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HOW TO BUILD - FLYING CLOUD

Flying Cloud may be built as cheaply as
possible or it may be constructed of expensive
materials. The power plant is either a con-
verted auto motor or any inexpensive marine
engine. The latter is preferred due to its
by Sam Rabl efficient cooling system which does away with
Naval Architect the problem of heat in the cabin. Toilet
facilities have been provided and all other

H ARDLY were the plans for Buddy off the
press than Modern Mechanix boat fans
everywhere began to demand a large boat
necessities of extended cruising have been
incorporated into her make-up. The builder
can either adopt the cabin plan which we
along the same general lines. The simple have designed for Flying Cloud or fit one of
construction of this craft placed her within his own to the existing interior. You may
financial reach o£ every ambitious youngster fit the sailing rig or leave it off depending on
who could wield a saw and push a plane. your own whims. As an out and out motor
Many of the original craft were built with boat she still has pleasing lines and the draft
exceptionally fine results; one of them hav- may be made less than shown by taking three
ing crossed the Gulf of Mexico. inches off the depth of the keel. While it will
Men who earn their living today must be not be within the scope of this article to go
back at the office or shop Monday morning into the detail of laying down the lines and
and of course, require a boat that will not fitting each and every piece of material in the
require hours to dock. Nevertheless, the craft structure we will refer the reader to our How
miust be large enough to provide comfortable To Build Twenty Boats for this information,
accommodations for the average family and Materials used in Flying Cloud construction
not cost too much to build. With all of these may be any locally obtained wood suitable
essential points in mind plans were drawn up for boat building. Buddys were built from
for this "ideal" boat and eventually the boat as many different materials as are found
itself was constructed and christened "Flying around the world from New York to Singa-
Cloud" after that famous old American vessel. pore and all are a success. Good solid and well
Somehow we feel that the spirit of old Donald made joints contribute more to the success
McKay, designer of the original sailor, will of any boat than the excellence of the ma-
down kindly upon our miniature version. terial.
each joint until the surface is wood to wood,
This process is repeated each joint of the
backbone and after all joints are thus fitted
they should be smeared with "Staytite" or
other similar cement, or a good roofing cement
to exclude water and most of all the destruc-
tive toredo found along the seacoast The
joints are made with drift bolts of 1/2-inch
galvanized iron headed up over clinch rings or
galvanized iron washers. Holes for the drift
bolts are drilled a sixteenth smaller than the
bolt and the bolt slightly pointed to enter the
hole. This pointing is done cold so as not to
harm the galvanizing any more than possible,
After the backbone is laid down on a large though bolts with nuts and washers may be
sheet of building paper the shape o£ the used if the builder so prefers. After the
various parts are transferred to the wood backbone is assembled the apron of 2"x8"
either with a tracing wheel or by driving material is securely fastened to the top of the
small brads through the outline, with- keel using cement as before to seal the joint.
draw the paper, leaving the brads standing This member is left square until the planking
in the wood. The thickness of the stem and is fitted. The backbone is now set up in its
keel timbers are such that the ordinary small proper position on the ground or shop floor
workshop bandsaw will handle them but the being sure to have the proper slope on the
easier method is to take the timbers to a mill bottom of the keel and the stem perfectly
that has a large bandsaw and let them do the plumb athwartship.
job. After the timbers are cut and ready to The main frames are now gotten out along
assemble they should be temporarily held to- with the transom as shown on the plans, de-
gether with clamps and a saw run between ducting the plank thickness, and all joints
assembled with 1/4" galvanized carriage bolts,
the joints should be well painted with white
lead. The notches are cut for the keel,

