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System

College of Information Science and Engineering College of Information Science and Engineering

Henan University of Technology Henan University of Technology

Henan, China Henan, China

e-mail:13991339876@vip.sina.com e-mail:allly166@163.com

(OFDM) is a method that can combat multi-paths, fully use the II. THE MODE OF PRP-OFDM UDERWATER

frequency band, has high data rate and has a promising future ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

in UWA communication. While longer the transmission range,

According to the characteristics of the underwater

worse the underwater conditions with multi-paths and Doppler

offset, which needs to design the system parameters and take

acoustic channel and some parameter requests of

practical methods to improve the system. In this paper, a new transmission data, the PRP-OFDM underwater acoustic

PRP-OFDM (A Pseudo random Postfix OFDM) algorithm is communication model is given, as shown in Figure 1.

proposed, which has a good performance and low-complexity. Here, we assume that the receiver and the transmitter are

total synchronization and the noise is Gauss added white

Keywords- OFDM; channel estimation; Doppler offset; PRP- noise. Figure 1 depicts the base band discrete-time block

OFDM equivalent model of a N carrier PRP-OFDM underwater

acoustic communication system. The ith N × 1 input digital

I. INTRODUCTION ~

vector S N (i) is first modulated by the IFFT matrix:

In the underwater communication channel, the π

Transmission losses restrict the usable bandwidth seriously, 1 −j

H ij H and 2 . Then a

F = (W ) , 0 ≤ i < N , 0 ≤ j < N W = e

which increase along with the increase of the frequency and N N N N

distance. The underwater acoustic channel has the Multi-path

deterministic postfix vector c D = ⎣⎡c0 ,c1 cD −1 ⎦⎤T weighted

delay expansion and the Doppler frequency expansion except

the short-range vertical underwater acoustic channel. The by a pseudo random value α (i ) ∈ is appended to the

multi-path transmission result in the delay expansion which IFFT outputs S N (i ) . With P = N + D , the corresponding

brings Inter-symbols interference (ISI). At the same time, the

channel random time varying results in frequency expansion ~

and worse the demodulation phase stability performance of P × 1 transmitted vector is S ( i ) = F H S N ( i ) + α ( i ) C ,

P ZP P

the communication system [1-3]. Orthogonal Frequency T T

Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a method that can combat where F H = ⎢ I N ⎥

⎡ ⎤

F

H and C

P

= (0 c ) .

1, N D

ZP N

⎢⎣ 0 D , N ⎥⎦

multi-paths, fully use the frequency band, has high data rate, P× N

aroused extensive attention. As one of the main OFDM The samples of S P (i ) are then sent sequentially through

technologies, the results of channel estimation have a direct

impact on the performance of the whole system. Currently, the channel mode here and its impulse response

the main channel estimation algorithms are the channel is ( h0 , h1 , hL−1 ) . The PRP-OFDM underwater acoustic

estimation based on pilot and the bland channel estimation. system is designed such that the postfix duration exceeds

In this paper we introduce a new PRP-OFDM channel the channel memory L ≤ D .

estimation algorithm [4-5], which has a good performance

and low-complexity. Let HISI (P) and H IBI ( P ) be respectively the Toeplitz

This paper is organized as follows. Section introduces inferior and superior triangular matrices of first column:

the mode of the OFDM underwater acoustic communication T

system. Then the PRP-OFDM channel estimation algorithm ⎡⎣ h0 ,h1, ,hL −1,0,→,0 ⎤⎦ and first row: ⎡⎣0,→,0,hL −1, , h1 ⎦⎤ . As

[6-7] in underwater acoustic communication system was explained in [8], the channel convolution can be modeled

proposed in section . Section gives the simulation results by rp (i ) = H ISI S P (i ) + H IBI S P (i − 1) + nP (i ) . H ISI ( P ) and

and analysis.

H ( P ) represent respectively the intra and inter block

IBI

~

interference. Since S P (i ) = FZPH S N (i ) + α (i )cP , the

DOI 10.1109/NSWCTC.2009.161

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 2, 2009 at 02:01 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

channel convolution can be modeled as Since H ISI ( D ) + H IBI ( D ) = H CIR ( D ) is circular and

~

α (i −1) diagonalizable in the frequency domain combining

S P (i ) = FZPH S N (i ) + α (i )cP where βi = and

α (i ) equations (3) and (4) and using the commutativity of the

convolution yields:

nP (i ) is the AWGN vector of variance σ n2 . Note that ~ ~ ~

h c = h c ,1 + h c ,0 = H DIRC ( D )

H

βi = ( H ISI + βi H IBI ) is pseudo circulant: i.e. a circular ~

weighted by βi . Where CD is a D × D circulant matrix with first row:

~

The expression of the received block is thus: row0 (CD ) = [c0 , cD−1, cD−2 , , c1] and C D = diag{FD cD }

~

rP (i ) = H βi ( FZPH S N (i ) + α (i )cP ) + nP (i ) Thus, an estimate of the CIR hˆ can be retrieved that way:

D

~

⎛ H ~

⎞ hˆD = CD−1hˆC = FDH CD−1 FD hˆC

= H βi ⎜ FN S N (i ) ⎟ + nP (i) ~

⎜ α (i)c ⎟

⎝ D ⎠ (1) Note that CD is designed such that C D is full rank.

