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Grasso

Refrigeration Division

SCREW COMPRESSORS
Series SH, MC and LT
Product Information

2004/4

_040000_pi_sc__gbr_.doc

Copyright Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology


The contents of this documentation and the enclosed drawings, sketches and diagrams are intended only for plant
users and operating personnel. They may be neither duplicated nor divulged to third parties or firms without
written consent.
The technical data, figures, dimensions and weights presented in the documentation may be more closely defined
or otherwise specified as a result of contractual agreement and are binding only after our confirmation in writing.
The stipulations set forth in the contract have precedence over those in this documentation.
We reserve all rights to introduce technical modifications in the course of further development.

PRODUCT INFORMATION

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS
DIRECTORY

Refrigeration Division

Introduction

040 015gbr

Philosophy of Series

040 040gbr

Product name

040 200gbr

Compressor Design Citeria

040 300gbr

Limits of Application

040 310gbr

Main Dimensions

Series SH

Types C, D

040 400gbr

Main Dimensions

Series SH

Types E, G

040 410gbr

Main Dimensions

Series MC

Types H, L, M, N

040 420gbr

Main Dimensions

Series LT

Types P, R, S, V, W, Y, Z, XA, XB, XC, XD

040 430gbr

Main Dimensions

Series LT

Types XE, XF

040 440gbr

Conditions for Refrigerant Connections

040 500gbr

Conditions for Lubricating Oil Connections

040 510gbr

Electric Connections

040 520gbr

Installation Conditions, Sound, Vibration

040 600gbr

Coupling Requirements

040 610gbr

Starting Conditions

040 620gbr

Operational Monitoring

040 630gbr

Lubricationg Oils

040 721gbr

Hints for Selection of Refrigeration Oil

040 730gbr

P+I Diagrams

040 800gbr

Series SH

Series MC

Series LT

03.2004/2

Series SH, MC
Overall Concept

AISH02-1gbr

Description of Design

AISH03-1gbr

Schematic Diagram, Connections

AISH04-1gbr

Overall Concept

AIMC02gbr

Description of Design

AIMC03gbr

Connections, Oil Passage

AIMC04gbr

Overall Concept

AI_LT_02gbr

Description of Design

AI_LT_03gbr

Connections

Types P, R, S, T, V, W, Y

AI_PY_04gbr

Connections

Types Z, XA, XB, XC, XD, XE, XF

AI_Z_XF_04gbr

040 010gbr - 1/1

INTRODUCTION

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

SCOPE OF APPLICATION
The screw compressors are oil injected dual rotor
positive displacement machines.
The machines are available as standard refrigeration
compressors for single-stage operation, as boosters as
well as heat pump compressors.
The compressors can be applied in cold storage houses,
in food industry (slaughter houses, breweries, dairies,
food- and vegetable processing), air conditioning,
chemical and petrochemical industries, refrigerating,
cooling and air conditioning plants onboard ships as
well as heat pump operation.
The refrigerants NH3, R22, R134a, R404A, R507 and
refrigerant mixtures can be used up to a discharge
pressure of 362.5 psia (28 bar abs.).
For these refrigerants, lubricating oil is chosen in
accordance with data sheet 040 700e.
The compressors are directly driven by the electric
motor through a flexible coupling and are designed for
speeds of 50Hz and 60Hz.
Supply range
The whole supply range of screw compressors comprises
19 types subdivided into the following 3 series:
Series SH, SemiPacks, including 4 types (C, D, E, G) with
a theoretical swept volume ranging from 231 to
372 m/h.
Series MC, Compact-Screw compressors, including
4 types (H, L, M and N) with a theoretical swept volume
ranging from 471 to 860 m/h.
Series LT, High Performance-Screw compressors,
including 11 types (P, R, S, V, W, Y, Z, X, XB, XC, XD)
with a theoretical swept volume ranging from 805 to
5800 m/h.
The 3 series differ from each other in the degree of
integrated functional components of the oil and
refrigerant circuits.

SCREW COMPRESSORS

Series LT - High Performance Screw compressors require external filters and valves as well as a separate
oil feed system (exception: types W, Z, XA, XB, XC
and XD with attached solenoid valves).
All compressors feature stepless capacity control and
can be provided with self-adjusting, variable volume
ratios (parallel slides, system PS with series SH and MC;
tandem slides, system TS with series LT). Compressors
with built-in Vifixed volume ratios 2.6 to 4.8 ie: 5.5 are
available. The value Vi is calculated for the specific
operation condition in the compressor selection
program COMSEL.
All types are fitted with an economiser connection as
well as connections for refrigerant injection (liquid
injection) and for returning oil from the plant system.
Compressors with high pressure ratios are equipped
with a self-adjusting system for vibrationfree partial
load operation.
Before delivery, each compressor is subjected to a test
run with nitrogen in the pressure range of the future
application which is proven by a works test certificate
accompanying each compressor. On request, a
certificate of acknowledged classification societies, e.g.
TV, Lloyds Register of Shipping, Germanischer Lloyd,
Norske Veritas, Bureau Veritas, will be provided.
A comprehensive quality assurance system based on
DIN ISO 9001 and comprising all stages from design/
development, manufacturing, assembly and testing
through to customer service guarantees excellent
quality of the Grasso Screw compressors.
The compressors are delivered without oil.
All connections are closed, and the compressors are
filled with dry nitrogen (0.2 psig.).
Each compressor comes complete with a users manual
with instructions on operation, installation,
maintenance and repair and showing the set of tools
and spare parts required.

The SemiPacks of the series SH are equipped with a


check valve on the suction and the discharge sides,
respectively, a suction filter, an oil filter, an overflow
valve, an internal oil management system, a flanged oil
pump, a coupling and coupling casing with a centring
flange for flange-mounting motors as well as attached
solenoid valves for capacity control and Vi adjustment.
Variations of this are therefore possible. The finished
design will be specified on the ordering list.
The components of series MC - Compact-Screw
compressors - include an internal oil system, a flanged
oil pump, a check valve on the suction side, suction
filter and attached solenoid valves for capacity control
and Vi adjustment.

03.2002/1

040 015e - 1/2

INTRODUCTION
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

SCREW COMPRESSORS

TECHNICAL FEATURES
Rotors
The rotors are made of forged tool steel. They are
designed according to low energy consumption criteria
(patented profile with optimised main dimensions). The
primary rotor is driven by the motor, whereas the
secondary rotor is directly driven by the primary rotor
by means of a thin oil film.

Shaft sealing
The driven main shaft is sealed by means of a ring
bearing oil seal with a rotating ring and a fixed ring
(impregnated carbon/ steel). The seal is designed to
relieve load variations whilst containing the oil charge
and the thin oil film between the rings results in a long
service life.

Casings
The casings are made of laminated grey cast iron and
can be applied with discharge pressures up to 406.1
psia (28 bar abs.).

Capacity control
Stepless adjustment of the hydraulic mechanism enables
both the suction volumetric capacity to be changed
within the full load range of the compressor from 100%
to minimum capacity. Compressors with a variable
volume ratio operate according to a system of
combined Vi partial-load control.

Storing
The compressors of the series SH and MC are
completely equipped with rolling bearings. Capacity
improving cylindrical-roller bearings for radial load and
ball bearings of angle-contact design for axial load
ensure a nominal service life up to 100.000 operating
hours. A hydraulically loaded balance piston reduces
axial loads and increases the designed service life of the
thrust bearings. In compressors of the series LT, lowwear friction bearings carry the radial loads of the rotor
shafts on a thin oil film without contact, whereas the
angle-contact ball bearings take the axial load.

040 015e - 2/2

Position indication
For positioning the hydraulic systems of the capacity control
and the Vi adjustment, a hermetic path sensor is used which
provides an output signal between 4 and 20mA.

03.2002/1

PHILOSOPHY OF SERIES
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Type

swept volume in m/h

231

265

Series SH

321

SemiPacks

372
471

Series MC

544

690

Compact Screws

860

805

Series LT

1040

1290

High Performance
1640

1940

2296

Y
Z

2748

a
XA

3250

XB
b

4150

g
XC

4900

XD
d

5800
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

swept volume in m/h (at 50 Hz)

03.2002/1

040 040e - 1/2

PHILOSOPHY OF SERIES
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Grasso
Geschftsbereich
Kltetechnik

SH - SEMIPACKS
extremly high degree of component integration,
exclusively antifrictional bearings,
Vi- , partload control (PS - system).
type

swept volume in m/h


(50 Hz)

swept volume in CFM


(60 Hz)

231

164

265

188

321

228

372

264

MC - COMPACT-SCREW COMPRESSORS
high degree of component integration,
exclusively antifrictional bearings,
stepless Vi- , partload control (PS - system).
type

swept volume in m/h


(50 Hz)

swept volume in CFM


(60 Hz)

471

335

544

387

M*

690

490

N*

860

611

LT - HIGH PERFORMANCE SCREW COMPRESSORS


long life time for highest performance,
sleeve type for radial and ball type for thrust
bearings,
stepless Vi- and partload control (TS - system).
Typ

swept volume in m/h


(50 Hz)

swept volume in CFM


(60 Hz)

805

572

1040

739

1290

917

1640

1165

1940

1378

2296

1632

2748

1953

XA

3250

2309

XB

4150

2949

XC

4900

3482

XD

5800

4122

040 040e - 2/2

03.2002/1

PRODUCT NAME

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

Name

(Z)

Screw Compressor Type


Screw Compressor Vi Version
Coupling Type
(only for screw compressor types C, D, E, G)
X

Screw Compressor Type

Series

Code letter

Theoretical swept volume at


2940 rpm in m/h*)

Series

Code letter

Theoretical swept volume at


2940 rpm in m/h*)

SH

C
D
E
G

231
265
321
372

LT

MC

H
L
M
N

471
544
690
860

P
R
S
V
W
Y
Z
XA
XB

805
1040
1290
1640
1940
2296
2748
3250
4150
4800
5800

XC
*)

50Hz power system; for a 60Hz system, multiply the values by 1.2.

XD

Screw Compressor Vi Version

key number
1

Standard refrigeration compressor

Vi = 2.6

Standard refrigeration compressor

Vi = 3.6

Standard refrigeration compressor

Vi = 4.8

Standard refrigeration compressor

Vi = 5.5

Standard refrigeration compressor

Vi = variable

SH series
51

Vi = 2.6/4.8

stepped

52

Vi = 2.6/4.0

stepped

53

Vi = 3.2/4.8

stepped

Vi = 2.6...5.5

stepless

51

Vi = 2.2...4.0

stepless

52

Vi = 2.6...5.5

stepless

MC series
5
LT series

03.2002/1

040 200e - 1/5

PRODUCT NAME
Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

Booster application
61

Vi = 2.6

62

Vi = 3.6

Heat pump compressor


Vi - fixed
71

Vi = 2.6

72

Vi = 3.6

Vi - variable
SH series
751

Vi = 2.6/4.8

stepped

752

Vi = 2.6/4.0

stepped

Vi = 2.6...5.5

stepless

Vi = 2.2...4.0

stepless

MC series
75
LT series
751
8

Commercial refrigeration compressor LH series in 2 rating classes 50% and 100%


81

Vi = 2.6

82

Vi = 3.6

83

Vi = 4.8

Speed controlled refrigeration compressor


SH series only type G
95

Vi = 2.6...4.8

MC series only type N


95

stepless
stepless

Vi = 2.6...5.5

Examples of designation
P - 61

Screw compressor 805m/h (P), Booster with an internal volume ratio Vi=2.6 (61)

C-2(E)

Screw compressor 231m/h (C), internal volume ratio Vi=3.6 (2), coupling housing with
coupling for KN7 225M - 75kW electric motor (E)

040 200e - 2/5

03.2002/1

PRODUCT NAME
Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

(Z)

Coupling Type (coupling housing with coupling)


for screw compressor types C, D, E, G only

Electric flange motor, type IM B 5 *)


manufacturer
Siemens AG

output in kW
15
18,5
22
30; 37

ABB

160M 1LA5
160L

enclosure

sc type C/D

sc type E/G

IP 54

1LA5

180M 1LA6
1LA6

225M 1LA6

55

250M 1LA6

75

280S

90

280M 1LA6

200L

W/1
Speed controlled

1LA6

110

315S

132

315M 1LA6

150

1PL6186-4HL

1LA6

75, 90

250

SA2

110

250

MA2

280

SMA2

55

M2BA 250 SMA

75

280

90

280

SMA

315

SA

132

315

SMA

15

IP 23

IP 55

SA

110

18,5

P160MG

IP 23

K
-

P160L

30

P180M

37

P180L

55

PLS200LP

75

P225M

90

P250S

110

P250M

132

P280M
A

15
18,5

03.2002/1

name

45

132

Leroy Somer

coupling type

LS 160M

IP 55

LS 160L

22

LS 180MT

30

LS 200LT

37

LS 200L

55

LS 250MP

75

LS 280 SP/MP

110

LS 315 SP/MP

T
-

040 200e - 3/5

PRODUCT NAME
Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

Electric flange motor, type IM B 5 *)


manufacturer

output in kW

coupling type
name

enclosure

sc type C/D

sc type E/G

IP 23

P
R

AEG

30

KN7 180M

(Schorch)

37

KN7 180L

45

KN7 200M

55

KN7 200L

75

KN7 225M

90

KN7 250S

110

KN7 250M

132

KN7 280M

22

KA7 180M

30

KA7 207L

37

KA7 200L

45

KA7 225M

55

KA7 250M

75

KA7 280S

Frank & Dvorak

90

KA7 280M

110

KA7 315S

132

KA7 315M

15
18,5

VEM

160 L
180 M

30

200LA

37

200LB

45

225M

55

250M

75

280S

90

280M
A

15

K11R 160MX2

IP 55

K11R 160 L2

22

K11R 180 M2

30

K11R 200 L2

37

K11R 200 LX2

45

K11R 225 M2

55

K11R 250 M2

75

K11R 280 S2

90

K11R 280 M2

110

K11R 315 S2

132
special request

IP 55

22

18,5

WEG

160 MB

IP 54

75

K11R 315 M2
225 S/M

IP 23

*) according to IEC standard 34-7; type IM B 35 (flange motor with mounting feet) may also be used.

040 200e - 4/5

03.2002/1

PRODUCT NAME
Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

coupling type
manufacturer

output in PS

name

USA

40

40HP - 286 TS

(Nema-face)

50

50 HP 324 TS

60

60 HP 326 TS

75

75 HP 364 /5 TS

100

100 HP 364 /5TS

125

125 HP 404 /5TS

USA

50

RAM Industries

60

(C-face)

75

enclosure

sc type C/D

sc type E/G

IP 23

D/1

R/1

D/2

R/2

E/ FES

S/ FES

100
125
150

03.2002/1

040 200e - 5/5

COMPRESSOR DESIGN CRITERIA

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

compressor
type

theoretical
swept vol.
m/h
(0)

ZM/ZF

(1)

231

5/6

265

5/6

321

G
H
L

Vi-adjustment

Vi-Version

compressor
equipment

bearing
radial/ axial

oil
supply

drive
motor

(2)

(3)

PS2

1235678

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

W/W

PS2

1235678

W/W

5/6

PS2

1235678

W/W

372
471

5/6

PS2

12356789

W/W

5/6

PS0

123567

W/W

544

5/6

PS0

123567

W/W

690

5/6

PS0

123567

W/W

860

5/6

PS0

1235679

W/W

805

5/6

TS0

1234567

G/W

1040

5/6

TS0

1234567

G/W

E
E

1290

5/6

TS0

1234567

G/W

1640

4/6

TS0

123567

G/W

1940

5/6

TS0

1234567

G/W

2296

4/6

TS0

123567

G/W

E
E

2748

5/6

TS0

123567

G/W

XA

3250

5/6

TS0

123567

G/W

XB

4150

5/6

TS0

1234567

G/W

XC

4900

5/6

TS0

1234567

G/W

XD

5800

5/6

TS0

1234567

G/W

(0)

at 2940rpm (50Hz power system; for a 60Hz power system, multiply values by 1.2

(1)

ZM
ZF

numbers of lobes, male rotor


numbers of lobes, female rotor

(2)

PS

parallel slide system,

TS

tandem slide system

(3)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Vi = 2.6
Vi = 3.6
Vi = 4.8
Vi = 5.5
Vi = variable
booster application
heat pump compressor
commercial refrigeration compressor
speed controlled refrigeration compressor

(4)

A
B
C
D

standard equipment without additional components


solenoid valves for capacity and Vi-adjustment on the compressor
solenoid valves, suction filter, check valve on the suction side, oil pump on the compressor
solenoid valves, suction filter, check valves (suction/ discharge sides), oil pump, overflow valves (suction/ discharge sides) on
the compressor

PS0 : stepless Vi-adjustment


PS2 : 2-stage Vi- adjustment
TS0 : stepless Vi-adjustment

---- : underlined components are optional (operation with external pump is possible)
(5)

W
G

antifriction bearings
sleeve bearings

(6)

O
M

compressor operation with flanged oil pump for capacity control


compressor operation with external oil pump

(7)

F
E

flange motor
motor and compressor installed separately

03.2002/1

040 300e - 1/1

LIMITS OF APPLICATION

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

The screw compressors can be operated under the most


varied operation conditions within the given limits of
application according to the requirements involved. The
limits of application listed below for the screw compressors are based on the operational principle of the screw
compressor and thermodynamic relations and are the
result of practical operating conditions and design.

