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Index

A and tense inflection, 169


and the null auxiliary hypothesis, 112–115, 155
Abney, S., 56 fn16 and the truncation theory, 128
Accomplishment, 209, 238 and wrongly cased subjects, 163
Accusative Case in null subject languages, 144
as default, 141, 143, 187 omission of, 41, 108, 115, 126, 128, 135, 144,
assignment of, 141, 142, 184 146,154, 171, 239, 243
overextension of, 183, 184 Avram, L., 56 fn16, 108, 120, 172, 227, 229
subjects in, 162, 163, 164, 165 Avrutin, S., 136, 150–152, 155
Achievement, 209, 238
Acquisition of language
behaviourist approach to, 46–47 B
generative approach to, 47–48
Activity, 238 Baker, C. L. 14, 22 fn4, 52, 54 fn11, 60
Agentivity, 181, 182, 183 Baldwin, D. A., 204
Agreement, 109, 119, 129, 239, 147–148, 168 Bates, E. 24 fn6
and the Unique Checking Constraint, 143 Bauer, P. J., 243
in non-null subject languages, 166 Behaviourism, 15, 45–47
in null subject languages, 144, 166 Behrens, H., 137, 149, 230, 241–242
in wh-questions, 147 Belletti, A., 144, 145, 172
optionality of, 141, 143, 144, 166, 187, 188, 189 Bellugi, U., 33, 186
Aitchison, J., 37 Benedict, H. 205
Aksu-Koç, A., 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240 Bennett, M., 229
Aldrige, M., 153 fn5 Berko, J., 84–85
Alegre, M., 99, 100–101 Berman, R., 124
Ambalu, D., 205 Berwick, R., 50, 60, 70 fn36, 169
American Sign Language (ASL), 40, 41 Bickerton, D., 90, 232
Anderson, S.R., 83, 98, 238 Binding, 21, 59, 60, 64
Anaphora, 20–22, 146, 171 Bioprogram hypothesis, 90
temporal, 146 Blocking Principle, 88
Antinucci, F., 227, 235, 236, 237, 239 Bloom, L., 170 fn10, 177, 22, 235, 236
Aphasia, 35, 37 Bloom, P., 37, 161, 170, 176, 177–178 , 195, 196–
and age, 39 197, 200, 203–204, 212, 213, 218
Broca’s , 36, 87, 120 Bloomfield, L., 15
Wernicke’s, 36, Bobaljik, J. D., 147
Armon-Lotem, S., 236 Bonet, E., 120
Articles, 108 Borer, H., 110, 118–120, 122
Aspect Boser, K., 110, 113–115, 134, 138, 154, 226
and optional infinitive, 137, 152, 155 Bounding, 59, 65
comprehension of, 233 Boysson-Bardies, B. de, 29, 39, 222
emergence of, 226–227, 230, 232, 234, 243 Bowerman, M., 87, 96, 210
markers of, 230, 231, 232, 233, 240, 243 Braine, M. D. S., 26, 54 fn11
situation-type, 228, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, Brazilian-Portuguese, 133, 234
239, 243 Bromberg, H. S., 128, 135, 161, 162, 164
viewpoint, 228, 231, 234, 240 Bronckard, J. P., 234, 236, 237
Aspect-before-Tense Hypothesis, 234–235, 236, 238 Brown, R., 111, 133, 135, 146, 163, 177, 208, 233,
Associative memory, 33, 86, 102 235fn6, 238, 242
Atkinson, M., 50, 52, 79, 124 fn15, 139 fn2, 169 Brun, D., 133, 137, 230, 231–232
fn9 Budwig, N., 181–183
Au, T.K., 201 Burns, T., 216
Auxiliary verbs, 29, 41, 114–115,126, 152, 163, Bybee, J., 86, 89fn5
171, 174, 243
and lexical learning, 115
and optional infinitive, 135, 152, 154 C
Carey, S. , 203 Cziko, G. A., 233, 236
Carlson, G., 200, 218
Carroll, S., 28
Case, 57, 136, 161, 181 D
and optional infinitive, 135, 141–142
and Tense, 143, 146, 184, 187 Danish, 65
and agreement, 146, 148, 184, 187 and optional infinitive, 133, 138, 139
