;Dd postp. upto, as far as
sammat ;Ddt adv. unanimous, agreeing,
agreed to, approved,
sanctioned, permitted
sammati ;Ddlt n. opinion, consent, approval,
permission, acceptance,
assent
sammelan ;Dd]ng n. meating, conference
sammilit ;DdLlnt adj. with eyes shut, with eyes
closed, covered
sammyaunu ;DDofpgÚ v.t. to level, to make plain
sampadak ;Dkfbs n. editor
sampadakiya ;DkfbsLo adj. editorial
sampadakiya sahayak ;DkfbsLo ;xfos n. assistant editor
sampadakiya vibhag ;DkfbsLo ljefu n. editorial department
sampanna ;DkGg adj. rich, well-off, prosperous,
wealthy, well-to-do
samparka ;Dks{ n. company, association,
union
sampradaya ;Dk|bfo n. sect, religious society,
mode, tradition, usage,
custom
sampurna ;Dk')f{ adj. complete, whole, entire, all,
total, perfect, finished
samrat ;d|f^\ n. emperor, sovereign, king of
the kings
samriddha ;d[$ adj. important
samu ;fdÚ postp. before, in front of, opposite,
facing
samuccaya ;dÚRro n. assemblage, mass,
collection
samudaya ;dÚbfo n. collection, assemblage,
group
samudayavacak nam ;dÚfojfrs gfd n. collective noun, generic
term
samudayik ;fdÚbflos adj. collective, pertaining to
community
samudra ;dÚb| n. sea, ocean

115
samudra sataha ;dÚb–| ;tx n. sea level
samuha ;d'x n. collection, assemblage,
group
samuhik ;d'lxs adj. collective
samunnati ;dÚGglt n. progress, development,
elevation, rise
samyatantra ;fDotGq n. communism
samyavad ;fDojfb n. communism
samyavadi ;fDojfbL n./adj. communist
san ;g n. jute
sana buva ;fgf aÚjf n. mother's younger sister's
husband
sancalan ;+rfng n. managing, directing
sancalan ;~rng n. movement
sancalit ;~rflnt adj. managed, conducted,
directed
sancar ;~rf/ n. movement, motion
sancaran ;~r/)f n. movement, motion
sanco ;frf] n./adj. 1. key; true, sincere, genuine,
real
sandarbha ;Gbe{ n. treatise, a collection of
anthology, formation,
construction; context,
appendage, expansion
sandarbha-suci ;Gbe{;"rL n. bibliography
sandesh ;Gb]z n. information, news,
message; command; gift
present
sandhe ;f(] n. bull
sanga ;ª postp. with, along with
sangai lanu ;ª} nfgÚ v.t. to take along, to take away
sangasangai ;ª;ª} adj. together
sanggathan ;é&g n. organization, union, league
sanggathanatmak ;+u&gfTds adj. organizational
sanggathanik ;é&lgs adj. organizational
sanggharsa ;+#if{ n. struggle, conflict, strife,
friction
sangh ;+# n. assembly, association,
multitude, monastery
sanghu ;f#Ú n. wooden bridge (of a log or
planks), small bridge

116
(usually made of bamboos
or planks of wood)
sangkalan ;°ng n. collection, compilation
sangkalpa ;°Nk n. solemn promise, resolve,
solution, determination
sangkat ;+s& n. distress, peril, caöamity,
agony
sangkat ;°^ n. hint, symbol, gesture, sign
sangketik ;fª\s]lts adj. token, nominal, symbolic,
indicative
sanglo ;fª\nf] n. roach
sanguro ;fuÚ/f] adj. narrow
sangyojik ;+of]lhs n. conjunction
sangyukta rastra ;+oÚQm /fi^« ;+# United Nations
sangh Organization
sani ama ;fgL cfdf n. mother's younger sister
sanishcavar ;lgZrjf/ n. Saturday
sanivar ;lgjf/ n. Saturday
sanjha ;f´ adv. in the evening
sanjha paryo ;f´ k¥oF] it became evening
sankhyabodhak ;+Voaf]ws adj. numerical [grammar]
sankhyamatrabodhak ;+Vofdfqaf]ws n. cardinal number
sankramankal ;+qmd)fsfn n. transitional period
sano ;fgf] adj. small, little, inferior
sanp ;fk n. snake
sanracana ;+/rgf n. structure, composition,
anatomy
sanrakshak ;+/Ifs n. keeper, preserver, guardian
sanrakshan ;+/If)f n. guardianship, patronage,
protection, conservation,
tutelage
sansad ;+;b n. parliament
sansadiya ;;bLo adj. parliamentary
sansadiya vyavastha ;;bLo Joj:yf n. parliamentary affairs
sanshodhan ;+zf]wg n. correction, purification,
refinement, revision,
amendment
sanshodhit ;+zf]lwt adj. corrected, amended,
revised
sanskar ;+:sf/ n. reformation, initiation,

117
purification
sanskaran ;+:s/)f n. correction, act of refining;
edition
sanskrit ;+:s[t n. Sanskrit
sanskriti ;+:s[lt n. culture, customs, tradition
sanskritik ;+:s[lts adj. cultural
sanskritmaya ;+:s[tdo adj. sanskritized, full of Sanskrit
sansmaran ;+:d/)f n. recollection, memory,
remembrance
sanstha ;+:yf n. institution, establishment
sansthagat ;+:yfut adj. institutional
sansthan ;+:yfg n. institution, establishment,
corporation
sansthapan ;+:yfkg n. establishment, founding,
initiation, inauguration,
foundation
santa ;Gt n. mendicant, ascetic, pious
person, devotee
santa-mahanta ;GtdxGt n. holy men
santan ;Gtfg n. family, extended family,
lineage, genealogy,
offsoring, children,
breeding
santanabbe ;GtfgAa] num. ninety-seven, 97
santan-nigraha ;Gtfglgu|x n. birth control, family
planning
santan-nirodh ;Gtfglg/f]w n. birth control, family
planning
santaunna ;GtfpGg num. fifty-seven, 57
santulan ;GtÚng n. equalization, making equal
sanu ;fgÚ adj. small, little, inferior
sanu ;fg' adj. small, little, inferior
sanvaidhanik ;+j]wflgs adj. constitutional
sanvarddhan ;+j${g n. rearing, breeding, fostering
sanvedanshil ;+j]bgzLn adj. sensitive, sensible, feeling
sanvidhan ;+ljwfg n. constitution
saph ;fkm adj. clear, fair, pure,
unadulterated, obvious,
bright
sapha ;kmf adj. clean, clear, pure,
transparent

118
saphal ;kmn adj. successful, effective, fruitful
saphalibhut ;kmnLe't adj. successful
saphalta ;kmntf n. success, achievement
sar ;f/ n. substance, essence,
kernel, purport, chief part,
vigour, spirit
sara ;f/f adj. all, whole, entire, complete
saraha ;/x adj. similar, like, resembling, on
equal footing
saral ;/n adj. easy, simple, plain,
straightforward, upright,
sincere
saranggi ;f/éL n. Sarangi, a kind of violin
sarapnu ;/fKgÚ v.t. to curse
saripha ;l/kmf n. custard-apple
sarkar ;/sf/ n. government, administration
sarkari ;/sf/L adj. governmental, public,
official, administrative
sarkari bhasa ;/sf/L efiff n. official language
sarnu ;fgÚ{ v.t. to move, to remove, to
shift, to copy, to infect
sarnu ;gÚ{ v.i. to move, to spread
sarp ;k{ n. snake
sarva ;j{ adj. all, entire, whole, complete
sarvahara ;j{xf/f n. proletariat
sarvajan ;j{hg pron. everybody
sarvajanik ;fj{hlgs adj. public
sarvanam ;j{gfd n. pronoun
sarvanamik ;fj{gflds adj. pronominal
sarvapracin ;j{k|frLg adj. oldest
sarvashrestha ;j{>]i& adj. best of all, preeminent,
highest, supreme,
paramount
sarvasva ;j{:j n. entire property, everything
sarvatomukhi ;j{tf]dÚlv adj. universal, all pervading
sarvekshan ;j]{If)f n. survey
sarvesarva ;j]{;jf{ adj. all-in-all, supreme, chied of
all
sasana ;f;gf n. punishment, suppression

119
sashakta ;zQm adj. potential, powerful, strong,
forceful
sashastra ;z:q adj. armed, equipped with arms
sasto ;:tf] adj. cheap
sasu ;f;' n. mother-in-law
sasura ;;Ú/f n. father-in-law
sasuro ;;Ú/f] n. father-in-law
sat ;t\ n. existence, essence,
substance, goodness
sat ;ft num. seven
sata ;ftf n. week, period of seven days
sataha ;tx n. surface, level
satahi ;^xL n. exchange of currency
satani ;^gL n. change, exhange,
interchange
satasi ;tf;L num. eighty-seven, 87
sataun ;ftf}+ adj. seventh
satcalis ;TrfnL; num. forty-seven
sath ;fy postp. with, including
sathattar ;txQ/ num. seventy-seven, 77
sathi ;fyL n. friend, companion
sathi ;f&L num. sixty, 60
sati ;tL n. Sati, virtuous wife, chaste
woman, faithful woman
satopuglo ;ftf]kÚUnf] n. spirit, presence of mind
satra ;q num. seventeen, 17
satsatthi ;T;^\&L num. sixty-seven, 67
satta ;§f n. change, exhange,
interchange
satta ;§f n. speculation
sattais ;QfO{; num. twenty-seven, 27
sattari ;Q/L num. seventy, 70
sattarudh ;Qf?( adj. ruling, wielding power
satu ;ftÚ n. flour of dryfried corn
satya ;To adj. true, real, right, veritable,
correct, honest
saun ;fpg n. fourth month of the Nepali
year [July-August]

120
saundarya ;f}Gbo{ beauty, charm, pretiness
saunvar ;fpñjf/ n. Monday
saurya ;f}o{ adj. solar
sauta ;f}tf n. co-wife
sava ;jf adj. a quarter past
saval ;jfn n. question, plumb, a laden
weight on a line
saya ;o num. hundred, 100
sekaunu ;]sfpgÚ v.t. to roast, to warm up
sekuva ;]sÚjf n. roasted meat
selaunu ;]nfpgÚ v.t. to cool
selroti ;]n/f]^L n. Nepalese doughnut made
of rice flour
sepilo ;]lknf] adj. shaded, dark
seto ;]tf] adj. white
seva ;]jf n. service, attendance,
worship
sevan ;]jg n. service, attendance,
worship
shabda zAb n. word
shabdakos zAbsf]if n. dictionary
shahar zx/ n. town
shaharikaran zx/Ls/)f n. urbanization
shahi zfxL adj. royal
shahid zfxLb n. martyr
shakta zQm adj. able, capable, strong,
vigorous, energetic, hard,
firm
shakti zlQm n. strength, power, prowess,
capability, calibre, vigour,
energy
shaktihina zlQmxLg adj. powerless, impotent,
enervated
shaktiman zlQmdfg adj. powerful, capable, mighty,
vigorous
shaktiparikshan zlQmk/LIf)f n. trial of strength
shaktishali zlQmzfnL adj. powerful, strong
shamel zfd]n adj. assembled, gathered
together, united together
shamil zfldn adj. assembled, gathered

121
together, united together
shangka z°f n. doubt, suspicion,
apprehension
shankalu z+sfnÚ adj. suspicious, questionable,
prone to suspicion, vague
shankaradeva z+s/b]j n. Shankaradeva [a Licchavi
king, grandfather of
Manadeva I]
shanta zfGt adj. calm, quiet, mild, serene,
pacific, grave, silent
sharad z/b n. early autumn
sharan z/)f n. protection, shelter
sharanarthi z/)ffyL{ n. refugee, shelter-seeker
sharat z/t n. early autumn
sharir z/L/ n. body
shasak zf;s n. administrator, ruler,
governor
shasakiya zf;sLo adj. governmental,
administrative, public
shasan zf;g n. command, authority,
governance, reign
shasan parivartan zf;g kl/jt{g n. coup, putsch
shasana zf;gf n. punishment, suppression
shasankal zf;gsfn n. term of office, reign
shasankarta zf;gstf{ n. administrator, ruler,
governor
shasanpaddhati zf;gk$lt n. polity, system of
government
shasan-pranali zf;gk|)ffnL n. government, constitution
shasantantra zf;gktGq n. government, constituion
shasit zfl;t adj. ruled, administered,
governed; punished
shastra z:q n. weapon, arms, tool,
instrument
shatabda ztfAb n. century
shatabdi ztfAbL n. century
shatak zts adj. hundred, 100
shatru zqÚ n. enemy
shatruta zqÚtf n. enmity, hostility
shaucalaya zf}rfno n. rest room, toilet
shav zj n. corpse

122
shayad zfob adv. perhaps, maybe
sherpa z]kf{ n. Sherpa [a Nepali
nationality]
shikariko svarg lzsf/Lsf] :ju{ n. hunting paradise
shiksha lzIff n. education
shikshak lzIfs n. teacher
shikshan lzIf)f n. teaching, instruction,
education
shir lz/ n. head, crest, noddle,
summit, top of anything
Shista lzi^ adj. gentle, polite, mannerly,
civil, wellbred, refined,
trained
shisya lzio n. student, pupil, disciple
shithilta lzlyntf n. feebleness, weakness,
looseness, laxity
shlok Zn]]s n. verse, stanza, poetry,
couplet
shobha zf]ef n. beauty, handsomeness,
magnificence, elegance,
lustre, replendence
shos zf]if n. suction, drying up,
withering, dryness,
absorption, sucking
shosak zf]ifs adj. absorbent, withering
shosan zf]if)f n. suction, drying up,
withering, dryness,
absorption, sucking,
exploitation
shosit zf]lift adj. exploited
shram >d n. hard labour, toil, exertion
shravan >fj)f n. fourth month of the Nepali
year [July-August]
shri >L n. Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss
shrilangka >Lnéf n. Sri Lanka
shriman >Ldfg n. husband
shrimati >LdtL n. wife
shuddha zÚ$ adj. pure, genuine, chaste,
uncontaminated, clear,
uncorrupted, unadulterated
shukavar zÚsjf/ n. Friday
shukla paksha zÚSn kIf comp. the moonlit half of a lunar
month

123
shukravar zÚqmjf/ n. Friday
shunya z'Go n./adj. empty, nill, zero
shur z'/ adj. hero, warrior, champion
shuru zÚ¿ n. start, beginning
shuru garnu zÚ¿ ugÚ{ to start, to begin
shyarpa Zofkf{ n. Sherpa [a Nepali
nationality]
siddhanta l;$fGt n. doctrine, tenet, established
truth
siddhi l;l$ n. perfection,
accomplishment, maturity,
fulfilment, victory
siddhyaunu l;$ØfpgÚ v.t. to finish, to complete, to kill
sikkim l;lSsd n. Sikkim
siknu l;SgÚ v.t. to learn
silbar l;Na/ n. aluminium
siling l;lnª n. ceiling
sima ;Ldf n. boundary, border, limit,
landmark
simana l;dfgf n. boundary, border, limit,
landmark
simi l;dL n. bean
simit ;Lldt adj. limited, restricted
sinbi l;+aL n. bean
sincai l;+rfO n. watering, irrigation
sincit l;l~rt adj. irrigated, drenched
sindur l;+b'/ n. vermilion, lead powder
sindure l;+b'/] adj. scarlet, vermilion-coloured
singgapur l;+ufkÚ/ Singapur
sinha l;+x n. lion
sinhasan l;+xf;g n. throne, lion's seat
sinki l;GsL n. soured raddish, fermented
raddish
sip ;Lk n. handicraft, handiwork, art,
craft, arts and crafts, skill
sipahi l;kfxL n. soldier
sipalu l;kfnÚ adj. skilful, experienced, clever,
skilled
sipharish l;kmfl/z n. recommendation, letter of

124
support; intercession
sirak l;/s n. quilt
sirani l;/fgL n. pillow
sirjana l;h{gf n. creation, formation,
construction
sisa ;L;f n. lead
sita l;t postp. with, along with
siune kal l;pg] sn n. sewing machine
siunu l;pgÚ v.i. to sew, to stitch
siyo l;of] n. needle
skulma padhnu :s'ndf k(\gÚ comp. to go to school
smaran-patra :d/)f–kq n. reminder, memorandum
smarika :dfl/sf n. monument, memorial;
commemorative volume
smriti :d[lt n. memory, remembrance,
memento
smriti-patra :d[lt–kq n. reminder, memorandum
snan :gfg n. bath
snankotha :gfgsf]&f n. bathroom
so ;f adj. that, that one, he, she
sobhita ;f]letf n. cobalt
socnu ;f]RgÚ v.t. to think, to ponder, to
consider
sodhakhoj ;f]wvf]h n. research program,
research project
sohra ;f]x| num. sixteen, 16
sojho ;f]´f] adj. straigt, straigtforward,
honest
somvar ;f]djf/ n. Monday
sopan ;f]kfg n. steps, ladder, staircase
spast :ki^ adj. distinct, clear, intelligible,
lucid, apparent, evident
sresta ;|:tf n. book-keeping, account,
register book
srot ;|f]t n. current, stream, channel,
water course, source of
income
srot ra sadhan >f]t / ;fwg n. resources
stambha :tDe n. column
stan :tg n. breast

125
stava :tj n. praise, admiration; prayer,
hymn
steshan :^]zg n. station
sthagit :ylut adj. postpones, adjourned
sthan :yfg n. place, spot, site, position,
house
sthaniya :yfgLo adj. local, territorial, regional,
topical
sthapan :yfkg n. establishment, foundation,
setting up, creation,
planting, placing
sthapana :yfkgf n. establishment, foundation,
setting up, creation,
planting, placing
sthapit :yflkt adj. propounded, founded,
established, instituted, set
up, fixed, placed, erected,
installed
sthayi :yfoL adj. pßermanent, stationary,
fast, durable, lasting,
stable, steady
sthayitva :yfloTj n. permanence, durability,
sustainment
sthira l:y/ adj. stable, firm, fixed,
permanent, constant,
steadfast, immovable,
determined, patient
sthirata l:y/tf n. immobility, steadiness,
stability, constancy,
immutability, patience
sthiratva l:y/Tjf n. immobility, steadiness,
stability, constancy,
immutability, patience
sthiti l:ylt n. place, position,
circumstance, condition,
phase, equilibrium
striling :qLlné n. female [grammar]
stuti :t"lt n. praise, glorification, eulogy,
admiration; hymn of praise,
invocation, solemn prayer
subista ;Úla:tf n. easiness, comfort
subistako ;Úla:tfsf] adj. comfortable, easy
sucana ;'rgf n. notice, notification,
information, advertisement,
indication, hint
sucanapatra ;'rgfkq n. advertisement, notice

126
suci ;'lr n. needle, a pointed piece of
iron, goad, prong
suci ;'rL n. liste, table, index,
catalogue
sudhar ;Úwf/ n. improvement, reform,
reformation, correction,
amendment, renovationr
sudharak ;Úwf/s n. reformer, improver,
disciplinarian
sudharnu ;ÚwfgÚ{ v.t. to correct, to reform, to
amend, to make better
sudridha ;Úb[( adv. very strong, very firm, very
rigid
suga ;'uf n. parrot
sujhau ;'´fp n. suggestion, advice, counsel
sujhav ;'´fj n. suggestion, advice, counsel
sukhi ;"vL adj. happy, pleased, delighted
sukhiya ;"lvof adj. pleasure loving, pleasant,
happy
sukti ;"lQm n. good saying, beautiful
sentence
sukul ;ÚsÚn n. a kind of straw mat, a
person of high or
respectable family
sukumvasi ;ÚsÚdjf;L n./adj. a homeless person,
homeless
sukuti ;ÚsÚ^L n. dried meat, jerk
sun ;Úg n. gold
sunaulo ;Úgf}nf] adj. golden
sunaunu ;ÚgfpgÚ v.t. to make others hear, to tell
sundar ;ÚGb/ adj. beautiful, nice, pretty,
charming
sundha ;Ú( n. trunk (of an elephant) snout
sungur ;ÚuÚ/ n. pig, hog
suntala ;ÚGtnf n. tangerine
suntale ;ÚGtn] adj. orange-coloured
sunuvar ;ÚgÚjf/ n. Sunuwar [a Nepali
nationality]
supari ;Úkf/L n. areca nut, betel nut
suraksha ;Ú/Iff protection, security
surakshit ;Ú/lIft adj. well protected, in safety

127
surti ;ÚtL{ n. tobacco
suruva ;Ú?jf n. meat broth, meat soup
surya ;'o{ n. sun
susajjit ;Ú;lHht adj. well adorned, well prepared
susangat ;Ú;+ut well associated, well
accompanied; reasonable
susangata ;Ú;+utf n. good association, good
companionship
susangati ;Ú;+ult n. good companionship
suselnu ;Ú;]NgÚ v.t. to whistle
suselo ;Ú;]nf] n. whistling, sighing; whistling
sound made by the wind,
sound produced by water
while flowing
sushasan ;Úzf;g n. good government, good
rule, good administration
sushri ;Ú>L n. Miss
susta ;Ú:t adj. lazy, slow, idle, tardy,
inactive
sutne kotha ;ÚTg] sf]&f n. bed room
sutnu ;ÚTgÚ v.i. to sleep, to go to sleep, to
go to bed, to lie down
sutrapat ;'qkft n. beginning, commencement
suvidha ;Úljwf n. facility, convenience
suvista ;Úlj:tf n. easiness, comfort
svabhav :jefj n. habit, nature, temperament,
character
svabhavatah :jefjtM adv. naturally, by nature
svabhavik :jefljs adj. natural, by nature
svaccha :jR% adj. clean, clear, pure,
transparent
svad :jfb n. taste
svadhin :jfwLg adj. independent, free, self-
governing, autonomous
svadhinata :jfwLgtf n. independence, freedom,
autonomy
svami :jfdL n. master, owner, lord,
proprietor, husband
svar :j/ n. voice, sound, tune, tone,
vowel
svarg :ju{ n. heaven, paradise, sky,
heavens; a beautiful place,

128
a pleasant site
svargavas :ju{jf; n. death, passing away
svarup :j¿k n. shape, form, apperarance
svasni :jf:gL n. wife [common]
svasnimanche :jf:gLdfG%] n. woman
svasth :j:y adj. healthy
svasthya :jf:Yo n. health
svatah :jtM adj. voluntarily, spontaneous, of
one's own accord
svatantra :jtGq adj. free
svatantrata :jtGqtf n. freedom, independence
svatantrata divas :jtGqtf lbj; n. independence day
svayam :jod adv. personally, self
svayambhunath :jfoDe'gfy n. Swayambhunath
svayamev :jod]j adv. personally, self
svayamsevak :jod;]js n. volunteer
svayang :jo+ adj. personally, self
svayatta :jfoQ adj. autonomous, under one's
control
svayatta shasan :jfoQ zf;g n. autonomy, self-government
svayattashasi :jfoQzf;L adj. autonomous
svayattata :jfoQtf n. autonomy
svikar :jLsf/ n. acceptance, confession,
assent, agreement
svikrit :jLs[t adj. accepted, agreed,
consented, conferred
svikriti :jLs[lt n. acceptance, sanction,
approbation,
acknowledgement, consent
syal :ofn n. jackal
syau :ofp n. apple
tadha ^f(f adj. far (away)
tadkanu t*\sgÚ v.i. to walk speedily, to shout,
to cry
tadkinu t*\lsgÚ v.i. to walk speedily, to shout,
to cry
tai tfO{ n. flat iron pan
taipani t}klg conj. though, notwithstanding
taja tfhf adj. fresh, not stale; green,

129
unfaded; recent
tak tfs n. time, hour, opportunity,
chance
tak ^s n. reflection, light; gazing,
staring; looking at the
things with closing the eyes
takaliph tsnLkm n. trouble, pain, affliction
takiya tlsof n. pillow
takuro ^fsÚ/f] n. summit, top, peak, apex
tal tfn n. lake
tala tfnf n. lock
tala tn postp. down, below
tala tnf n. floor
talak tns postp. upto, as long as
talca tfNrf n. lock
talika tflnsf n. list, key, table, schedule
talim tfnLd n. training, teaching
talkanu ^NsgÚ v.i. to shine, to glitter, to
sparkle
talkinu ^lNsgÚ v.i. to shine, to glitter, to
sparkle
talmel tfnd]n n. co-ordination,
concordance, harmony,
agreement
talu tfnÚ n. palate
tama tfdf n. copper
tamakhu tdfvÚ n. tobacco
tamang tfdfª n. Tamang [a Nepali
nationality]
tamsanu tD;gÚ v.i. to be forward, to be active
tamu tdÚ n. Tamu, Gurung [a Nepali
nationality]
tanahun tgxÚ n. Tanahun [former mini-state;
today district in western
Nepal]
tanav tgfj n. tension, tenseness, strain,
tautness
tanba tfaf n. copper
tanda tGbf n. bed-sheet
tannu tfGgÚ v.t. to draw, to pull, to drag

130
tansnu ^f:gÚ v.t. to stick, to fasten, to join
tap tk n. penance, practice, heat,
warmth
tap tfk n. heat, warmth; mental
sorrow, anxiety, regret
tapani tfklg conj. although, nevertheless
tapari ^k/L n. a plate made of leaves,
leaf-plate
tapke tfKs] n. frying pan
tar t/ n. cream
tara tf/f n. star
tara t/ conj. but
taranga t/é n. wave, whim, caprice;
emotion, vibration
taraph t/km n. direction, side
taraph t/km conj. towards
tarbuja taÚ{hf n. watermelon
tari khet ^f/L v]t n. terraced field
tarika t/Lsf n. method, manner, way,
means
tarikh tf/Lv n. date [according to the
western calendar]
tariko sag tf/Lsf] ;fu n. mustard greens [small]
tark ts{ n. debate, discussion,
argument
tarkari tsf{gL n. vegetable curry
tarnu tfgÚ{ v.t. to deep fry
tarph tkm{ conj. towards
tarph tkm{ n. direction, side
tarphbata tkm{af& postp. on the part of, from
tarul t?n n. yam
tarun t?)f n. young man, youth, juvenile
taruno t?gf] n. young man, youth, juvenile
tasartha t;y{ int. on account of that, from
that reason, therefore
taskar t:s/ n. smuggler
taskari t:s/L n. smuggling
tat t^ n. shore, bank, beach, coast
tatastha t^:y adj. neutral, objective,

131
indifferent
tataunu ttfpgÚ v.t. to heat, to warm up
tatha tyf conj. and
tathya tYo n. truth, reality, substance
tato ^f^f] n. mark, spot, scar, stain
tato tftf] adj. warm, hot
tato pani tftf] kfgL n. hot water, warm water
tattva tQj n. truth; true state, essence,
substance, the real factor
of bringing things into
existence
tau tfp n. sheet of paper
tauko ^fpsf] n. head
taulanu tf}ngÚ v.t. to weigh, to compare
tauliya tf}lnof n. towel
tavar tj/ n. manner, way, mode,
method
tayar tof/ adv. ready
tayar garnu tof/ ugÚ{ v.t. to make ready
tayar hunu tof/ xÚgÚ v.i. to be ready, to make ready
tayarima tof/L n. readiness, preparation
tebbar t]Aa/ adj. thrice, threefold, three
times, triplicate
tehra t]x| num. thirteen, 13
teis t]O{; num. twenty-three, 23
tekne lauro ^]Sg] nf}/f] n. staff, walking stick
telbij t]naLh n. oilseed
telhan t]nxg n. oilseed
tenis ^]lg; n. tennis
ternu ^]gÚ{ v.t. to obey, to respect; to pay
attention
tesro t];|f] adj. third
tesro dhrava t];|f] w|j n. third pole
tettis t]QL; num. thirty-three, 33
thag &u n. cheat, knave, swindler
thagaha &ufxf n. cheat, knave, swindler
thagnu &UgÚ v.i. to cheat, to deceive
thaha yfxf n. knowledge, information

132
thakai ysfO n. fatigue, weariness,
exhaustion
thakali ysfnL n. Thakali [a Nepali
nationality]
thaknu yfSgÚ v.i. to get tired, to become
tired, to be exhausted
thal yfn n. plate
thali yfnL n. small plate
thalni yfNgL n. beginning, commencement
thalnu yfNgÚ v.t. to begin, to start, to
commence
thalo ynf] n. place, land; levelled high
place, table land
thamaunu &dfpgÚ v.t. to recognize, to know
thami yfdL n. Thami [a Nepali nationality]
thamyaunu &DofpgÚ v.t. to recognise, to know
thana yfgf n. police station. police post
thana &fgf n. police station. police post
thanda &G*f adj. cold, chilly
thanda marubhumi &)*f d?e"ld n. tundra
thannu &fGgÚ v.t. to think, to determine
thapnu yfKgÚ v.t. to establish, to erect, to
place
thar y/ n. clan, tribe, subcaste
tharkaunu ysf{pgÚ v.t. to frighten, to shake
tharu yf? n. Tharu [a Nepali nationality]
thati yfgL n. pawn, stake, postponement
thaun &fpñ n. place, spot, opportunity
thegnu y]UgÚ v.i. to last, to persist, to endure
theknu &]SgÚ v.t. to fix, to sum up, to appoint,
to post
thicnu lyRgÚ v.t. to press, to crush, to
squeeze
thik &Ls adj. right, correct
thiti l&^L n. lass, girl, young women
thiti lylt n. arrangement, order,
custom, regulation, usage
thiti-riti lyltl/lt n. arrangement, order,
custom, regulation, usage

133
thito l&^f] n. lad, boy, young man
thople yf]Kn] adj. spotted
thopo yf]kf] n. drop, speck
thor yf]/ adj. less
thorai yf]/} adj. a little, few
thuli ama &'nL cfdf n. father's elder brother's wife,
mother's elder sister
thulo &'nf] adj. big
thulo ba &'nf] af n. father's elder brother,
mother's elder sister's
husband
thulo buva &'nf] aÚjf n. father's elder brother,
mother's elder sister's
husband
thunse yÚG;] n. a large close-meshed
basket
thunuva yÚgÚjf adj. imprisoned, arrested
thuprai aunu yÚk|} cfpgÚ v.i. to pour in, to swarm in
thupro yÚk|f] n. heap, mound, pile, crowd
ti tL pron. those
tibbat ltAat n. Tibet
tighra lt#|f n. thigh
tihun ltxÚg n. vegetable stew
tikho tLvf] adj. sharp, pointed
tiknu l^SgÚ v.i. to last, to remain, to endure
til tLn n. sesame
tin l^g n. tin
tin tLg num. three, 3
tinma ltgdf under it, under them, under
there
tinma adhi bhanda ltgdf cf#L eGbf s]xL a little bit more than half of
kehi badhi a(L them
tippani l^Kk)fL n. note, annotation, comment,
commentary, observation,
critical remark
tippanikar l^Kk)fLsf/ n. commentator
tira lt/ postp. towards, in direction to
tirnu ltgÚ{ v.t. tp pay
tirsana lt;{gf n. desire for drink and food,

134
thirst; desire, wish,
ambition
tis tL; num. thirty, 30
tithi ltly n. date [according to the
astrological calendar]
titri ltqL n. a sour fruit [relished for
pickle], tamarind
toknu tf]SgÚ v.t. to fix, to determine, to
appoint, to decide
toli ^f]nL n. small group, btch, party,
team
topalnu ^f]kNgÚ v.t. to pretend, to make a
pretext
tori tf]/L n. mustard
torika phul dekhnu tf]/Lsf kmn b]VgÚ to be astonished
tran qf)f n. protection, defence, safety
tribhuj lqeÚh n. triangle
tricalis lqrfnL; num. forty-three, 43
trihattar lqxQ/ num. seventy-three, 73
tripanna lqkGg num. fifty-three, 53
trisatthi lq;^\&L num. sixty-three, 63
tritiya purus t[tLo kÚ?if n. third person [ling.]
tritiyapurusvacak t[tLo kÚ?ifjfrs n. third person [grammar]
triyakalap lqofsnfk n. function, task
triyanabbe lqofgAa] num. ninety-three, 93
triyasi lqof;L num. eighty-three, 83
tukra ^Úqmf n. a small piece,
tukrinu ^ÚlqmgÚ v.i. to be divided to pieces
tulana tÚngf n. comparison, similarity
tunginu ^Ú+lugÚ v.i. to come to an end, to be
finished, to be completed
tupi ^ÚkL n. pig-tail
turunta tÚ?Gt adj. immediate
tyag Tofu n. desertion, abandonment
tyahan Toxf adv. there
tyas tak To; tfs adv. at that time
tyasai To;} adv. in that way, without any
reason; free, vain
tyasaile To;}n] conj. therefore, so

135
tyaso hunale To;f] xÚgfn] conj. so, thus
tyasprati To;k|lt adv. in this connection,
concerning this
tyasto To:tf] pron. such, that kind of, like that
tyatiko Toltsf] adj. that much, that big
ubhayaling peoln¨ n. double gender
ubhinu plegÚ v.i. to stand up, to stand, to get
up
ubhyaunu pEofpgÚ v.t. to cause to stand, to raise
up
ubjani pAhgL n. production, productivity
ubjanu pAhgÚ v.i. to grow, to grow up, to be
produced
ubjaunu pAhfpgÚ v.t. to produce, to cause to
grow
ubranu pa|gÚ v.i. to be left over
ucalnu prfNgÚ v.t. to lift up
ucca pRr adj. high, lofty, upper, superior
ucca parvatiya pRr kj{tLo adj. alpine
udaharan pbfx/)f n. instance, example,
illustration
udaharaniya pbfx/)fLo adj. exemplary
udan p*fg n. flight, act of flying or fleeing
udar pbf/ adj. high minded, munificent,
generous, open-hearted,
noble-minded
udarashaya pbf/fzo adj. generous, high-minded,
magnanimous
udarta pbf/tf n. generosity, liberality,
magnanimity, nobleness
udarvad pbf/jfb n. liberalism
udarvadi pbf/jfbL n. liberal, liberalist
udas pbf; adj. sad
udasi pbf;L adj. sad
udaunu p*fpgÚ v.t. to cause to fly; to waste, to
squander, to gobble
udaunu pbfpgÚ v.i. to rise (sun or moon)
udaya pbo n. rising, ascent, dawning
uddesh p@]z n. desire, wish, intention,
purpose
uddeshya p@]Zo n. aim, objective

136
uddhar p$f/ n. kindness, charity
udgar pb\uf/ n. exclamation, emotional
statement
udharnu pwfg{ v.t. to rip up
udhinnu plwÌGgÚ v.t. to dig up, to pick out, to find
out, to search, to select
udnu p*\gÚ v.i. to fly
udus p*Ú; n. bedbug
udyamashil pBdzLn adj. industrial
udyat pBt adj. ready, prepared, raised,
brought up
udyog pBf]u n. industry, enterprise, effort,
diligence
udyogi pBf]uL adj. industrious
ugharnu p#fgÚ{ v.t. to open, to unlock
ughranu p#|gÚ v.i. to be opened
ugra pu| adj. wrathful, angry, fierce
uhan pxf pron. he, she [very polite]
uhile plxn] adv. then, at that time, many
years ago, long ago
ujad phf* adj. deserted, isolated
ujyalo pHofnf] adj. light
ukali psfnL n. upward gradient
ukalnu psfNgÚ v.t. to lift
ukalo psfnf] n./adj. steepness, upward
gradient; steep
ukasnu psf:gÚ v.t. ro raise, to rouse
ukelnu ps]NgÚ v.t. to vomit, to spew out
ukhan pvfg n. proverb, saying, aphorism
ukhelnu pv]NgÚ v.t. to uproot, to remove
ukhu pvÚ n. sugar cane
ukkaunu pSsfpgÚ v.t. to break open, to initiate
ukkinu plSsgÚ v.i. to be selected, to be picked
out
uklanu pSngÚ v.t. to climb up, to ascend
ukta pQm adj. mentioned, said
ukti plQm n. statement, remark, a
saying

137
ukusmukusaunu psÚ;dÚsÚ;fpgÚ v.t. to stifle, to cause
claustrophobia
ullangghan pNn+#g n. violation, contravention
ullas pNnf; n. joy, delight
ullekh pNn]v n. mention, reference,
description
ullekhniya pNn]vgLo adj. remarkable, worthy of
being mentioned
ullikhit pNn]lvt adj. written, mentioned
ulto pN^f] adj. opposite, upside-down
umalnu pdfNgÚ v.t. to cause to boil
umarnu pdfgÚ{ v.t. to cause to sprout
umedvar pd]bjf/ n. candidate
umer pd]/ n. age, length of life
umkanu pDsgÚ v.i. to escape, to get free, to
slip out
umlanu pDngÚ v.i. to boil, to bubble up, to
simmer
ummedvar pDd]bjf/ n. candidate
umranu pd|gÚ v.i. to sprout, to spring up, to
grow up
un pmg n. wool
unancas pgGrf; num. forty-nine, 49
unannabbe pgfGgAa] num. eighty-nine
unansattari pgfG;Q/L num. sixty-nine, 69
unansaya pgfG;o num. ninety-nine, 99
unasi pgf;L num. seventy-nine, 79
unca pmrf adj. high, lofty
uncai pmrfO n. height, tallness, summit
uncalis pGrfnL; num. thirty-nine, 39
unco pmrf] adj. high
unco prf] adj. high
uni kammal pmgL sDdn n. wollen blanket
unmulan pGd'ng n. uprooting, destruction,
eradication
unnais pGgfO{; num. nineteen, 19
unnat pGgt adj. risen, progressed,
improved
unnati pGglt n. progress, rise,

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advancement,
improvement, prosperity,
elevation
unnatishil pGgltzLn adj. progressive
unnayak pGgfos n. uplifter, reformer, leader
unnayan pGgog n. uplift, development
unnu pÌGgÚ v.t. to wreath, to thread, to
string, to pass a thread
through a needle
unsathi pG;f&L num. fifty-nine, 59
unta pm^ n. camel
untis pGtL; num. twenty-nine, 29
upabhog pkef]u n. enjoyment
upabhokta pkef]Qm n. consumer, user
upacar pkrf/ n. remedy, medical treatment,
care
upadesh pkb]z n. instruction, counsel, lesson
upadhi pkflw n. title, attribute, designation,
status
upahar pkxf/ n. present, gift
upaj pkh n. crop, produce, product
upakhyan pkfVofg n. legend, tale, episode (of a
narration); proverb, sying
upakram pkqmd n. plan, programme,
preparations, beginning,
preamble, preface
upalabdha pknAw adj. gained, felt, acquired,
attained, available
upalabdhi pknAwL n. achievement,
accomplishment
upalakshya pknIo n. sign, implication, ourpose,
occasion
upama pkdf n. comparison, simile,
likeness
upanisad pklgifb\ n. Upanishads (the
theological part of the
vedas)
upanisadvadi pklgifb\jfnL n. (someone who is following
the teachings of the
Upanishads)
upansanhar pk;+xf/ n. conclusion, summary
upanyas pkGof; n. novel

139
upar pk/ postp. above, over, for
uparastrapati pk/fi^«klt n. vice-president
uparna pkgf{ n. scarf, shawl
upasabhapati pk;efklt n. vice-chairman [of a
meeting, organization or
party]
upasthiti pkl:ylt n. presence, attendance
upatya pkTo n. valley
upa-usnakatibandhi pk–pi)fsl^aGwL adj. subtropical
upayog pkof]u n. use, utilization, application
upayogita pkof]lutf n. usefulness, utility
upayukta pkoÚQm adj. proper, suitable,
appropriate
upeksha pk]Iff n. slight, indignity, neglect,
disregard, contempt, scorn
upekshit pk]lIft adj. neglected, ignored,
discarded, disregarded
uphranu pk|mgÚ v.i. to jump, to leap
upiyan plkofñ n. flea
uralnu p/fNgÚ v.t. to instigate, to incite
urlanu pn{gÚ v.i. to surge up, to rise up, to
come in waves; to become
angry
usa piff n. dawn, daybreak
usinnu pl;ÌGgÚ v.t. to boil while cooking
uso p;f] adj. like that, such
uta ptf adv. there, thither
utarnu ptfgÚ{ v.t. to cause to get off, to cause
to descend, to help to
descend, to take off
(clothes)
uthal-puthal pyn–kÚyn n. overturning, change
uthaunu p&fpgÚ v.t. to wake up, to rouse, to
cause to rise
uthnu p&\gÚ v.i. to get up, to stand up, to
stand
uti plt adv. that much
utnikher plTgv]/ adv. meanwhile, at that time
utpadan pTkfbg n. production
utpatti pTklQ n. origin, production

140
utpidak pTkL*s n. oppressor
utpidit pTkLl*t n. oppression, persecution,
harassment
utpidit varga pTkLl*t ju{ n. oppressed class
utranu pqgÚ v.i. to get off, to descend, to
float, to rise out of, to rise
above
utrinu plqgÚ v.i. to get off, to come down, to
descend
utsaha pT;fx n. enthusiasm, excitement
utsav pT;j n. entertainment, festival,
celebration, festivity
utsukta pT;Ústf n. enthusiasm, excitement
uttam pQd adj. supreme, best
uttano pQfgf] adj. flat on one's back
uttar pQ/ n. answer, reply; north
uttaradhikari pQ/flwsf/L n. heir, successor, inheritor
uttardayi pQ/bfoL adj. responsible, answerable,
accountable
uttejit pQ]lht adj. excited, quickened
utthan pTyfg n. upliftment; progress,
emancipation
vacan jrg n. speech, utterance, talk
vad jfb n. theory, dispute, controversy
vaicarik j}rfl/s adj. ideological
vaidhanik j}wflgs adj. constitutional, according to
the constitution
vaishakh j}zfv n. first month of the Nepali
year [April-May]
vajracarya jh|frfo{ n. Vajracharya, Bajracharya,
a tantric guru, a Buddhist
priest
vaktavya jQmJo n. speech, statement, topic
vampanthi jfdkGyL n./adj. leftist
van biralo jg la/fnf] n. wild cat
van upabhokta jg pkef]Qmf ;d'x n. forest users group
samuha
vanbhoja jfef]h n. picknick
vanijya jfl)fHo n. trade, commerce, business
vanko dhan jgsf] wfg n. forest resources

141
vansha j+z n. clan, pedigree, dynasty,
lineage, birth, family, tribe,
generation
vardan j/bfg n. boon
varga ju{ n. class, kind, series, row
varga mil ju{ dLn n. square mile
vargahin ju{xLg adj. classless
vargahin samaj ju{xLg ;dfh n. classless society
varipari jl/kl/ adv. all round, round about, on
all sides
varnan j)f{g n. description, narration,
encomium
varsa jif{ n. year
varsa jiff{ n. rains, rainy season,
monsoon
varta jftf{ n. discourse, account,
conversation, topic, talk,
dialogue
vartalap jftf{nfk n. dialogue, conversation,
talk, discourse
vartaman jt{dfg adj. current, existing, modern,
current time, present time
vasanta j;Gt n. spring
vasi jf;L n. inhabitant, dweller
vastavik jf:tljs adj. in reality, essential,
genuine, true, virtual
vastavikta jf:tljstf n. reality, truth
vastu j:tÚ n. thing, item, substance,
article, property; cattle
vastutah j:tÚtM adv. in reality
vatavaran jftfj/)f n. condition, surrounding,
environment,
circumstances, situation
veda j]b n. Veda
vela j]nf n. time
veshya j]Zof n. prostitute, whore, harlot
vibhag ljefu n. section, part, department
vibhagiya ljefuLo adj. departmental, related to the
department
vibhajan ljefhg n. section, part, department
vibhinna ljleÌ adj. various, diverse, different
kinds of

142
vicalan ljrng n. departure, deviation,
moving about,
unsteadiness
vicar ljrf/ n. consideration, observation,
notion, idea, judgement
videsh ljb]z n. foreign country
videshi ljb]zL n. foreigner
videshi sahayata ljb]zL ;xfotf n. foreign aid
vidhan ljwfg n. legislation, act, law,
ordinance, regulation, rule
vidheyak ljw]os n. bill [in a legislature]
vidhi ljlw n. method, procedure, law,
rule, prescript
vidhipurvak ljlwk'j{s adv. duly, methodically,
systematically
vidhivat ljlwjt adv. duly, methodically,
systematically, in
conformity with rules, as
prescribed by law
vidit ljlbt adj. known, understood,
acquainted
vidroha ljb|f]x n. revolt, rebellion, mutiny,
treason
vidvan ljåfg n./adj. scholar; learned, wise
vidya ljBf n. knowledge, learning,
attainment
vidyabhyas ljBfEof; n. study, habit of study,
practice of learning
vidyalaya ljBfno n. school, college, academy,
seminary
vidyarambha ljBf/De n. initiation into one's studies
with religious solemnities,
the beginning of reading an
writing
vidyarthi ljBfyL{ n. student
vidyarthi gatividhi ljBfyL{ ultljlw n. student movement
vidyashram ljBf>d n. boarding school
vidyut ljBÚt n. electricity
vigat ljut adj. past, gone away
vighatan lj#^g n. break up, dissolution,
destruction
vigyan lj!fg n. acquired knowledge,
conscience, wisdom,
understanding, science

143
vihina ljxLg postp. devoid of, deprived of,
destitute of
vihinata ljxLgtf n. missing, non-existence
vijaya ljho n. victory, triumph, conquest
vijaya ljhof n. the goddess Durga, the
Durga Puja festival
vijaya dashami ljhof bzdL n. the Dashara festival, the
Dasain festival
vijayi ljhoL n./adj. victor, conqueror,
vanquisher; victorious,
triumphant
vijeta ljh]tf n. conqueror, victor, one who
has achieved victory
vikas ljsf; n. development, expansion,
evolution
vikasit ljsfl;t adj. developed
vikasit ljsl;t adj. developed
vikat ljs^ adj. dreadful, difficult, hideous
vikendrikaran ljs]Gb|Ls/)f n. decentralization
vikhandan ljv)*g n. fission, breaking up,
splitting up, fragmentation
vikhandit ljvl)*t adj. divided, separated, split up,
cut off, broken
vikriti ljs[lt n. deformation, defilement,
mutilation, defect
vilas ljnf; n. luxury, enjoyment,
luxurious life, sensuous
pleasure, pleasure with the
opposite sex
vilayat ljnfot n. foreign land, foreign
country, Europe, England
viman ljdfg n. airplane, airship
vimansthal ljdfg:yn n. airfield, airstrip
vinash ljgfz n. destruction, ruin, disaster,
loss
vipanna ljkÌ adj. distressed, afflicted, fallen
into calamity, in a critical
state
viparit ljk/Lt adj. opposit, contrary, reverse,
adverse, hostile
viphal ljkmn adj. fruitless, useless,
unsuccessful
vir jL/ adj. brave, courageous, heroic,
gallant

144
viraha lj/x n. separation, parting,
estrangement; loss
virodh lj/f]w n. dissension, discrepancy,
hostility, discord, objection,
antagonism
viruddha lj?$ postp. against, opposed, opposite,
contrary, adverse, hostile
visakta ljiffQm adj. toxic, poisonous,
venomous, vituperative
visalu ljiffnÚ adj. toxic, poisonous,
venomous, vituperative
visaya ljifo n. subject, topic, article
visaya-kram ljifoqmd n. contents, table of contents
visayantar ljifofGt/ n. an outside subject, another
topic
visayapravesh ljifok|j]z n. introduction, preface,
foreword, preliminary
visaya-pravesh ljifo–k|j]z n. introduction
visayavastu ljifoj:tÚ n. subject matter, something
discussed
vishal ljzfn adj. big, very big, gigantic,
extensive, large, palatiol,
huge, great
vishes ljz]if adv. extraordinary, unusual,
special, distinguished,
famous
vishes adalat ljz]if cbfnt n. special court
vishes nam ljz]if gfd n. proper name
vishesagya ljz]if! n. expert
vishesan ljz]if)f n. adjective
vishesya ljz]io n. substantive; a noun with an
adjective qualifying it
vishista ljlzi^ adj. conspicuous, remarkable,
important, distinguished,
extraordinary
vishva ljZj n. universe, the whole world
vishvas ljZjf; n. belief, trust, faith, reliance,
confidence, assurance
vishvasniya ljZj;gLo adj. trustworthy, reliable,
creditable
vishvasniyata ljZj;gLotf n. trustworthiness, reliability,
creditability
vishvaspatra ljZjf;kfq n. reliable person, confidant
vishvavidyalaya ljZjljBfno n. university

145
vishvayuddha ljZjo'$ n. world war
viskambhak ljisDes n. interlude (in a drama)
vismayadibodhak lj:doflbaf]ws n. interjection
visphot lj:kmf]^ n. outburst, explosion,
eruption; smallpox
visphotak lj:kmf]^s adj. explosive
vistar lj:tf/ n. extension, expansion,
extent; spread
vistarit lj:tfl/t adj. expanded, enlarged
vivad ljjfb n. discussion, debate,
dispute, altercation,
quarrel, controvercy
vivaha ljjfx n. marriage, wedding,
matrimony
vivaran ljj/)f n. description, account,
statement
vivash ljjz adj. dependent, helpless,
subjected
vividh ljljw adj. different, diverse, various,
miscellaneous
vividhta ljljwtf n. diversity, variety, variation
vriddha j[$ adj. old, aged, advanced in
years, mature; ancient
vriddhavastha j[$fj:yf n. old age
vriddhi j[l$ n. progress, increase,
increment, rise, growth,
enlargement
vrihaspativar j[x:kltjf/ n. Thursday
vriksha j[If n. tree
vriksharopan j[Iff/f]k)f n. tree plantation
vrisadeva j[ifb]j n. Vrishadeva [name of a
Licchavi king, great-
grandfather of Manadeva I]
vyakhya JofVof n. explanation
vyakhyan JofVofg n. speech, lecture,
explanation, exposition
vyakta JoQm adj. clear, discernible,
expressed, stated,
mentioned
vyakti JolQm n. person, individual,
manifestation
vyaktigat JolQmut adj. personal, individual
vyaktitva JolQmTj n. personality, individuality,

146
self
vyaktivacak nam JolQmjfrs gfd n. proper name, proper noun
vyangya JoéØ n. sarcasm, irony, innuendo
vyangya-citra JoéØlrq n. cartoon
vyapar Jofkf/ n. business, trade, profession,
occupation, industry
vyapta JofKt adj. diffused, pervaded,
occupied, overcast,
scattered, flush
vyatha Joyf n. pain, suffering, misery,
distress, injury, ache
vyavahar Jojxf/ n. behaviour, conduct,
manner, treatement
vyavasay Joj;fo n. undertaking, occupation,
employment; engagement,
business
vyavastha Joj:yf n. system, method, regulation,
management, settlement,
systematization, form
vyavasthapan Joj:yfkg n. organizing, systematizing
vyavasthapika Joj:yflksf n. legislative
vyavasthapit Joj:yflkt adj. established, systematized,
managed
vyavasthit Jojl:yt adj. systematic, methodical, in
order
yadyapi oBlk conj. although, though, even, if,
however, notwithstanding
yagya o! n. religious sacrifice, oblation
yahan oxf adv. here, at this place, hither
yahi oxL pron. this very
yahi nai oxL g} pron. this and no other
yas karan o; sf/)f so, because of this
yas kramma o; qmDdf for this reason, so
yasaigari o;}u/L adv. consequently, therefor, so
yashasvi oz:jL adj. renowned, reputed,
glorious
yashogan ozf]ufg n. eulogy, singing of praises
yasmadhye o;dWo] adv. by that, in this
yaso o;f] adj. like this, such
yasogari o;f]u/L adv. consequently, therefor, so
yasto o:tf] pron. like this, of the same kind

147
yasto andhyaroma o:tf] cWo/f]df comp. in such darkness
yata otf adv. here, at this place, hither
yatauta otfptf adv. hither an thither, here and
there, in all directions
yatayat oftfoft n. transportation, traffic
yathavat oyfjt adv. in situ, intact, as before
yati olt adv. this much, thus much, so
much
yatiko oltsf] adv. so much
yatra ofqf n. trip, voyage
yatri ofqL n. traveller, pilgrim, tourist
yatro oqf] pron. so great, so big
yauvan of}jg n. youth, adolescence,
manhood, puberty
yayavar ofofj/ n. nomad, wanderer
yog of]u n. joining, junction,
combination, union,
coupling; relationship,
connection
yogadan of]ubfg n. cooperation, help,
assistance, contribution
yogaphal of]ukmn n. the sum total
yogyata Of]Uotf n. power, strength, talent
yojana of]hgf n. planning
yug oÚu n. epoch, era, age
yugoslabhiya oÚuf]:nfeLof n. Yugoslavia
yurop o'/f]k n. Europe
yuropeli o'/f]k]nL adj. European
yuva oÚjf n. youth
yuvati oÚjtL n. young woman, youthful
woman

148