The tabulated data apply for single, two-stage and heatpump operation. The appropriate compressor model
design (1-7) should be selected for the particular
operating conditions *) Depending on the specific
operating conditions, there might occur reductions of
the limits given in the table due to the Compressor
Selection Programme COMSEL/GSCREW.

suction temperature compressor inlet

t0h

min

> - 60

discharge pressure (condensing pressure)

bar (a)

max

< 28

discharge temperature at compressor outlet

te

max

< 120

pressure ratio (p/p0)

min

> 1,5

pressure difference (p - p0)

bar

min

> 0,8

compressor type
maximum driving power (kW)
maximum nominal torque
maximum speed limits
compressor type
maximum driving power (kW)
maximum nominal torque
maximum speed limits

50 Hz
60 Hz
Nm
rpm

C/D
105
126
350
6.000

E/G
150
180
500
6.000

H/L
200
240
640
4.500

M /N
300
360
960
4.500

50 Hz
60 Hz
Nm
rpm

P
330
400
1060
3.600

R / S/ T
530
640
1700
3.600

V /W/ Y
900
1080
2900
3.600

Z / XA
1250
1500
4020
3.600

XB, XC, XD
1800
2160
5730
3.600

XE, XF
3000
3600
9500
3.600

Instructions:
Minimal over-heating on suction side: wet operation to be avoided.
The minimum compressor discharge temperature te must be sufficientlyabove the oil temperature for supply
to the bearings for compressor with sleeve bearings.
Limits for temperature differences will be considered in COMSEL/GSCREW
Gas pulsation protection required for 8 only.
SH and MC series: Minimal speed control in integrated oil pump 2000 min -1
Rotation direction: view to compressors driving shaft: clockwise
For p= p-po 4 bar is an external oil pump to be taken into consideration
For operation conditions with speeds differing from 50 or 60 Hz, the manufacturer should be contacted
Comments :
1.

For each individual application all conditions given in the tables should be taken into consideration and
adhered to.

2.

Should the given limit values be exceeded in any particular case, the manufacturer must be consulted.

3.

In addition to the application limits given in the tables, consider the operating conditions which must be
observed for the corresponding type of the compressor (e.g. start-up regime, oil pressure, oil quantity etc.).

4.

The oil temperature at the compressor inlet must be least 18C.

5.

Ensure that the oil viscosity will be 7...70 cSt at n 2950 min-1 for the oil supply to bearings. Take into
account the drop in viscosity due to refrigerant dissolved in the oil!

6.

Economizer operation between the 100% and 85% control slide positions.

07.2003/2

040 310gbr - 1/1

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
SH SERIES - SEMIPACKS, TYPES C, D

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

main
coupling housing
dimensions with coupling *)
l1

(overall length)

A; B

C; G

(mm)

888 [918]

918 [948]

l2

(mm)

351

381

l3
b1 (overall width)

(mm)

h1 (overall height)

(mm)

d1 (locating flange-)

(mm)

250

d2 (hole-circle-)

(mm)

300

(thread size)

(number of bolts)

381 [411]

(mm)

411 [441]

544

660

588

510

615

560

300

350

550

450

350

400

600

500

M 20

M 16

352 [362]

313 [324]

492

M 16
4

suction side

DN 80

discharge side

DN 65

supercharging

DN 25

refrigerant injection

DN 8

approx.weight, max. (kg)


[...]
*)

282 [293]

E; F

292 [303]

300 [310]

320 [330]

for screw compressor Type D


see product name Data sheet 040 200E

09/2001 Rev.2

Screws SH Series

040 400e - 1/2

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
SH SERIES - SEMIPACKS, TYPES C, D
FES DESIGN

Grasso

135

280

D1

257
110

51

350

450

25

285

190

492

H1

D2

Refrigeration Division

Main
dimensions

coupling housing
with coupling
Order No.

L1

(overall length)

Booster

High stage

250165:28D50

250175:28D50

High stage
special design
250174:28D50

(mm)

918 [948]

910 [940]

L2

(mm)

381

373

L3

(mm)

381 [411]

383 [413]

B1

(overall width)

(mm)

526

576

H1

(overall height)

(mm)

510

560

D1

(locating flange-)

(mm)

266,7

317,5

406,7

D2

(hole-circle-)

(mm)

228,6

279,4

355,6

(thread size)

(mm)

15,5

17,5

(number of bolts)

suction side

DN80

discharge side

DN65

supercharging

DN25

refrigerant injection

DN8

approx.weight, max.
[...]

(kg)

328 [338]

364 [374]

368 [378]

for screw compressor Type D

040 400 2/2

Screws SH Series

09/2001 Rev.2

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
SH SERIES - SEMIPACKS, TYPES E, G

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

main
coupling housing
dimensions with coupling *)

M; N

P; V

S; T

(mm)

975 [1004]

1005 [1034]

l2

(mm)

362

392

l3
b1 (overall width)

(mm)

h1 (overall height)

(mm)

d1 (locating flange-)

(mm)

250

300

d2 (hole-circle-)

(mm)

300

350

l1

(overall length)

(thread size)

(number of bolts)

432 [461]

(mm)

462 [491]

620

675

595

615

670

350

450

550

400

500

600

M16

M20

suction side

DN 100

discharge side

DN 65

supercharging

DN 25

refrigerant injection

DN

approx.weight, max. (kg)

412 [423]

418 [429]

423 [433]

8
442 [452]

438 [448]

461 [472]

[...] for screw compressor Type G


*) see product name Data sheet 040 200E

09/2001 Rev.2

Screws SH Series

040 410e - 1/2

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
SH SERIES - SEMIPACKS, TYPES E, G
FES DESIGN

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

main
dimensions
L1

coupling housing
with coupling
order no.

(overall length)

Booster

High stage

250166:28G50

250177:28G50

High stage
special design
250176:28G50

(mm)

1005 [1034]

997 [1026]

L2

(mm)

392

384

L3

(mm)

395 [424]

397 [426]

B1

(overall width)

(mm)

545

595

H1

(overall height)

(mm)

510

560

D1

(locating flange-)

(mm)

266,7

317,5

406,7

D2

(hole-circle-)

(mm)

228,6

279,4

355,6

(thread size)

(mm)

15,5

17,5

(number of bolts)

suction side

DN100

discharge side

DN65

supercharging

DN25

refrigerant injection

DN8

approx.weight, max.

(kg)

451 [461]

509 [519]

513 [523]

[...] for screw compressor Type G

040 410E - 2/2

Screws SH Series

09/2001 Rev.2

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
MC SERIES, TYPES H, L, M, N

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Type

theoretical swept volume in m/h

471

544

690

860

b1

425

510

b2

350

425

b3

109

138

b4

132

150

dm

18

22

h1

537

646

h2

215

270

h3

36

50

h4

23

26

l1

938

974

1094

1145

l2

350

386

406

457

l3

165

219

l4

245

296

l5

219

260

l6

60

55

l7

75

95

weight

366

381

660

690

nominal sizes

suction side

NB 125

NB 150

of connections

discharge side

NB 80

NB 100

supercharging

NB 32

NB 40

00.09

Screw MC Series

040 420e - 1/1

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
LT SERIES - TYPES P, R, S, T, V, W, Y, Z, XA, XB, XC, XD

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

l4
l

b
1

female
rotor

male
rotor

suctio
side

connectio
superfee

discharg
side
h4
e

liqui
injectio

**
5

type

theoretical swept volume


(in m/h)

805

1040

1290

1460

1640

1940

2296

b1

600

660

750

d1

26

26

26

d2
e1

60 h6
375

e2

500

566

e3

160

176,3

200

e4

170

195

200

418

60 h6
485

525

480

80 h6
535

e5**

250

283

300

h1

525

570

670

h2

290

330

350

h3

50

70

70

h4

110

130

145

l1

817

l2

272

347

l3

95

115

l4

65

45

965

1085

1125

1040

1095

130

105

HR*

HR*

HR*

DN 150

DN 175

DN 250

sizes of

discharge side

DN 100

DN 100

DN 150

connec-

superfeed

DN 32

DN 40

DN 65

tions

liquid injection

DN 15

DN 15

DN 15

598

890

960

130

100

driving shaft

weight: max [kg]

1160

360

suction side

nominal

600

600

1060

1134

1195

1283

* male rotor
** position discharge connection

07.2003/2

Screws LT Series

040 430gbr - 1/2

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
LT SERIES - TYPES P, R, S, T, V, W, Y, Z, XA, XB, XC, XD

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

l4
l

b
1

female
rotor

male
rotor

suction
side

connection
superfeed

discharge
side

h4
e

4
2

liquid
injection

**
5

type

XA

XB

XC

XD

theoretical swept volume in m/h

2748

3250

4150

4900

5800

b1

760

900
26

d1
80 h6

d2
e1

630

705

650

90
717

e2

660

800

e3

220,3

272

e4

230

278

e5**

353

443

h1

700

850

h2

400

495

h3

70

90

h4

140

195

l1

1315

1390

1387

1444

l2

435

462

l3

128

122

85

120

driving shaft

l4

HR*

HR*

nominal

suction side

DN 250

DN 300

sizes of

discharge side

DN 150

DN 200

DN 100

DN 125

DN 15

DN 18

connections superfeed
liquid injection
weight: max [kg]

1670

1740

2400

2560

800

1527

2650

* male rotor
** position discharge connection

040 430gbr - 2/2

Screws LT Series

07.2003/2

MAIN DIMENSIONS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES LT TYPES XE, XF

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

l t1
l t4

Economizer
port
Liquid
injection

MR

Suction
side
l t3

h t2

Discharge
side
h t4

h t3

h t1

d t2

FR

b t1
e t3

e t4
e t2
e t5

d t1

type

XE

XF

theoretical swept volume in m/h

7170

8560

b1

1078

d1

33

d2
e1

905
800

e3

320

e4

255

e5**

430

h1

980

h2

580

h3

95

h4

220
1614

1713

l2

500

l3

124

l4

130

driving shaft

Male rotor

nominal

suction side

DN400

sizes of

discharge side

DN250

connections superfeed

DN150

Oil injection

DN80

liquid injection

DN25

weight: max [kg]

l t2

110 h6
806

e2

l1

**

e t1

Main oil
injection

3500

3800

position discharge connection

07.2003/ 0

040_440gbr.doc - 1/1

CONDITIONS FOR REFRIGERANT CONNECTIONS

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

Connection

Filter mesh size


[m]

Remarks

Suction
Discharge

Series SH, MC:


100 m

Economizer port

Series LT :
140 m

Liquid injection port

During pressure equalisation after stopping of the


compressor, care should be taken to prevent foreign matter
which are bigger than the mesh size in the suction filter from
getting into the compressor together with refrigerant vapour
flowing back from the plant components arranged
downstream of the compressor.
The operating range is between control slide positions of
100% and 85%. At part-load operation, care should be taken
to maintain the projected intermediate pressure.
Refrigerant injection should only be used in conjunction with
inertia-free temperature measurement on the compressor
discharge side (k<10s). When operating with refrigerant
injection, the regulating valve should be sized to ensure that
no liquid refrigerant enters the oil separator downstream.

N.B:
Liquid (refrigerant or oil) can lead to destruction of the filter at the suction and economizer connection.

07.2003/2

040 500gbr - 1/1

CONDITIONS FOR LUBRICATING OIL CONNECTIONS

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

type

oil-

poil

viscosity

filter

pump

l/min

bar

mm/s

function, purpose

min
functional oil1)

C, D,

without

max

see instructions

min

max

max

min

max

p+3,55)

80

70

154)

p+3,55)

80

70

15

p2,5

p+3,55)

100

70

140

p+0,5

p+5,0

80

70

15

p2,5

p+3,55)

100

70

60

80

70

15

5)

p+0,5
p-1,0

E, G
functional oil2)

H, L,

p+0,55)

without
see instructions

M, N

P, R,

oil injection

without

functional oil3)

with

p-2,5

see instructions

S, T
oil injection
capacity control

balancing piston,

without
with

without

10

20

6)

Room 1

p+0,5...5,0

Room 26)

p0+7 bar

Room 36)

p0+ 4,5 bar

p1,5

100

70

15

p+0,5

p+5,0

80

70

15

p2,5

p+3,55)

100

70

140

80

70

15

heat pump
functional oil3)

V, Y

with
see instructions

oil injection

without

capacity control

with

Room 16)

p+0,5...5,0

Room 26) p0+7 bar


Room 36) p0+ 4,5 bar
balancing piston,

without

15

25

p1,5

100

70

15

p+0,5

p+5,0

80

70

15

p2,5

p+3,55)

100

70

140

p1,5

100

70

15

80

70

15

heat pump
W, Z,
XA, XB

functional oil3)

XC, XD

oil injection

without

balancing piston,

without

20

30

with

XE, XF

with
see instructions

heat pump
capacity control 7)

Room 16)

p+0,5...5,0

Room 26)

p0+7 bar

Room 36)

p0+ 4,5 bar

poil

oil pressure at the espective connection point of compressor

pressure on the discharge side of compressor

1)

functional oil

for bearing, shaft seal, balancing piston, oil injection, internal oil pump, capacity control and Vi-adjustment

2)

functional oil

for bearing, shaft seal, balancing piston, internal oil pump, capacity control and Vi-adjustment

3)

functional oil

for bearing, shaft seal, balancing piston (+ capacity control, and Vi-adjustment for types Z, XA, XB, XC, XD)

4)

oil filter in compressor

5)

oil pressure with use of external oil pump

6)

rooms 1,2 and 3 are defined in diagram

7)

for external oil supply of capacity control (operation without integrated solenoid valve block)

07.2003/4

040 510gbr - 1/2

CONDITIONS FOR LUBRICATING OIL CONNECTIONS


Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

Hints:
1. Use the selection programme Kabcom/GSCREW to choose the screw compressor. It gives additional
information about the oil circuit of the compressor and application limits of the compressors belonging to the
series SH and MC with integral oil pump. The selection programme specifies for which operating conditions an
external oil pump for the functional oil circuit will be required (External oil pump required).

2. Depending on the operating conditions of the compressor, the oil flow rates required for safe compressor
operation are shown in the selection programme Kabcom/GSCREW. The oil pump must have a delivery rate
reaching at least the value 1.5 x functional oil flow.
In the Kabcom/GSCREW selection programme, the terms
functional oil flow
total oil flow (with additional oil injection, if required)
are used.

3. Series LT
Hydraulic chambers for capacity control and Vi-adjustment:
1, 2

: Hydraulic chambers for capacity control; connections K, L

1, 2, 3 : Hydraulic chambers for combined Vi-partload adjustment; connections K, L, M

040 510gbr - 2/2

07.2003/4

ELECTRIC CONNECTIONS

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

POSITION SENSOR / VALVE BLOCKS


component

connected load

position sensor

position sensor
valve block 2
valve block 4

24V (DC)

24V (DC)
24V DC
24V AC
48V AC
110V AC
230V AC

output signal

4-20 mA

20-4 mA
-

function

screw compressor
type

control slide/ primary slide


position display

H, L, M, N, P,
R, S, V, Y, Z, XA,
XB, XC, XD, XE, XF

Vi slide position display

H, L, M, N

control slide position display

C, D, E, G

Operates capacity control with C, D, E, G, H, L, M, N,


valve block 4 or combined Vi R, S, T, W, Z, XA, XB,
part load adjustment with valve XC, XD, XE, XF
block 2 and 4

Position sensor connection diagram

+24V DC

4 - 20 mA

0V (ground)

output signal:
For all SV types
control slide min. pos.:
control slide max. pos.:

4mA1)
20mA

) As distinct from the values indicated, values in


excess of 4 mA are also realized as minimum position
for the control slide. (adjustment values for minimum
position are shown on the position sensor coil)
For all MC series
Vi slide position for small Vi:
Vi slide position for large Vi:

4mA
20mA

SOLENOID VALVES
Valve block 2 connection diagram

Valve block 4 connection diagram


Y2

Y6

Y5

Y4

07.2003/2

Y1

Y3

040 520gbr - 1/2

ELECTRIC CONNECTIONS
Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

Valve bock 4: installed in all compressors


primary slide or control slide
moves in direction suction side :
primary slide or control slide
moves in derection discharge side:

Y1 and Y4 open
Y2 and Y3 closed
Y2 and Y3 open
Y1 and Y4 closed

Valve block 2: only in compresssors with variable Vi


SH and MC series
Vi reduction:

Y6 open
Y5 closed

Vi increase:

Y5 open
Y6 closed

LT Series
secondary slide
moves in direction suction side:
secondary slide
moves in direction discharge slide

Y5 open
Y6 closed
Y5 open
Y6 closed

Instructions:
The control of the magnetic valve blocks is outlined in data sheet 635014 Compressor Control.