extension of, 183–184 and subject drop, 159, 189
null, 170, 171 Dative Alternation, 22–23
Case errors, 162–165, 174, 181–188 Darwin, C., 24 fn7
and contrastive focus, 164 Deficient Tense Hypothesis, 240–241, 242, 243
and phonological misanalysis, 163 Degree-1 Learnability, 53–54, 78
and grammatical deficit, 164 Degree-2 Learnability, 51–52, 78
Case Filter Degree-0 Learnability, 54, 64–67, 78
in early child English, 127 Deprez,V., 111, 164
Catalan, 107, 119, 133 Determiners
c-command, 21–22 absence of, 126, 175
Chien,Y.-C., 146 DeWitt, J. E. , 201
Child Grammar Hypothesis, 232, 233 Diary drop, 175
Chinese, 27, 161, 166, 168, 169, 206, 207, 233 Discontinuity Hypothesis, 110, 120–122, 129
and optional infinitive, 232, 233 and maturation, 120
Choi, S., 206 Distributed Morphology, 150
Chomsky, N., 13, 14, 15, 16, 24, 25, 27, 34, 36, 37, Distributional Bias Hypothesis, 237
42, 45, 46, 47, 48–51, 54fn12, 55, 57, 58, 59, Drescher, E., 68 fn33, 70 fn36
62, 63 fn24, fn26, 68, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79, Dromi, E., 196, 202
83, 120, 122, 148, 170 D-Structure, 55, 57, 58, 72
Christopher, 32 Dual-mechanism model, 86–87, 88, 93
Clahsen, H. , 33, 87, 101–102, 112, 113, 114 fn5, Dutch, 67, 70, 97, 107, 115, 128, 152
119, 122, 129, 174 and optional infinitive, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137,
Clark, E. V., 37 fn18, 87, 96–98, 102, 153, 200, 138, 139, 140, 144, 150, 225, 230 fn3, 232–233
201, 205, 206, 220, 222
Clitic omission, 108, 135, 140, 239
Clifton, P., 216 E
Collective nouns, 212–213
Collins, C., 73 fn40 Ego-anchored children, 181–183
Complementizers, 108, 111, 112, 117, 127, 128 Emonds, J., 64
Componential analysis, 220 Empty Category Principle, 176
Compounds, 98–102 English, 16, 22–23, 27, 33, 57, 60, 69, 96,107, 108,
Continuity Hypothesis 109, 119, 121, 126, 127, 128, 134, 135, 147,
and functional categories, 122, 160, 174 148, 150, 152, 159, 162, 163, 165, 167, 168,
and subject drop, 160, 174 171, 175, 176, 178–179, 180, 181, 184, 225,
and The Minimalist Program, 118–120 235, 242 – 243
Strong, 110–120, 129, 130, 138, 148, 160, 226, 239 agreement in early, 126, 140, 169
Weak, 110, 122, 129,130, 160, 174 and optional infinitive, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138,
Contrast Theory of Negative Input, 26–27 140, 142, 146–147, 232
Control, 181, 182, 183 aspect in early, 119, 233
Cook, V., 21 fn2, 42, 79 Endocentricity, 94, 95
Cornilescu, A., 21 fn2, 48 fn5, 55 fn13, 56 fn16, Equal-detail assumption, 206
159 fn1 Evaluation measure, 50, 60
Countable nouns, 202, 203, 209, 213, 218, 228 Event Category Labelling, 215
Crain, S., 13, 16, 20–21, 42, 107, 109, 110 Existential status, 229, 230
Crayon 1991 Exocentricity, 94, 95
Crisma, P., 115, 128, 135
Critical Period Hypothesis, 38–40
Cromer, R., 237 F
Crystal, D., 49 fn7, fn8
Curtiss, S., 38 Fantuzzi, C., 233, 240, 242–243
Czech, 133 Faroese, 133
Felix, S., 14, 110, 120–121 Grimshaw, J., 112, 122, 123, 218
Fenson , L., 195 Gopnik, M., 33, 34
Ferdinand, A., 137 Gordon, P., 99, 100, 101
File cards, 151 Gottfried, G. M., 96
Fisher, C. L., 211, 216, 218 Government and Binding, 47, 55