FIG.2-!N60Aa0 PROFILE
& ARRANGEMENT PLAN

109
stringers, chines and clamps as shown The squareness and then securely braced to 'the
notches for the stringers being half way shop rafters or the ground so that they will
between the keel an.d chine or in thirds if not go out of line while the boat is being con-
two stringers are fitted. The stern knee is set structed. If the structure is erected out in the
on the keel apron and the transom attached weather it will be well to give it a coat of good
to it. This should be perfectly plumbed and paint to protect it. This should be the pro-
either fastened to the shop rafters to keep it cedure even if the boat is built under cover
so, or braced to the ground with good heavy as wood will last a lot longer if properly pro-
shores to keep it from moving. The frames tected. The best paint to use is one of the
are then fastened to the keel, being sure to new aluminum primers, now on the market
keep them at perfect right angles to the keel either purchased ready mixed or mixed by
and set perfectly vertical. After all frames yourself.
are set up they are checked for plumb and With the frames and transom properly
braced, the chines and clamps are bent in, thus number four they will begin to take curva-;
tying the structure together rigidly. In bend- ture and the shape of these frames is obtained
ing the chines and clamps the best procedure by bending thin strips of wood between frame
to follow is to bend them in pairs, thus equal- three and the stem and picking up the shape
izing the strain on the two sides of the boat. from these strips or rib-bands, The stem rab-
They are best pulled together with a block bit is cut by the same method. The upper
and fall fastening them to the stem and frames are now fitted by making patterns at
working aft. They should be procured in the main frames and fitting the upper frames
one piece if possible, and if this is not possi- at these points. The upper clamps are now
ble a butt joined should be made with a re- bent in. and the intermediate upper frames set
inforcing piece at least three feet long backing to match the lower ones. Tops of the main
up the joint. The intermediate frames are frames should be well braced to take the
now fitted starting from the transom and strain of bending the upper clamps.
working forward. Forward of main frame A pattern of the deck beams is now made
to the curvature shown on the plans and the nibbed into the plank directly below them.
upper clamp trimmed off to suit this curva- The edges of the planks should be outgaged
ture. The top frames are also sawed off to so that they are an eighth inch open on the
suit this crown. The beams are now gotten outside for caulking. No side plank should
out and dovetailed into the upper clamps. Fit exceed eight inches in width. The planks
all beams all the way across the boat and cut should be screwed to the stem and transom
them out for the companionway later. Now but nails may be used to attach them to the
is also a good time to fit all cockpit and cabin frames. Butts of the side planks should be
floor beams before the planking is in place as spaced well apart to preserve the strength.
securing good fits is easier at this time as well The bottom planks are laid athwartship at
as having the beams in to take planking about forty-five degrees to the keel and
strains. Mast pardners as well as base blocks treated the same as the side planks. A strip
for bits and cleats will be much easier to fit of flannel or old woolen cloth should be in-
now and these should be attended to before serted between the chine and planking as well
the planking and decking goes on. The whole as the apron and the bottom. This flannel or
of the structure should now be thoroughly wool should be smeared with Staytite reduced
painted, The chines and apron should be a little with linseed oil to about the con-
beveled to suit the bottom planking by laying sistency of thick molasses. The cement should
e straight edge between the chine and keel, be just thin enough to squeeze out when the
and drain holes should be cut in all of the planks are set up if a good tight joint is de-
bottom timbers to allow the free passage of sired. Black Staytite is recommended for
bilge water to the pump. Now is also a good work below the water line and the gray for
time to fit the gas tank and the fresh water work above, Never use the black cement
tanks as well as motor control rods and where white paint will be used over it. The
electric wiring that will be difficult to get to planking on the raised sheer is fitted similar
later. to the side planking, and if a classy job is de-
sired should be of mahogany and finished
The side planking is now fitted and may be natural. The decking in the bow well will be
run in parallel strakes or evenly divided easier to fit if the planking of the upper sheer
between chine and sheer as the owner so is delayed until this job is finished.
desires. If run in parallel strakes, stealer
planks will have to be run in at the sheer and Now is a good time to get in the motor beds
chine to fill out the additional girth forward. and install the motor. The exhaust piping as
These should not end in sharp points but be well as all fuel and water lines will be a lot
easier to fit at this time. With these in place a seam down the center, or across the hull
the cockpit floor should be laid and canvassed. if narrower material is used. In event that
The steering gear installed and then the two the material is laid across the boat all seams
ends of the cockpit built up of tongue and should lap aft. All of the canvas throughout
grooved staving with joints painted. The the boat is either laid in marine glue or white
bridge deck is now laid and canvassed. The lead thinned with varnish. Seams and edges
cockpit canvas turns up under the trim around of the canvas are secured with 1/2" copper or
the floor so that it can be easily renewed. The galvanized tacks spaced on no more than
bridge deck canvas is turned down over the three-quarter i n c h centers. The canvas
forward cockpit end and up under the should be wet down immediately after laying
cabin end bulkhead to make a weather-tight and painted with a priming coat when par-
job. A generous application of gray Staytite tially dry. The forward and aft decks are laid
cement will insure watertightness. The cabin up in narrow strips of edge grain material
end bulkhead is now completed and trimmed and the seams caulked. They can either be
off flush with the top of the beam. Door posts finished natural or painted as the builder
are installed and the cabin top is ready to be desires. The seams of these decks are filled
laid. This is laid up using tongue and grooved with deck seam composition or gray Staytite,
material with a vee edge, or beaded edge as Sufficient material should be allowed around
the builder desires. It will be found that the all deck openings when the canvas is laid to
vee edge is much easier to paint. The plank- turn up inside the framing of these openings
ing o£ the raised sheer should be left an inch to keep the water out. After the canvas is
and a half high forward of the cabin and primed the cover boards may be laid in thin
the cabin top material worked to a thin edge white lead.
along the raised sheer at the bow to allow The cabin interior as laid out, is one which
the cover board to finish out as a rail cap for- has given much satisfaction over a period
ward. of years in all small motor boats. It is very
When the cabin top material is close enough much similar to a very popular standard small
to the eompanionway to support the beams, cruiser now on the market which shows tre-
they are cut and the headers for the com- mendous sales. You may prefer another ar-
panion hatch fitted. The cabin top material rangement and you may suit yourself on
is then continued across to the side of the this matter, keeping only in mind that the
boat. The top is coveted with number ten weights should be similarly disposed. The
canvas with the material laid up with either eompanionway, of which details are shown,