040 520gbr - 2/2

07.2003/2

INSTALLATION CONDITIONS, SOUND, VIBRATION

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

INSTALLATION CONDITIONS:
compressor mounting surfaces

- overall evenness of mounting feet: 0,5 mm


- shim thickness: 25 mm

ambient temperature

18C*... 50 C

permissible vibration velocity


for compressor operation

Vmax:

CG=
HN=
PS =
V - XA =
XB, XC, XD =

2,0 mm/s
2,5 mm/s
3,0 mm/s
3,5 mm/s
4,0 mm/s

At low ambient temperatures the oil must be heated to 18C.


compressor type

permissible piping forces


and moments:
suction port

H, L, M, N

R, S

V, W, Y, Z, XA

XB, XC, XD

force

F [N]

2500

3000

5000

5500

6000

7000

moment

M [Nm]

1200

1800

2500

3000

3500

4000

F [N]

2000

2500

4000

4500

5000

3500

M [Nm]

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

radial force [N]

500

700

900

900

1300

1500

axial force

200

300

400

400

600

800

discharge port force


moment
driving shaft

C, D, E, G

[N]

sound power level:

compressor type

sound power level LWA

dB (A)

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

88

88

sound power level:

compressor type

sound power level LWA

dB (A)

XA

XB

XC

XD

89

90

91

91

92

93

94

96

96

96

vibration:

compressor type
C, D, E, G, H, L, M, N, P, R, S, W, Z, XA, XB, XC, XD

main exciting
frequencies at
3000 rpm
(3600 rpm)

f1
f2
f3
f4
f5

Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz

50
100
250
500
6000

(60)
(120)
(300)
(600)
...8000

V, Y
50
(60)
100 (120)
200 (240)
400 (480)
5000 ...7000

structure-borne noise
Critical torsional natural frequency
(with consideration to the total mass moment of inertia of rotor pair)
Type

C N,
P, R, S

Torsional frequency (Hz) above 200

03.2002/1

XB

XC

XD

XE

XF

174,6

115,4

97,6

90,8

84,0

77,1

70,9

040 600e - 1/1

COUPLING REQUIREMENTS

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

The following requirements must be met when using a coupling not supplied by Grasso:
parameter

compressor type
C /D

E/G

H/L

M/N

R/S

V/W/Y

Z/XA

XB, XC,
XD

maximum driving
power (60 Hz)

kW

102

145

210

320

300

480

760

1080

1800

nominal torque

Nm

280

390

570

865

810

1300

2050

2850

5730

maximum starting
torque

Nm

700

980

1450

2150

2050

3250

5150

7200

14500

maximum speed

min-1

3600

maximum dynamic
mNm
unbalance allowable

500

700

900

1300

1500

200

300

400

600

800

mm

40-0,02-0,04

50h6

60h6

80h6

90

mm

60+5

70+5

70+5

80+5

90+5

permissible
radial force FR 1)
permissible
axial force FA
shaft diameter
compressor
distance between
shaft ends
compressor/motor
1)

Maximum forces which are allowed to act on the compressor shaft end. The coupling must be selected and
aligned in such a way that these forces are not exceeded.

Further requirements:
design of the compressor shaft end:

cylindrical without key

attached to the compressor shaft end:

by means of a firmly tightened clamping joint

direction of rotation:

clockwise and anticlockwise

startup and shutdown frequency:

maximum 20 per hour

operating temperature range:

- 20 C to + 55 C for dynamic operating load

03.2002/1

040 610e - 1/1

STARTING CONDITIONS

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

STARTING CONDITIONS WHEN COMMISSIONING


When commissioning the compressor, the following
conditions must be met:
A COMPESSOR SERIES SH AND MC:
TYPES C, D, E, G, H, L, M, N

B COMPRESSOR SERIES LT:


TYPES P, R, S, V, W, Y, Z, XA, XB, XC, XD

1. Min-position of the regulating slide


Control of solenoid valves Y1 up to Y4 before
starting driving motor.

1. Min-position of the regulating slide


Control of solenoid valves Y2 and Y3 (minimum
direction).

At startup the current signal from position sensor of


regulating slide must be: 4,0...10 mA.

Starting the external oil pump.

If the named current signal is not reached after


180 sec, the starting condition is expanded to a
current signal of 15 mA (ca. 70%).
By starting driving motor the solenoid valves Y1 to
Y4 are closed and the solenoid valves Y2 and Y3 are
opened (minimum direction).
2. Oil pressure
For oil pressure see Data sheet 040510E.
3. Oil temperature
The oil temperature upstream of the compressor
must be at least 18C.
4. Limiting time periods
Within 15 sec after the driving motor has started the
oil pressure after the oil pump must be:
poil = p + 1,0 bar
p = discharge pressure

03.2002/1

At startup the current signal from position sensor of


regulating slide must be: 4,0...5,0 mA (0%...6%).
2. Oil pressure
For oil pressure see Data sheet 040510E.
3. Oil temperature
The oil temperature upstream of the compressor
must be at least 18C.
4. Time sequence and limitation
Start the oil pump prior to commissioning the
driving motor.

Start the driving motor, when both the required


Minimum position of the regulating slide and the
oil pressure have been reached within the first
15 sec after start-up of the oil pump.

If one or both requirements are not fulfilled within


this time, the oil pump keeps running until both
requirements have been met. However, the driving
motor must not be started immediately
afterwards.

After shutdown of the oil pump, an interval of


600 sec is required prior to restarting the oil pump
and commissioning the driving motor.

If the oil pump keeps running for more than


180 sec, a further start-up must not be performed.
Find out the reason. The compressor control device
must give a fault signal.

After start-up of the driving motor, a failure of the


oil pressure poil is permissible for 10 sec within the
first minute, and afterwards for 6 sec.

040 620e - 1/1

OPERATIONAL MONITORING

Grasso
SCREW COMPRESSORS

Refrigeration Division

The following parameters must be recorded and monitored during operation of the compressor:
parameter

to be recorded

purpose

current of the compressor motor

upper limit value


(rated current limitation)

protection of motor and compressor

position of the control slide


(primary slide)

minimum position

ensures unloaded startup

entire adjustment length between


MIN and MAX position of the slide

for capacity control and


Vi adjustment

position of the Vi-slide

entire adjustment length between


Vimax and Vimin 1)

Vi-adjustment

suction pressure

lower limit value

protection against low


suction pressure

suction pressure within the


measuring range to be specified

controlled variable for capacity


control and Vi adjustment

upper limit value

protection of compressor and


downstream plant components

discharge pressure within the


measuring range to be specified 1)

controlled variable for Vi-adjustment

discharge temperature 2)

upper limit value

protection of compressor and


downstream plant components

oil temperature upstream of


compressor

oil feed temperature for bearings


and shaft seal within the measuring
range to be specified

protection of compressor

compressor oil inlet pressure


(after oil pump)

differential pressure between oil


pressure upstream of compressor
and compressor discharge pressure

protection of compressor

discharge pressure

1)

Only for the corresponding compressor model.

2)

Collected by transmitters with a low time constant k (k < 10 sec).

00.09

040 630e - 1/1

LUBRICATING OILS FOR


SCREW COMPRESSORS

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Special refrigerator oils must be used for refrigerant compressors. The selection of the type of oil not only
depends on its viscosity and its chemical properties, but also on the operating conditions of the respective
refrigeration plant.
The oils given in the table can be used for screw compressors. The choice depends on the refrigerant, viscosity (at
least 7cSt for oil temperature before entering the compressor), vaporisation temperature (pour point) and
requirement made of the oil separation behaviour (flash point, viscosity or specially treated oils*
hydrotreated).
The oils in Table 1 are recommended especially if minimum oil carry over is important.
Table 1:
Lubricating oils for R717 (Ammonia)
Recommended oils
Manufacturer

Oil type

Basis

Viscosity at
40C in cSt

Flash point in
C

Pour point
in C

Comment

CPI

CP 1009-68

M*

68

226

- 40

hydrotreated,
only for R717

Petro Canada

Reflo 68A

M*

58

236

- 42

hydrotreated,
only for R717

Table 2:
Lubricating oils for R22 and R717 (Ammonia)
Permissible oils
Manufacturer

Oil type

(see footnote)

Basis

Viscosity
at 40C in cSt

Flash point
in C

Pour point
in C

Comment

Castrol

Icematic 299

56

180

- 34

Castrol

Icematic 2294

PAO

69

233

- 60

for R717

CPI

CP-4600-46

PAO

46

268

- 51

only

ELF

Elfrima FR 46

46

171

- 37

ESSO

Zerice 46

46

204

- 41

ESSO

Zerice S46

AB

46

172

- 36

FUCHS-DEA

Reniso S68

AB

68

190

- 33

MOBIL

SHC 226E

PAO

67

266

- 54

MOBIL

SHC 326

AB+PAO

61

211

- 54

MOBIL

SHC 426

AB

65

176

- 36

MOBIL

Gargoyle Arctic Oil


300

64

202

- 40

MOBIL

Gargoyle Arctic Oil C


Heavy

44

187

- 50

Shell

Shell Clavus G46

44

195

- 39

only for R22

Shell

Shell Clavus G68

65

205

- 36

only for R22

Shell

Shell Clavus 46

44

195

- 39

only for R717

Shell

Shell Clavus 68

65

205

- 36

only for R717

TEXACO

Capella Premium

M*

67

262

- 42

hydrotreated,
only for R717

03.2002/2

only for R717

040 721e - 1/3

LUBRICATING OILS FOR


SCREW COMPRESSORS

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Table 3:
Lubricating oils for R134a; R404A; R407C; R410A; R507
Permissible oils
Manufacturer

Oil type

(see footnote)

Basis

Viscosity at
40C in cSt

Flash point in
C

Pour point in
C

Castrol

Icematic
SW 68

68

250

- 39

Castrol

Icematic
SW 100

100

255

- 30

Castrol

Icematic
SW 220

220

290

- 26

CPI

Solest 68

64

266

- 43

CPI

Solest 120

125

262

- 27

CPI

Solest 220

216

271

- 27

FUCHS-DEA

Reniso Triton
SE 55

53

270

- 51

FUCHS-DEA

Reniso Triton
SEZ 80

80

275

- 39

FUCHS-DEA

Reniso Triton
SEZ 100

91

288

- 39

FUCHS-DEA

Reniso Triton
SE 170

170

260

- 24

Shell

Shell Clavus
R 68

64

250

- 54

Shell

Shell Clavus
R 100

93

280

- 45

MOBIL

EAL 68

63

254

- 43

MOBIL

EAL 100

96

250

- 37

Comment

Table 4:
Lubricating oils for 290 (Propan)
Permissible oils
Manufacturer

Oil type

(see footnote)

Basis

Viscosity
at 40C in cSt

Flash point in
C

Pour point
in C

Shell

Madrela Oil T

PAG

185

260

-30

CPI

CP-1516-150

PAG

153

260

-34

Mobil

Glygoyle 22

PAG

161

229

-41

Comment

Abbreviations used for the lubricating oils basis:


AB
E
M
M*

Alkylbenzene
Polyolester
Mineral oil
Mineral oil with special treatment
(hydrotreated oil)

040 721e - 2/3

PAO
PAG

Polyalphaolefin
Polyalkylglycol

03.2002/2

LUBRICATING OILS FOR


SCREW COMPRESSORS

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Table 5:
Use of O-ring elastomers in screw-type compressors dependent on refrigerant and lubricant:
Oil

M*

AB

PAO

AB/PAO

PAG

R717 (Ammonia)

CR

CR1)

CR

HNBR

CR

HNBR

R22

CR

CR

HNBR

HNBR

Refrigerant

R134a, R404A, R407C, R410A, R507


R 290 (Propan)
Abbreviations used for the elastomers:
CR

Chloroprene (Neoprene caoutchouc)

HNBR Hydrogenated nitrile butadiene caoutchouc


1) for shaft seal : HNBR

Note:
The pour point describes the cold fluidity of an oil and represents a non-guaranteed guide value for the
minimum evaporating temperature.
[ The pour point is defined as the temperature at which the fluidity of an oil decreases to an extent that it
does not leave a jar within 5 sec under certain conditions.]
Compressors are equipped with suitable elastomers at the sealing point, which are selected dependent on the
refrigerant and lubricant. (Table 4)
When selecting the type of oil, the compatibility of the sealant material used in the compressor for o-rings
(elastomer quality) must be taken into consideration in addition to the refrigerant. (see Table 4)
Not all the listed oil types can be used for an existing compressor. Allocation of the oil type dependent on the
elastomer used is necessary, even for the same refrigerant.
Oil types are not always compatible with each other (not miscible).
Changing from one oil type to another can lead to disruptions in the operation of the compressor and to
leakages at the sealing points. The compressor manufacturer should always be contacted before changing the
oil type.
In exceptional cases, oils other than those listed in the table can be used, if the compressor manufacturer is
contacted first.
Attention:
The lubricant viscosity range downstream of the compressor given in data sheet 040 510e must always be
observed. At the same time, it must be noted that refrigerant/oil combinations are possible in which,
dependent on the pressure and temperature in the oil reservoir (oil separator), the refrigerant dissolves in the
oil. This leads to a reduction of the viscosity of the pure oil and to the formation of foam when the solution
equilibrium is altered due to pressure reduction or temperature increase.
In this case, the oil must be cooled by a minimum temperature difference, which is calculated in the
compressor selection programme Comsel for the given operating conditions (11 to 14 K dependent on the
refrigerant and operating condition). The compressor may only be operated if the oil entry temperature is
complied with in accordance with the compressor selection programme.
The oil separation behaviour of the types of oil given in the Table can vary greatly (e.g. influence of oil vapour
pressure, oil viscosity, solubility, final compression temperature).

03.2002/2

040 721e - 3/3

Grasso

SCREW COMPRESSORS
HINTS FOR SELECTION OF REFRIGERATION OIL

Refrigeration Division

The properties of the refrigeration oil have an influence on the operation of refrigerating plants with oil-flooded
screw compressors, as it cannot be excluded that residues of the refrigeration oil get into the refrigerant circuit
despite of highly effective oil separators. For this reason, when selecting the oil consider besides
a sufficient lubricity of the oil at the bearing points of the screw compressor (minimum oil viscosity with
consideration of the solubility of refrigerants in oil depending on both the pressure and temperature),
the vapour pressure of the oil for a proper separation behaviour in the oil separator,
a sufficient fluidity of the oil at both the evaporating and suction temperature
the requirements upon the miscibility of the liquid phases of the refrigerant and the oil (miscibility gap).
The refrigerant used, the operation conditions and the specific plant design determine the required characteristics
of the refrigeration oil.
At present, five different base oil brands are used:
1. Mineral oils for ammonia and R22
2. Polyalphaolefins for ammonia
3. Alkyl benzene for ammonia and R22
4. Polyglycol (PAG-oil) for ammonia
5. Ester oil for R 404A, R 134a and R 507 as well as other new refrigerant blends such as R 410A or R 407C
Besides the pure base oil components there are also used blends of mineral oil and alkyl benzene or of
polyalphaolefin and alkyl benzene.
The characteristics of the refrigerants with relation to the oils mentioned differ greatly.
Two basic requirements are placed upon the working media combination of refrigerant and refrigeration oil:
a. Minimum oil viscosity of 7 cSt at the compressor inlet with consideration for the refrigerant solubility in oil
and
b. Miscibility of both liquid phases of a certain portion of the oil (ab. 1 to 2 %) and the refrigerant.
Besides the requirement of a sufficient viscosity of the lubricating oil, the discharge temperatures in the
compressor must be high enough to enable a subcooling of the refrigerant-laden oil by at least 10 K in order to
prevent foaming in the compressor in case of decrease in pressure and/or increase in temperature, before the oil
gets to the bearing points.
The basic requirement b) is not met by mineral oil, alkyl benzene and polyalphaolefin in connection with
ammonia, as there exists a miscibility gap of 100 %, and neither a solubility of the refrigerant vapour in the oil
nor a miscibility of liquid phases is given. Nevertheless these oils are preferably used in NH3-plants. Oil fine
separation stages prevent greater portions of the oil from getting into the refrigerant circuit.
The base oil versions mentioned will bring about differing oil carry-over rates as the flash points of the oils cited
differ greatly from each other (lowest flash point of alkyl benzene at ab. 160 C, highest flash point of
polyalphaolefin considerably above 200 C).
Although the fluidity of the oil is characterized by the pour point indicated by the oil manufacturers, the base oil
brands mentioned above feature different VT-characteristics so that at the same initial viscosity of say 68 cSt,
there may arise differences in viscosity at low temperatures in the evaporator in the range of ab. 1500 and
20000 cSt at 20C.

