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ulus Solutions

Ri
e Mathemati
s Tournament 2000

1. y = x3 3x2 + 6x + 2000, so y 0 = 3x2 6x + 6 and y 00 = 6x 6, so the point of in
e
tion

is the solution to 6x 6 = 0, or x = 1. At x = 1, the slope is f 0 jx=1 = 3(1)2 6(1) + 6 =

3.

2. The
hange in Karen's position is x x3 . The optimal length to
limb is at a p

riti
al

2

point. The only realisti
riti
al point is at the solution to 1 3x = 0 or x = 33 .

3.

statement of the problem. So, [ os x + Cxj04 = 0. p

Thus,

0

p

2 2 4

2

os 4 + 4 C + 1 = 0. So, 2 + 4 C + 1 = 0, and solving for C , we nd that C = .

1

4

derivative and minimizing, we nd that the minimum o urs at y = 1, so the minimum

of the given fun tion o urs at ar tan 1 = 4 .

P i

P

5. f (x) = 1 x . So, f 0 (x) = 1 xi = 1 . Thus, f (x) = ln(1 x).

i=1 i

i=0

6. Assume the pipe barely ts around the
orner (i.e. it is in p
onta
t with the
orner).

The lower
orner is at (0; 0) and the upper
orner is at (6; 6 5). Call x0 the point on

the lower wall it hits at the tightest spot. Given an x0 , the

be with

r longestpa pipep
ould

p

2

5

one end at x0 and leaning against the (6; 6 5)
orner is x20 + (6 5 + 36

x0 6 ) . We want

the minimum of all of these "longest pipes", be
ause the pipe needs to t at all angles

around the
orner. Taking the derivative (without the square root for simpli
ity) and

setting it equal to 0, we need to solve x30 6x20 + 36x0 1296 = 0. Wep
an qui
kly nd

that x0 = 12 is the only good solution, so the maximum length is 12 6.

dy

. Set this equal to 0 and solve for x relative to x0 . Plug this in

7. Using the hint, take dx

for x0 in the given family of lines to obtain the envelope y = x + x1 ; x > 0.

R 2 ln( os())d. So,

0

2

, I transforms to

R

2I R= 02 ln(sin
os )d

= 0 (ln(sin 2R) ln 2)d(2)=2

)d

= 2 ln 2 + 21 0 sin(

giving I

R

pi

2

= 2 ln 2 + 0 sin()d

= pi2 ln 2 + I

ln 2.

2

9. Note rst that ([f (x)2 x)2 = f (x), so if f (a) = 4, then (16

f 0 (x)

1+

2([f (x)2 x)

0

Now, f (x) =

, so f 0 (14) = 4 .

2f (x)

a)2 = 4, so a = 14.

31

10. Solution: Throughout this solution we will use the fa
t that when light boun
es o a

mirror, the angle of in
iden
e is equal to the angle of re
e
tion. First the beam hits

the point (8,-1), then (6,1), (4,-1), (2,1), and then is travelling

y = x 1.

p5 1 p5 along the line p

1

Thus the beam hits the parabola at the ppoint (1 + 2 ; 2 ).p To estimate 5, noti
e

p

500

= 2:2 : : :. Thus 1 2 5 = :6 : : :, so the light

that 222 = 484 and 232 = 529, so 5 = 10

hits the parabola at approximately (.4,-.6). The slope of the tangent to the parabola

at this point is 21 (:4) 1=2 , whi
h is about -.8, so we need to nd the slope of the beam

after it re
e
ts o of this tangent. For purposes of nding this slope,
hange
oordinates

so that the point of interse
tion is the origin. The beam is
oming in along y = x, and

y = 1:2x is perpendi
ular to the tangent. The diagram below should
larify the setup.

perpendicular to

tangent

reflected

beam

y=x

tangent

We will nd the new path of the light by nding the re
e
tion about the line y = 1:2x

of a point on its in
oming path. We know the point (1,1.2) is on the line y = 1:2x, so a

perpendi
ular through this point is y 1:2 = :8(x 1), whi
h interse
ts y = x at the

point (1.1,1.1). Thus the new path goes through the point (.9,1.3), so it has slope 1.4

(all values rounded to one de
imal pla
e). Going ba
k to our original
oordinate system,

the light is now travelling along the line y + :6 = 1:4(x :4), so it next hits the mirror

at (1.5,1). After that the x
oordinate in
reases by 2=1:4 = 1:4 between boun
es, so it

hits (2.9,-1), (4.3,1), (5.7,-1), (7.1,1), (8.5,-1), and nally (9.9,1). A
loser examination

of the approximations made (e.g. by rening them to two de
imal pla
es) reveals that

the last boun
e is a
tually further to the left (at (9.21,1), to be more pre
ise), so indeed

the light does boun
e 12 times.

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