Index

A
Abney, S., 56 fn16
Accomplishment, 209, 238
Accusative Case
as default, 141, 143, 187
assignment of, 141, 142, 184
overextension of, 183, 184
subjects in, 162, 163, 164, 165
Achievement, 209, 238
Acquisition of language
behaviourist approach to, 46–47
generative approach to, 47–48
Activity, 238
Agentivity, 181, 182, 183
Agreement, 109, 119, 129, 239, 147–148, 168
and the Unique Checking Constraint, 143
in non-null subject languages, 166
in null subject languages, 144, 166
in wh-questions, 147
optionality of, 141, 143, 144, 166, 187, 188, 189
Aitchison, J., 37
Aksu-Koç, A., 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240
Aldrige, M., 153 fn5
Alegre, M., 99, 100–101
Ambalu, D., 205
American Sign Language (ASL), 40, 41
Anderson, S.R., 83, 98, 238
Anaphora, 20–22, 146, 171
temporal, 146
Antinucci, F., 227, 235, 236, 237, 239
Aphasia, 35, 37
and age, 39
Broca’s , 36, 87, 120
Wernicke’s, 36,
Armon-Lotem, S., 236
Articles, 108
Aspect
and optional infinitive, 137, 152, 155
comprehension of, 233
emergence of, 226–227, 230, 232, 234, 243
markers of, 230, 231, 232, 233, 240, 243
situation-type, 228, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235,
239, 243
viewpoint, 228, 231, 234, 240
Aspect-before-Tense Hypothesis, 234–235, 236, 238
Associative memory, 33, 86, 102
Atkinson, M., 50, 52, 79, 124 fn15, 139 fn2, 169
fn9
Au, T.K., 201
Auxiliary verbs, 29, 41, 114–115,126, 152, 163,
171, 174, 243
and lexical learning, 115
and optional infinitive, 135, 152, 154

and tense inflection, 169
and the null auxiliary hypothesis, 112–115, 155
and the truncation theory, 128
and wrongly cased subjects, 163
in null subject languages, 144
omission of, 41, 108, 115, 126, 128, 135, 144,
146,154, 171, 239, 243
Avram, L., 56 fn16, 108, 120, 172, 227, 229
Avrutin, S., 136, 150–152, 155
B
Baker, C. L. 14, 22 fn4, 52, 54 fn11, 60
Baldwin, D. A., 204
Bates, E. 24 fn6
Bauer, P. J., 243
Behaviourism, 15, 45–47
Behrens, H., 137, 149, 230, 241–242
Belletti, A., 144, 145, 172
Bellugi, U., 33, 186
Benedict, H. 205
Bennett, M., 229
Berko, J., 84–85
Berman, R., 124
Berwick, R., 50, 60, 70 fn36, 169
Bickerton, D., 90, 232
Binding, 21, 59, 60, 64
Bioprogram hypothesis, 90
Blocking Principle, 88
Bloom, L., 170 fn10, 177, 22, 235, 236
Bloom, P., 37, 161, 170, 176, 177–178 , 195, 196–
197, 200, 203–204, 212, 213, 218
Bloomfield, L., 15
Bobaljik, J. D., 147
Bonet, E., 120
Borer, H., 110, 118–120, 122
Boser, K., 110, 113–115, 134, 138, 154, 226
Bounding, 59, 65
Boysson-Bardies, B. de, 29, 39, 222
Bowerman, M., 87, 96, 210
Braine, M. D. S., 26, 54 fn11
Brazilian-Portuguese, 133, 234
Bromberg, H. S., 128, 135, 161, 162, 164
Bronckard, J. P., 234, 236, 237
Brown, R., 111, 133, 135, 146, 163, 177, 208, 233,
235fn6, 238, 242
Brun, D., 133, 137, 230, 231–232
Budwig, N., 181–183
Burns, T., 216
Bybee, J., 86, 89fn5
C