00.09/ 0

040 030e - 1/4

Grasso

SCREW COMPRESSORS
HINTS FOR SELECTION OF REFRIGERATION OIL

Refrigeration Division

With relation to oils, the refrigerants feature the following properties:


Ammonia
Exclusive of PAG-oil, ammonia is not soluble with other lubricants. However, mechanical intermixing is very
intensive so that the oil always carries along ammonia. Due to the low portion of the ammonia the lubricity of
the oil will not be changed. The miscibility between the liquid phases of oil and refrigerant is not given, too.
For this reason, an efficient oil separation is required.
HFC (e.g. R134a, R404A, R507)
possess no chlorine and are not limited in their application. Ester oils are used for these refrigerants. The
higher solubility of these refrigerants in ester oil has to be considered when selecting an oil as the initial
viscosity of the oil might drastically change by the refrigerant solved in the oil. However, the fluidity of the oil
in the evaporator is given due to proper miscibility over a wide range.
The most important properties of the main oil groups are described in the following:
1. Mineral oil
Naphthenic base mineral oils are most suitable for refrigeration systems, but paraffinic base oils are also used.
Due to special treatment (dewaxing) paraffinic base oils have more or less the same properties as naphthenic
base oils. Mineral oils are characterized by a relatively low miscibility with HCFCs (e. g. R22) at low
temperatures. Mineral oils feature a relatively high viscosity index and a low vapour pressure (higher flash
point) whereby oil carry-over is positively affected.
2. Alkyl benzene (known also as alkyl benzole)
Alkyl benzenes represent synthetic oils produced from natural gas. They are characterized by high miscibility
with HCFCs (e.g. R22) even at lower evaporating temperatures. Alkyl benzenes feature higher thermal
stability than mineral oils (use of ammonia in piston compressors). Due to the lower flash point, however, they
have a tendency to heavy foaming in the oil separator and to higher oil carry-over. After changing from
mineral oil to alkyl benzene it should be considered that alkyl benzenes have a considerable cleaning effect
causing in its turn the filters to clog faster than usually in the time immediately after the oil change.
3. Polyalphaolefins
Polyalphaolefins represent synthetic oils of high chemical and thermal stability. Therefore, they are preferably
used in compressors operating at high discharge temperatures e.g. in heat pumps.
Polyalphaolefins are also employed in ammonia systems. The very low pour point permits very low
evaporating temperatures. The high flash point of the polyalphaolefins leads to smaller oil carry-over rate.
Attention: The high aniline point of polyalphaolefins causes a relatively high shrinkage of O-rings whereby
leakages may occur even at static seals, when mineral oils or alkyl benzenes are replaced by
polyalphaolefins. For this reason, the use of pure PAO-oils in Grasso-compressors is not permitted at present.
Shrinkage is prevented by adding of alkyl benzene. Therefore synthetic oil blends comprising polyalphaolefin
and alkyl benzene may be employed.
4. Ester oils
In contrast to mineral oil, alkyl benzene and polyalphaolefin ester oils are soluble in the new non-chlorinated
HFCs (R 134a, R 404A, R 507 etc.). Therefore, the ester oils are the only lubricants at present which may be
used for the HFCs. Ester oils possess a higher flash point whereby the oil vapour portion from the oil
separator and hence the oil carry-over rate are favourably affected. Ester oils are hygroscopic. They absorb
water when getting in contact with the atmosphere. For this reason, ester oils have to be stored in closed
tanks. Prior to oil charging, the compressor has to be thoroughly evacuated.
5. Polyglycol oil
Polyglycol oils are ammonia soluble and very hygroscopic. Thats why the same requirements have to be
imposed as when handling ester oil. When selecting the oil take into consideration the reduction of viscosity
caused by the refrigerant solved in the oil. Check the fluidity of the oil in the evaporator with consideration of
the miscibility between the lubricating oil and refrigerant at the corresponding evaporating temperatures.

040 030e - 2/4

00.09/ 0

Grasso

SCREW COMPRESSORS
HINTS FOR SELECTION OF REFRIGERATION OIL

Refrigeration Division

PARAMETERS USED FOR OILS:


Specific gravity
The difference in specific gravity between the refrigerant liquid and the oil may be of interest for oil return.
In this case it should be considered that alkyl benzene has a lower specific gravity than mineral oil and polyglykol
has a higher specific gravity than mineral oil. The method for specific gravity measurement is described in DIN
51757.
Viscosity
According to ISO standard 3448 lubricants are classified in viscosity grades indicated as ISO VG numbers. The
ISO-no. is a nominal guide value only, i. e. the actual viscosity may vary in certain ranges (DIN 51562). The
viscosity indicated refers to 40 C and to 100 C.
Viscosity index
The viscosity index gives the relationship between the change in viscosity depending on the temperature (ISO
2909). A high viscosity index means smaller changes in viscosity at temperature changes as compared to a low
viscosity index.
Flash point
The flash point indicates at which temperature the vapours escaping from a heated cup may be ignited over a
flame. The method of measurement is described in ISO 2592. Oils with high flash point have a low oil vapour
pressure. This will enhance the possibilities of oil separation from a compressed gas in the oil separator and
reduce the oil carry-over rate from the compressor into the plant.
Pour point
The pour point is the temperature at which the fluidity of an oil decreases to an extent that under certain
conditions it will no more leave a jar within 5 sec. According to standard the pour point temperature is by 3 %
lower than the measured temperature (method of measurement according to ISO 3016). The pour point is
interesting for working media combinations which are not soluble with each other. Oils having a low pour point
can be returned to the suction side more easily than oils having a high pour point. The practice, however, shows
that oils may be used even at evaporating temperatures lower than the pour point without any operating
problems.
Floc point
The floc point indicates the temperature at which liquid R12 with the addition of 10 % oil will show flocculation
by wax particles precipitating from the oil when chilled (method of measurement according to DIN 51351).
The floc point is of interest when oil and refrigerant can be mixed. The floc point indicates that an oil contains
but a few wax particles and that plants employing HCFC (e. g. R22) can be operated at low evaporating
temperatures. When wax precipitation from the oil takes place, problems are to be expected at the expansion
valve or at the regulating valves. For ester oils a critical solution temperature is given measured with a mixture of
10 % oil and 90 % of R134a. The critical solution temperature is the temperature at which the oil completely
precipitates from the refrigerant (non-standardized value).
Aniline point
The aniline point indicates the temperature at which the oil concerned shows a homogenous mixture with pure
aniline. The aniline point is the measurement of the quantity of unsaturated carbon which can be found in the
oil. It is an indication of the compatibility of different sealing materials coming into contact with the oil (method
of measurement according to ISO 3977). Most lubricating oils possess a low aniline point. Neoprene and
chloroprene will swell. For this reason, O-rings have to be replaced after dismantling. Polyalphaolefin has a high
aniline point causing neoprene to shrink. (use of HNBR required).
Neutralization number
The neutralization number gives the acid content of an oil and is determined by titration with potassium
hydroxide solution (KOH). The value is given in mg of KOH per g of oil (method of measurement according to
DIN 51558). Fresh oils should have a low neutralization number.
Hints for oil change
Prior to changing the oil brand or the manufacturer of an oil, consult the compressor manufacturer to prevent
problems in plant operation. In case of incompatible oil brands precipitations from the oil can occur which might
lead to problems within the plant (oil filter, lubrication of bearings, oil return not guaranteed). If, however, it
should be necessary to employ another type of oil, it is of vital importance to remove all the oil from the plant
and to thoroughly clean both the compressor and oil separator (if possible, perform additional scavenging).
Oil selection table
All oils permitted for the Grasso-screw compressors are given in the oil selection table. Depending on the specific
conditions of a plant consider the above technical features when selecting an oil.

00.09/ 0

040 030e - 3/4

SCREW COMPRESSORS
HINTS FOR SELECTION OF REFRIGERATION OIL

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

TABLE
REFRIGERANT OIL COMPATIBILITY
Ammonia
(NH3)

R22

R134a

R404A

R507

Mineral oil (M)

Polyalphaolefins
(PAO)

Alkyl benzene
(AB)

Polyglycol
(PAG)

Ester oil

M + AB

PAO + AB

x = suitable, use of CR-O-rings


* = suitable, use of HNBR O-rings
- = not suitable

040 030e - 4/4

00.09/ 0

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

I.
A

Screw compressors for single stage


screw packages

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Oil pump

P+I-No

for refrigeration/a.c./heat pump (cooled injection oil)

intern

SM11

for booster / for refrigeration and a.c. with low condending temperature
(external oil pump for functional oil supply only)

extern

SM12

heat pump (uncooled injection oil)

intern

SM13

for ammonia chiller with PAG oil


(external oilpump for mechanical shaft seal only)

extern

SM14

for refrigeration/a.c./heat pump (cooled injektion oil)

intern

SD11

for booster / for refrigeration and a.c. with low condending temperature
(external oil pump for functional oil supply only; 2 oil stop valves each
compressor)

extern

SD12

for booster/ for refrigeration and a.c. with low condending temperature
(external oil pump for whole oil supply; 1 oil stop valve each compressor)

extern

SD13

for heat pump (uncooled injection oil)

intern

SD14

Oil pump

P+I-No

Mono-Packs: 1 screw in 1 package

Duo-Packs: 2 screws in 1 package


part load range of each 15%/100%, with position indicator)

II

Screw compressors for two stage packages

as high pressure stage (external oil pump for functional oil supply only)

extern

SM21

as Booster (with side load at intermediate pressure)


(external oil pump for 4 - solenoid valve block only)

extern

SM22

Remarks: Oil Pump - intern means: oil pump is a part of the screw compressor
- extern means: oil pump is a part of the package

The P & I diagramms have to be used for all permitted refrigerants including ammonia and all permitted oils.
For use of the combination of Ammonia and PAG-oil please contact Grasso R.T. in Berlin.

Screw compressors for DuoPacks are suitable for use in Multi-Packages with more than 2 screw compressors

The external oil pump has to supply functional oil with a pressure of pk+0,5 bar < poil < pk+2,5 bar.

The delivery flow of external oil pump has to be selected depending on compressor size (see compressor
selection program) and depending on the number of compressors in a package. The compressor selection
program calculates the oil volume flow for 1 screw compressor.

The integrated oil pump delivers 3 l/min only and supplies it to the hydraulic system (solenoid valve block);
the oil pressure of the integrated oil pump is limited by means of a integrated oil pressure control valve to 6
bar over pressure of functional oil.

Screw compressors for heat pump application are equipped with one side acting thrust bearings. It is not
allowed to use an external oil pump in screw compressors series SH and MC for heat pump application.

06.10.00/ 0

040 800e - 1/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P+I DIAGRAM SM11


SERIES SH
MONOPACK, SINGLE STAGE, INTERNAL OIL PUMP

basic plate

X2

R
C

oil supply
cooled oil

to oil filter

Screw
compressor

oilmanagement block 1

from oil filter

oil flow control valve


injected oil
injected oil

check valve

integrated oil pressure


control valve

functional oil

H
L

X1
p

solenoid valve block

040 800e - 2/20

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

integrated oil pump, flanged housing

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SM12
SERIES SH
MONOPACK, SINGLE STAGE, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP

measuring oil pressure


behind integrated oil filter

external oil pressure control valve


(0,5...2,5 bar)

external oil pump

cooled oil
p

Package

X2

R
C
oil supply

to oil filter

oil flow control valve


injected oil

from oil filter

closing stopper

injected oil

Screw
compressor
functional oil

oilmanagement block 1

L
basic plate

X1
p

solenoid valve block,


internal supply

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of external oil pump

040 800e - 3/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SM13
SERIES SH
MONOPACK, HEAT PUMP, INTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil filter functional


il

oil cooler functional oil

uncooled oil

measuring oil pressure


behind filter

Package

functional oil

X2

R
C
oil supply

to oil filter

oil flow control valve


injected oil

from oil filter

closing stopper

injected oil

integrated oil pressure


control valve

Screw
compressor
functional oil

H
L

oilmanagement block 1

Z
basic plate

X1
p

solenoid valve block

040 800e - 4/20

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

integrated oil pump, flanged housing

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SM14
SH SERIES
MONOPACK, DX CHILLER, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil pump

measuring oil pressure


behind integrated oil
fil

external oil pressure control valve


(0,5...2,5 bar)

cooled oil

Package

X2

R
C
oil supply

to oil filter

oil flow control valve


injected oil

from oil filter


injected oil

Closing stopper

Screw
compressor

functional oil
discharge housing

basic plate

functional oil
shaft seal

N
L
Closing expander

X1

oilmanagement block 1

closing stopper
p

solenoid valve block,


external supply

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump
and functional oil

040 800e - 5/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SD11
SERIES SH
DUO PACK, SINGLE STAGE/HIGH STAGE, INTERNAL OIL PUMP

measuring oil pressure behind


filter and solenoid stop valve

X2

basic plate

oilmanagement block 2

R
C

oil supply

cooled oil

to oil filter

solenoid stop valve

from oil filter

injected oil
functional oil

oil flow control valve


injected oil

Screw
Compressor

check valve

integradet oil pressure


control valve

X1

solenoid valve block

040 800e - 6/20

integradet oil pump, flanged housing

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SD12
SERIES SH
DUO PACK, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP, SINGLE STAGE, BOOSTER
solenoid stop valve

external oil pump

external oil pressure


control valve (0,5...2,5 bar)

measuring oil pressure


behind filter

Package

X2

cooled oil

external oil filter

R
C
oil supply

Injected oil

Screw
compressor

solenoid stop valve

oil flow control valve


injected oil

functional oil
closing stopper

L
basic plate

oilmanagement block 2

X1
p

solenoid valve block,


internal supply

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


discharge side oil pump, functional oil

040 800e - 7/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SD13
SERIES SH
DUO PACK, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP, SINGLE STAGE

external oil pump


for whole oil supply

external oil pressure


control valve (0,5...2,5 bar)

measuring oil pressure


behind filter

Package
K

X2

cooled oil

external oil filter

R
oil supply

C
solenoid stop valve

injected oil

Screw
compressor

oil flow control valve


injected oil

functional oil

basic plate

oilmangement block 2

X1
p

solenoid valve block,


internal supply

040 800e - 8/20

measuring oil pressure


discharge side of oil pump, functional oil

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SD14
SERIES SH
DUO PACK, INTERNAL OIL PUMP, HEAT PUMP

external oil filter functional oil

oil cooler functional oil

uncooled oil
measuring oil pressure
behind filter

Package

functional oil

X2

R
C
injected oil

to oil filter

solenoid stop valve

from oil filter

injected oil

integradet oil pressure


control valve

Verdichter
oil flow control valve
injected oil

functional oil

H
ldruckRegulierventil

Z
oilmanagement block 2

X1

closing stopper

solenoid valve block

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

integradet oil pump,


flanged housing

basic plate

040 800e - 9/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SM21
SERIES SH
MONOPACK, TWO STAGE/HIGH PRESSURE STAGE, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP
external oil pump

external oil pressure contro lvalve


(0,5...2,5 bar)

Package
K

X2

measuring oil pressure


behind filter

cooled oil

external oil filter

R
C
oil supply

oil flow control valve


injected oil

closing stopper

injected oil

Screw
compressor
functional oil

oilmanagement block 1

L
basic plate

X1
p

solenoid valve block,


internal supply

040 800e - 10/20

measuring oil pressure at discharge side


of external oil pump and functional oil

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM SM22
SERIES SH
MONOPACK, TWO STAGE/BOOSTER, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil pump

external oil pressure control valve


(0,5...2,5 bar)

measuring oil pressure


behind filter

cooled oil

Package
external oil filter

X2

R
C
oil supply

oil flow control valve


injected oil

injected oil

Screw
functional oil

oilmanagement block 1

L
basic plate

X1

solenoid valve block


external supply

06.10.00/ 0

closing stopper

040 800e - 11/20

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

I.

Screw compressors for single stage screw packages

Mono-Packs: 1 screw in 1 package

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Oil pump

P+I-No

for refrigeration/a.c./heat pump (cooled injection oil)

intern

MM11

for booster / for refrigeration and a.c. with low condensing temperature
(external oil pump for functional oil supply only)

extern

MM12

heat pump (uncooled injection oil)

intern

MM13

for ammonia chiller with PAG oil


(external oil pump for mechanical shaft seal only)

extern

MM14

for refrigeration/a.c./heat pump (cooled injektion oil)

intern

MD11

for booster / for refrigeration and a.c. with low condensing temperature
(external oil pump for functional oil supply only;
2 oil stop valves each compressor)

extern

MD12

for heat pump (uncooled injection oil)

intern

MD13

Oil pump

P+I-No

Duo-Packs (2 screws in 1 package/ part load range of each 15 or 30%/100%,


with position indicator)

II

Screw compressors for two stage packages

as high pressure stage (external oil pump for functional oil supply only)

extern

MM12

as Booster (with side load at intermediate pressure)


(external oil pump for 4 - solenoid valve block only)

extern

MM21

Remarks: Oil Pump - intern means: oil pump is a part of the screw compressor
- extern means: oil pump is a part of the package

The P & I diagramms have to be used for all permitted refrigerants including ammonia and all permitted oils.
For use of the combination of Ammonia and PAG-oil please contact Grasso R.T. in Berlin.

Screw compressors for DuoPacks are suitable for use in Multi-Packages with more than 2 screw compressors

The external oil pump has to supply functional oil with a pressure of pk+0,5 bar < poil < pk+2,5 bar.

The delivery flow of external oil pump has to be selected depending on compressor size (see compressor
selection program) and depending on the number of compressors in a package. The compressor selection
program calculates the oil volume flow for 1 screw compressor.

The integrated oil pump delivers 9 l/min only and supplies it to the hydraulic system (solenoid valve block);
the oil pressure of the integrated oil pump is limited by means of a integrated oil pressure control valve to 6
bar over pressure of functional oil.

Screw compressors for heat pump application are equipped with one side acting thrust bearings. It is not
allowed to use an external oil pump in screw compressors series SH and MC for heat pump application.