Fletcher, P., 163, 196 Grammar
Focus, 164, 189 wild, 120, 122
Fodor, J. A., 34–35 Greek, 119, 133, 134, 150, 159, 225, 232
Fodor, J. D., 59 fn20, 63, 64, 67–69, Greenfield, P., 161, 178
Fremgen, A., 221 Grimshaw, J., 22, 56 fn16, 214
French, 27, 115, 119, 128, 159, 160, 162, 172, 173, Grodzinsky, Y., 146
175, 225 Gruber, J. S., 162, 164
and optional infinitive, 133, 134, 135, 137, 138, Guasti, M.T., 119, 133
139, 144 Guéron, J., 145, 15, 152
Friedemann, M.A., 135, 160, 177 Guilfoyle, E., 122, 167, 169, 174
Fromkin, V., 35 fn15, 42
Functional categories, 56, 57, 59, 72, 108, 112,
absence of, 108, 118, 119, 124–126 H
and aphasia, 119–120
Haan, G. de, 134
and Case, 184
Haegeman, L., 21 fn2, 55 fn13, 79, 115, 128, 133,
and maturation, 120
134, 135, 136, 152, 159 fn1, 162
and optional infinitive, 138, 139, 155
Halle, M., 84
and the Strong Continuity Hypothesis, 110, Hamburger, H., 164
113, 117, 118, 130 Hamann, C., 135, 159, 160, 161, 189
and the Weak Continuity Hypothesis, 110, 122– Harner, L., 237
125, 129, 130, 174, 175 Harris, T., 119, 140
and truncation theory, 127–128 Head movement, 113–114
emergence of, 124 Hebrew, 119, 134
underspecification of, 112, 145, 170–172 Heim, I., 151
Hirsh-Pasek, K., 26 fn8, 38, 107, 219
Hoekstra, T., 122, 133, 136–137, 144, 155, 226,
G 230 fn3
Hollebrandse, B., 241, 244
Ganger, J., 196 Hornstein, N., 14, 23,
Gelderen, Van, E., 137 Huang, J. 169, 170
General Congruence Principle, 124 Hubel, D.H., 40
Generic level assumption, 206 Hurford, J.R., 40
Genie, 40 Huxley, R. , 162, 163
Genitive Case Hyams, N., 59 fn20, 61, 62,112, 135, 137, 138,
as default, 185, 186 145–147, 15, 160, 161, 165–172, 175, 178,
assignment of, 141, 185, 188 179, 180 fn20, 189
overextension of, 183, 184 Hypothesis testing, 59, 215, 216
subjects in, 162–163, 164–165, 185
Gentner, D. , 205
Gerken, L.A., 108, 161, 178 fn16, 180–181 I
German, 27, 41, 65, 70, 97, 112–113, 114, 115–
118, 119, 122, 128, 129, 134, 135, 138, 139, Iambic, 180
149, 150, 152–154, 159, 168, 172, 173, 176, Icelandic, 97, 133, 168
225, 230 fn3, 241–242 Imai, M., 202, 216
and optional infinitive, 133, 134, 135, 137, 152– Induction, 197, 216
153, 230 Ingham, R., 122, 126, 129, 147–148, 155
Gibson, E., 63 fn28, 64, 69 Ingram, D, 136, 137, 152–154, 155, 230
Gillette, J., 205 Innateness, 23–24
Gleitman, L., 24, 28, 38, 197, 205, 208, 211, 216 and maturation, 121
Goldfield, B. A., 204, 205 Input
Goodluck, H., 42, 63 fn25, 96, 102, 108, 109, 189, and changes in child grammar, 111
222, 244 and subject omission, 174, 179
and the Subset Principle, 239
and the acquisition of aspect, 233 Leopold, 163, 164
and the acquisition of tense, 237–238, 240 Level-ordering, 98–102
and vocabulary learning, 37, 196, 197, 205, 206, Levin, B., 210
208, 211, 212, 217, 218, 221 Lexical Hypothesis, 152
comprehensible, 30 Lexicon, 48, 55, 56, 57, 71, 72–73, 198
poverty of, 14, 23, 28, 37, 41 Li, P. , 232, 233
Irish, 133 Lightfoot, D., 54, 64–67, 79
Irregular inflection, 33, 89, 91, 93, 94, 95, 98, 101 Lillo-Martin, D.169 fn9
Irregularisation, 91–93 Linking rules, 215, 216
vs. overregularisation, 92–93 Local Well-Formedness Constraint, 111