Carey, S. , 203
Carlson, G., 200, 218
Carroll, S., 28
Case, 57, 136, 161, 181
and optional infinitive, 135, 141–142
and Tense, 143, 146, 184, 187
and agreement, 146, 148, 184, 187
extension of, 183–184
null, 170, 171
Case errors, 162–165, 174, 181–188
and contrastive focus, 164
and phonological misanalysis, 163
and grammatical deficit, 164
Case Filter
in early child English, 127
Catalan, 107, 119, 133
c-command, 21–22
Chien,Y.-C., 146
Child Grammar Hypothesis, 232, 233
Chinese, 27, 161, 166, 168, 169, 206, 207, 233
and optional infinitive, 232, 233
Choi, S., 206
Chomsky, N., 13, 14, 15, 16, 24, 25, 27, 34, 36, 37,
42, 45, 46, 47, 48–51, 54fn12, 55, 57, 58, 59,
62, 63 fn24, fn26, 68, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79,
83, 120, 122, 148, 170
Christopher, 32
Clahsen, H. , 33, 87, 101–102, 112, 113, 114 fn5,
119, 122, 129, 174
Clark, E. V., 37 fn18, 87, 96–98, 102, 153, 200,
201, 205, 206, 220, 222
Clitic omission, 108, 135, 140, 239
Clifton, P., 216
Collective nouns, 212–213
Collins, C., 73 fn40
Complementizers, 108, 111, 112, 117, 127, 128
Componential analysis, 220
Compounds, 98–102
Continuity Hypothesis
and functional categories, 122, 160, 174
and subject drop, 160, 174
and The Minimalist Program, 118–120
Strong, 110–120, 129, 130, 138, 148, 160, 226, 239
Weak, 110, 122, 129,130, 160, 174
Contrast Theory of Negative Input, 26–27
Control, 181, 182, 183
Cook, V., 21 fn2, 42, 79
Cornilescu, A., 21 fn2, 48 fn5, 55 fn13, 56 fn16,
159 fn1
Countable nouns, 202, 203, 209, 213, 218, 228
Crain, S., 13, 16, 20–21, 42, 107, 109, 110
Crayon 1991
Crisma, P., 115, 128, 135
Critical Period Hypothesis, 38–40
Cromer, R., 237
Crystal, D., 49 fn7, fn8
Curtiss, S., 38
Czech, 133

Cziko, G. A., 233, 236
D
Danish, 65
and optional infinitive, 133, 138, 139
and subject drop, 159, 189
Dative Alternation, 22–23
Darwin, C., 24 fn7
Deficient Tense Hypothesis, 240–241, 242, 243
Degree-1 Learnability, 53–54, 78
Degree-2 Learnability, 51–52, 78
Degree-0 Learnability, 54, 64–67, 78
Deprez,V., 111, 164
Determiners
absence of, 126, 175
DeWitt, J. E. , 201
Diary drop, 175
Discontinuity Hypothesis, 110, 120–122, 129
and maturation, 120
Distributed Morphology, 150
Distributional Bias Hypothesis, 237
Drescher, E., 68 fn33, 70 fn36
Dromi, E., 196, 202
D-Structure, 55, 57, 58, 72
Dual-mechanism model, 86–87, 88, 93
Dutch, 67, 70, 97, 107, 115, 128, 152
and optional infinitive, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137,
138, 139, 140, 144, 150, 225, 230 fn3, 232–233
E
Ego-anchored children, 181–183
Emonds, J., 64
Empty Category Principle, 176
English, 16, 22–23, 27, 33, 57, 60, 69, 96,107, 108,
109, 119, 121, 126, 127, 128, 134, 135, 147,
148, 150, 152, 159, 162, 163, 165, 167, 168,
171, 175, 176, 178–179, 180, 181, 184, 225,
235, 242 – 243
agreement in early, 126, 140, 169
and optional infinitive, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138,
140, 142, 146–147, 232
aspect in early, 119, 233
Endocentricity, 94, 95
Equal-detail assumption, 206
Evaluation measure, 50, 60
Event Category Labelling, 215
Existential status, 229, 230
Exocentricity, 94, 95
F
Fantuzzi, C., 233, 240, 242–243
Faroese, 133