040 800e - 12/20

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MM11
SERIES MC
MONOPACK, SINGLE STAGE, INTERNAL OIL PUMP

oil supply
injectedl oil

oil flow control check valve

injected oil

cooled oil

Screw
compressor
C2
oil supply
functional oil

functional oil

C1

integrated oil pressure


control valve

solenoid valve block

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

integrated oil pump, flanged housing

040 800e - 13/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MM12
SERIES MC
MONOPACK, SINGLE STAGE, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil pressure control valve

oil filter

(0,5...2,5 bar)

Package

oil flow control check valve

cooled oil

Package

external oil pump

injected oil

oil supply
injectedl oil

Screw
compressor
C2

oil supply
functional oil

functional oil

C1

S
p

solenoid valve block


internal supply

040 800e - 14/20

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MM13
SERIES MC
MONOPACK, HEAT PUMP; INTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil filter functional oil

oil cooler functional oil

uncooled oil
measuring oil pressure
behind filter

Package
external oil filter injected oil

oil flow control check valve


uncooled oil

cooled oil

oil supply
injectedl oil
injected oil

D
Screw
compressor
C2
oil supply
functional oil

functional oil

C1

integrated oil pressure


control valve

solenoid valve block

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

integrated oil pump, flanged housing

040 800e - 15/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MM14
SERIES MC
DX CHILLER, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil filter

external oil pump

external oil pressure control valve


(0,5...2,5 bar)

Package
cooled oil

injected oil

Oil flow control


check valve
injected oil

check valve

oil supply
injected oil

Screw
compressor
C2
Functional oil discharge
housing

functional oil

C1

Functional oil shaft seal

functional oil, oil pump pressure

E
closing expander, only types H and L

S
p

solenoid valve block


internal supply

040 800e - 16/20

measuring oil pressure


discharge side oil pump

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MD11
SERIES MC
DUO PACK, SINGLE STAGE/HIGH PRESSURE STAGE, INTERNAL OIL PUMP

solenoid stop valve

oil flow control check valve

cooled oil

Package

injected oil

D
oil supply
injectedl oil

Screw
compressor
C2

oil supply
functional oil

functional oil

C1

integrated oil pressure


control valve

solenoid valve block

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

integrated oil pump, flanged housing

040 800e - 17/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MD12
SERIES MC
DUO PACK, SINGLE STAGE, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP

oil filter

external oil pressure control valve


(0,5...2,5 bar)

cooled oil

Package
solenoid stop valve

oil flow control check valve

external oil pump

solenoid stop valve

injected oil

oil supply
injectedl oil

Screw
compressor
C2

oil supply
functional oil

functional oil

C1

S
p

solenoid valve block


internal supply

040 800e - 18/20

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

06.10.00/0

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MD13
SERIES MC
DUO PACK, HEAT PUMP, INTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil filter functional oil

oil cooler functional oil

uncooled oil
measuring oil pressure
behind filter

external oil filter injected oil

oil flow control check valve

Package

solenoid stop valve

uncooled oil

cooled oil

oil supply
injectedl oil
injected oil

D
Screw
compressor
C2
oil supply
functional oil

functional oil

C1

integrated oil pressure


control valve

solenoid valve block

06.10.00/ 0

measuring oil pressure


at discharge side of oil pump

integrated oil pump, flanged housing

040 800e - 19/20

P + I DIAGRAMS
SCREW COMPRESSOR
SERIES SH AND MC

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P + I DIAGRAM MM21
SERIES MC
MONOPACK, TWO STAGE/BOOSTER, EXTERNAL OIL PUMP

external oil pressure control valve


(0,5...2,5 bar)

Package
cooled oil
oil flow control check valve

external oil pump

injected oil

Screw
compressor
C2
functional oil
(discharge pressure)

functional oil

C1

E
S
p

solenoid valve block


external supply

040 800e - 20/20

measuring oil pressure


(discharge side oil pump)

closing stopper

06.10.00/0

OVERALL CONCEPT

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OVERALL CONCEPT
SCREW COMPRESSORS
SH SERIES, TYPES C, D, E, G
Brief Description
Design Features

03.2002

AISH02-1_gbr.doc - 1/3

OVERALL CONCEPT
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

BRIEF DESCRIPTION
Screw compressors of oil-flooded construction with
continuously variable capacity control and an
adjustable Vi-volume ratio. The compressors are
compactly designed and have the following integrated
subassemblies:

Check valve suction side


Suction filter
Oil filter system
Flanged oil pump
Overflow valve between discharge and suction side
Check valve discharge side

Solenoid valve blocks to control the capacity control


and Vi-adjustment
Flange connection between compressor and drive
motor
The following subassemblies are optional:
heck valve suction side
Check valve discharge side
Suction filter
Oil filter
Oil pump

Figure 1 Screw compressor SH Series


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Centering flange
Check valve suction side
Suction filter
Solenoid valves for capacity control and Vi-Adjustment
Oil filter
Check valve discharge side
Overflow valve
Oil pump

Overflow valve
The corresponding design can be seen from the List of
Parts supplied with the compressor concerned.

AISH02-1_gbr.doc - 2/3

03.2002

OVERALL CONCEPT
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

DESIGN FEATURES

ADDITIONAL CONNECTIONS:

Theoretical suction volume:


C: 231 m/h
D: 265 m/h
E: 321 m/h
G: 372 m/h

For a second volume flow (e.g. for coupling an


economizer)

Lateral arrangement of the connecting flange


suction side

For preventing gas pulsations

Optional lateral or lower arrangement of the


connecting flange discharge side

For external oil pump

Asymmetrical rotor profile with a lobe ratio male


rotor/ female rotor of 5 : 6
Capacity control and Vi-adjustment with 2 independently operating slides which are hydraulically
adjustable (parallel slide system PS)
Hermetically sealed electronic modules for
displaying the position of the control slide

For injecting liquid refrigerant (additional cooling)


For oil return from the refrigerating plant
For adjusting the capacity control

GAUGE CONNECTIONS
For measuring the temperature and pressure on
the suction and discharge side and of the oil system
compressor drive motor
suction filter
coupling
housing

Shaft sealing by means of balanced and oil-sealed


mechanical seal

solenoid valve block


for capacity control

Cylindrical roller bearings and ball bearings to


absorb radial and axial forces
Partial compensation of the axial forces by means
of a balancing piston
Mechanism to prevent gas pulsations in the lower
part-load range at high operating pressure levels
Operation of the compressor with flanged or
external oil pump
Operation of the capacity control with flanged oil
pump
An oil connection to the internal oil system for:

oil connection
solenoid valve block
for Vi-adjustment

check valve
oil filter
check valve
suction nozzle

Shaft sealing
Bearing lubrication

overflow valve

Oil pump
Partial compensation of the axial forces
Oil injection into the working area
Solenoid valve on oil connection (special design)

discharge nozz

Figure 2 Screw compressor SH Series

03.2002

AISH02-1_gbr.doc - 3/3

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
SCREW COMPRESSORS
SH SERIES, TYPES C, D, E, G

02.04.02/ 0

Electric motor, Coupling


Compressor casing
Rotors
Bearings
Shaft sealing
Compression
Capacity control/Vi-Adjustment
Display of slide position
Oil filter
Oil pump
Solenoid valve blocks
Check valve/ Filter suction side
Check valve discharge side
Overflow valve

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 1/9

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

ELECTRIC MOTOR, COUPLING

ROTORS

Electric drive motor, coupling complex and compressor


together form a unit and the parts are assembled in
modular design. The electric motor and the
compressor are each provided with a centering flange.
Both parts are connected to one another and centered
by the coupling casing. The unit is provided with three
mounting points, two of which are located on the
coupling casing and the third is formed by the
discharge flange of the compressor. Different types of
electric motors are available, the choice of which
depends on the application conditions of the
compressor according to a special data sheet (cf.
Product Information Screw Compressor, data sheet
No. 040200).
Electric motors are allocated various coupling casings
and coupling sizes. The allocation is seen from the List
of Parts supplied.

The rotors are made of C 45 material. Male and female


rotors each have different profile diameters.

The compressor has a standard frame size.

The radial forces are absorbed by high-performance


cylindrical roller bearings with a solid cage. Angular
contact ball bearings, which are installed crosswise in
pairs, absorb the axial forces. In addition, they ensure
precise axial guidance and positioning of the rotors.
The angular contact ball bearings are equipped with a
solid cage for the special requirements of the screw
compressor. They have radial clearance at the outer
rings towards the casing which precludes a radial load
and increases their service life. The outer rings are
firmly tightened axially to prevent them from rotating.

COMPRESSOR CASING
The casing is made of grey cast iron and designed in
two parts. It consists of a rotor suction casing and a
discharge casing, and it has vertical parting joints. The
discharge casing is sealed off by the covering flange.
The connection flange on the suction side is arranged
vertically on the female rotor side of the compressor
and the connection flange on the discharge side is
arranged horizontally. A second outlet on the
discharge side (on the female rotor side) with a vertical
connection flange is optionally available.
The casing parts and the covers and flanges located in
the casing are sealed with O-rings. Screw-plugs are
provided for oil drainage.
Covering flanges with guide surfaces for the Vi-slide
are attached to the front wall of the working area on
the suction side. The axial outlet opening is integrated
in the front wall of the working area on the discharge
side.

The speed ratio of the male to female rotor is 5:6.


The shaft section of the male rotor where the shaft
seal is arranged is chrome-plated.
The rotor profile is manufactured with high precision
by means of the hobbing process, thus attaining
excellent coefficients of performance. Every rotor is
carefully dynamically balanced.
BEARINGS
As a result of compression, radial and axial forces act
on the rotors. These forces are absorbed by appropriate bearing elements.

Large axial forces act on the male rotor. A balancing


piston is therefore arranged on the male rotor shaft
on the suction side of the compressor to unload the
angular contact ball bearings. The balancing piston is
loaded on one side with the lubricating oil under
discharge pressure and produces an axial counterforce.
This helps to extend the service life of the bearings.
In compressors which are designed for heat pump
application, the angular contact ball bearings are
installed in tandem arrangement.

Connections on the compressor casing allow measurement of temperature and pressure on the suction and
discharge side and of the oil system.

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 2/9

02.04.02/0

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

SHAFT SEALING
The driven male rotor is sealed on the shaft bushing on
the suction end by means of an oil-sealed mechanical
contact seal. This seal has a balanced design so as to
achieve a maximum service life.
In the standard design, the counter ring arranged in
the cover is made of a special grey cast iron alloy, and
the elastic seal ring rotating with the shaft is made of
antimony-bound hard carbon. An O-ring takes over the
secondary sealing between the slide ring and the shaft.
For extreme loads and on customers request, there
are available special designs of shaft seals featuring
high-quality mating materials for both the seal- and
counter ring (e.g. silicon carbides, hard metals, special
hard carbons).

A suction side

B discharge side

The sealing space is supplied with lubricating oil which


is under discharge pressure. This space is sealed off
towards the inside area of the compressor by the
balancing piston. The sealing surfaces of the carbon
ring and counter ring face one another without
contact. They are separated from one another by a
thin oil film. Although there is a slight amount of
leakage, a high service life is however attained.
COMPRESSION
During rotation of the rotors the meshing shifts from
the suction side to the discharge side. This causes a
V-shaped lobe space to form between each of the
2 male and female rotor lobes. This lobe space
increases to a maximum size (Suction process: Figure 1;
1-3, View of the upper side of the rotors).
As the rotors rotate further, the V-shaped lobe space is
closed by the new meshing on the suction side. The
lobe space is then constantly reduced by the
continuing intermeshing of the lobes (Compression
process: Figure 1; 4-5, View of the lower side of the
rotors).
The reduction in lobe space takes place on the lower
side of the rotors towards the discharge side. The
compression process is complete when the lobe space
has reached the control edges which are incorporated
in the casing and control slide or Vi-slide (Figure 1; 6).
The control edges belong to the outlet opening which
has an axial and a radial part. The position of the
control edges determines the size of the compressed
volume and thus the degree of compression. When
rotation continues, the compressed volume is pressed
out of the lobe space which reduces to zero into the
discharge space of the compressor. This cycle is
repeated for each subsequent lobe space, thus
achieving an almost constant volume flow.
Figure 1 Compression process

02.04.02/ 0

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 3/9

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CAPACITY CONTROL/ VI-ADJUSTMENT


The capacity control is based on the control of the
volume flow operating on the principle of shortening
the effective rotor length. This is achieved by means of
the control slide which is part of the casing wall. When
the control slide is adjusted, a bypass opening emerges
which provides a connection to the suction area of the
compressor (Figure 2).
By means of the capacity control the volume flow of
the compressor is continuously adjustable between
100% and about 10%.

control edge

When in the minimum position, the control slide


reduces compression work to a minimum thus ensuring
unloaded startup of the compressor.
Internal Volume Ratio Vi:
The internal volume ratio Vi is a characteristic number
of the screw compressor. It is the ratio of the lobe
space volume at the beginning of compression to the
lobe space volume at the end of compression.
The end of compression and internal volume ratio Vi
are determined by the size of the outlet opening, i.e.
the position of the control edges at the radial outlet
opening. In compressors with adjustable Vi this
opening is arranged in the Vi-slide (Figure 2). Control
slide and Vi-slide together form part of the lower wall
surface of the working area.
Different Vi-adjustments can be set by moving the
Vi-slide to 2 axial positions in the full-load or upper
part-load operating range. This also alters the position
of the control edges.
The volume ratio Vi can be adjusted to suit the external operating conditions (suction pressure, discharge
pressure) in such a way that the pressure in the lobe
space is about the same as the external discharge
pressure by the time it reaches the outlet opening. So
there is minimum loss during compression and a minimum level of driving power is necessary in each case.

Vi-slide

control slide

bypass opening

bypass
opening

outlet
opening

control edge

control slide

Vi-slide

The optimum position of the Vi-slide is calculated by


the programmable control equipment of the compressor according to an empirical algorithm.
Compressors which have a fixed volume ratio Vi are
not fitted with a Vi-slide. In this case the volume ratio
Vi is determined by the size of the radial outlet
opening arranged in the control slide.
Control slide and Vi-slide are operated individually by
means of separate hydraulic systems. The Vi-slide is
arranged across the entire length of the working area
and guided inside the control slide.

Vi-slide

control slide

Figure 2 Principle of capacity control and Vi-adjustment

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 4/9

02.04.02/0

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Adjusting the Control Slide:


The control slide is connected to a hydraulic piston by
means of a piston rod. Different pressures (oil pump
discharge pressure/suction pressure) on both sides of
the hydraulic piston cause the slide to alter its position.
In addition, a second adjusting force acts on the
control slide which is produced by the different
pressure levels (discharge pressure/suction pressure) on
the front ends of the control slide.
The hydraulic piston slides within a cylinder closed on
both ends. Internal oil drainage ducts and solenoid
valves arranged on the compressor fill up and empty
the cylinder spaces (refer to the section Solenoid Valve
Blocks). A tension spring is attached to the control
slide. It causes the contol slide to be shifted towards its
Minimum position when the compressor is shut down
or idling.
In the upper part-load range, the Vi-slide is adjusted
together with the control slide in order to maintain the
Vi volume ratio at an energetically optimum level.
When the control slide is in its minimum position, the
edge of the control slide on the suction side closes the
passing lobe space when the axial outlet opening on
the discharge side is reached.
The control slide moves underneath the axial outlet
opening which is part of the discharge casing. A tappit
on the face of the control slide on the discharge side
slides along the rod and serves as an anti-rotation
device.
Stop sleeve for limiting the MIN position of the
control slide
In screw compressors operating in parallel with other
machines and featuring a check valve on the discharge
side, the positioning length of the control slide is
reduced, and the MIN position of the control slide is
limited prematurely by a stop ( in 35%, 30% or 15%
position). The limitation is obtained by means of a stop
sleeve mounted on the piston rod behind the piston
(see figure). The sleeve is mounted onto the piston rod
and secured in a fixed position by 2 O rings.
A sticker on the position sensor of the slide (cf. section
of Display System of Slide Position) gives the changed
current signal resulting from the changed Minimum
position of the control slide.
Compressors without stop sleeves may also be
operated in parallel. In this case, the compressor
control system has to cause the compressor to shut
down prior to attaining the Minimum position of the
control slide. For this purpose, a special calculation
algorithm was developed by Grasso GmbH.

02.04.02/ 0

stop sleeve

Figure 3: Stop sleeve for limiting the MIN position of the


control slide

Adjusting the Vi-Slide:


A rod with a piston is attached to the discharge side of
the face area of the Vi-slide to adjust the position of
the slide. The piston slides inside a cylinder. By
reducing the pressure in the cylinder space to the same
level as the suction pressure of the compressor, a force
develops on the piston which adjusts the position of
the Vi-slide towards the discharge side as far as the
stop. This brings about Vi-enlargement (outlet window
reduction). Positioning of the Vi-slide towards the
suction side (Vi-reduction or outlet window
enlargement) takes place by means of the prevailing
pressure difference between the discharge and suction
pressure on the front sides of the slide.
In order for this effect to happen, the cylinder space
has to be fed with oil at the same time which is under
discharge pressure. Thus, the forces acting on the
piston are balanced. The cylinder space is charged and
drained via external piping and solenoid valves
arranged on the closure flange of the compressor.
The compressor control device computes the optimum
Vi-values for setting the position of the Vi-slide.
Compressors of the standard design which have a fixed
volume ratio Vi are not fitted with a Vi-slide. The
control slides are provided with an outlet opening
corresponding to a Vi of 2.6; 3.6 or 4.8. The Vi level
must be determined before the compressor is
manufactured.