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is located on the port side. In the cabin
proper the galley is located outboard of the
companionway steps. Inboard of the steps
the toilet bulkhead is constructed on center-
line,and- a small buffet covers as much of
the motor as will project toward the steps.
This buffet should be removable so as to get
at the carburetor side of the motor. Tongue
and groove ceiling three-eighths thick should
be used on the toilet bulkhead, or it may be
constructed of 1/4" masonite as will be ex-
plained later. The galley panels are also
constructed of masonite or waterproof ply-
wood as shown. The toilet door panels should
be pierced with a jigsawed design
of some sort to allow air to enter
the toilet at all times.
The toilet is a small marine bowl

of the pump type and should be installed with On the forward side of the toilet bulkhead
the proper seacocks on intake and outlet with a shelf should be built to hold books and the
strainer intake to prevent clogging. Lead many other what-nots that collect aboard a
pipe should be used for all connections. While boat The berths are of the conventional
it will be impossible to stand upright in the type and may be either fitted with plain
toilet, it is still possible to install a wash cushions or those of the box spring type as
basin should the builder desire one. This will be dictated by the builder's pocketbook-
should be of the folding type, and located on Forward of the berths is located another shelf
the forward bulkhead in such a position that as shown on the plans. Stowage space is
it may be used when the bowl is used as a provided on the starboard side beneath the
seat. The generator side of the motor is ex- shelf. Should the builder desire, this space
posed in the toilet allowing free examination may be enclosed by bulkheads reaching to
of all the many parts located on this side the deck, thus forming a locker in which
of the motor. The toilet should be provided shore clothes may be hung without fear of
with a port light facing the cockpit for ven- their getting mussed. The shelf forward also
tilation, and this port of course should be provides space for a radio which, if fitted,
fitted with a curtain. Should the builder de- should be provided with an antenna. On
sire, a vent can be fitted through the eabin station five a bulkhead is constructed extend-
top to aid in venting the toilet, but this will ing between keel and deck and clear across
form a stumbling block in going forward on the boat. A door should be provided in this
a dark night if not properly located. The bulkhead below the level of the gas tank so
interior of the toilet should be finished in as to give access to the bow of the boat and
white above the sheer line and a light green the chains which will be stowed beneath the
below. tank.
and sink may be of monel metal or galvanized
iron but in either case it should be neatly
applied and all joints made watertight. A
On the interior all trim may be of ma- small galley pump should be fitted at the sink
hogany and varnished as here it will not be to draw fresh water from tanks located under
exposed to the weather, All panel work may the cockpit floor. A small spirit stove or
be very easily made from masonite or ply- one using canned heat is located aft of the
wood by simply routing a groove of the re- sink. A dish rack is built on the aft cabin
quired size in the rails and styles of the panels bulkhead to carry the ship's crockery. Be-
and setting the plywood in this groove as the neath the galley platform there will be room
panels are assembled. Panel work will be a for cupboards to stow canned goods, and
distinctive advantage due to its ability of should the builder desire, there will still be
being easily removed for perodically paint- room to install a small icebox. All loose
ing the inside of the planking and for inspec- cushions should be of the life preserve type
tion and repair if necessary. All paneling to avoid carrying these very necessary ad-
should be installed with screws. The ceiling juncts as required by law. I would strongly
of the cabin should be In all cases finished recommend a two and a half gallon fire ex-
a bright color to improve the lighting. The tinguisher of the foam type be installed rather
underside of the beams may be champferred than the ordinary one-quart liquid type,
or fitted with mahogany caps that can be re- Many a beautiful cruiser has burned to the
moved when the ceiling is painted. water's edge because a quart of liquid was
The flooring of the cabin should have a just a little shy of being able to quell a fire.
removable section so that the bilges may be A bell and whistle are also required by
inspected and painted. Linoleum on the floor law as well as sailing lights which will con-
will be a big aid to keeping the cabin clean, sist of a red light to port and a green light
and curtains at the ports will give the in- to starboard. A bow light must be fitted be-
terior a homey appearance. The drainboard tween the skeen chocks and a stern light high.
enough to show over all other sail-
ing lights on the boat will be fitted
aft All of these lights should be
combination oil and electric. When
proceeding under sail alone only the
red and green lights should show.
When under sail and power a boat is
considered a power boat and as such
must carry all lights listed before.
The cabin lights should be of the
dome type and all lights must be
double contact as there is no con-
venient steel chassis to ground to as
in a car. Ail wiring should be in-

stalled in neat moulding so as to be
readily accessible in case of short cir-
cuit. The cabin dome lights may be
of the regulation auto type which are
just as good as most marine lights and
cost about half as much. Outlets for
the sailing lights should be made
through watertight fittings sold for
this purpose. While on the subject
of lights, an old auto headlight may
be installed on the spreaders aft to
form an efficient flood light to light
up the deck when going aboard at
night or when an emergency arises to give hatch cover to fit over wood ventilator.
proper light to work the boat. This light will A standard type boom jack should be made
also be found handy for night fishing where a to take the main boom when the mainsail is
landing net might be required. All wires furled. A ring buoy attached to this so as to
should be of the lead covered waterproof type. be readily removale has often been an instru-
On the after deck there should be fitted two men to which many people owe their lives.
small bitts securely fastened for towing a This buoy may be dolled up with the boat's
dinghy or a disabled boat if necessary. A name and the owner's and club flags to look
small ventilated hatch should also be fitted real yachty. A binnacle may be fitted in the
on the deck over the tiller or quadrant with cockpit ahead of the wheel box if desired or
the ordinary box compass may be used in any With the major parts of the hull com-
position convenient to the helmsman. If the plete, the fittings may be installed. The.
compass be of the box type it should be in- chain plates to take the shrouds must be in-
stalled so as to set in a series of strips on the stalled before the sheer moulding is in place.
deck so that it will always he placed in the The freezing port in the bow well should be
same position. In this way only is it possible cut in and covered with a door of the same
to log the courses and follow them at all times. material as the raised sheer planking and
While it was felt that topping lifts on such arranged to swing out so that it will spill
small booms would be a nuisance, they may water should a wave come over the bow. The
be fitted if the builder so desires. The top- companion slide and cover can next be fitted
ping lift should be bearded in the way of the as shown on the plans. A strip of copper
gaff to prevent chafing and to give the boat should be used to cover the joint on the for-
a real go-to-sea look. ward end, or many of popular weather-strip
Well constructed and well found Flying sections on the market may be used at this
Cloud will be able to do coastwise cruising point. Before the interior woodwork is fitted
almost anywhere. To consider an ocean the drains from the cabin top should be con-
crossing in this boat would be folly even structed of one-inch lead pipe set as close to
though boats smaller than she have done these the cover board corners at the after end of
kind of voyages. This boat was designed as a the cabin as space will permit. The cockpit
comfortable cruiser and should be considered drains should be made from the same
as such. Her cockpit is much too large to take material with a leather flap tacked over their
to sea and her bottom is not strong enough overboard ends to prevent a wave from work-
to withstand the sort of punishment which ing back into the cockpit.
such a voyage entails. There is no way to The rudder is constructed of steel or brass
adapt this boat to such work but at some later plate with the stock of the same material. If
date we will publish an enlarged edition of the rudder is of brass, its thickness should be
Buddy which will be specifically designed to 1/4" and the stock of 1-3/4" dia. material.
follow the track of the Hawkshaw, a Buddy The rudder stock is slotted and brazed to the
that poked her nose into such far places as plate as is also the short stub at the bottom of
Cuba and saw the coast of Yucatan over her the rudder which forms a pivot through a
taffrail. This boat will be the answer to the hole bored in the returned end of the rudder
many letters of readers who had the yen to shoe which should be of 1/2" brass, three
go off shore just as Flying Cloud is the answer inches wide. If the rudder is to be of steel
to those desiring comfort to the more adven- plate, the stock will be of cold rolled steel
turous type of cruising. bar electrically welded to the blade. The
shoe will then be of steel also and the whoJe flexible steel cable. Should the builder so
assembly galvanized after welding. The desire a hand tiller may be fitted, in which
rudder stock is carried through the hull, in- case the stock is carried up through the after
side of a piece of brass pipe or galvanized pipe deck. As there will be a reversing gear fitted
to correspond to the motor, some means will have to be ar-
w i t h rudder ranged to positively stop the rudder from
metal, screwed turning any further than thirty-five degrees
into a proper each side of the centerline.
size h o l e in The spars may now be constructed from
the stern Oregon pine or spruce. They are first worked
knee. At the square with all the proper tapers incorporated.
t o p of t h e After the spars are squared and all humps
s t o c k there worked off of their surface they are again
s h o u l d be worked to an octagon shape. The corners of
fitted a tiller the octagon are again worked off, and finally
or quadrant, the spars are rounded. A hollow sparplane
which in turn will be a lot of assistance in this operation
is connected if one can be procured. At least five coats
to the drum of hot linseed oil should be painted on each
of the steering spar and after being sandpapered they should
w h e e l with be given three coats of good spar varnish. If
bright work is eliminated in the construction
the spars may be painted. This of course
excepts the foremast as far as the gaff will
travel. This section should be oiled and given