Felix, S., 14, 110, 120–121
Fenson , L., 195
Ferdinand, A., 137
File cards, 151
Fisher, C. L., 211, 216, 218
Fletcher, P., 163, 196
Focus, 164, 189
Fodor, J. A., 34–35
Fodor, J. D., 59 fn20, 63, 64, 67–69,
Fremgen, A., 221
French, 27, 115, 119, 128, 159, 160, 162, 172, 173,
175, 225
and optional infinitive, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138,
139, 144
Friedemann, M.A., 135, 160, 177
Fromkin, V., 35 fn15, 42
Functional categories, 56, 57, 59, 72, 108, 112,
absence of, 108, 118, 119, 124–126
and aphasia, 119–120
and Case, 184
and maturation, 120
and optional infinitive, 138, 139, 155
and the Strong Continuity
Hypothesis, 110,
113, 117, 118, 130
and the Weak Continuity Hypothesis, 110, 122–
125, 129, 130, 174, 175
and truncation theory, 127–128
emergence of, 124
underspecification of, 112, 145, 170–172
G
Ganger, J., 196
Gelderen, Van, E., 137
General Congruence Principle, 124
Generic level assumption, 206
Genie, 40
Genitive Case
as default, 185, 186
assignment of, 141, 185, 188
overextension of, 183, 184
subjects in, 162–163, 164–165, 185
Gentner, D. , 205
Gerken, L.A., 108, 161, 178 fn16, 180–181
German, 27, 41, 65, 70, 97, 112–113, 114, 115–
118, 119, 122, 128, 129, 134, 135, 138, 139,
149, 150, 152–154, 159, 168, 172, 173, 176,
225, 230 fn3, 241–242
and optional infinitive, 133, 134, 135, 137, 152–
153, 230
Gibson, E., 63 fn28, 64, 69
Gillette, J., 205
Gleitman, L., 24, 28, 38, 197, 205, 208, 211, 216
Goldfield, B. A., 204, 205
Goodluck, H., 42, 63 fn25, 96, 102, 108, 109, 189,
222, 244

Grimshaw, J., 112, 122, 123, 218
Gopnik, M., 33, 34
Gordon, P., 99, 100, 101
Gottfried, G. M., 96
Government and Binding, 47, 55
Grammar
wild, 120, 122
Greek, 119, 133, 134, 150, 159, 225, 232
Greenfield, P., 161, 178
Grimshaw, J., 22, 56 fn16, 214
Grodzinsky, Y., 146
Gruber, J. S., 162, 164
Guasti, M.T., 119, 133
Guéron, J., 145, 15, 152
Guilfoyle, E., 122, 167, 169, 174
H
Haan, G. de, 134
Haegeman, L., 21 fn2, 55 fn13, 79, 115, 128,
134, 135, 136, 152, 159 fn1, 162
Halle, M., 84
Hamburger, H., 164
Hamann, C., 135, 159, 160, 161, 189
Harner, L., 237
Harris, T., 119, 140
Head movement, 113–114
Hebrew, 119, 134
Heim, I., 151
Hirsh-Pasek, K., 26 fn8, 38, 107, 219
Hoekstra, T., 122, 133, 136–137, 144, 155,
230 fn3
Hollebrandse, B., 241, 244
Hornstein, N., 14, 23,
Huang, J. 169, 170
Hubel, D.H., 40
Hurford, J.R., 40
Huxley, R. , 162, 163
Hyams, N., 59 fn20, 61, 62,112, 135, 137,
145–147, 15, 160, 161, 165–172, 175,
179, 180 fn20, 189
Hypothesis testing, 59, 215, 216
I
Iambic, 180
Icelandic, 97, 133, 168
Imai, M., 202, 216
Induction, 197, 216
Ingham, R., 122, 126, 129, 147–148, 155
Ingram, D, 136, 137, 152–154, 155, 230
Innateness, 23–24
and maturation, 121
Input
and changes in child grammar, 111
and subject omission, 174, 179
and the Subset Principle, 239