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 5/9

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

DISPLAY OF CONTROL SLIDE POSITION


The position of control slide is recorded by one
position sensor display systems (Hermetical DifferentialTransformer HDT) arranged on the casing wall of the
discharge side.
By means of 2 series connected tension springs of
different lengths the large length of adjustment of the
slide/piston rod/hydraulic piston complex can be
reduced to a small length which corresponds to the
measuring range of the position sensor. A long pin is
attached to the junction of both springs where a small
length of adjustment appears. The end of the pin
slides into a coil of the position sensor thus generating
a measuring signal by altering the inductivity
(Figure 4).
Depending on the position of the control slide, i.e.
depth of the pin immersion, the position sensor
supplies an output signal of between 4 and 20 mA
(Figure 5).

control slide position [%]

Figure 4 Functional diagram of the position sensor


system of control slide

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Output signal [mA]

Figure 5 Position sensor signal of the control slide position

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 6/9

02.04.02/0

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OIL FILTER
The compressor is equipped with an integrated oil
filter. The oil filter space is arranged transversely
beneath the control slide. Oil is delivered to the
compressor via the base plate of the oil supply system
(male rotor side).
A partial flow is taken from the filter space and
conducted into the rotor working space for cooling,
lubrication and sealing (cooling oil). A second partial
flow is required to lubricate the bearings and to
activate the hydraulic device of the Vi-adjustment
(bearing oil).
Both partial oil flows discharged from the filter
chamber firstly enter the oil filter lid again which in the
standard design houses two check valves and one
control valve for the cooling oil (figure 6). These partial
flows are then conducted from the oil filter cover to
the consumption points via internal oil drainage holes
in the compressor casing. This arrangement allows the
oil filter space to be separated from the remaining
compressor space when changing the filter.

check valve
243

cooling oil
bearing oil

160
assembly cover

X2
oil inlet

C
105

86
regulating valve

132
base plate of the
oil supply system

106

119
oil filter insert

Figure 6 Schematic construction of the oil filter

A third partial flow taken from the filter space is


conducted via external oil pipe to the suction side of
the flanged or external oil pump.
Optional can be additional cooling oil via external pipe
from the filter space to the rotor working space.
The filter insert can be changed by removing the
assembly cover which is located opposite the oil filter
cover (on the female rotor side).
There is a connection point on the assembly cover for
measuring the pressure of the oil behind the filter
insert. The oil filter casing also has a connection point
for measuring the temperature of the oil.

02.04.02/ 0

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 7/9

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OIL PUMP
The oil of the oil pump is required to activate the
hydraulic device of the capacity control.The oil pump is
flanged at the frontage of the rotor casing.The female
rotor drives the oil pump. A partial flow from the filter
space is conducted via external pipe to the suction side
of the oil pump. The oil from the discharge side of the
oil pump enter the solenoid valve block of the capacity
control via second external pipe.
A overflow valve under the solenoid valve block
controls the pressure of the pump and conducts the
excess oil to the internal oil system of the compressor.
The pressure transmitter for measuring the pressure of
the oil pump is installed at the solenoid valve block.

P oil pump
Po

MIN
MAX

The flanged oil pump at the compressor does not exist,


when the package has a external oil pump.
SOLENOID VALVE BLOCKS

Figure 7 Functional diagram of the solenoid


valve block of the capacity control

The hydraulic spaces of capacity control and Viadjusting device are connected to the oil system of the
oil pump or to the compressor suction space
alternately via the solenoid valve blocks (Figure 7).
The valve blocks are screwed to a flat surface of the
casing fitted with boreholes which serve as a connection to the compressor suction side and to the
hydraulic spaces. The solenoid valve block is connected
to the oil pump via a separate connection.
In addition to the solenoid valves, control valves are
attached to the blocks. The adjusting speed of control
slide and Vi-slide can be influenced by means of these
valves by controlling the flow rate (cf. chapter
Connections, Schematic Diagram, Valves).

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 8/9

02.04.02/0

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

NON-RETURN VALVE/ FILTER SUCTION SIDE

OVERFLOW VALVE

Non-return valve and suction filter are arranged


transversely on the upper side of the rotor suction
casing thus resulting in the lateral position of the
suction flange (female rotor side).

An overflow valve is arranged on the discharge side of


the compressor casing. The valve protects the
compressor discharge side from impermissible high
pressures.

The filter insert has a filter mesh size of 60 m and the


gas flows from inside to outside. The filter insert can
be changed by removing the filter cover (on the male
rotor side).

The valve acts as a back pressure-independent valve


and ist discharge side is connected with the inlet
(suction) side of the compressor.

The connection flange on the suction side is formed by


a pipe bend to ensure that the non-return valve is
accessible (by removing the pipe bend). The
compressor is optionally fitted with or without a nonreturn valve. A vibration damper is fitted on the check
valve. A spring-loaded pin bears with low force on the
valve stem. The spring force is adjustable and can be
varied from the outside with the compressor
operating.
Connection points for pressure and temperature
measurement are provided on the suction filter casing.
For pressure measurement, a connection is provided
upstream of the check valve.

The choice of valve depends on the specified discharge


pressure. The valve operates when the set pressure is
exceeded. The valve then opens a reverse current duct
in the casing and connects the discharge end with the
inlet (suction) side of the compressor. The overflow
valve insert screwed onto the casing can be unscrewed
and replaced. In addition, the valve seat ring screwed
in inside the compressor casing can also be replaced.
The pressure setting of the overflow valve is marked
on the screw plug. On request, the compressor can be
delivered without overflow valve if the package
incorporates other safety valves. In this case, the
internal back-flow channel in the compressor is closed
by a screw plug.

The compressor is not equipped with a suction filter in


case of application as HP-compressor for Two Stage
Packages.
NON-RETURN VALVE DISCHARGE SIDE
The non-return valve on the discharge side is integrated in the discharge casing and installed vertically.
It is accessible by means of a removable valve cover. In
parallel arrangement of compressors this valve ensures
separation from the subsequent oil separator when
the compressor is switched off. It also prevents the
compressor from rotating backwards. The non-return
valve is optional. The vertical opening is normally used
for operation of compressors without a non-return
valve in which case a discharge flange is attached in
place of the valve cover

02.04.02/ 0

AISH03-1_gbr.doc - 9/9

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, CONNECTIONS

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CONNECTIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
SH SERIES, TYPES C, D, E, G
P + I diagram
Internal Piping Diagram
Connectio ns
Input Voltage for Pickups and Valves
Outer View of Compressor

11/2001/ Rev.2

AISH04-1_gbr.doc - 1/7

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, CONNECTIONS


Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P+I DIAGRAM
The P+I diagram of the internal piping schematic of the screw compressor shown applies to standard application
in single-stage high-pressure operation. For other applications, e.g. in parallel operation, tandem application or,
when an external oil pump is used, there will be deviations from the piping schematic shown. For this purpose,
there exist separate simplified P+I diagrams listed in the data sheet 040800 with indication of special P+I
numbers. The data sheet is contained in the Product Information for Screw Compressors.
For the following piping schematic for standard application, the P+I diagram No. SM11 applies which is also
contained in data sheet 040800.
The nameplate of each compressor is marked with the pertaining P+I number.

INTERNAL PIPING DIAGRAM (STANDARD DIAGRAM)

701

AISH04-1_gbr.doc - 2/7

11/2001/ Rev.2

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, CONNECTIONS


Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Pos.

Designation

Y1

Solenoid valve , control direction Max

Y2

Solenoid valve , control direction Min

Y3

Solenoid valve , control direction Min

Y4

Solenoid valve , control direction Max

Control valve control direction Max

Control valve control direction Min

Control valve control direction Max

Relief valve control direction Max

242

Check valve suction side

346

Suction filter

452

Position sensor: position control slide

243

Check valve

618

Overflow valve oil pumpe discharge side

454

Oil pump

119

Oil filter

86

Control/ stop valve cooling oil

413

Check valve discharge side

701

Overflow valve

24

Control valve Vi-reduction

25

Control valve Vi-enlargement

27

Pickup suction temperature

28

Pickup discharge temperature

29

Pickup oil temperature

105

Drain valve

105

Drain valve

106

Stop valve oil pump suction side

Y5

Solenoid valve Vi-enlargement

Y6

Solenoid valve Vi-reduction


For other diagrams see Data sheet P+I diagrams 640060E.

11/2001/ Rev.2

AISH04-1_gbr.doc - 3/7

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, CONNECTIONS


Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CONNECTIONS / THREADS
Item
A
B1/ B2

Purpose

Nominal width/threads
C/D

E/G

Suction nozzle

DN 80

DN 100

discharge side, below/ discharge side, lateral

DN 50

DN 65

M 26 x 1,5

M 26 x 1,5

M 33 x 2

M 33 x 2

Oil supply

Economizer

E1

Refrigerant liquid injection (LP)

M 14 x 1,5

M 14 x 1,5

E2

Refrigerant liquid injection (HP)

M 14 x 1,5

M 14 x 1,5

Gas pulsation protection

M 14 x 1,5

M 14 x 1,5

Additional oil injection

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

G1

Outlet oil stainer at the connection G

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Outlet oil strainer at the oil pump (connection Z)

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Supply function oil external oil pump

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Oil supply capacity control from oil pump

Oil return oil separator

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Oil supply function oil/ special design


or measure oil pressure of function oil

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Oil drain plug

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Ventilation compressor (Valve 105)

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Drain oil filter (Valve 105)

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Oil supply flanged oil pump

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

O1

Measure suction pressure

O2

Additional connection

Measure discharge pressure before check valve

Outlet oil strainer at the external oil pump

M 26 x 1,5

M 26 x 1,5

Measure discharge pressure after check valve

M 10 x 1,0

CONNECTIONS / THREADS
Item

Purpose

Nominal width/threads
C/D

E/G

X1

Measure pressure oil pumpe

X2

measure oil pressure behind strainer

27

Measure suction temperature

M 12 x 1,5

M 12 x 1,5

28

Measure discharge temperature

M 12 x 1,5

M 12 x 1,5

29

Measure oil temperature

M 12 x 1,5

M 12 x 1,5

106

Stop valve pump suction side

AISH04-1_gbr.doc - 4/7

11/2001/ Rev.2

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, CONNECTIONS


Grasso
Refrigeration Division

INPUT VOLTAGE
Item

Input

Output

Position sensor for position display control slide

24 V (DC)

4 - 20 mA

Y1/Y4

Solenoid valves capacity control , direction full load

240 V AC
220 V AC

Y2/Y3

Solenoid valves capacity control , direction part load

110 V AC
48 V AC
42 V AC

Y5

Solenoid valve Vi-enlargement

24 V DC
220 V AC,

Y6

Solenoid valve Vi-reduction

expl.-proof

452

Purpose

11/2001/ Rev.2

AISH04-1_gbr.doc - 5/7

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, CONNECTIONS


Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OUTER VIEW OF COMPRESSOR MALE ROTOR SIDE

REAR VIEW OF COMPRESSOR

AISH04-1_gbr.doc - 6/7

11/2001/ Rev.2

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM, CONNECTIONS


Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OUTER VIEW OF COMPRESSOR FEMALE ROTOR SIDE

11/2001/ Rev.2

AISH04-1_gbr.doc - 7/7

OVERALL CONCEPT

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OVERALL CONCEPT
SCREW COMPRESSORS
MC SERIES, TYPES H, L, M, N

01.2003/2

Introduction

Compression

Capacity control

Vi-Adjustment

AI_MC_02_gbr.DOC - 1/5

Grasso

OVERALL CONCEPT

Refrigeration Division

INTRODUCTION
Screw compressors of oil-flooded construction with
continuously variable capacity control and an
adjustable Vi-volume ratio. The compressors are
compactly designed and have the following integrated
subassemblies:

Non-return valve suction side

Suction filter

flanged oil pump

Solenoid valve blocks to control the capacity


control and Vi-adjustment

Special compressor types without integrated subassemblies may be designed for special application
fields. See compressor parts list.
The two rotors have a distinctive spiral gearing with
asymmetrical profile. They operate with a very small
clearance and are completely encased.
The male rotor driven by the motor has 5 teeth and it
drives the female rotor with 6 teeth. Cylindrical roller
bearings with increased load-carrying capacity absorb
the radial forces and angular contact ball bearings
absorb the axial forces. A balancing piston arranged
on the male rotor shaft reduces the forces on the
angular contact ball bearings. An oil-sealed and
balanced mechanical contact seal ensures that the
driving shaft is sealed off.
The capacity of the compressor and its internal
volume ratio Vi can be adjusted by means of two
adjustable slides, the control slide and the Vi-slide.
The slides are adjusted hydraulically by the flanged or
external oil pump. Hermetically sealed display systems
which function inductively are used to indicate the
position of the slides.
The entire oil supply system is arranged inside the
casing. Oil connections for functional oil and cooling
oil are connected to the oil system of the screw
compressor unit only.
The functional oil fulfils the following purposes :

lubrication of the bearings,

equalisation of the axial forces,

full-load/ part-load adjustment via oil pump,

Vi-adjustment,

lubrication/sealing of the shaft seal.

AI_MC_02_gbr.DOC - 2/5

01.2003/2

OVERALL CONCEPT

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

The solenoid valves for the oil drainage system


integrated in the compressor for full-load/part-load
control and for Vi-control are arranged directly on the
compressor.
The cooling oil flows into the working area of the
compressor. The purpose of this oil is to cool the
compression process. It lubricates the rotor profile
and seals the gaps between the tooth flanks and
casing.
The oil which is fed into the compressor flows
together with the compressed refrigerant via the
discharge nozzle of the machine into an oil separator
which is connected downstream where the refrigerant
and oil are separated.
The compressor has a second suction opening for
feeding in a further volume flow (e.g. for economizer
coupling).

suction filter

suction nozzle

A connection is provided for oil return from the


refrigerating plant.
2 separates connections to the working area is provided for injection of liquid refrigerant. This allows for
additional cooling of the compression process.
Another connection at the pressure casing is provided
for a connecting pipe which comes from the oil
separator to prevent gas pulsations in the lower partload range at high operating pressure levels.
The standard compressor designs have a fixed Vi
volume ratio. They are available with Vi values of 2.6,
3.6, 4.8 and 5.5. Furthermore, a compressor type
designed for operation under low pressure conditions
(booster) and a compressor for extreme loads (heat
pump application) are available as special variants.
The compressor has gauge connections for measuring
the temperature and pressure on the suction and
discharge side and the oil system.

check valve
solenoid valve block
for Vi adjustment

solenoid valves for


capacity control

Vi-slide

control slide

discharge nozzle
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the screw compressor

01.2003/2

AI_MC_02_gbr.DOC - 3/5

OVERALL CONCEPT

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

COMPRESSION
While the rotors are turning, the meshing shifts from
the suction side to the discharge side. A V-shaped
space is formed between 2 male and female teeth in
each case which increases to a maximum size (Suction
process: Figure 2; 1-3, View of the upper side of the
rotors).

Suction side

Discharge side

As the rotor continues to turn, the V-shaped space is


closed by the new meshing on the suction side. This
space gradually becomes smaller as the meshing
continues (Compression process: Figure 2; 4-5, View of
the lower side of the rotors).
The reduction in size takes place on the lower side of
the rotors towards the discharge side. The
compression process ends when the tooth space
reaches the control edges which are incorporated in
the casing and control slide or Vi-slide (Figure 2; 6).
The control edges are part of the outlet opening
which has an axial and a radial part.
The position of the conrol edges determines the size
of the compressed volume and thus the level of
compression. As the rotors continue to turn, the
compressed volume is pushed out of the tooth space
which diminishes to zero into the discharge area of
the compressor. The process described above is
repeated for every subsequent tooth space, thus
achieving an almost continuous delivery.

Figure 2: Compression process

AI_MC_02_gbr.DOC - 4/5

01.2003/2

OVERALL CONCEPT

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CAPACITY CONTROL/VI-ADJUSTMENT
Capacity control is based on the control of the
volume. It functions according to the principle of
effectively shortening the stroke. This is achieved by
means of the control slide which is part of the casing
wall. When the control slide is adjusted, a bypass
opening emerges which provides a connection to the
suction area of the compressor (Figure 3).

Control edge

By means of the capacity control the volume flow of


the compressor is continuously adjustable between
100% and about 10%.
When in the minimum position, the control slide
reduces compression work to a minimum thus ensuring
unloaded startup of the compressor.

Vi-slide

INTERNAL VOLUME RATIO VI:

Outlet opening

Control slide

Bypass opening
Bypass opening

The internal volume ratio Vi is a characteristic number


of the screw compressor. It is the ratio of the lobe
space volume at the beginning of compression to the
lobe space volume at the end of compression.
The end of compression and internal volume ratio Vi
are determined by the size of the outlet opening, i.e.
the position of the control edges at the radial outlet
opening. In compressors with adjustable Vi this
opening is arranged in the Vi-slide (Figure 3). Control
slide and Vi-slide together form part of the lower wall
surface of the working area. Different Vi-adjustments
can be set by moving the Vi-slide to various axial
positions in the full-load or upper part-load operating
range. This also alters the position of the control
edges.
The volume ratio Vi can be adjusted to suit the
external operating conditions (suction pressure,
discharge pressure) in such a way that the pressure in
the lobe space is about the same as the external
discharge pressure by the time it reaches the outlet
opening. So there is minimum loss during compression
and a minimum level of driving power is necessary in
each case.
The optimum position of the Vi-slide is calculated by
the programmable control equipment of the
compressor according to an empirical algorithm.
Compressors which have a fixed volume ratio Vi are
not fitted with a Vi-slide. In this case the volume ratio
Vi is determined by the size of the radial outlet
opening arranged in the control slide.

01.2003/2

Control edge

Control slide

Vi-slide

Vi-slide

Control slide
Figure 3: Principle of capacity control and
Vi-adjustment

AI_MC_02_gbr.DOC - 5/5

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
SCREW COMPRESSORS
MC SERIES, TYPES H, L, M, N

01.2003/2

Casing
Check valve/ filter suction side
Rotors
Bearings
Shaft Sealing
Oil pump
Capacity control/ Vi-adjustment
Solenoid valve blocks
Display System of Slide Position

AI_MC_03_gbr.DOC - 1/4

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Reference should be made to the lists of parts


and drawing index for a better understanding
of the following descriptions.