III. PRP-OFDM CHANNEL ESTIMATION ALGORITHM IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

As mentioned in the introduction, PRP-OFDM allows an Fig.2 presents results of PRP-OFDM channel estimation

order one and low-complexity channel estimation. For in the underwater acoustic communication system.

explanation sake let assume that the Channel Impulse Compared with the LS algorithm, the algorithm is much

Response (CIR) is static. better. Assume the multi-paths L=5, power delay spectrum is

Define H CIR ( D ) = H ISI ( D ) + H IBI ( D ) as the expressed as exponential distribution exp( −t / τ rms ) , and

D×D circulant channel matrix of first the statistic average of the multi-path expand length

row row0 ( H D ) = [ h0 , 0, →, 0, hL −1 , , h1 ] . Note that is τ 1 ; the max multi-paths delay

=

rm s *C D

H ISI ( D) and H IBI ( D) contain respectively the lower and 4

is τ max = 4 *τ rms ; the Doppler frequency offset is 2 Hz; the

upper triangular parts of H CIR ( D ) .Denoting

middle frequency of signal is 7. 5 kHz, and the bandwidth is

by S N (i ) = [ s0 (i ), , sN −1 (i) ] , splitting this vector into two

T

3 kHz, sub-carriers N=128; the length of CD D=16, and the

parts: signal is modulated by 16QAM

S N ,0 (i ) = [ s0 (i ), , sD −1 (i ) ] , S N ,1 (i ) = [ sN − D (i ), , sN −1 (i )] , It can be seen from the results of the simulation, PRP

T T

and performing the same operations for the noise vector: PRP algorithm has a lower complexity compared with blind

n p (i ) = [ n0 (i ), , nP −1 (i ) ] , nD ,0 (i ) = [ n0 (i ), , nD −1 (i )] ,

T T

channel estimation algorithms. But it’s complexity is a bit

higher than the LS algorithm. But the algorithm can omit the

nD ,1 (i ) = [ nP − D (i ), , nP −1 (i ) ] , the received vector

T

pilot costs, and improve the efficiency of the frequency

rP (i ) can be expressed as: spectrum utilization and the rate of transmission. From the

compromise between complexity and performance, PRP

⎛ HISI (D)SN,0(i) +α(i −1)HIBI (D)cD +nD,0 ⎞ algorithm is a desirable method.

⎜ ⎟ In this paper, it mainly introduces the Pseudo Random

rP(i) =⎜ ⎟ （2） Postfix OFDM channel estimation algorithm in the

⎜ H (D)S (i) +α(i)H (D)c +n ⎟ underwater acoustic communication system. The results

⎝ IBI N,1 ISI D D,1 ⎠

show that the performance of the algorithm has obvious

As usual the transmitted time domain signal S N (i ) is advantages, but the performance improvement of the

algorithm is at the cost of enhancing complexity [9]. In

zero-mean. Thus the first D samples rP ,1 (i ) can be exploited

practice, we always select the appropriate algorithms

very easily to find back the channel matrices relying on the according to the channel environment of actual system in

deterministic nature of the postfix as follows: order to take the performance and complexity into account.

~ ⎡ r (i ) ⎤ (3)

h c ,0 = E ⎢ P ,0 ⎥ = H IBI ( D ) c D REFERENCES

⎣ α ( i − 1) ⎦

[1] Kilfoyle D B, Baggeroer A B. The state of the art in underwater

~ ⎡ r (i ) ⎤ (4) acoustic telemetry[J]. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Eng. 2000, 25(1): 4-

h c ,1 = E ⎢ P ,1 ⎥ = H IS I ( D ) c D

⎣ α (i ) ⎦ 27.

749

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[2] Adam Zielinski, YoungHoon Yoon, WU Lixue. Performance [6] Edfors O, Sandell M, Beek J, et al. OFDM Channel Estimation by

Analysis of digital acoustic communication in a shallow water Singular Value Decomposition. IEEE V TC’96, 1996: 923-927..

channel[J]. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Eng. 1995, 20(4): 293-299. [7] Beek J, Edfors O, Sandell M, et al. On Channel Estimation in OFDM

[3] Kazuyoshi Miyoshi. Preliminary Design of OFDM and CDMA systems. IEEE VTC’95. 1995:815-819

Acoustic Communication System. IEEE Ocean, 2001:2216-2219. [8] . A. Akansu, P. Duhamel, X. Lin, and M. de Courville. Orthogonal

[4] G. B. Giannakis. Filterbanks for blind channel identification and Transmultiplexers in Communication: A Review. IEEE Trans. on

equalization. IEE Signal Processing Letters, pages 184-187, June Signal Processing, 463(4):979–995, April 1998.

1997.. [9] Aiping Huang, Yuping Zhao. Esitmation Channel Response from

[5] L. Cimini. Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using Pilot Sub-carrier for OFDM System. IEEE. 1997: 774-777.

orthogonal frequency division multiple access. IEEE Trans. on

Communication, pages 665-675, 1995..

modulator demodulator

S N (i ) S P (i ) rP (i )

~

r N (i )

~

s 0 (i ) s 0 (i ) r0 (i)

s1 (i)

~

s2 (i ) r 0 (i )

FNH P/S S/P

n(t )

sN −1 (i) sn s (t ) r (t ) rn

DAC H (i )

+ ADC

c0 iα (i )

Sampling Sampling

Constant rate T rate T

Postfix

cD iα (i) rN + D −1 (i ) ~

r N −1 (i )

Parallel to Digital to Underwater Analogy to Serial to Demodulation

Modulation Postfix communication

serial analogy digital parallel and

insertion channel

conversion conversion conversion conversion equalization

Figure 1. The OFDM underwater acoustic communication mode

Figure 2. The results of PRP-OFDM channel estimation in the underwater acoustic communication system.

750

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