360 views

Uploaded by hanisshi

Distillation Process

- Sample Problem #17
- Chapter 1 distillation
- Gas Absorption.docx
- CH 2.pptx
- Sample Problem #7
- Gas Absorption in Packed Tower (S1 2015) (Note)
- Distillation
- TRAPHE3- Gas Absorption
- Answers PracProb Revised 2nd Ed
- Leaching Lecture Notes
- Tugas Differential and Flash Distillation-Nur Hamidah
- Mass Transfer Part (9)
- geankoplis_ch12
- Solutions Manual Geankoplis
- Packed Column Design - Packing Height Calculation Notes
- Extraction
- Chap 1.3 - Leaching
- Geankoplis, C. J. Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3th Edition, Prentice-Hall International, 1993.pdf
- Activity Coefficient Calculation for Binary Systems Using UNIQUAC
- Test 1 Book Notes examples-1.pdf

You are on page 1of 86

involved producing a vapour from a liquid

by heating the liquid in a vessel

eg. Ethanol-water:

vapour phase = higher conc. of ethanol

liquid phase = higher conc. of water

2 methods of distillation:

rectification/fractional/distillation with reflux

part of the vapour is condensed & returned as

liquid back to the vessel

all of the vapour is removed or is condensed as

product

FKK

DISTILLATION

FKK

DISTILLATION

Types of distillation:

simple

fractional

steam

immiscible solvent

azeotropic

extractive

vacuum

molecular

Distillation tower at an oil refinery.

FKK

entrainer sublimation

vapour & liquid in intimate contact for a long time,

equilibrium is attained

RAOULTS LAW

ideal solution (substances very similar to each other)

pA = PAxA

or

yA =(pA/P)=(PA/P)xA

where

pA = partial pressure of component A in the vapour

PA = vapour pressure of pure A

P= total pressure

xA = mole fraction of A in the liquid

yA = mole fraction of A in the gas

FKK

(VLE diagrams)

vapour in equilibrium is yA1 = 0.532

distance bet. equilibrium & 45o line = diff. bet. xA & yA ( diff., easier

separation)

FKK

VLE diagrams

composition as the liquid.

FKK

SYSTEMS

Relative volatility, - numerical measure of ease of separation

AB - relative volatility of component A with respect to component B

yA

y A /x A

xA

AB = y =

B

1 y /1 x

A

A

xB

where

yA = mole

fraction of A in the gas phase

equilibrium with yA phase

For an ideal system (obeys Raoults law):

x

yA = A

1+ 1x A

where

=

P

vapour pressure of pure B

B

AB =

FKK

SINGLE-STAGE EQUILIBRIUM

CONTACTOR

Binary distillation - components A & B

yA1

yA2

xA1

xA0

V1 = V2

L0 = L1

Balance on A:

L0 + V2 = L1 + V1

L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1

line & overall material balance

FKK

Example 11.2-1

containing a mole fraction of 0.4 benzene (A)

and 0.6 toluene (B) and 100 kg mol total is

brought into contact with 110 kg mol of a liquid

at the boiling point containing a mole fraction

of 0.30 benzene and 0.70 toluene. The two

streams are contacted in a single stage, and

the outlet streams leave in equilibrium with

each other. Assume constant molar overflow.

Calculate the amounts and compositions of the

exit streams.

SINGLE-STAGE EQUILIBRIUM

CONTACTOR

Example 11.2-1

=100 kmol

yA2 =0.4

yA1

=110 kmol

xA0 =0.3

xA1

L0 = L1 = 110 kmol

Balance on A:

110(0.3) + 100(0.4) = 110xA1 + 100yA1

lets xA1 = 0.2, yA1 = 0.51

lets xA1 = 0.4, yA1 = 0.29

lets xA1 = 0.3, yA1 = 0.4

At intersection, xA1 = 0.25, yA1 = 0.455

FKK

EQUILIBRIUM OR FLASH DISTILLATION

Single stage binary distillation

V,y

F,xF

Heater

Separator

L,x

liquid mixture partially vapourized

vapour allowed to come to equilibrium with liquid

vapour & liquid then separated

Balance on A:

line & overall material balance similar to eg. 11.2-1

FKK

SIMPLE BATCH OR DIFFERENTIAL DISTILLATION

liquid mixture charged to a still (heated kettle)

V, y

slowly boiled & vapourized part of the liquid

vapour withdrawn rapidly to condenser

L, x

first portion of vapour = richest in component A

vapourized product gets learner in comp. A

L1 = original moles charge

x1 = original composition

L2 = moles left in the still

x2 = final composition of liquid

unknown: x2

L1 x dx

=

L 2 x y x

Graphical solution:

ln

L1

ln

area under the curve 1/(y-x) vs x plot = L

2

L1x1 = L2x2 + (L1-L2)yav

FKK

Example 11.3-2

n-pentane and 50mol% n-heptane is

distilled under differential conditions at

101.3 kPa until 40 mol is distilled. What is

the average composition of the total

vapor distilled and the composition of the

liquid left? The equilibrium data are as

follows, where x and y are mole fractions

of n-pentane:

are mole fractions of n-pentane:

x

1.000

1.000

0.398

0.836

0.059

0.271

0.867

0.984

0.254

0.701

0.594

0.925

0.145

0.521

Example 11.3-2

Equilibrium data:

L1 = 100 mol

x1 = 0.5 mol /mol

V = 40 mol

x2 = ? , yav = ?