CASING
The casing is made of grey cast iron and designed in
two parts. It consists of a rotor suction casing and a
pressure casing, and it has vertical parting joints.
The connecting flanges which connect the suction side
to the discharge side are arranged horizontally.
The casing parts and the covers and flanges located in
the casing are sealed with O-rings.
Screw-plugs are provided for oil drainage.
Covering flanges with guide surfaces for the Vi-slide
are attached to the front wall of the working area on
the suction side.
The axial outlet opening is integrated in the front wall
of the working area on the discharge side.
NON-RETURN VALVE/FILTER SUCTION SIDE
Non-return valve and suction filter are arranged on
the upper side of the rotor suction casing .The filter
insert has a filter mesh size of 100 m and the gas
flows from inside to outside.

BEARINGS
As a result of compression, radial and axial forces act
on the rotors. These forces are absorbed by
appropriate bearing elements.
The radial forces are absorbed by high-performance
cylindrical roller bearings with a solid cage. Bearings of
differing sizes are installed on the discharge side of
the male and female rotor. This takes into account the
different force levels whilst utilizing the available
space.
Angular contact ball bearings, which are installed
crosswise in pairs, absorb the axial forces. In addition,
they ensure precise axial guidance and positioning of
the rotors. The angular contact ball bearings are
equipped with a solid cage for the special requirements in the screw-compressor. They have radial
clearance at the outer rings towards the casing which
precludes a radial load and increases their service life.
The outer rings are firmly tightened axially to prevent
them from rotating.
Large axial forces act on the male rotor. A balancing
piston is therefore arranged on the male rotor shaft
end on the suction side of the compressor to unload
the axial bearing.

The filter insert can be changed by removing the filter


cover.

The balancing piston is loaded on one side with the


lubricating oil under compression discharge pressure
and produces an axial counterforce. This helps to
extend the service life of the bearings.

The connection flange on the suction side has to form


by a pipe bend to ensure that the non-return valve is
accessible (by removing the pipe bend).

In compressors which are designed for heat pump


application, the axial bearings are installed in tandem
arrangement.

The compressor is optionally fitted with or without


non-return valve and suction filter. A vibration damper
is fitted on the check valve. A spring-loaded pin bears
with low force on the valve stem. The spring force is
adjustable and can be varied from the outside with
the compressor operating. Connection point for
temperature measurement is provided on the suction
filter casing. A connection point for pressure
measurement is available upstream of the non-return
valve.
The compressor has no suction filter when used as a
high pressure compressor on two-stage units.
ROTORS
Rotors are made of C 45 material. Male and female
rotors each have different profile diameters. The
speed ratio of the male to female rotor is 5 : 6.
The shaft section of the male rotor where the shaft
seal is arranged is chrome-plated. The rotor profile is
manufactured with high precision by means of the
hobbing process, thus attaining excellent coefficients
of performance.

AI_MC_03_gbr.DOC - 2/4

SHAFT SEAL
The driven male rotor is sealed on the shaft bushing
on the suction end by means of an oil-sealed
mechanical contact seal. This seal has a balanced
design so as to achieve a maximum service life.
The counter ring arranged in the cover is made of
antimonous combined hard carbon and the elastic
slide ring which rotates with the shaft is made of a
high-quality grey cast iron alloy. An O-ring takes over
the secondary sealing between the slide ring and the
shaft. The sealing space which is under compression
discharge pressure is supplied with lubricating oil. This
space is sealed off towards the inside area of the
compressor by the balancing piston. The
sealingsurfaces of the carbon ring and counter ring
face one another without contact. They are separated
from one another by a thin oil film. Although there is a
slight amount of leakage, a high service life is however
attained.

01.2003/2

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OIL PUMP
The oil of the oil pump is required to activate the
hydraulic device of the capacity control. The oil pump
is flanged at the frontage of the rotor casing.The
female rotor drives the oil pump. A partial flow from
the space of the shaft seal is conducted via internal oil
drainage holes to the suction side of the oil pump.
The oil from the discharge side of the oil pump enter
the solenoid valve block of the capacity control via
external pipe.
A overflow valve under the solenoid valve block
controls the pressure of the pump and conducts the
excess oil to the internal oil system of the compressor.
The pressure transmitter for measuring the pressure of
the oil pump is installed at the solenoid valve block.
The flanged oil pump at the compressor does not
exist, when the package has a external oil pump.

Stop sleeve for limiting the MIN position of the


control slide
With respect to screw compressors co-operating with
other machines and in which a check valve is arranged
on the discharge side, the adjustment path of the
control slide is reduced while the MIN position of the
slide is limited by a premature stop (in the 35%, 30%,
or 15% position). The limitation is obtained by means
of a stop sleeve mounted on the piston rod behind
the piston (see figure). The sleeve is mounted onto the
piston rod and secured in a fixed position by 2 O rings.

Stop sleeve

CAPACITY CONTROL/ VI-ADJUSTMENT


Control slide und Vi-slide form part of the lower wall
surface of the working area. Both slides are operated
individually by means of separate hydraulic systems.
A bypass opening emerges when the control slide is
adjusted. It provides a connection to the suction area
of the compressor via ducts in the casing.
The size of the radial outlet opening of the working
area can be altered by adjusting the Vi-slide.
The control slide can be shifted axially from the fullload position towards the pressure casing. On the
suction side it is connected to a hydraulic piston by
means of a piston rod. The piston can be loaded with
oil of the oil pump in either direction and it slides
within a cylinder which is closed both ends. Internal oil
drainage ducts and solenoid valves arranged on the
compressor fill up and empty the cylindrical spaces of
the hydraulic piston.
A tension spring is attached to the control slide. This
tension spring adjusts the slide in direction to the
minimum position without oil pump when the
compressor is taken out of service.
In the upper part-load range, the Vi-slide is adjusted
together with the control slide in order to maintain
the Vi volume ratio at an energetically optimum level.
The effective rotor length can be continuously
shortened and the volume flow reduced by adjusting
the control slide.
The minimum part-load position results when the edge
of the control slide on the suction side closes the
passing tooth space at the latest before the axial
outlet opening on the discharge side is reached. The
control slide moves underneath the axial outlet
opening in the pressure casing.
A tappit on the face area of the control slide on the
discharge side slides along a rod and serves as an antirotation device.
01.2003/2

Figure 1: Stop sleeve for limiting the MIN position

of the control slide

During compression the difference between suction


and discharge pressure acts on the front ends of the
control slide by means of which an adjustment
towards the suction side, i.e. towards full-load, takes
place. For small pressure differences, the resulting
adjustment force is not high enough. It is increased by
loading the back of the hydraulic piston with oil of the
oil pump. The cylinder space at the front of the piston
is thereby discharged to the suction side.
The control slide is shifted towards the pressure
casing, i.e. towards part-load, by loading the front side
of the hydraulic piston with oil of the oil pump and
discharging the back side to the suction space.
The Vi-slide is arranged across the entire length of the
working area and guided inside the control slide. The
radial outlet opening is located on the discharge side
of the working area.
A rod with piston is attached to the discharge side of
the face area of the Vi-slide in order to adjust the
position of the slide towards the discharge side (Vienlargement or outlet window reduction). The piston
slides inside a cylinder. By reducing the pressure in the
cylinder area to the same level as the suction pressure
of the compressor, a force develops on the piston
which adjusts the position of the Vi-slide towards the
discharge side.

AI_MC_03_gbr.DOC - 3/4

Grasso

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN

Refrigeration Division

Positioning of the Vi-slide towards the suction side (Vireduction or outlet window enlargement) takes places
by means of the prevailing pressure difference
between the discharge and suction pressure on the
front sides of the slide. Here oil under discharge
pressure enters the cylinder area thus balancing the
forces acting on the piston.
The cylinder area is filled and drained via internal
drainage holes and solenoid valves which are attached
to the closure flange of the compressor.
Compressors of the standard design which have a
fixed volume ratio Vi are not fitted with a Vi-slide. The
control slides are provided with an outlet opening
corresponding to a Vi of 2.6, 3.6, 4.8 or 5.5.
The Vi level must be determined before the
compressor is manufactured. This value depends on
the subsequent operating conditions (suction pressure,
discharge pressure).
SOLENOID VALVE BLOCKS
The hydraulic spaces of capacity control and Viadjusting device are connected to the oil system of
the oil pump or to the compressor suction space
alternately via the solenoid valve blocks.

DISPLAY SYSTEM OF SLIDE POSITION


The positions of control slide and Vi-slide are recorded
by separate position sensor-display systems
(Hermetical Differential-Transformer HDT) arranged
on the respective covers.
By means of 2 series connected tension springs of
different lengths the large length of adjustment of the
slide/piston rod/hydraulic piston complex can be
reduced to a small length which corresponds to the
measuring range of the position sensor. A long pin is
attached to the junction of both springs where a small
length of adjustment appears. The end of the pin
slides into a coil of the position sensor thus
generating a test signal by altering the inductivity.
Depending on the position of the control slide, i.e.
depth of pin immersion, the position sensor supplies
an output signal of between 4 and 20 mA.
The position of the Vi-slide is recorded in the same
manner. The compressor control device computes the
optimum Vi-values. Based on these values, the Vi-slide
is set to the preset position recorded by the sensor.

The valve blocks are screwed to a flat surface of the


casing fitted with boreholes which serve as a
connection to the compressor suction side and to the
hydraulic spaces. The solenoid valve block is connected
to the oil pump via a separate connection.
In addition to the solenoid valves, control valves are
attached to the blocks. The adjusting speed of control
slide and Vi-slide can be influenced by means of these
valves by controlling the flow rate.

P Oil pump
Po

Figure 3 Functional diagram of the position sensor


system of control slide and Vi-slide

MIN
MAX

Figure 2 Functional diagram of the solenoid valve


block of the capacity control

AI_MC_03_gbr.DOC - 4/4

01.2003/2

Grasso

CONNECTIONS, OIL PASSAGE

Refrigeration Division

CONNECTIONS, OIL PASSAGE


SCREW COMPRESSORS
MC SERIES, TYPES H, L, M, N

01.2003/2

P + I Diagrams

Connections, Threads

Input Voltage

External Connections

Internal Oil Passage

AI_MC_04_gbr.DOC - 1/5

CONNECTIONS, OIL PASSAGE

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

P+I DIAGRAMS
The hints given in the following concerning the internal oil circuit solely apply to the standard application of the
compressor in single-stage high-pressure operation. For the most different other cases of application of the
compressors (e. g. high-pressure operation, booster application, parallel- or tandem operation, flanged or
external oil pump), various versions and connection possibilities will be used. For a better understanding of this
great variety, there exist simplified P+I diagrams given on special data sheets in the Product Information on
Screw Compressors. The numbers of these
P+I diagrams are indicated on the type plate of the corresponding compressor.
CONNECTIONS / THREADS
Item

Purpose

Suction nozzle

Discharge nozzle

Nominal width/ threads


H/L

M/N

DN 125

DN 150

DN 80

DN 100

C1

Functional oil

M 22 x 1,5

M 22 x 1,5

C2

Functional oil

M 22 x 1,5

Oil injection compression chamber

M 22 x 1,5

M 26x1,5

Oil supply capacity control from oil pump

Economizer

M 42 x 2

M 48x2

G1

Refrigerant liquid injection (LP)

M 16 x 1,5

M 22 x 1,5

G2

Refrigerant liquid injection (HP)

M 16 x 1,5

M 22 x 1,5

Gas pulsation protection

M 16 x 1,5

M 22 x 1,5

Additional oil injection

M 12 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Measure suction pressure

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Oil return oil separator

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Measure discharge pressure

Measure suction temperature

M 12 x 1,5

M 12 x 1,5

Measure discharge temperature

M 12 x 1,5

M 12 x 1,5

Connection overflow valve

DN 80

DN 80

Measure pressure oil pumpe

Ventilation compressor (valve 105)

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

W1

Oil drain plug

M 16 x 1,5

M 22 x 1,5

W2

Oil drain plug

M 12 x 1,5

M 12 x 1,5

W3

Oil drain plug

M 12 x 1,5

M 22 x 1,5

--

--

Vibration damper

Z1

Additional connection

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

Z2

Additional connection

M 16 x 1,5

M 16 x 1,5

AI_MC_04_gbr.DOC - 2/5

01.2003/2

CONNECTIONS, OIL PASSAGE

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

INPUT VOLTAGE
Item

Purpose

Input

Output

U1

Position sensor (452) for position display control slide

24 V (DC)

4 - 20 mA

U2

Position sensor (452) for position display Vi-slide

24 V (DC)

4 - 20 mA

Y1/Y4

Solenoid valves capacity control , direction full load

240 V AC
220 V AC

Y2/Y3

Solenoid valves capacity control , direction part load

110 V AC
48 V AC

Y5

Solenoid valve Vi-enlargement

42 V AC
24 V DC

Y6

Solenoid valve Vi-reduction

01.2003/2

220 V AC,
expl.-proof

AI_MC_04_gbr.DOC - 3/5

Grasso

CONNECTIONS, OIL PASSAGE

Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS

AI_MC_04_gbr.DOC - 4/5

01.2003/2

CONNECTIONS, OIL PASSAGE

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

INTERNAL OIL PASSAGE

C2

C1

Female rotor

Oil pump

Suction side bearing

Male rotor

Discharge
side bearing

C2
Function oil
Balance piston
Injection oil
(cooling oil)

C1

Shaft seal
Function oil

D
Check valve ( external)

Connections
pressure transducer
Pressure control
valve - oil pump
Solenoid valve block
for capacity control
to capacity control

01.2003/2

AI_MC_04_gbr.DOC - 5/5

OVERALL CONCEPT

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OVERALL CONCEPT
SCREW COMPRESSORS
LT SERIES,
TYPES P, R, S, T, V, W, Y, Z, XA, XB, XC, XD, XE, XF
Introduction
Compression
Oil system
Capacity control
Vi-Adjustment

07/2003

AI_LT_02_gbr.doc - 1/5

OVERALL CONCEPT
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

INTRODUCTION
The screw compressors herein described are twin-shaft
rotary piston machines operating on the positive
displacement principle with oil injection operating
with different refrigerants.
Both rotors are machined to a helical lobe asymmetric
profile intermeshing with minimal clearance and
enclosed in a housing.
The male rotor having 5 or 4 lobes and driven by the
motor drives in its turn the female rotor having 6
lobes.
Journal bearings support radial loads, and angular ball
bearings axial loads. A compensating (balance)
unloading piston fittet to the male rotor shaft reduces
axial-loading on the ball bearings. The drive shaft is
fitted with an oil-retaining, unloaded shaft seal.
The compressor's capacity and internal volume ratio Vi
can be set by two adjustable slides, i.e. the primary

Inlet

and secondary slides (tandem slides, system TS).


Adjustment and setting are by means of pressurised
oil which is supplied to the compressor. An hermetic
machanical-electrical display system indicates the
position of the primary slide (Position sensor).
The compressor has one or two additional suction
openings for feeding in a further volume flow (e.g. for
economizer coupling). Connections to the
compression chamber are provided for injecting liquid
refrigerant to provide additional cooling of the
compression process.
A connection from the oil-separator to the pressurecasing supplies oil for eliminating gas pulsations in the
lower part load range at high working pressure
conditions. Simplified construction of these
compressors features a fixed internal volume ratio Vi
of 2.6, 3.6, 4.8 or 5.5. In addition, a special model for
operation at low pressure differences (booster) is also
available.

Radial bearing

Male rotor

Axial bearing

Shaft seal

Outlet

Position
sensor

Hydraulically
system

Secondary
slide

Primary
slide

Balance
piston

Figure 1 Schematic Representation of the Compressor

AI_LT_02_gbr.doc - 2/5

07/2003

OVERALL CONCEPT
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

COMPRESSION

Suction side

Discharge side

While the rotors are turning, the meshing shifts from


the suction side to the discharge side. A V-shaped
space is formed between 2 male and female teeth in
each case which increases to a maximum size (Suction
process: Figure 2; 1-3, View of the upper side of the
rotors).
As the rotor continues to turn, the V-shaped space is
closed by the new meshing on the suction side. This
space gradually becomes smaller as the meshing
continues (Compression process: Figure 2; 4-5, View of
the lower side of the rotors).
The compression process ends when the tooth space
reaches the control edges which are incorporated in
the casing and control slide or Vi-slide (Figure 2; 6).
The control edges are part of the outlet opening
which has an axial and a radial part.
The position of the conrol edges determines the size
of the compressed volume and thus the level of
compression. As the rotors continue to turn, the
compressed volume is pushed out of the tooth space
which diminishes to zero into the discharge area of
the compressor. The process described above is
repeated for every subsequent tooth space, thus
achieving an almost continuous delivery.

Figure 2 Compression process

07/2003

AI_LT_02_gbr.doc - 3/5

OVERALL CONCEPT
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

OIL SYSTEM

CAPACITY CONTROL

The oil supplied to the compressor serves the


following purposes:

Capacity control is by means of regulating the suction


volume. This is achieved by shortening the effective
compression stroke. A proportion of the gaseous
refrigerant is fed back to suction through an internal
bypass connection by displacement of primary and
secondary slides (see Figure 3).