T

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a coat of mastine grease. The bands and
withes should be purchased before the spars
are made and the spar worked to a diameter
a little larger than the band at the point where
the band is to be located. On the masts it is
good practice to allow a shoulder at least an
eighth inch larger than the band so that the
band will not slip down the mast when the
turnbuckles are set up. At points where the
blocks or stays are looped around the mast,
shoulder cleats of hardwood should be fitted.
These cleats should be slightly mortised in
the mast so that they will not put all of the
load on the screws attaching them to the
masts. The foremast should have a thin brass
plate attached at the point where the gaff will
swing so as to eliminate wear on the spar at
this point. This plate should be carried at
least three-quarters around the mast and
fastened with escutcheon pins. The center-
line of the plate will face aft.
The wire rope rigging should now be made
with all ends aloft spliced or looped as re-
quired. Splicing is highly recommended as
it will give the rigging a professional look. In
event of the builder being unable to splice
wire rope it may be turned back on itself and
served and soldered as shown. All loops
wherever fitted should be served with Italian
yacht marline to prevent wear on the metal
and improve its appearance. After the spars
are stepped the lower ends of the shrouds and
stays are spliced to the correct length, to fit
the turnbuckles when they are three-quarters.
open. This allows them to be set up properly.
No wire should be tightened beyond the point
at which it is reasonably taut so as not to set
up undue strains in the hull and spars. Be
sure that all manila ropes are rove and all
blocks shackled or set in their proper places
before the spars are sent aloft. Ail ends of
manila line on the boat should be securely
served with sail twine waxed with beeswax
so that they will not fray out Here the
builder will be able to show his marline-spike
seamanship by producing work that the old
sailors loved to term "ship-shape and Bristol
fashion."
The sails should be of six-ounce canvas
and provided with sail covers as the foresail
will not be convenient to remove after every
,;run. Khaki sails look well on this type of
yacht, especially so if the hull is finished in a 3/4" manila, 20 feet long, which should
dark shade. The sails should be thoroughly be neatly eye-spliced on one end. The free
end should be seized or served.
With the exterior finished we can turn our
attention to its painting and finish- There
isn't a prettier job afloat than those whose
woodwork is of mahogany finished natural.
In connection with this also there are none
which occasions more work to keep them
looking this way. For the man who has plenty
of time and likes to fuss around cleaning
varnish and scraping down whenever it is
needed, the bright work will have a lot of
appeal, but to the man who really wants plea-
sure afloat I would strongly recommend fish-
erman finish with all woodwork painted. My
own preferences would be a green bottom,
black hull and buff decks, with all trim
painted white. In any event secure good
marine paints which are the cheapest in the
long run. Every coat applied to the hull should
be sanded and nil seams of the planking
reinforced in all corners and the mainsail puttied flush with a good seam compound.
should be fitted with sail battens. As the sails Completed, "Flying Cloud" will furnish its
are in this case auxiliary to the motor they builder with endless hours of enjoyment such
need not be constructed with the precision as only the deep blue water can offer. Care-
that is required of racing sails. Strength ful construction will result in a truly beauti-
rather than shape should be the rule. The ful craft that can be looked upon with pride.
sails are laced to both main and
fore boom with lacing eyes as
shown. All halyards and sheets
should be led to the end of the
raised deck and belayed on
cleats as shown on the deck plan.
The locations of these leads
should be memorized so that
even on the darkest night, in
sailors' lingo, you will "know
the ropes." While ordering the
running rigging it may be well
to include two mooring lines of
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