Total balance :

L1 = V + L2

100 = 40 + L2

L2 = 60 mol

L

ln 1 = xx ydx

x

L2

ln 100 = x0.5 ydx

x = 0.51

60

1

100(0.5) = 60(0.277)+ (100-60)yav

By trial-&-error, x2 = 0.277

FKK

yav = 0.835

McCABE-THIELE METHOD

binary mixture A-B

assume equimolar overflow/constant molal overflow between

feed inlet & top tray

feed inlet & bottom tray

graphical method for determining the number of theoretical stages,N

FKK

q line

Effect of feed condition (q line)

at entering conditions per molar latent heat

of vaporization of feed.

q-line equation:

McCabe-Thiele Method

i.Top Operating Line

ii.Feed Operating Line (q-line)

Iii.Bottom Operating Line

q-line equation:

Lm=Ln + qF

Vn=Vm + (1-q)F

Vny=Lnx+DxD (Top) ---(1)

Vmy=Lmx WxW (Bottom)-----(2)

(2)-(1):

(Vm-Vn)y=(Lm-Ln)x-(DxD-FxF)

(Vm-Vn)y=(Lm-Ln)x FxF

Lm-Ln=qF

Vm-Vn=(q-1)F

q-line cont

(q-1)Fy = qFx FxF

y = [(q)/(q-1)]x xF/(q-1)

q-line cont

If feed is liquid at boiling pt: q=1

If feed is saturated vapor:q=0

If feed is liquid below its boiling pt:q>1

If feed is a mix bet. Liq & vap: 0<q<1

Example 11.4-1

A liquid mixture of benzene-toluene is to be distilled in a

fractionating tower at 101.3 kPa pressure. The feed of 100 kg

mol/h is liquid, containing 45 mol% benzene and 55 mol%

toluene, and enters at 327.6 K(130oF). A distillate containing 95

mol% benzene and 5 mol% toluene and a bottoms containing

10 mol% benzene and 90 mol% toluene are to be obtained.The

reflux ratio is 4:1. The average heat capacity of the feed is 159

kJ/kg mol.K (38 btu/lb mol.oF) and the average latent heat

32099 kJ/kg mol (13800 btu/lbmol). Equilibrium data for this

system are given in Table 11.1-1.Calculate the kg moles per

hour distillate, kg mole per hour bottoms, and the number of

theoretical trays needed.

Example 11.4-1

Binary mixture A-B (benzene-toluene) at 101.3kPa. Reflux ratio (R) = 4.

Average heat capacity of feed = 159 kJ/kmol.K & average latent heat = 32099

kJ/kmol. Determine D kmol/h, W kmol/h & N theoretical trays needed.

Total material balance:

F =100 =D + W

D kmol/h

xD = 0.95

F =100 kmol/h

xF = 0.45

TF = 327.6K

Substituting D = 100-W

W kmol/h

45 = (100-W)(0.95) + W(0.1)

xW = 0.1

45 = 95 +(W)(0.95) + W(0.1)

W = 58.8 kmol/h

FKK

D =100 - W

Example 11.4-1

L

F =100 kmol/h

D kmol/h

xD = 0.95

1. Plot equilibrium & 45o lines on x-y graph

xF = 0.45

TF = 327.6K

W kmol/h

xW = 0.1

R = 4 = L/D

2. Draw enriching operating line

x

y = R x+ D

R +1 R +1

y = 4 x + 0.95 = 0.8x + 0.19

4 +1 4 +1

FKK

Example 11.4-1

3. Calculate q (fraction of feed that is liquid)

H V H F H V H L + cP (TB TF )

q=

=

HV HL

HV HL

Average latent heat 32099 kJ/kmol

32099 + (159)(TB 327.6)

q=

32099

32099 + (159)(366.7 327.6)

q=

= 1.195

32099

FKK

Example 11.4-1

q = 1 (liquid at its boiling point) , q = 0 (saturated vapour) , q 1 (cold liquid feed)

q 0 (superheated vapour) , 0 q 1 (mixture of liquid & vapour)

FKK

Example 11.4-1

4. Draw q-line

q-line

q = 1.195

xF

q

y=

x

q1

q1

1.1951

1.1951

Lets x = 0.40

0.45 y

6.12 = 0.45 - y = 0.45 - y =

0.45 x 0.45 0.4

0.05

y = 0.144

Connect xW(on 45o line) with the point of intersection of the q-line & the

enriching operating line

FKK

Example 11.4-1

6. Stepping off from xD

Starting from xD, make steps bet.

equilibrium line & enriching line to q-line

2

3

Feed tray

4

5

6

7

Feed tray = tray 5 from the top

9. Ntheo. stages = number of steps

Ntheo. stages = 8 stages

10. Ntheo. trays = theo. stages - reboiler

Ntheo. trays = 8 1= 7 trays plus a reboiler

FKK

TOTAL REFLUX, R =

minimum number of stages, Nmin

operating lines coincide with 45o line

infinite sizes of condenser, reboiler & tower diameter

stepping off from xD to xW on the 45o line

or using Fenske equation (total condenser)

xD 1 x W

log

1 xD x W

Nmin =

log av

= (1W)

1= relative volatility of the overhead vapour

W= relative volatility of the bottom liquid

FKK

Example 11.4-2

where a benzene-toluene feed is being

distilled to give a distillate composition of

xD=0.95 and a bottoms composition of

xW=0.10, calculate the following:

(a)Minimum reflux ratio Rmin

(b)Minimum number of theoretical plates at

total reflux.

Example 11.4-2

41.2 kmol/h

At R = , Nmin = ?

Steps are drawn from xD to xW.

xD = 0.95

F =100 kmol/

h

xF = 0.45

58.8 kmol/h

xW = 0.1

FKK

infinite number of stages/trays

minimum vapour flow

minimum condenser & reboiler

Rmin at pinch point (x,y)

or when equilibrium line has an inflection,

operating line tangent to the equilibrium line

x

y = R x+ D

R +1 R +1

y-intercept:

xD

0.95

=

= y intercept

R min + 1 R + 1

min

FKK

The top operating line intercepts q-line at

equilibrium line.

The line passes through the points (x,y)

and (xD,xD):

Two limits of tower operation exist:

At total reflux

-minimum number of plates with infinite tower diameter

-cost of tower, steam & cooling tower increases.

At minimum reflux

-infinite number of tray

-infinite cost of tower.

So, actual operating reflux ratio lies between total reflux and

minimum reflux (Rmin).

Normally, Ractual=1.2 -1.5 of Rmin

EXAMPLE 11.4-2

benzene-toluene feed is being distilled to give a

distillate composition of xD=0.95 and a bottoms

composition of xW=0.10, deretmine the

following:

(a) Minimum reflux ratio Rmin.

(b) Minimum number of theoretical plates at

total reflux (Nmin).

Example 11.4-2

41.2 kmol/h

xD = 0.95

F =100 kmol/

h

Given R = 4, Rmin = ?

The enriching op. line from xD is drawn

through the intersection of the q-line & the

equilibrium line to intersect the y-axis

xF = 0.45

58.8 kmol/h

xW = 0.1

Enriching op. line:

x

y = R x+ D

R +1 R +1

y-intercept:

xD

0.95

=

= 0.43

R min + 1 R + 1

min

FKK

Rmin = 1.21

2.Enriching column distillation

3.Rectification with direct steam injection

4.Rectification tower with side streams

5.Partial condensers

STRIPPING-COLUMN DISTILLATION

feed is saturated liquid at boiling point (q=1)

added to the top of the column

overhead product is not returned back to the tower

Wx W

Lm

y

=

x

operating line:

Vm + 1 m V

m +1

a straight line to the intersection of yD with the qline

FKK

ENRICHING-COLUMN DISTILLATION

feed is saturated vapour (q=0)

D

overhead product is refluxed back to the tower

xD

R

y=

x+

operating line:

R +1 R +1

N theo. stages - starting from xD(on 45o line) draw a

straight line to the y-intercept, xD/(R+1)

xF

FKK

xD

heat provided by open steam injected directly at bottom of tower

steam injected as small bubbles into liquid

W

stripping operating line: y = W x x W

S

S

draw a straight line from (xW,0) through WxW/(W-S) on

the 45o line

FKK

SIDE STREAM

stream removed from sections of tower

side stream above feed inlet:

Ox O + Dx D

LS

intermediate operating line: y = V x +

V

S +1

Ln = LS+O

S +1

VS+1 = Vn+1=V1=Ln+D

from the intersection of enriching op. line & xO, draw a

straight line to y-intercept of intermediate op. line

FKK

PARTIAL CONDENSERS

overhead product = vapour

liquid condensate returned to tower as reflux

one extra theoretical stage for partial condenser (both

liquid & vapour in condenser is in equilibrium)

FKK

TRAY EFFICIENCY

3 types of tray efficiency:

Overall tray efficiency, Eo

Murphree tray efficiency, EM

Point/local tray efficiency, EMP

EO = no. of ideal trays

no. of actual trays

EM =

yn - yn + 1

y *n -y n + 1

EMP =

FKK

y'n -y'n + 1

y *n -y'n + 1

TRAY EFFICIENCY

Graphical determination of actual trays given EM:

1 ideal tray = triangle acd on ideal equil. line

1 actual tray = triangle abe on actual equil. line

Eg. EM = 0.6 (60% efficiency)

distance ac = 10 cm

distance ab = 0.6(10 cm) = 6 cm

Get 4-5 points & draw actual

equil. line thru each points

Step off actual trays between

operating & actual equil. lines

Reboiler = 1 stage (bet. ideal equil. &

operating lines

FKK

No 11.5-1 (pg 755):

For the distillation of heptane and ethyl

benzene in problem 11.4-2, the Murphree

tray efficiency is estimated as 0.55.

Determine the actual number of trays

needed by stepping off the trays using the

tray efficiency of 0.55. Also, calculate the

overall tray efficiency Eo.

Enthalpy Balance Around the Condenser:

V1(H1) =L(hD) + D(hD) + qc

qc=VHD (LhD+DhD)

For total condenser:

V1=VD, HD=H1

H1=the saturated vapor enthalpy (equation 11.6-2):

Overall Enthalpy Balance :

Enthalpy in = Enthalpy out

qR +Fhf = qc + DhD + WhW

qR =qc + DhD + WhW Fhf

hD and hf from equation (11.6-1) or from

the enthalpy-concentration diagram.

Example

Binary mixture A-B (benzene-toluene) is to be distilled in a

fractionation column 101.3kPa. The feed of 100 kgmol/h is

liquid, containing 45 mol% benzene and 55 mol% toluene,

and enters at 327.6 K. A distillate containing 95 mol%

benzene and 5 mol% toluene and a bottoms containing 10

mol% benzene and 90 mol% toluene are to be obtained. A

Reflux ratio (R) = 1.5Rm. Given that Rm=1.17. Determine

the condenser duty and the reboiler duty required by the

distillation column by assuming constant molar overflow.

Physical property for benzene and toluene and enthalpyconcentration diagram are given in Table 11.6-1(pg 733)

and Table 11.6-2 (pg 734), respectively.

ENTHALPY-CONCENTRATION METHOD

Ponchon-Savarit method

takes into account latent heats, heats of solution & sensible heats

no assumption of molal overflow rates

graphical procedure combining enthalpy & material balances

provides information on condenser & reboiler duties

FKK

data Table 11.6-2 pg. 734 (Geankoplis 4th Ed.)

calculation shown in eg. 11.6-1

FKKKSA

ENTHALPY-CONCENTRATION METHOD

Drawing isotherms (tie lines) on the enthalpy-concentration diagram from

FKKKSA

Example 11.6-2

Given : R = 1.5 Rm = 1.5(1.17) = 1.755

41.2 kmol/

h

F =100 kmol/

h

xD = 0.95

xF = 0.45

58.8 kmol/h

TF = 327.6K

xW = 0.1

paper. Locate points D, W and F at xD, xW and xF, respectively.

hF = xFcpA(TF-T0) + (1-xF)cpB(TF-T0)

where cpA = cp of liquid benzene = 138.2 kJ/kmol.K

cpB = cp of liquid toluene = 167.5 kJ/kmol.K

T0 = Tref. = Tb.p. of liquid benzene = 80.1oC

hF= 0.45(138.2)(327.6-353.1) + (1-0.45)167.5(327.6-353.1) = -3938.1 kJ

FKKKSA

Example 11.6-2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.6

0.8

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

- 20.0

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

1.0

Locating R

2. Locate rectifying-section difference point,R

QC

hD + H1

D

H

R=

= R 1

H1 hD

Hh

1 D

Sat. vapour

Sat. liquid

FKKKSA

hD+QC/D

R H 1

V1

H1

h DH1

hD

Example 11.6-2

1

QC

hD +

H1

D

H

R=

= R 1

H1 h D

Hh

0.8

0.6

1 D

QC

hD + H1

R H 1

D

R H1

R=

=

= 1.755 =

H1 hD

Hh

1cm

0.4

1 D

R H1 = 1.7551cm = 1.755cm

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

120.0

100.0

R =85x

103kJ/kmol

80.0

60.0

H1=31x 103kJ/kmol

V1

40.0

20.0

hW=5x 103kJ/kmol

0.0

- 20.0

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Example 11.6-2

3. Locate stripping-section difference point, S

4. Step off trays for rectifying section using R.

5. Step off trays for stripping section using S

6. Theoretical stages = numbers of tie lines

7. Theoretical trays = theoretical stages - reboiler

Theoretical trays = 11.9 1 = 10.9 trays

8. Feed tray = tie line that crosses the line R FS

Feed trays = tray no. 7 from the top

9. Condenser duty, QC = (R hD)D or

QC

hD +

H1

3-0)41.2 = 3 460 800 kJ/h

Q

=

(85x10

D

R=

H1 h D

10. Reboiler duty, QR = (hW-S)W

QR = (hW-S)W = (5 x 103 [-64x103])58.8 = 4 057 200 kJ.h

FKKKSA

Locating S

Draw a straight line from R through F to intersect the

vertical line at xW

FKKKSA

Example 11.6-2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

- 20.0

- 40.0

-64 x103kJ/kmol

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1

line, horizontally across

to equilibrium line and

vertically

back

to

saturated liquid line, to

give L1. Connect L1 to V1

using a tie line. From L1

to R intersecting the

saturated vapour line to

give V2.Repeat until a tie

line crosses over the line

RFS.

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.6

0.8

100.0

80.0

60.0

V7 V6 V5 V V V V

1

4

3

2

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

- 20.0

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

0.4

120.0

0.4

L7 L6 L5

F

L4

0.6

L3

L2

0.8

L1

D

1.0

1

through L7 up to the

saturated vapour line to

give V8. From V8

vertically to 45o line,

horizontally

to

equilibrium line and

vertically

back

to

saturated liquid line to

give L8. Connect L8 and

V8

using

a

tie

line..Repeat until a tie

line touches W or exceed

W.

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.8

100.0

80.0

60.0

V12

40.0

WL L

12

11 L10

20.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

- 20.0

V11

L9

V10

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

V9

L8 L7 L6 L5

F

0.4

FKKKSA

0.6

120.0

V8 V7 V6 V5 V V V V

1

4

3

2

L4

0.6

L3

L2

0.8

L1

D

1.0

1

coincides with the tie line that

passes through F

0.8

0.6

0.4

F and extend that line to

intersect the vertical line xD to

get Rmin

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

120.0

100.0

QC

hD + H1

D min

H

Rmin =

= Rmin 1

H1 hD

Hh

1 D

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

- 20.0

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

Rmin

80.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1

0.8

operating lines are vertical since

R and S are at infinity.

0.6

0.4

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.6

0.8

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

- 20.0

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

1.0

PARTIAL CONDENSER

yD

Condensed liquid/reflux, L0, have the composition xo

which is in equilibrium with yD

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

140.0

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

x0

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

V6 V5 V4 V V V V

D

3

2

1

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

- 20.0

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

0.4

L6 L5 L4

F

L3

0.6

L2

L1

0.8

L0

1.0

1

0.8

the tie line LF (composition = xF)

and VF (composition = yF)

0.6

0.4

F so as to satisfy the inverse lever

rule:

0.2

140.0

0

VF FL F

=

LF FVF

0.2

zF

0.4

120.0

0.6

0.8

1.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

- 20.0

- 40.0

- 60.0

- 80.0

- 100.0

- 120.0

- 140.0

FKKKSA

0.8

0.2

LF LF

0.4

F

F

VF VF

0.6

MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION

more than 2 components

shortcut calculation methods an approximation

only allow separation between two components, heavy key and light key

Equilibrium data

Raoults law for ideal mixture

p P

p P

y B = B = B xB

y A = A = A xA

P P

P P

yC =

pC PC

= x

P P C

yD =

pD PD

= x

P P D

hydrocarbon system:

yC = K CxC

y B = K B xB

y A = K AxA

y D = K Dx D

relative volatility, i :

A =

KA

K ref.

B =

KB

K ref.

C =

KC

K ref.

D =

FKKKSA

KD

K ref.

Example 11.7-2

F = 100 mol/h at boiling point at 405.3 kPa. xFA = 0.4, xFB = 0.25, xFC = 0.20 and

xFD = 0.15 where components A = n-butane, B = n-pentane, C = n-hexane and

D = n-heptane. 90% of B is recovered in the distillate and 90% of C in the

bottoms. Calculate: (a) D and W moles/h (b) dew point of distillate and

boiling point of bottoms (c) minimum stages for total reflux and distribution

of other components in the distillate and bottoms.

Solution:

1st trial: Assume all of component A will be in the distillate and all of component

D will be in the bottom product

Components

xF

xFF

yD

yDD

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

40.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

F=100

0.62

0.349

0.031

0

yD=1.00

40.0

22.5

2.0

0

D=64.5

FKKKSA

xW

xWW

0

0

0.070

2.5

0.507

18.0

0.423

15.0

xW=1.00 W=35.5

yAD(D)=xAF(F)=0.4(100)=40 mol/h

xDW(W)=xDF(F)=0.15(100)=15 mol/h

N-pentane(B): Light Key

Overall Balance: F =D+W

Comp Balance:

xBF(F)=0.25(100)=25 mol/h=yBD(D) + xBW(W)