Isabelle, 40 Locke, J., 197
Italian, 27, 34, 61, 119, 133, 134, 136, 145, 149, Logical Form Level (LF), 55, 57, 58, 71, 151
159, 160, 166, 168, 178–179 Londen, M.L., 40
Long, M.H., 39
Longobardi, G., 186
J
Lust, B., 110, 124 fn14
Jackendoff, R. S., 26, 34, 36, 42, 215
Jaeggli, O., 159 fn1, 167–168, 173 M
Jakobson, R. , 36
Japanese, 60, 233–234 MacWhinney,B. J., 2, 24 fn6, 101, 116, 135, 146,
Johnson J., 38 171, 177, 187
Johnson, K., 73 fn40 Mad magazine sentences, 136, 151, 188
Johnson , M.R., 229 Manzini, R., 60
Jordens, P., 134, 232 Maratsos, M. 87
Jusczyk, P.W., 107 Marchman, V., 89 fn6, 91
Juffs, A., 222 Marcus, G. F., 87, 88–89
Markman, E., 14, 37 fn18, 198–199, 200, 203
K Mass nouns, 202, 209, 213, 228
Matsuo, A., 241
Karmiloff-Smith, A., 35 fn14 Maturation, 59, 140
Kaspar Hauser, 40 and continuity, 120
Kayne, R., 147, 172 and the Discontinuity Hypothesis, 110, 120–
Kern, S. 196 122, 130
Kim, J., 93–95 and the Weak Continuity Hypothesis, 123, 127,
Kiparsky, P., 92, 98, 99, 102 128, 130
Klima, E., 140 McKee, C., 239
Korean, 60 Mehler, J., 24
Krashen, S., 30 Mentalism, 45
Kuczai, S., 90 Merge, 72
Kwa, 67 definition of, 73, 75
in early child syntax, 74–75
Metathesis, 164
L Metaphoric compounds, 96
Mimimalist Program, 47, 70–78, 84
Lakoff, G., 95 and optional infinitives, 142–144
Landau, B., 198, 202, 208, 212 and the Continuity Hypothesis, 118–119
Language Acquisition Device (LAD), 24, 30, 41, Modal Hypothesis, 153
47, 59, 61, 64, 78, 183 Modal verbs, 113, 114, 126, 129, 148, 152–154,
Language Bioprogram Hypothesis, 232, 233 167, 230 fn3
Lasnik, H., 55 fn13, 57 fn17, 79, 176 and optional infinitive, 135, 152–153, 155, 230 fn3
Last Resort, 77 and null subjects, 169, 171, 172, 179
Laura, 31–32, 38 and oblique subjects, 185
Lebeaux, D., 59, 75, 110, 122, 123–124, 174 and overt subjects, 146, 171
De Lemos , C., 234, 235 status of, 210
Van der Lely, H. 1997. Modularity Hypothesis, 34–35
Lenneberg, E. H. , 39–40 Morgan, J., 26, 27, 53, 54
Leonard, L.B., 33, 34, 42 Moro, A., 171
Morphological knowledge, 150 Overgeneralization, 16
Morphological uniformity Overregularisation, 83, 87–89, 99
definition of, 168 and lexical development, 90–91
and acquisition, 168–169 and semantic extendedness, 95
and null subjects, 168
Motherese, 28–29
Mourelatos , A., 209 P
Movement, 58, 76–77, 142, 186
in early child language, 116–117, 139, 149, 150, Parameter(s)
164 and functional categories, 59
Parameter Mis-setting Hypothesis, 166
Parameter resetting, 59, 62, 63
N Parameter setting, 59– 64, 78 167
and subject drop, 166, 173, 178–180
Naigles, L.R., 208, 209, 210, 212 Park , T. Z., 84 fn1
Negation Partee, B. 170 fn10
and optional infinitive, 135, 140, 141, 144, 145 Passive, 54
Negative evidence, 25–27, 47 Partonomic assumption, 199
and morphological development, 88 Pensalfini, R., 163
Nelson, K., 108, 196, 199, 202, 205 Phillips, C., 148–150, 155, 226
Newport, E., 29, 41
Phonological Form Level (PF), 55, 58, 71
Nishigauchi, T., 112
Phrase structure rules, 48, 56, 57
No-Functional Projection Hypothesis, 226
Piaget, J., 35, 36, 227, 237
Nominative Case
Pierce, A., 119, 133, 134, 135, 160
assignment, 141, 160, 184, 185, 187, 188