133,

226,

138,
178,

and the acquisition of aspect, 233
and the acquisition of tense, 237–238, 240
and vocabulary learning, 37, 196, 197, 205, 206,
208, 211, 212, 217, 218, 221
comprehensible, 30
poverty of, 14, 23, 28, 37, 41
Irish, 133
Irregular inflection, 33, 89, 91, 93, 94, 95, 98, 101
Irregularisation, 91–93
vs. overregularisation, 92–93
Isabelle, 40
Italian, 27, 34, 61, 119, 133, 134, 136, 145, 149,
159, 160, 166, 168, 178–179
J
Jackendoff, R. S., 26, 34, 36, 42, 215
Jaeggli, O., 159 fn1, 167–168, 173
Jakobson, R. , 36
Japanese, 60, 233–234
Johnson J., 38
Johnson, K., 73 fn40
Johnson , M.R., 229
Jordens, P., 134, 232
Jusczyk, P.W., 107
Juffs, A., 222
K
Karmiloff-Smith, A., 35 fn14
Kaspar Hauser, 40
Kayne, R., 147, 172
Kern, S. 196
Kim, J., 93–95
Kiparsky, P., 92, 98, 99, 102
Klima, E., 140
Korean, 60
Krashen, S., 30
Kuczai, S., 90
Kwa, 67
L
Lakoff, G., 95
Landau, B., 198, 202, 208, 212
Language Acquisition Device (LAD), 24, 30, 41,
47, 59, 61, 64, 78, 183
Language Bioprogram Hypothesis, 232, 233
Lasnik, H., 55 fn13, 57 fn17, 79, 176
Last Resort, 77
Laura, 31–32, 38
Lebeaux, D., 59, 75, 110, 122, 123–124, 174
De Lemos , C., 234, 235
Van der Lely, H. 1997.
Lenneberg, E. H. , 39–40
Leonard, L.B., 33, 34, 42

Leopold, 163, 164
Level-ordering, 98–102
Levin, B., 210
Lexical Hypothesis, 152
Lexicon, 48, 55, 56, 57, 71, 72–73, 198
Li, P. , 232, 233
Lightfoot, D., 54, 64–67, 79
Lillo-Martin, D.169 fn9
Linking rules, 215, 216
Local Well-Formedness Constraint, 111
Locke, J., 197
Logical Form Level (LF), 55, 57, 58, 71, 151
Londen, M.L., 40
Long, M.H., 39
Longobardi, G., 186
Lust, B., 110, 124 fn14
M
MacWhinney,B. J., 2, 24 fn6, 101, 116, 135, 146,
171, 177, 187
Mad magazine sentences, 136, 151, 188
Manzini, R., 60
Maratsos, M. 87
Marchman, V., 89 fn6, 91
Marcus, G. F., 87, 88–89
Markman, E., 14, 37 fn18, 198–199, 200, 203
Mass nouns, 202, 209, 213, 228
Matsuo, A., 241
Maturation, 59, 140
and continuity, 120
and the Discontinuity Hypothesis, 110, 120–
122, 130
and the Weak Continuity Hypothesis, 123, 127,
128, 130
McKee, C., 239
Mehler, J., 24
Mentalism, 45
Merge, 72
definition of, 73, 75
in early child syntax, 74–75
Metathesis, 164
Metaphoric compounds, 96
Mimimalist Program, 47, 70–78, 84
and optional infinitives, 142–144
and the Continuity Hypothesis, 118–119
Modal Hypothesis, 153
Modal verbs, 113, 114, 126, 129, 148, 152–154,
167, 230 fn3
and optional infinitive, 135, 152–153, 155, 230 fn3
and null subjects, 169, 171, 172, 179
and oblique subjects, 185
and overt subjects, 146, 171
status of, 210
Modularity Hypothesis, 34–35
Morgan, J., 26, 27, 53, 54
Moro, A., 171

