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Assignment 7:

What are the main disagreements in these 17th-century texts?


-They disagree about how women should be treated in general, as well as their purpose
-Swatham says women are bad because they deceive and entice you
-He says women can neither say well nor do well
-Say that women should be equals and companions to men, especially since they were made out of
man’s rib that is next to his heart

What kind of approach was more novel, judging by the Western gender tradition to that point?
-The approach of Tattle-Well and Hit-Him-Home was newer and more towards Enlightenment thinking
-Women were traditionally inferior to men
-They say that women should go to school, in contrast to traditional belief
-Women are less obscene, profane, etc.
-All of this goes against traditional thoughts and values of women

What conditions prompted a more vigorous public debate about gender in the 17th century?
-Tensions between genders caused by the witchcraft trials which were mainly directed against women

What kinds of intentions on the part of Louis and his advisors does this building represent?
-Shows that Louis was attempting to show his wealth and power through the palace

How can Versailles be interpreted as a statement of absolute monarchy in addition to its obvious
showiness?
-Louis is able to control the nobles by making them live in Versailles
-He can keep them busy with social affairs and thus take full control

Did elites gain new power over the masses in early modern Western society?
- yes, elites controlled the masses' lives
- one historian said that the ordinary people were being pushed around by the power groups, elites

Are ordinary people more conservative by nature, more suspicious of change, than groups at the top?
-yes, elites caused changes
- the changes affected the ordinary people's lives, and not the elites' lives
- this is because the elites can control their own lives, but the ordinaries have to endure all of the
changes that occur around them

The relationships to nature


- enormous amounts of trees all around
- fountains throughout
-close to mountainous areas
- trees and water integrated throughout the palace

To an ordinary French person it would represent authority as well as the supreme power and wealth of
the monarchy.
1.
-Tremendous Implications
- Elevated position of science and scientific thinking in cultures
- Allowed discoveries about circulation of blood, laws of gravity, planetary motion,
- Integrated different concepts into science, just as math and generalizations.

2. What was the agenda for the scientists of the Europeans Scientific Revolution?
- Did not pursue a single agenda
- developed an array of cultural practices to understand the natural world
- some predicted that scientific discoveries would lead to technological advances
- the global impact of science was subject to scientists trying to increase it
- With greater scientific knowledge the standard of living would increase
- average lifespan had the potential to increase as well, with development of medicine

3. Who predicted science would lead to technical advances? How did this happen?
-Francis Bacon did
-Findings in science did change the intellectual climate, but in a complex way

4.
China:
-Old Traditions
-Relied on Empirical Observations
-A decline of scientific creativity
-Lack of Generalizations

Europe:
-Not as uniform as people thought
-Unlike Middle East, did not ignore Western (american) Science
-Tons of people were drawn to the science
-Scientific thinking, including technology, assured Imitation

ME:
-Arabs were ignorant of Western Science
-Like Europe, built on Greek science
-Ottoman Empire was scientific leader in ME
-There was religious fervor, so they backed away from science.

5. Analyze the map. From what countries did Japan, Egypt, and Russia gain European scientific
knowledge?

-Russia: Austria, Italy, and the Netherlands


-Egypt: Italy, France, and England
-Japan: Russia, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Portugal
6. What was vital to the reorientation of world cultures?
-Inclusion of new types of scientific training in school systems as they developed during the 19th
and 20th centuries

7.
- almost every society produced scientific researchers who contacted each other at international
meetings
- this contact caused cross civilization to occur and exchange of ideas
- scientists from other parts of world contributed to European scientists (like people from North
America)
-
8.
- under Peter the Great, aristocrats and bureaucrats were urged to gain greater understanding of
Western knowledge during "Westernization."
- This plan was brought about after Peter the Great visited the West many times and was
intrigued
- By 1730's, academies were formed and teachers were imported from the West
- By 19th century, scientists in Russia were contributing to major advances in scientific
knowledge

9. What were the consequences of Muhammad Ali’s policies in Egypt?

- a new intellectual flow in Egypt, to other parts of the middle east


- this spread the practice of regarding knowledge and education as extremely important
- Ali sent many from Egypt to the west to learn and be educated

10. What is the significance of the "Dutch School" in Japan?

-Allowed for some technological and scientific knowledge during the period of isolation of Japan
-Group was able to import some foreign books thus aiding their knowledge
-After period of isolation, they helped Japan rapidly gain lost ground in terms of technology and
science

11.
-Most of japan's schools were isolated except for the DUTCH SCHOOl
- IN 1853, when japan was de-isolated, the system became better.
- Fukuzawa Yukichi pressed more scientific training, and traveled around the world to help.

12.
-Allowed for many countries, such as Japan, to later switch to more scientific education systems.
-Was combined with older beliefs and practicies in many countries, such as with medicines.
-Science became normal in most schools throughout the world.