Pine, J., 29
overextension of, 183, 184
Pinker, S. , 22, 23, 24, 24 fn7, 29, 30, 34, 42, 83,
Norwegian, 65, 139
86–87, 88, 93, 110, 111, 112, 123, 195, 200,
Nouns
201 fn2, 213, 214, 215,221
in early vocabularies, 205, 206, 207
Platzack, C. , 62 fn23, 122, 134
Null subject parameter, 173
Plunkett, K., 92, 137
Number, 226
Poeppel, D., 110, 114 fn6, 115–118, 138
and root infinitives, 155
Pollock, J.Y. , 56 fn15, 126 fn17, 139
and agreement, 172 fn13
Pluralia tantum, 98, 99
Nunez del Prado, Z., 178 fn16
Portuguese, 187 fn25
Positive evidence, 26, 61
O Poulin-Dubois, D., 199
Powers, S. M., 74, 110, 122, 123, 124 fn15, 186–187
Observation, 197–198 Prasada, S., 86
and meaning of nouns, 205 Preferential-looking paradigm, 210
and meaning of verbs, 205 Principles and Parameters (P&P), 54, 55–59, 63,
O’Grady, W., 26 fn8, 28, 30, 50, 61, 62 fn22, 108, 70, 71, 72, 78
111, 130, 167, 179 fn18, 189 Principle of Contrast, 153, 200
Olsen, M.B., 227, 232, 233, 236, 239–240 Principle of Minimal Structure, 238 fn8
Optional infinitive, 128, 136, 171, 225, 151 Principle of productivity, 96, 98
and finiteness, 134 Pro
and clitics, 135, 144 and early null subjects, 161, 166, 170, 174
and wh-questions, 135, 150 identification of, 166, 168, 174
frequency of, 134 licensing of, 168
future tense interpretation of, 137, 230, 231, PRO, 161, 166, 189, 174
232, 233, 240 and underspecification, 170
modal interpretation of, 137, 153, 230 fn3 Processing, 161, 177
past tense interpretation of, 137, 140, 145, 230, processing bottleneck, 111
231, 232, 240 processing limitations, 111, 148, 150, 152, 153
present tense interpretation of, 137, 140, 145, Projection Principle, 57, 72
230, 231, 232, 233, 240 and early grammar, 123
Overextension of word meaning, 219–221 Pronouns, 20–21, 33, 128, 171
and comprehension, 221 Prototype theory, 220, 238
and production , 221
Skinner, B. F., 46–47
Q Slobin, D.,112, 181 fn22, 200 fn1, 232, 233
Small clause, 175
Question formation, 15–20, 108 Smith, C., 228, 231, 239, 240, 241
Quine, W.V., 197, 203 Smith, N., 32, 49 fn7,fn8
Snedeker, J., 206
R Snow, C., 28, 29
Snyder, W., 22, 102
Radford, A., 21 fn2, 59, 79, 108, 109, 110, 122, Soja, N. N., 202, 216
123, 124 –127, 134, 138, 155, 162, 163, 164, Sorrentino, C.M., 200
167, 169, 170 fn10, 172, 174, 175, 176, 184, Spanish, 27, 61, 107, 119, 133, 135, 159 fn1, 160, 166
185, 188, 225, 226 Speas, M., 112, 122
Rasetti, L., 135, 161 Specific Language Impairment (SLI), 33–34, 38
Recursion, 99–100 Specificity, 154
Reichenbach, H., 229, 241 Spell-Out, 71, 77, 120, 149
Reinhart, T., 146, 171 Sproat, R., 92
Restrictive Relative Clause Standard Theory (ST), 47, 48–49, 64, 78
precursor of, 164 State predicates, 152, 238, 239
subject of, 189 Stevenson, R., 120
Rhee, J., 134, 155 Stephany, U., 232, 235
Rice, M., 33 fn12, 34 Stoll, S., 234
Rispoli, M., 163, 183–184, 233, 236 Stowell, T., 127, 228 fn2, 229
Rizzi, L., 65, 122, 127–129, 133, 136, 138, 144– Stromswold, K., 140, 167, 244
145, 152, 155, 161, 162, 165, 175, 189, 225 Strong Continuity Hypothesis, see Continuity
Roeper, T., 67 fn32, 74, 75, 135, 167 fn6, 172, Hypothesis