Morphological knowledge, 150
Morphological uniformity
definition of, 168
and acquisition, 168–169
and null subjects, 168
Motherese, 28–29
Mourelatos , A., 209
Movement, 58, 76–77, 142, 186
in early child language, 116–117, 139, 149, 150,
164
N
Naigles, L.R., 208, 209, 210, 212
Negation
and optional infinitive, 135, 140, 141, 144, 145
Negative evidence, 25–27, 47
and morphological development, 88
Nelson, K., 108, 196, 199, 202, 205
Newport, E., 29, 41
Nishigauchi, T., 112
No-Functional Projection Hypothesis, 226
Nominative Case
assignment, 141, 160, 184, 185, 187, 188
overextension of, 183, 184
Norwegian, 65, 139
Nouns
in early vocabularies, 205, 206, 207
Null subject parameter, 173
Number, 226
and root infinitives, 155
and agreement, 172 fn13
Nunez del Prado, Z., 178 fn16
O
Observation, 197–198
and meaning of nouns, 205
and meaning of verbs, 205
O’Grady, W., 26 fn8, 28, 30, 50, 61, 62 fn22,
111, 130, 167, 179 fn18, 189
Olsen, M.B., 227, 232, 233, 236, 239–240
Optional infinitive, 128, 136, 171, 225, 151
and finiteness, 134
and clitics, 135, 144
and wh-questions, 135, 150
frequency of, 134
future tense interpretation of, 137, 230,
232, 233, 240
modal interpretation of, 137, 153, 230 fn3
past tense interpretation of, 137, 140, 145,
231, 232, 240
present tense interpretation of, 137, 140,
230, 231, 232, 233, 240
Overextension of word meaning, 219–221
and comprehension, 221
and production , 221

108,

231,
230,
145,

Overgeneralization, 16
Overregularisation, 83, 87–89, 99
and lexical development, 90–91
and semantic extendedness, 95
P
Parameter(s)
and functional categories, 59
Parameter Mis-setting Hypothesis, 166
Parameter resetting, 59, 62, 63
Parameter setting, 59– 64, 78 167
and subject drop, 166, 173, 178–180
Park , T. Z., 84 fn1
Partee, B. 170 fn10
Passive, 54
Partonomic assumption, 199
Pensalfini, R., 163
Phillips, C., 148–150, 155, 226
Phonological Form Level (PF), 55, 58, 71
Phrase structure rules, 48, 56, 57
Piaget, J., 35, 36, 227, 237
Pierce, A., 119, 133, 134, 135, 160
Pine, J., 29
Pinker, S. , 22, 23, 24, 24 fn7, 29, 30, 34, 42, 83,
86–87, 88, 93, 110, 111, 112, 123, 195, 200,
201 fn2, 213, 214, 215,221
Platzack, C. , 62 fn23, 122, 134
Plunkett, K., 92, 137
Poeppel, D., 110, 114 fn6, 115–118, 138
Pollock, J.Y. , 56 fn15, 126 fn17, 139
Pluralia tantum, 98, 99
Portuguese, 187 fn25
Positive evidence, 26, 61
Poulin-Dubois, D., 199
Powers, S. M., 74, 110, 122, 123, 124 fn15, 186–187
Prasada, S., 86
Preferential-looking paradigm, 210
Principles and Parameters (P&P), 54, 55–59, 63,
70, 71, 72, 78
Principle of Contrast, 153, 200
Principle of Minimal Structure, 238 fn8
Principle of productivity, 96, 98
Pro
and early null subjects, 161, 166, 170, 174
identification of, 166, 168, 174
licensing of, 168
PRO, 161, 166, 189, 174
and underspecification, 170
Processing, 161, 177
processing bottleneck, 111
processing limitations, 111, 148, 150, 152, 153
Projection Principle, 57, 72
and early grammar, 123
Pronouns, 20–21, 33, 128, 171
Prototype theory, 220, 238