1. Injection of oil into the compression chamber.


2. Sealing and cooling of the oil seals.
3. Lubrication of journal and thrust bearings.
4. Loading of the balance-piston.
5. Actuation of the capacity control and Viadjustment
Oil injected into the compression chamber (item 1
above) serves the following purposes:
Absorbtion and dissipation of the heat of
compression.
Lubrication of meshing surfaces between male and
female rotors.
Sealing of clearances at meshing position between
the rotors and of radial and axial clearances
between rotors and housing.
Abatement of noise.
All oil supplied to the compressor is conveyed together
with the compressed refrigerant from the compressor
discharge into an oil separator where the oil is
separated from the refrigerant.

AI_LT_02_gbr.doc - 4/5

The capacity control permits the compressor discharge


rate to be continuously varied from 100 % down to
about 10 %.
In the upper part-load range, capacity control of
compressors with variable Vi is obtained by moving
the secondary slide with the primary slide in fixed
position. In medium and lower part load range the
primary slide realizes the capacity control.
In its minimum setting the primary slide provides
unloaded compressor start-up due to the minimal
absorbed power required (see Figure 3).
The slides are activated hydraulically and by means of
the compressor differential pressure applied to the
primary-slide. The primary slide position is indicated by
an electronic sensor.
Screw compressors with fixed Vi realize the capacity
control with only one control slide. This control slide
has the function as primary slide.

07/2003

OVERALL CONCEPT
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

Vi-ADJUSTMENT
The internal volume ratio Vi is an intrinsic characteristic of the screw compressor and is defined as the
ratio of the volume of interlobe space at the start to
that at the end of the compression process. Termination of compression and internal volume ratio Vi are
determined by the position of the radial discharge
port formed by the notches machined into the
primary-slide. Various Vi settings are obtained by
adjusting the primary slide in its full load position to
various axial displacements thus altering the size of
the radial discharge port. The internal volume ratio Vi
is adjusted to actual external operating conditions
(suction pressure, delivery pressure) so that the
pressure in the interlobe space at the discharge port
equals the required delivery pressure thus reducing
compression losses and power input to a minimum.
The full load setting of the primary-slide at its
optimum compression ratio is by means of the
compressor's memory programmed control device
operating according to an empirically derived
algorithm. The setting of the primary slide is
determined by an electronic position transmitter. Once
the primary slide is positioned the secondary slide is
brought up behind to butt against it. Both slides are
actuated hydraulically.

Full load operation


Inlet

Optimum Vi

Rotor
Outlet
optimum
Vi position

Full load
position
Secondary slide control

Primary slide control

Upper part load operation


Inlet

Secondary slide control


Optimum Vi

Rotor
Outlet
Part load
position

optimum
Vi position
Internal By-pass

Lower part load operation


Inlet

Primary slide control

Rotor
Outlet
Part load
position

Part load
position
Internal By-pass

Figure 3 System of combined Vi part load control

07/2003

AI_LT_02_gbr.doc - 5/5

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
SCREW COMPRESSORS
LT SERIES,
TYPES P, R, S, T, V, W, Y, Z, XA, XB, XC, XD, XE, XF

03/2004 /Rev.1

Casing
Rotors
Bearings
Shaft Seal
Capacity control
Vi-adjustment
Display of slide position

AI_LT_03_gbr.doc - 1/4

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

BEARINGS
Reference should be made to the lists of
parts and drawing index for a better
understanding of the following
descriptions.
CASING
The grey cast iron housing consists of three vertically
split sections namely the suction, rotor and discharge
casings. Suction intake is horizontal and discharge
outlet vertical. O-ring seals are fitted between the
individual casing-sections and are also fitted to the
housing cover and flanges.

Bearings absorb the radial and axial loads resulting


from the compression process.
Journal bearings of steel-sleeve and white-metal liner
construction absorb radial loads.
Inclined ball bearings, arranged in pairs, absorb axial
loads and ensure precise axial mounting of the rotors.
Taking into consideration the space conditions
available, several compressor sizes are fitted with
differing angular contact ball bearings on both the
male and female rotor sides.

The rotors are of material C 45 with tempered


bearing-surfaces. The speed ratio of male to female
rotor is
5:6 or 4:6.

To accommodate the particular requirements of screw


compressors, the inclined ball bearings are fitted with
heavy duty cages and have radial clearance between
outer-race and housing so as to minimise
radial loads and thus extend service life. To eliminate
rotation the outer-races are axially clamped in tension.
Due to the high axial loading on the male rotor, a
balance piston is fitted on the discharge shaft end of
the male rotor thus unloading the bearings and
extending service life. Lube oil at discharge pressure is
applied to one side of the balance piston thus
producing an axial counter-force. For booster
application (small pressure differences), the
compressor need not be fitted with a balancing
piston. The heat pump compressor-models are
equipped with double thrust bearings on both rotors
in a special arrangement.

The profile diameters of the male and female rotors


are identical or different.

SHAFT SEAL

To achieve optimum performance parameters, the


rotor profiles are finished with maximum accuracy by
hobbing. All rotors are dynamically balanced.

The driven male rotor shaft is sealed on its suction side


by an oil flooded, unloaded slide-ring seal thus
ensuring longest possible service life.

Oil drain screw plugs are provided. The suction-side


front wall of the working space features covering
flanges or casing edges with guide surfaces for the
movable secondary slide.
The delivery-opening and guide surfaces for the axially
adjustable primary-slide are located in flanges which
comprise the compression chamber discharge side
end-plate.
ROTORS

The counter ring arranged in the cover and the sealing


ring with spring assembly rotating with the shaft are
used in different material combinations (special cast
iron, hard carbon, hard metal, SiC). An O-ring provides
additional sealing of the slide ring with the shaft.
Lube oil at slightly less than discharge pressure is
supplied to the seal and thereafter to the suction-side
journal bearings. The seal faces of slide and backing
rings are separated by a thin oil-film and free of
contact with one another thus ensuring minimal
leakage and long service life.

AI_LT_03_gbr.doc - 2/4

03/2004/ Rev.1

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CAPACITY CONTROL

Vi-DISPLACEMENT

The primary and secondary slides form part of the


lower compression chamber wall. Adjusting the slides
opens a bypass port connected though ducts in the
housing to the suction chamber of the compressor.

The Vi value is determined by position of the primary


slide. At the full load operation applying pressurised
oil to the hydraulic piston displaced the secondary
slide into the primary slide (secondary slide touch the
primary slide). With displacement of the primary slide
in direction discharge side (Vi-enlargement) or in
direction suction side (Vi-reduction) always the
secondary slide touch the primary slide.

The primary slide can be displaced axially from its full


load position towards the discharge casing and is
coupled on the suction side by a connecting rod to an
hydraulic piston which is reciprocally activated by
pressurised oil. The piston moves in a cylinder closed
at both ends. The cylinder spaces of the hydraulic
piston are filled and drained via solenoid valves either
directly flanged onto the compressor or still arranged
externally on several sizes.
At upper part load range capacity control is by
adjusting the secondary slide alone while the primary
slide remains stationary. Spring-loaded pins in the
secondary slide cause the bypass-port to open
whereas the hydraulic piston connected to the
secondary slide is used to reduce the bypass-port. Due
to filling and draining the hydraulic space via two
additional solenoid valves, the secondary slide can be
brought into any position.
Capacity control in the medium and lower part load
ranges is by displacing the primary slide which results
in shortening the effective rotor length and
consequently reducing the discharge flow-rate. The
minimum part load position is reached when the
suction side edge of the primary slide closes the
passing interlobe space just before the axial discharge
port is reached. The primary slide passes underneath
the discharge casing end-plate flanges whose contour
prevents rotary-tilting of the primary slide.
During compressor operation, the discharge/suction
differential pressure is applied to the primary-slide
end-faces. This results in the primary slide moving
towards the suction side, i.e. towards full load.
For lower operating pressure differences, the
differential pressure load across the primary slide is
insufficient to produce movement and must be
increased by means of pressured oil applied to the
rear face of the hydraulic piston. In this condition, the
cylinder chamber at the front face of the piston is
discharged to the suction side.
To displace the primary slide towards the discharge
casing, i.e. part load operation, the front face of the
hydraulic piston is loaded with pressurised oil and its
rear face is discharged to the suction side.

Alternatively the Vi value can be adjusted manually by


the compressor control device..
The simplified version of these compressors with fixed
built-in Vi has stationary secondary slide with the
discharge port of the primary slide corresponding to Vi
= 2.6, 3.6, 4.8, or 5.5. The Vi value must be selected
during construction of the compressor and depends
on the expected operating conditions (suction
pressure, condensing pressure).

Primary slide
Secondary slide
Figure 1 Capacity control / Vi-Adjusting Device

P0

P
MIN
MAX
P

P0

Primary slide
Secondary slide

Figure 2 Solenoid valve blocks for primary and secondary slides

03/2004 /Rev.1

AI_LT_03_gbr.doc - 3/4

DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

DISPLAY OF SLIDE POSITION

2. Secondary slide

1. Primary slide/ Control slide

As special design, the compressors can be fitted with


an indicator system for the secondary slide.

Types P, R, S, T, V, W, Y, Z, XA
The position of the primary slide (Vi variable) or
control slide (fixed Vi) is determined by the HDT
(Hermetic Differential Transformer) indicator-system
mounted on the cover plate of the capacity control
unit.
By means of 2 series connected tension springs of
different lengths the large length of adjustment of the
slide/piston rod/hydraulic piston complex can be
reduced to a small length which corresponds to the
measuring range of the position sensor.
A long pin is attached to the junction of both springs
where a small length of adjustment appears. The end
of the pin slides into a coil of the position sensor thus
generating a measuring signal by altering the
inductivity.

The position of the secondary slide is picked up by a


second position sensor on the basis of hermetic
differential transformer (HDT) arranged on the wall of
the rotor casing; for types P through XA on the
female rotor side, for types XB through XF on the
male rotor side. The measuring signal is generated in
the same manner as already described for the primary
slide of types XB through XF.
The position sensor supplies between both end
positions of the secondary slide, i.e. depending on the
depth of HDT pin penetration, a standardized output
signal of 4.0 mA to 8.4 mA.

Types XB, XC, XD, XE, XF


The position of the primary slide/ control slide is
detected by the position sensor indicator system (HDT)
(Hermetized Differential Transformer), which is
located at the wall at the side of the male rotor.
The push rod slides in a longitudinal notch located at
the primary slide with a slight slope, This reduces the
long readjustment path of the slide to a short path,
which is more appropriate to the measuring range of
the sensor. The push rod is connected to a pin, the
opposite end of which immerses into the coil of the
position sensor, generating a measuring signal.

Figure 3 Functional diagram of the position sensor system


for types P, R, S, T, V, W, Y, Z, XA

All types
Depending on the position of the slide, i.e. depth of
the pin immersion, the position sensor supplies an
output signal of between 4 and 20 mA (for screw
compressors with variable Vi).
Setting of the Vi value results in the compressorcontrol device simultaneously correcting the output
signal of the indicating system so that the primary
slide full load position is always registered at 100 % on
the indicating device.
The compressor control device computes the optimum
Vi value for setting the position of the primary slide.

Figure 4 Functional diagram of the position sensor system


for types XB, XC, XD, XE, XF

AI_LT_03_gbr.doc - 4/4

03/2004/ Rev.1

CONNECTIONS

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CONNECTIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
LT SERIES, TYPES P, R, S, T, V, W, Y
Connections, Threads
Input Voltage
External Connections Type P
External Connections Type R, S, T
External Connections Type V, Y
External Connections Type W

03.2004/4

AI_PY_04_gbr.doc - 1/7

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CONNECTIONS / THREADS
Item

Purpose
P

Nominal width/threads
R, S, T

V, W, Y

Suction nozzle

NB 150

NB 175

NB 250

Discharge nozzle

NB 100

NB 100

NB 150

shaft seal, suction side bearing

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

Oil injection
compression chamber

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

V: M22x1,5
W:M26x1,5
Y: M22x1,5

discharge side bearing, balance


piston

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

oil supply balance piston


heat pump

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

D1

Special port axial bearing male rotor


Booster applic.

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

External oil supply solenoid valve


block for capacity control

Additional oil injection

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

Oil return
capacity control

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

V: M22x1,5
W: Y: M22x1,5

H1

Refrigerant liquid injection (LP)

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

H2

Refrigerant liquid injection (HP)

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

Oil supply,
direction part load

V: M16x1,5
W: Y: M16x1,5

Oil supply,
direction full load

V: M22x1,5
W: Y: M22x1,5

Oil supply and return, variable Vi

V: M16x1,5
W: Y: M16x1,5

Oil return oil separator

M16x1,5

M16x1,5

M16x1,5

Gas pulsation protection

M26x1,5

M26x1,5

M33x2

Economizer port

NB 40/ M48x2

NB 40/ M48x2

NB 65

O1

Oil drain plug

M14x1,5

M22x1,5

V: M16x1,5
W:M12x1,5
Y: M16x1,5

O2

Oil drain plug

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

M22x1,5

O3

Oil drain plug

M16x1,5

M16x1,5

AI_PY_04_gbr.doc - 2/7

03.2004/4

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

INPUT VOLTAGE
Item
Y1/Y4
Y2/Y3

Purpose
Solenoid valves capacity control,
direction full load
Solenoid valves capacity control,
direction part load

Y5

Solenoid valve
variable Vi

Y6

Solenoid valve
variable Vi

Position sensor for position display


primary slide/ control slide

Z1

Position sensor for position display


secondary slide

03.2004/4

P, R, S, T, W
240 V AC
220 V AC
110 V AC
48 V AC
42 V AC
24 V DC
220 V AC
expl.-proof

Inlet: 24 V (DC)
Output: 4-20 mA

AI_PY_04_gbr.doc - 3/7

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TYPE P

AI_PY_04_gbr.doc - 4/7

03.2004/4

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TYPE R, S, T

03.2004/4

AI_PY_04_gbr.doc - 5/7

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TYPE V, Y

AI_PY_04_gbr.doc - 6/7

03.2004/4

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TYPE W

03.2004/4

AI_PY_04_gbr.doc - 7/7

CONNECTIONS

Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CONNECTIONS
SCREW COMPRESSORS
LT SERIES,
TYPES Z, XA, XB, XC, XD, XE, XF

03/2004 rev.1

Connections, Threads

Input Voltage

External Connections Type Z, XA

External Connections Type XB, XC, XD

External Connections Type XE, XF

AI_Z_XF_04_gbr.doc - 1/6

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

CONNECTIONS / THREADS
Item

Purpose
Z, XA

Nominal width/threads
XB, XC, XD

XE , XF

Suction nozzle

NB 250

NB 300

NB 400
Pipe O.D. 412 mm

Discharge nozzle

NB 150

NB 200

NB 250
Pipe O.D. 273 mm

Shaft seal, suction side bearing

M22x1,5

M22 x 1,5

M26 x 1,5

Oil injection
compression chamber

Z: M26x1,5
XA: M33x2

NB 50
Pipe O.D. 63

NB 80
Pipe O.D. 80 mm

B1

Additional oil injection compression


chamber male rotor side

NB 50
Pipe O.D. 63

NB 80
Pipe O.D. 80 mm

Discharge side bearing, balance piston

M22x1,5

M22 x 1,5

M26 x 1,5

Oil supply balance piston


heat pump

M22x1,5

M22 x 1,5

M26 x 1,5

D1

Special port axial bearing male rotor


Booster applic.

M22x1,5

M22 x 1,5

M26 x 1,5

G 1/4

G 1/4

G 1/4

M22x1,5

M22 x 1,5

M26 x 1,5

M33 x 2

M26 x 1,5

NB 25
Pipe O.D. 27 mm

M26 x 1,5

NB 25
Pipe O.D. 27 mm

External oil supply solenoid valve block


for capacity control

Additional oil injection

F1

Additional oil injection

H1

Refrigerant liquid injection (LP)

H2

Refrigerant liquid injection (HP)

M22x1,5

Oil return oil separator

M16x1,5

M22 x 1,5

M22 x 1,5

Gas pulsation protection

M33x2

M42 x 2

NB 80
Pipe O.D. 80 mm

Economizer port (female rotor)

NB 100

NB 125
Pipe 140 mm

NB 150
Pipe O.D. 168 mm

R1

Economizer port (male rotor)

NB 125
Pipe 140 mm

NB 150
Pipe O.D. 168 mm

O1

Oil drain plug

M12x1,5

M22 X 1,5

M22 x 1,5

O2

Oil drain plug

M22 X 1,5

M22 x 1,5

AI_Z_XF_04_gbr.doc - 2/6

M22x1,5

03/2004 rev.1

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

INPUT VOLTAGE
Item
Y1/Y4
Y2/Y3

Purpose
Solenoid valves capacity control,
direction full load
Solenoid valves capacity control,
direction part load

Y5

Solenoid valve
variable Vi

Y6

Solenoid valve
variable Vi

Position sensor for position display


control slide/ primary slide

Z1

Position sensor for position display


secondary slide

03/2004 rev.1

Z, XA, XB, XC, XD, XE, XF


240 V AC
220 V AC
110 V AC
48 V AC
42 V AC
24 V DC
220 V AC
expl.-proof

Inlet: 24 V (DC)
Output: 4-20 mA

AI_Z_XF_04_gbr.doc - 3/6

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TYPE Z, XA

AI_Z_XF_04_gbr.doc - 4/6

03/2004 rev.1

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TYPE XB, XC, XD

03/2004 rev.1

AI_Z_XF_04_gbr.doc - 5/6

CONNECTIONS
Grasso
Refrigeration Division

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TYPE XE, XF

AI_Z_XF_04_gbr.doc - 6/6

03/2004 rev.1

02/04

Master_Backpage.doc