Statistics formula summary

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Statistics formula summary

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Arithmetic Mean

we can use the following formula to find the quartile values.

i = 1, 2, . . . , n. The arithmetic mean is

x

=

n

1X

xi

n i=1

fi , we can rewrite the arithmetic mean as a weighted average

where the weight are the frequencies

Pn

fi x i

x

= Pi=1

n

i=1 fi

=

n

1X

fi x i

n i=1

Geometric Mean

When the variate values xi are all strictly greater than zero,

the geometric mean is defined as

G = (x1 x2 xn )1/n =

n

hY

xi

xi i

i1/n

0

1 Pn

r

E(X r ) = r = n

i=1 fi xi

Mode

The variate value which occurs the most. When given a table

of ordered data, we can use the following formula to find the

mode.

fm fm1

M ode = l +

h

2fm (fm+1 + fm1 )

Measures of Dispersion

Range

Range = xmax xmin

Inter-Quartile Range

fi , the geometric mean is

n

hY

fm

Qi (called the modal class), N = total number of observations,

C = the cumulative frequency up to the upper limit of the

group preceding the modal class, fm = frequency of modal

class, and h = width of the modal class.

i1/n

i=1

Qi = l +

iN

4

IQR = QU QL = Q3 Q1

th

The

about P

the mean is

r moment

n

1

r

E (X )r = r = n

i=1 fi (xi )

Factorial Moments

th

The

moment

is

r factorial

0

E X(r) = (r) = E X(X 1)(X 2) (X r + 1)

Moment Identities

About the Mean

0 = 1

0

1 = 1 = 0

2 = 2 2

0

3 = 3 32 1 +

Harmonic Mean

When the variate values xi are all nonzero, to find the

harmonic mean, first invert all the variate values and then find

the arithmetic mean. This will give you the invers of the

harmonic mean

Pn

1

n

1X 1

1

i=1 fi xi

= Pn

=

fi

H

n i=1 xi

i=1 fi

H = Pn

fi

i=1 xi

(2) = 2

231

0

(3) = 3 3

4 = 4 43 1 + 62 12 314

Skewness

To measure the departure or lack of symmetry of the

probability distribution

Variance

Let us first define the mean square deviation from any

arbitrary value a

n

n

n

Y

1

1X

1X

ln(

xi ) =

ln(xi ) =

fi ln(xi )

n

n i=1

n i=1

i=1

Factorial

(1) = 1

2

3 2

) = 33

3

2

p

1 = 1

1 = (

i=1

ln(G) =

s2 =

n

1X

fi (xi a)2

n i=1

value and the value a. It is trying to capture how dispersed

the data is from a. When we want to measure the deviation

from the origin (i.e, a = 0) then the formula reduces to

s2 =

Kurtosis

To measure the kurtosis, or flatness, of the probability

distribution

n

1X

fi x2i

n i=1

the mean square deviation is minimized.

2 =

4

22

2 = 2 3

Coefficient of Variation

Proof

cv =

Mean and

SD of Combined Data

P

Median

ni x

i

ni

n ln(G1 )+n2 ln(G2 )

ln(Gmean) = 1

n1 +n2

2

n +n 2

1 n2

var = 1 n1 +n2 2 + (nn+n

x1

2 (

1

2

1

2)

mean =

from the lower half.

P (X xm ) = P (X xm ) = 0.50

Other ways that the variates can be divided is into 4 equal

parts (i.e. quartiles), 10 equal parts (i.e, deciles), or 100 equal

i=1

P

m

Probability

i=1

x

2 )2

Moments

The rth moment about a is

1

n

Pn

i=1

fi (xi a)r .

experiment, denoted . The subset of interest is called an

event, dentoted A, B, . . .. The probability of an event A,

denoted P (A) , is the ratio of the number of elements that are

favorable to event A over the total number of elements in .

Properties

0 P (A) 1

P () = 1

P (A) + P (Ac ) = 1

P (A B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B)

If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then P (A B) = 0.

We refer to the probability of event A given that event B has

P (AB)

occurred as the conditional probability, P (A | B) = P (B) .

P (A B) = P (A | B)P (B) If events A and B are independent,

then P (A | B) = P (A) and P (A B) = P (A)P (B).

F () = 0

F () = 1

F 0 (x) > 0

The last property just means that the CDF is nondecreasing

function. To find P (a < X b) = F (b) F (a).

n!

WX (t) = (1 + pt)n , and (r) = (nr)!

pr .

This formula arises from the following sum:

(p + q)n =

Variance Operators

E(aX + bY ) = aE(X) + bE(Y )

V ar(aX + b) = a2 V ar(X)

n

X

n

x=0

where

n

x

px q nx

n!

.

x!(nx)!

Random Variables

Poisson Distribution

outcome in . There are two types:

define MX (t) = E(etX ). To find the rth moment, take the rth

0 (0).

derivative of M and then set t = 0, MX

specified unit of space or time

or countably infinite.

Continuous: the set of all possible outcomes is a finite

set or countably infinite.

The discrete probability distribution function is

f (x) = P (X = x).

f

(x) 0

P

x f (x) = 1

The discrete cumulative

P distribution function is

F (x) = P (X x) = tx f (x).

The FMGF allows us to find the factorial moments. We define

WX (t) = E((1 + t)X ). To find the rth moment, take the rth

0 (0).

derivative of W and then set t = 0, WX

Binomial Distribution

To find the probability of x successes in n trials where the

probability of succes is p

n

P (X = x) =

px q nx

x

P (x = x) =

mx e m

where m = E(X) = V ar(X)

x!

t

sum

X

m2

m3

mx

em =

=1+m+

+

+

x!

2!

3!

x=0

Also note that (r) = mr .

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