Q
Question formation, 15–20, 108
Quine, W.V., 197, 203
R
Radford, A., 21 fn2, 59, 79, 108, 109, 110, 122,
123, 124 –127, 134, 138, 155, 162, 163, 164,
167, 169, 170 fn10, 172, 174, 175, 176, 184,
185, 188, 225, 226
Rasetti, L., 135, 161
Recursion, 99–100
Reichenbach, H., 229, 241
Reinhart, T., 146, 171
Restrictive Relative Clause
precursor of, 164
subject of, 189
Rhee, J., 134, 155
Rice, M., 33 fn12, 34
Rispoli, M., 163, 183–184, 233, 236
Rizzi, L., 65, 122, 127–129, 133, 136, 138, 144–
145, 152, 155, 161, 162, 165, 175, 189, 225
Roeper, T., 67 fn32, 74, 75, 135, 167 fn6, 172,
175–177
Romanian, 27, 61, 108, 133, 145, 150, 159 fn1,
160, 166, 168, 187 fn25
Root infinitive See optional infinitive
Rosch, E., 220, 238
Ross, J. R., 64, 176
Rumeelhart, D. E., 86, 92, 93
Russian, 133, 137, 149, 151, 181 fn22, 230, 231–
232
Ruwet, N., 48 fn5
S
Saleemi , A. P., 47, 61, 62 fn22
Sano, T., 161, 171, 172
Saxton, M. , 26–27
Scholten, C. G. M., 171
Schönenberger, M., 137, 155
Schütze, C. T., 136, 141, 155, 163, 165, 187–188
Second language learning, 30, 39–40
Seliger, H. W., 39
Selkirk, E., 99
Semantic bootstrapping, 123,
definition of, 207, 215
Semelfactive, 239
Şerban, D., 48 fn5
Shady, M., 29
Shape bias, 202
Shipley, E. F., 199
Shirai, Y., 95, 227, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240
Siegel, D. 98
Simplicity-bias, 96, 97, 201

Skinner, B. F., 46–47
Slobin, D.,112, 181 fn22, 200 fn1, 232, 233
Small clause, 175
Smith, C., 228, 231, 239, 240, 241
Smith, N., 32, 49 fn7,fn8
Snedeker, J., 206
Snow, C., 28, 29
Snyder, W., 22, 102
Soja, N. N., 202, 216
Sorrentino, C.M., 200
Spanish, 27, 61, 107, 119, 133, 135, 159 fn1, 160, 166
Speas, M., 112, 122
Specific Language Impairment (SLI), 33–34, 38
Specificity, 154
Spell-Out, 71, 77, 120, 149
Sproat, R., 92
Standard Theory (ST), 47, 48–49, 64, 78
State predicates, 152, 238, 239
Stevenson, R., 120
Stephany, U., 232, 235
Stoll, S., 234
Stowell, T., 127, 228 fn2, 229
Stromswold, K., 140, 167, 244
Strong Continuity Hypothesis, see Continuity
Hypothesis
Structural templates hypothesis, 67–68, 78
Structure dependence, 15–16
Subcategorization, 57
and lexical development, 58
Subject, 172, 173, 178–179
Accusative, 162, 164–165, 187, 189
expletive, 166
Genitive, 162–163, 164–165, 187, 188, 189
Nominative, 185, 186, 187
Subjectless sentences, 41, 115, 159–162, 165–181
and auxiliaries, 169, 174
and optional infinitive, 145, 146, 170
and tense, 169, 172, 179
in child vs. adult language, 173, 175
vs. object drop, 170, 176
Subrahmayam, K., 202
Subset Principle, 60–61, 169, 239, 240
and UG, 61
Suppes, P., 146
Swedish, 65, 97
and the optional infinitive, 133, 134, 137, 139
Syntactic bootstrapping, 213
definition of, 207, 208
T
Tallal, P., 33
Tamil, 133
Tardif, T., 206, 207
Taxonomic assumption, 200
Tense, 119, 126, 235, 242–243
and the Unique Checking Constraint, 143