Since 90% of B is in distillate:

yBD(D) = (0.90)(25) = 22.5, xBW(W)=2.5

N-hexane (C): Heavy Key

xCF(F)=0.20(100) =20 mol/h

Since 90% of C is in the bottoms:

xCW(W)=0.90(20)=18 mol/h, yCDD=2.0 mol/h

DEW POINT

For a vapour mixture of A, B, C and D:

yi yi yi

xi = =

=1

K

K

i ref. i

Liquid composition which is in equilibrium with the vapour mixture:

yi

xi =

i

i

2. Get corresponding

values of Ki and i

3. Calculate yi/i

4. From Kref. = (yi/i) , get the corresponding T

5. Compare latest T with assumed T. If differ, use latest T for next iteration

by repeating steps 2-4

6. Once Td.p. is obtained, calculate liquid composition

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-2

Components

xF

xFF

yD

yDD

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

40.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

F=100

0.62

0.349

0.031

0

yD=1.00

40.0

22.5

2.0

0

D=64.5

xW

xWW

0

0

0.070

2.5

0.507

18.0

0.423

15.0

xW=1.00 W=35.5

Components

yiD

Ki

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.62

0.349

0.031

0

yiD=1.00

1.75

0.65

0.26

0.10

6.73

2.50

1.00

0.385

FKKKSA

yi /i

xi

0.0921

0.351

0.1396

0.531

0.0310

0.118

0

0

yi /i=0.2627 xi=1.00

Example 11.7-2

1.75

0.65

0.26

0.10

FKKKSA

BOILING POINT

For a liquid mixture of A, B, C and D:

yi = Kixi = K ref. ixi = 1

Vapour composition which is in equilibrium with the liquid mixture:

x

yi = i i

x

i i

1. By trial-&-error, assume Tb.p.

3. Calculate ixi

4. From Kref. = 1/(ixi) , get the corresponding T

5. Compare latest T with assumed T. If differ, use latest T for next

iteration by repeating steps 2-4

6. Once Tb.p. is obtained, calculate vapour composition

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-2

Components

xF

xFF

yD

yDD

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

40.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

F=100

0.62

0.349

0.031

0

yD=1.00

40.0

22.5

2.0

0

D=64.5

xW

xWW

0

0

0.070

2.5

0.507

18.0

0.423

15.0

xW=1.00 W=35.5

Components

xiw

Ki

xi i

yi

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0

0.070

0.507

0.423

xW=1.00

4.95

2.34

1.10

0.61

5.00

2.043

1.000

0.530

0

0.1430

0.5070

0.2242

xi i=0.8742

1/ixi = 1.144

0

0.164

0.580

0.256

xi=1.00

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-2

5.00

2.35

1.15

0.61

FKKKSA

MINIMUM STAGES,NMIN AT R =

Minimum stages, Nmin, using Fenske equation:

log

Nmin =

where:

x LD D x HW W

x HD D x LW W

log L ,av

xLW = mole fraction of LK in bottom product

xHD = mole fraction of HK in distillate

xHW = mole fraction of HK in bottom product

L,av =

LDLW

xiDD

x D

Distribution of other components:

= (i,av )Nm HD

xiWW

xHWW

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-2

Components

yiD=xiD

yDD

xiw

xWW

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.62

0.349

0.031

0

yD=1.00

40.0

22.5

2.0

0

D=64.5

6.73

2.50

1.00

0.385

0

0.070

0.507

0.423

xW=1.00

0

2.5

18.0

15.0

W=35.5

4.348

2.043

1.000

0.530

L,av =

LD

HD

x D x HW W

(0.349) 0.507

log

x D x LW W

0.031

0.070

Nmin =

=

= 5.404 theoretical stages

log L ,av

log 2.258

xiDD

x D

Distribution of other components:

= (i,av )Nm HD

xiWW

xHWW

Distribution of component A & D:

x ADD

x D

= (A,av )Nm HD = (A,av )5.404 (0.031)64.5 = (A,av )5.404 0.1111

x AWW

xHWW

(0.507)35.5

log

xDDD

x D

= (D,av )Nm HD = (D,av )5.404 (0.031)64.5 = (D,av )5.404 0.1111

xDWW

xHWW

(0.507)35.5

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-2

Components

yiD=xiD

yDD

xiw

xWW

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.62

0.349

0.031

0

yD=1.00

40.0

22.5

2.0

0

D=64.5

6.73

2.50

1.00

0.385

0

0.070

0.507

0.423

xW=1.00

0

2.5

18.0

15.0

W=35.5

4.348

2.043

1.000

0.530

A,av =

D,av =

x ADD

x D

= (A,av )Nm HD = (A,av )5.404 (0.031)64.5 = (5.409)5.404 0.1111=1017

x AWW

xHWW

(0.507)35.5

xDDD

x D

= (D,av )Nm HD = (D,av )5.404 (0.031)64.5 = (0.452)5.404 0.1111= 0.001521

xDWW

xHWW

(0.507)35.5

Material balance of component A & D:

x ADD + x AW W = 40

x DDD + x DW W = 15

x ADD = 39.961

x DDD = 0.023

Solving :

x AW W = 0.039

x DW W = 14.977

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-2

Components

xF

xFF

yD

yDD

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

40.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

F=100

0.62

0.349

0.031

0

yD=1.00

40.0

22.5

2.0

0

D=64.5

xW

xWW

0

0

0.070

2.5

0.507

18.0

0.423

15.0

xW=1.00 W=35.5

Components

xF

xFF

yD

yDD

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

40.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

F=100

0.6197

0.3489

0.0310

0.0004

yD=1.00

39.961

22.5

2.0

0.023

D=64.484

FKKKSA

xW

xWW

0.0011

0.039

0.0704

2.500

0.5068

18.00

0.4217

14.977

xW=1.00 W=35.516

Underwoods shortcut method for calculating Rmin:

Assumes constant flows in both sections of tower

Uses constant average (at Tave. = [Ttop + Tbottom ]/2)

x

1q= i iF

i

where:

i

xiD = mole fraction of component i in distillate taken at R =

R m + 1=

i iD

i = relative volatility of the top and the bottom of the tower

To determine Rmin:

1. By trial-and-error, assume ( LK HK )

2. Calculate 1-q for various

3. Use obtained to calculate Rmin

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-3

Example 11.7-2, calculate the following:

(a)Minimum reflux ratio using the Underwood

method.

(b)Number of theoretical stages at an operating

reflux ratio R of 1.5Rm using the ErbarMaddox correlation.

(c)Location of feed tray using the method of

Kirkbride.

Example 11.7-3

Components

xF

xFF

xiD

xiDD

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

40.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

F=100

0.6197

0.3489

0.0310

0.0004

yD=1.00

39.961

22.5

2.0

0.023

D=64.484

xW

xWW

0.0011

0.039

0.0704

2.500

0.5068

18.00

0.4217

14.977

xW=1.00 W=35.516

Components

xiF

xiD

Ki

xiW

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

xiF=1.00

0.6197

0.3489

0.0310

0.0004

yD=1.00

3.12

1.38

0.60

0.28

5.20

2.30

1.00

0.467

0.0011

0.0704

0.5068

0.4217

xiW=1.00

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-3

3.12

1.38

o.60

0.28

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-3

Components

xiF

xiD

Ki (99.5oC)

i (99.5oC)

xiW

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

xiF=1.00

0.6197

0.3489

0.0310

0.0004

yD=1.00

3.12

1.38

0.60

0.28

5.20

2.30

1.00

0.467

0.0011

0.0704

0.5068

0.4217

xiW=1.00

x

5.2(0.4) 2.3(0.25) 1.0(0.2) 0.467(0.15)

1q=

= 1 0=1=

+

+

+

5.20 2.3 1.0 0.467

i

1. By trial-and-error, assume ( LK HK )

2. Calculate 1-q for various

(sum)

5.2(0.4)

2.3(0.25)

1.0(0.2)

0.467(0.15)

1.0

0.467

1.210

1.200

1.2096

FKKKSA

i iF

0.5213

0.5200

0.5213

0.5275

0.5227

0.5273

-0.9524

-1.0000

-0.9542

-0.0942

-0.0955

-0.0943

+0.0022

-0.0528

+0.0001

Example 11.7-3

Components

xiF

xiD

Ki (99.5oC)

i (99.5oC)

xiW

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

xiF=1.00

0.6197

0.3489

0.0310

0.0004

yD=1.00

3.12

1.38

0.60

0.28

5.20

2.30

1.00

0.467

0.0011

0.0704

0.5068

0.4217

xiW=1.00

= 1.2096

3. Use obtained to calculate Rmin

R m + 1=

x

= 5.20(0.6197) + 2.30(0.3489) + 1.00(0.0310) + 0.467(0.15)

5.201.2096 2.301.2096 1.001.2096 0.4671.2096

i

x

R m + 1= i iD =1.395

i

i iD

Rmin = 0.395

FKKKSA

Correlation of Erbar & Maddox:

log

Ne

Ns

= 0.206 log

x

x

HF

LF

W x

D x

LW

HD

where:

Ne = number of theoretical stages above the feed plate

NS = number of theoretical stages below the feed plate

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-3

R/(R+1) = 0.593/(0.593+1) = 0.3723

Rmin/(Rmin+1) = 0.395/(0.395+1)

Rmin/(Rmin+1) = 0.2832

Nmin/N = 0.49 = 5.404/N

N = 11.0 theoretical stages

0.37

0.49

FKKKSA

Example 11.7-3

Components

A

B(L)

C(H)

D

0.40

0.25

0.20

0.15

xiF=1.00

0.6197

0.3489

0.0310

0.0004

yD=1.00

0.0011

0.0704

0.5068

0.4217

xiW=1.00

Ne + NS = 11.0 theoretical stages

2

x

Wx

Ne

LW

HF

log

= 0.206 log

x

Ns

D

x

HD

LF

2

Ne

0.2 35.516 0.0704

log

= 0.206 log

= 0.07344

Ns

Ne

= 1.184 Ne = 1.184Ns

1.184NS + NS = 11.0

Ns

NS = 5.0

Ne = 6.0

Feed tray = 6.0 trays from the top

FKKKSA

- Sample Problem #17Uploaded byDozdi
- Chapter 1 distillationUploaded bySiti Nurshahira
- Gas Absorption.docxUploaded byArgie Adduru
- CH 2.pptxUploaded byArbanah Muhammad
- Sample Problem #7Uploaded byDozdi
- Gas Absorption in Packed Tower (S1 2015) (Note)Uploaded byvenkiee
- DistillationUploaded byEbook Download
- TRAPHE3- Gas AbsorptionUploaded bypenchasi
- Answers PracProb Revised 2nd EdUploaded byLiz Bargola
- Leaching Lecture NotesUploaded byChongMY
- Tugas Differential and Flash Distillation-Nur HamidahUploaded byNoor Izzati Ilmi
- Mass Transfer Part (9)Uploaded byoctoviancletus
- geankoplis_ch12Uploaded byAmit Yadav
- Solutions Manual GeankoplisUploaded byMona Brey
- Packed Column Design - Packing Height Calculation NotesUploaded byJeremy
- ExtractionUploaded byDeepika Selvaraju S
- Chap 1.3 - LeachingUploaded byRaja Maizatulakmal
- Geankoplis, C. J. Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3th Edition, Prentice-Hall International, 1993.pdfUploaded byJulia Lopes Braga
- Activity Coefficient Calculation for Binary Systems Using UNIQUACUploaded bydjc49
- Test 1 Book Notes examples-1.pdfUploaded byRalph Castino
- 11.4-1 to 11.4-6Uploaded byHELLO
- Experiment ReportUploaded byJoan Mary
- Absorption NotesUploaded byhanisshi
- Problem Set # 2Uploaded byDharyl Flores
- Extraction Problem Solving DrillUploaded byedmark icalina
- [Lab Report Operation Unit] Experiment 5 : INTRODUCTION TO DRYING PROCESS: DRYING A SOLIDUploaded byFazsroul
- Principles of Mass Transfer and Separation ProcessUploaded byRiya Gupta
- GAS-ABSORPTION.pdfUploaded byKim GojoCruz
- gas abUploaded byJackielyn Eugenio
- Process Dynamics and ControlUploaded bygiexxx

- LECTURE 06 Equipment Sizing and Capital Cost Estimation 1Uploaded byaravoof84
- Heat CapacityUploaded byhanisshi
- Trabalho10_Overview Biodiesel ProductionUploaded byRenata Scoralick
- BioD Production 1Uploaded byhanisshi
- Electrochemical SeriesUploaded byhanisshi
- Burnerconversion ConsiderationUploaded byhanisshi
- Natural gas equipmentUploaded byhanisshi
- Fire DynamicsUploaded byhanisshi
- Air PollutionUploaded byhanisshi
- Hydrocarbon GraphsUploaded byhanisshi
- Liquefaction Of GasUploaded byhanisshi
- Separation Process 1Uploaded byhanisshi
- Absorption NotesUploaded byhanisshi
- Hazard Waste SpaceUploaded byhanisshi
- WWT-1.pdfUploaded byhanisshi
- Dehydration Of GASUploaded byhanisshi
- Chapter4p1Uploaded byhanisshi
- Chemical Equilibrium NotesUploaded byhanisshi

- Membrane Separation TechnologyUploaded byamo
- Exp-1Uploaded byHelena Francis
- 160519-627-04-0286-p4Uploaded byscribdremo
- 0675Uploaded byfrodolfop
- EXTRACTION NOTESUploaded bylynmartin
- RMP Lecture NotesUploaded byGiuseppe Attuario
- Experiment 5 (Chromatography)Uploaded byCheng Bauzon
- DistillationUploaded byanita_shar29
- P11.pptxUploaded bymehul10941
- Hwk 5Uploaded byKelly Smith
- Membranske separacijeUploaded byNatasaToncev
- SSI Simulated Distillation Heavy Canadian Crude Bitumen Oil ASTM5307Uploaded byashrafelkhalawy
- Title Paper ChromatographyUploaded bysteve
- 14- Lab 14- R-HPLC for Detn of CaffeineUploaded byHoang Huong Tra
- 221-06Uploaded byFransiscus Leo Chandra
- Data, Result, Analysis & DiscussionUploaded byIzhamGhazi
- Class14 - Separation Tower DesignUploaded byaltealod
- Solid Extraction & TlcUploaded byMznalqadi
- distillation process projectUploaded bysunlias
- Thin Layer Chromatography ProcedureUploaded byJay Shah
- HPLCUploaded byOsama Bakheet
- Tutorial 8 (Chromatograms) Incl Answers_73Uploaded byPedro
- The Essence of Chromatography Poole Else Vier 2003Uploaded byNicola Giannone
- Introduction to Analytical SeparationsUploaded byVel Murugan
- Chromatography Fall 2016Uploaded byElisa
- 4444444Uploaded byjayesh newal
- Distil at IonUploaded byMarzouk Abdel Wahed Marzouk
- Membrane Systems for Wastewater Treatment - Access Engineering From McGraw-HillUploaded byvk100
- Surfactant Analysis by TLC.pdfUploaded byKristopher Glenn Alton
- GC and LCUploaded byJenny Jose