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Engineering Materials in simple

The Study of Engineering Materials usually includes: Testing, specifications, microstructure,
methods of extraction, and heat treatment.

Engineering Materials Classifications:

. They May include water. b) Energy Materials: They are used for energy generation.  Non-Metallic Materials: Include many types of materials that are used in every day activity. a) Building materials: Include stones. fuels…. oil. Nickel. strain or both.etc. lime.  Steel has a wide range of elasticity. cement. b) Non-Ferrous Metals: Which include: - Heavy metals such as Copper. .…. Magnesium… ets. c) Miscellaneous Materials: They include rubber. Mechanical Properties of Materials They are their behavior under action of external loads or forces or their ability to resist failure. timber……etc. plastics…. bricks. Most of mechanical properties are expressed in terms of stress. ets. - Light Metals such as Aluminum.. Metallic Materials: a) Ferrous Metals: Which are composed of Iron and carbon plus a number of other elements. added alloying). lead……etc.etc. (As raw materials. cork. Types of Mechanical Properties of Materials: 1. coal. Elasticity: The ability of a metal to return to its original shape and size after removing loads. - Soft Metals such as tin.

3. Silver. Iron. Plasticity: The ability of a metal to undergo permanent deformation (without fracture) after removing loads.  As Diamond. It is opposite to ductility. Creep : The ability of metal to deform continuously under steady loads. Lead 4. while Cast iron does not possess any appreciable plasticity even when red hot. Stiffness : The ability of a metal to resist deformation Modulus of elasticity (stress/strain below elastic limit) is a measure of Stiffness.  Cast Iron. Ductility: The ability of the materials to undergo cold plastic deformation by tension and can be drawn into wires before rupture. 8. . 7. Calcite and Gypsum.  Lead has good plasticity even at room temperature. Aluminum. 6. Glass and Concrete are example of brittle materials. Platinum. Copper. Brittleness : The ability of materials to fracture without plastic deformation. Resilience: The ability of a metal to store energy and resist shocks or Impacts. Tin.  The following common metals have ductility in the decreasing order: Gold. 9.2. deformation. Toughness : The Capacity of material to withstand (absorb) shock loads without fracture (Toughness of most materials falls with the rise in Temperature). Hardness: The ability of metal to resist abrasion. Quartz. 5. Creep occurs in steel at high temperatures. it is measured by the resistance of metal to scratching. penetration scratching or indentation by harder bodies.

Heat Treatments.Atmospheric Exposure. 4. Endurance : The ability of a metal to withstand varying stresses (same or opposite nature). 3. b. 10. Endurance limit is the maximum stress that can be applied for indefinite times without causing failures. Boilers.Temperature.It is important in designing I. Types of Strength: a. 11. . and Turbines. Strength: The ability of the material to resist applications of forces without rupture.C Engines.Plastic Strength: The value of load corresponding to plastic range & rupture.Elastic Strength: The value of load corresponding to transition from elastic to plastic range. 2.Grain Size. Factor of safety = Ultimate Stress / Working Stress Factors Affecting Mechanical Properties of Materials 1.

Castability:  Metal ability to be formed into different shapes and sizes from its liquid state. Formability :  Metal ability to be formed (pressed by forging i. drilling. Examples: Iron carbon Steel cast. D. Silver. Iron Low alloy steels & Stainless steel. E. Aluminum. wrought iron low alloy steel. Weldability:  Metal ability to be joint two similar or dissimilar metals by welding.etc. medium carbon steel. B. Lead. and Grey Cast Iron.) into different shapes and sizes. Copper. boring (‫)ثقب او توسيع‬. Tin. Lead…etc. Copper. Brass.  Examples: White Cast Iron. Examples: Most of metals have good Castability: Aluminum. Hook's Law and Modulus of Elasticity Hook's law states: "When a material is loaded with in its elastic limit the stress is proportional to strain" . Platinum. Iron and Nickel. C. Malleability: Metal ability to be deformed with cold deformation in all directions into thin sheets by squeezing rolling or hamming without rapture  Examples: Gold. milling…. Cast iron. Aluminum.Types of Technological Properties of Materials It determine behavior of materials in fabrication process A. Copper. Examples: Low carbon steels.e. Machinability: Metal ability to be cut by turning.

Hardness Test: Hardness test is done to know metal resistance against indentation. i. This continuous gradual extension under a steady load or steady stress is known as Creep. Difficulties in performing the test are: - Non-parallel top and bottom faces of specimen leads to difficult axial loading. v. - Specimen Length is short (about twice of its diameter) to avoid buckling. Tensile Test: The results obtained by tensile test are widely used in the design of materials for structures and other purposes. Fatigue Test: Fatigue failure is caused by repeated stress cycles (reversal of direction of bending or torsion or alternating compressive and tensile stresses application and removal of stresses). ii.Modulus of elasticity = stress / strain = constant Mechanical Testing of Materials Mechanical tests are done to determine mechanical properties by deformation or by destruction. Compression Test: It is opposite of the tensile test and performed for ductile and brittle materials. A fatigue crack starts at some point of stress concentration. The Stress that produces fatigue failure is smaller than the ultimate tensile stress. iii. Creep Test: Materials loaded for long periods may gradually deform. iv. Creep is critical at high temperatures and for low-melting-point metals at room temperature. and fracture at a stress that is well below the ultimate tensile stress. - Friction Between ends of specimen and machine affects test results. penetration and abrasion. .

It is used in roofing cement.etc. silica. and is the hardest known material. Non. It is present in all steels and cast iron as useful impurity because it offsets the ill effect of sulphur. very hard.Examples for Materials with its properties a. heat resisting alloys. It is used as a pure or alloyed material. brake linings and clutch facings. building sheets. Is the purest form of crystallized carbon. Is a reddish-brown metal. It is a weak. It is composed of calcium carbonate. heavy. engine mountings. resists corrosion and is a good insulator against nuclear radiation. and as a stylus material for sound reproduction. hose. moderately ductile and malleable and extremely corrosion resistant. aggregate and water to produce an artificial stone. tiles. It is steel-grey in color. and electrical insulation. It is used as protective coating for iron and steel and as die-casting metals. The mix is heated and clinker is ground to form a powder. transmission belting. Made by mixing cement. It is used as a cutting toll material. corrosion resistance. Is used for shock absorbers. It is fire electrical and heat resisting. chemically inert. Have two types: Portland and high alumina. Used as cutting tool materials as extrusion dies. and as a refractory coating in rocket casings.Metallic Materials: Material Asbestos Ceramics Cement Concrete Diamond Plastics Rubber Properties and Uses A group of minerals spun or woven into fabrics. road tires. very light. It is very weak. insulating material. as a spindle bearing material. weak. Is used in many applications such as aero planes. and. and iron oxide (clay). Is very malleable. alumina. free from decay. home cooking. Properties and Uses Is a white and light metal..…. ductile. Are used extensively in engineering. . fireproof paints. Non-Ferrous Materials Metal Aluminum Copper Lead Magnesium Zinc Chromium Manganese b. silvery-white. It is used as base for many light alloys. Is use was restricted due to its cancer effects.