and optional infinitive, 138,140, 141, 143, 147
and pronouns, 170–171
comprehension of, 234, 240, 243
emergence of, 227, 232, 234, 243
maturation of, 140, 141, 226
optionality of, 138, 141, 143, 144, 155, 179,
187, 188, 189
Tense-chain, 145, 146, 151, 152, 170, 226, 227,
229
Tense markers, 227, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236,
238, 240, 241, 242
Tense-operator, 145, 146, 171, 227, 228, 230
Tense projection (TP), 128, 138, 140, 142, 144,
145, 148, 227, 228, 230
absence of, 128, 144, 225, 226, 230, 232
Theory of mind, 203–204
Theta relations, 38, 57, 58
in early child grammar, 123, 124, 125
Theta-theory
and the No Functional Projection Model, 122
violation of, 121
Thornton, R., 110, 141, 152, 164
Time adverbial, 31, 241
Topic, 164, 169, 189
null, 162
Topicalization, 113
Torrens, V., 119, 135
Transparency of meaning, 96, 97, 201
Triggers, 59, 64, 67, 69
Triggering Learning Algorithm, 69–70, 78
Trochaic, 180
Tsimpli, I. M., 120, 123
Truncation hypothesis, 127–129, 130
and functional categories, 122, 225
and null subjects, 175–176
and postverbal subjects, 177
Turkish, 133, 232, 233
Type of substance bias, 202
U
Underspecification, 129, 145, 187
and subject drop, 170–172
of Tense, 141, 145, 222, 242
of Inflection, 146, 170–172, 189
of word meaning, 220, 221
Unique Checking Constraint, 144, 155
Universal Grammar (UG), 37, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59,
67, 109, 148, 160, 165, 198
definition of, 55
and the Strong Continuity Hypothesis, 110, 119,
130
and the Discontinuity Hypothesis, 110, 120–
122, 130
and the Weak Continuity Hypothesis, 110, 122,
128, 130
Universals

formal, 47, 49
substantive, 47, 49
Uriagereka, J., 72 fn38, 77, 79
V
Vainikka, A., 123, 138, 162, 163, 164, 184–186
Valian, V., 59 fn20, 161, 167 fn6, 171, 172, 178–
180, 189
Van der Lely, L., 34
Varlokosta, S., 134, 225
Verbs
classes of, 210
in early vocabularies, 205, 206, 207, 210
perspective-changing , 211
Verb second, 112, 117
Verrips, M., 134
Vocabulary size, 37, 90, 108, 195
Vocabulary spurt, 196, 202
Vygotsky, L., 38
W
Wanna, 16–20
Wagner, L. , 234, 237, 240, 241, 243
Weissenborn, J., 66 fn31, 110, 111, 115, 122, 128,
130, 134, 135, 160, 162, 167 fn6, 169 fn9, 172,
173–174, 175, 176, 238 fn8
Weist, R.M. , 237, 240, 241
Wexler, K. 29–30, 48 fn4, 51–52, 53, 54, 60, 61,
62, 108 fn1, 111, 120, 133, 137,138–141, 142–
144, 149, 170, 226
Wh-questions, 135, 150
and null subjects, 166, 174
and wanna contraction, 16–20
infinitival, 115, 128, 140
comprehension of, 127
long distance, 20–21
wh-parameter, 173
White, L., 198
Whitman, J., 110, 154
Whole-action assumption, 206
Whole-object assumption, 199
Wijnen, F., 136, 137, 152, 232, 233, 234
Williams, E., 198
Williams Syndrome, 32–33
and theory of mind, 204
X
X-bar theory, 56, 57, 73
and the No Functional Projection Model, 122
violation of, 121
Xu, F., 92, 93, 203

Y
Yamada, J., 31–32
Yamashita, Y. , 207
Z
Zanuttini, R, 144
Zoom lens hypothesis, 211

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful