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2009 International Conference on Networks Security, Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing

Channel Estimation for PRP-OFDM in Underwater Acoustic Communication


Xian Jinlong Zhang Zhonglei

College of Information Science and Engineering College of Information Science and Engineering
Henan University of Technology Henan University of Technology
Henan, China Henan, China

Abstract—Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM) is a method that can combat multi-paths, fully use the II. THE MODE OF PRP-OFDM UDERWATER
frequency band, has high data rate and has a promising future ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
in UWA communication. While longer the transmission range,
According to the characteristics of the underwater
worse the underwater conditions with multi-paths and Doppler
offset, which needs to design the system parameters and take
acoustic channel and some parameter requests of
practical methods to improve the system. In this paper, a new transmission data, the PRP-OFDM underwater acoustic
PRP-OFDM (A Pseudo random Postfix OFDM) algorithm is communication model is given, as shown in Figure 1.
proposed, which has a good performance and low-complexity. Here, we assume that the receiver and the transmitter are
total synchronization and the noise is Gauss added white
Keywords- OFDM; channel estimation; Doppler offset; PRP- noise. Figure 1 depicts the base band discrete-time block
OFDM equivalent model of a N carrier PRP-OFDM underwater
acoustic communication system. The ith N × 1 input digital
vector S N (i) is first modulated by the IFFT matrix:
In the underwater communication channel, the π
Transmission losses restrict the usable bandwidth seriously, 1 −j
H ij H and 2 . Then a
F = (W ) , 0 ≤ i < N , 0 ≤ j < N W = e
which increase along with the increase of the frequency and N N N N
distance. The underwater acoustic channel has the Multi-path
deterministic postfix vector c D = ⎣⎡c0 ,c1 cD −1 ⎦⎤T weighted
delay expansion and the Doppler frequency expansion except
the short-range vertical underwater acoustic channel. The by a pseudo random value α (i ) ∈ is appended to the
multi-path transmission result in the delay expansion which IFFT outputs S N (i ) . With P = N + D , the corresponding
brings Inter-symbols interference (ISI). At the same time, the
channel random time varying results in frequency expansion ~
and worse the demodulation phase stability performance of P × 1 transmitted vector is S ( i ) = F H S N ( i ) + α ( i ) C ,
the communication system [1-3]. Orthogonal Frequency T T
Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a method that can combat where F H = ⎢ I N ⎥
⎡ ⎤
H and C
= (0 c ) .
1, N D
⎢⎣ 0 D , N ⎥⎦
multi-paths, fully use the frequency band, has high data rate, P× N
aroused extensive attention. As one of the main OFDM The samples of S P (i ) are then sent sequentially through
technologies, the results of channel estimation have a direct
impact on the performance of the whole system. Currently, the channel mode here and its impulse response
the main channel estimation algorithms are the channel is ( h0 , h1 , hL−1 ) . The PRP-OFDM underwater acoustic
estimation based on pilot and the bland channel estimation. system is designed such that the postfix duration exceeds
In this paper we introduce a new PRP-OFDM channel the channel memory L ≤ D .
estimation algorithm [4-5], which has a good performance
and low-complexity. Let HISI (P) and H IBI ( P ) be respectively the Toeplitz
This paper is organized as follows. Section introduces inferior and superior triangular matrices of first column:
the mode of the OFDM underwater acoustic communication T
system. Then the PRP-OFDM channel estimation algorithm ⎡⎣ h0 ,h1, ,hL −1,0,→,0 ⎤⎦ and first row: ⎡⎣0,→,0,hL −1, , h1 ⎦⎤ . As
[6-7] in underwater acoustic communication system was explained in [8], the channel convolution can be modeled
proposed in section . Section gives the simulation results by rp (i ) = H ISI S P (i ) + H IBI S P (i − 1) + nP (i ) . H ISI ( P ) and
and analysis.
H ( P ) represent respectively the intra and inter block
interference. Since S P (i ) = FZPH S N (i ) + α (i )cP , the

978-0-7695-3610-1/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE 748

DOI 10.1109/NSWCTC.2009.161

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channel convolution can be modeled as Since H ISI ( D ) + H IBI ( D ) = H CIR ( D ) is circular and
α (i −1) diagonalizable in the frequency domain combining
S P (i ) = FZPH S N (i ) + α (i )cP where βi = and
α (i ) equations (3) and (4) and using the commutativity of the
convolution yields:
nP (i ) is the AWGN vector of variance σ n2 . Note that ~ ~ ~
h c = h c ,1 + h c ,0 = H DIRC ( D )
βi = ( H ISI + βi H IBI ) is pseudo circulant: i.e. a circular ~

matrix whose ( D − 1) × ( D − 1) upper triangular part is = C D hD = FDH C D FD hD

weighted by βi . Where CD is a D × D circulant matrix with first row:
The expression of the received block is thus: row0 (CD ) = [c0 , cD−1, cD−2 , , c1] and C D = diag{FD cD }
rP (i ) = H βi ( FZPH S N (i ) + α (i )cP ) + nP (i ) Thus, an estimate of the CIR hˆ can be retrieved that way:
⎛ H ~
⎞ hˆD = CD−1hˆC = FDH CD−1 FD hˆC
= H βi ⎜ FN S N (i ) ⎟ + nP (i) ~
⎜ α (i)c ⎟
⎝ D ⎠ (1) Note that CD is designed such that C D is full rank.
As mentioned in the introduction, PRP-OFDM allows an Fig.2 presents results of PRP-OFDM channel estimation
order one and low-complexity channel estimation. For in the underwater acoustic communication system.
explanation sake let assume that the Channel Impulse Compared with the LS algorithm, the algorithm is much
Response (CIR) is static. better. Assume the multi-paths L=5, power delay spectrum is
Define H CIR ( D ) = H ISI ( D ) + H IBI ( D ) as the expressed as exponential distribution exp( −t / τ rms ) , and
D×D circulant channel matrix of first the statistic average of the multi-path expand length
row row0 ( H D ) = [ h0 , 0, →, 0, hL −1 , , h1 ] . Note that is τ 1 ; the max multi-paths delay
rm s *C D
H ISI ( D) and H IBI ( D) contain respectively the lower and 4
is τ max = 4 *τ rms ; the Doppler frequency offset is 2 Hz; the
upper triangular parts of H CIR ( D ) .Denoting
middle frequency of signal is 7. 5 kHz, and the bandwidth is
by S N (i ) = [ s0 (i ), , sN −1 (i) ] , splitting this vector into two
3 kHz, sub-carriers N=128; the length of CD D=16, and the
parts: signal is modulated by 16QAM
S N ,0 (i ) = [ s0 (i ), , sD −1 (i ) ] , S N ,1 (i ) = [ sN − D (i ), , sN −1 (i )] , It can be seen from the results of the simulation, PRP

Estimation has a good performance. From complexity, the

and performing the same operations for the noise vector: PRP algorithm has a lower complexity compared with blind
n p (i ) = [ n0 (i ), , nP −1 (i ) ] , nD ,0 (i ) = [ n0 (i ), , nD −1 (i )] ,
channel estimation algorithms. But it’s complexity is a bit
higher than the LS algorithm. But the algorithm can omit the
nD ,1 (i ) = [ nP − D (i ), , nP −1 (i ) ] , the received vector
pilot costs, and improve the efficiency of the frequency
rP (i ) can be expressed as: spectrum utilization and the rate of transmission. From the
compromise between complexity and performance, PRP
⎛ HISI (D)SN,0(i) +α(i −1)HIBI (D)cD +nD,0 ⎞ algorithm is a desirable method.
⎜ ⎟ In this paper, it mainly introduces the Pseudo Random
rP(i) =⎜ ⎟ (2) Postfix OFDM channel estimation algorithm in the
⎜ H (D)S (i) +α(i)H (D)c +n ⎟ underwater acoustic communication system. The results
⎝ IBI N,1 ISI D D,1 ⎠
show that the performance of the algorithm has obvious
As usual the transmitted time domain signal S N (i ) is advantages, but the performance improvement of the
algorithm is at the cost of enhancing complexity [9]. In
zero-mean. Thus the first D samples rP ,1 (i ) can be exploited
practice, we always select the appropriate algorithms
very easily to find back the channel matrices relying on the according to the channel environment of actual system in
deterministic nature of the postfix as follows: order to take the performance and complexity into account.
~ ⎡ r (i ) ⎤ (3)
h c ,0 = E ⎢ P ,0 ⎥ = H IBI ( D ) c D REFERENCES
⎣ α ( i − 1) ⎦
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h c ,1 = E ⎢ P ,1 ⎥ = H IS I ( D ) c D
⎣ α (i ) ⎦ 27.


Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 02:01 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
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modulator demodulator

S N (i ) S P (i ) rP (i )
r N (i )
s 0 (i ) s 0 (i ) r0 (i)
s1 (i)
s2 (i ) r 0 (i )
n(t )

sN −1 (i) sn s (t ) r (t ) rn
DAC H (i )
c0 iα (i )
Sampling Sampling
Constant rate T rate T
cD iα (i) rN + D −1 (i ) ~
r N −1 (i )
Parallel to Digital to Underwater Analogy to Serial to Demodulation
Modulation Postfix communication
serial analogy digital parallel and
insertion channel
conversion conversion conversion conversion equalization
Figure 1. The OFDM underwater acoustic communication mode

Figure 2. The results of PRP-OFDM channel estimation in the underwater acoustic communication system.


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