175–177 Structural templates hypothesis, 67–68, 78
Romanian, 27, 61, 108, 133, 145, 150, 159 fn1, Structure dependence, 15–16
160, 166, 168, 187 fn25 Subcategorization, 57
Root infinitive See optional infinitive and lexical development, 58
Rosch, E., 220, 238 Subject, 172, 173, 178–179
Ross, J. R., 64, 176 Accusative, 162, 164–165, 187, 189
Rumeelhart, D. E., 86, 92, 93 expletive, 166
Russian, 133, 137, 149, 151, 181 fn22, 230, 231– Genitive, 162–163, 164–165, 187, 188, 189
232 Nominative, 185, 186, 187
Ruwet, N., 48 fn5 Subjectless sentences, 41, 115, 159–162, 165–181
and auxiliaries, 169, 174
and optional infinitive, 145, 146, 170
S
and tense, 169, 172, 179
in child vs. adult language, 173, 175
Saleemi , A. P., 47, 61, 62 fn22
vs. object drop, 170, 176
Sano, T., 161, 171, 172
Subrahmayam, K., 202
Saxton, M. , 26–27
Subset Principle, 60–61, 169, 239, 240
Scholten, C. G. M., 171
and UG, 61
Schönenberger, M., 137, 155
Suppes, P., 146
Schütze, C. T., 136, 141, 155, 163, 165, 187–188
Swedish, 65, 97
Second language learning, 30, 39–40
and the optional infinitive, 133, 134, 137, 139
Seliger, H. W., 39
Syntactic bootstrapping, 213
Selkirk, E., 99
Semantic bootstrapping, 123, definition of, 207, 208
definition of, 207, 215
Semelfactive, 239
T
Şerban, D., 48 fn5
Shady, M., 29 Tallal, P., 33
Shape bias, 202
Tamil, 133
Shipley, E. F., 199
Tardif, T., 206, 207
Shirai, Y., 95, 227, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240
Taxonomic assumption, 200
Siegel, D. 98
Tense, 119, 126, 235, 242–243
Simplicity-bias, 96, 97, 201
and the Unique Checking Constraint, 143
and optional infinitive, 138,140, 141, 143, 147 formal, 47, 49
and pronouns, 170–171 substantive, 47, 49
comprehension of, 234, 240, 243 Uriagereka, J., 72 fn38, 77, 79
emergence of, 227, 232, 234, 243
maturation of, 140, 141, 226
V
optionality of, 138, 141, 143, 144, 155, 179,
187, 188, 189 Vainikka, A., 123, 138, 162, 163, 164, 184–186
Tense-chain, 145, 146, 151, 152, 170, 226, 227, Valian, V., 59 fn20, 161, 167 fn6, 171, 172, 178–
229 180, 189
Tense markers, 227, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, Van der Lely, L., 34
238, 240, 241, 242 Varlokosta, S., 134, 225
Tense-operator, 145, 146, 171, 227, 228, 230 Verbs
Tense projection (TP), 128, 138, 140, 142, 144, classes of, 210
145, 148, 227, 228, 230 in early vocabularies, 205, 206, 207, 210
absence of, 128, 144, 225, 226, 230, 232 perspective-changing , 211
Theory of mind, 203–204 Verb second, 112, 117
Theta relations, 38, 57, 58 Verrips, M., 134
in early child grammar, 123, 124, 125 Vocabulary size, 37, 90, 108, 195
Theta-theory Vocabulary spurt, 196, 202
and the No Functional Projection Model, 122 Vygotsky, L., 38
violation of, 121
Thornton, R., 110, 141, 152, 164
Time adverbial, 31, 241 W
Topic, 164, 169, 189
null, 162 Wanna, 16–20
Topicalization, 113 Wagner, L. , 234, 237, 240, 241, 243
Torrens, V., 119, 135 Weissenborn, J., 66 fn31, 110, 111, 115, 122, 128,
Transparency of meaning, 96, 97, 201 130, 134, 135, 160, 162, 167 fn6, 169 fn9, 172,
Triggers, 59, 64, 67, 69 173–174, 175, 176, 238 fn8
Triggering Learning Algorithm, 69–70, 78 Weist, R.M. , 237, 240, 241
Trochaic, 180 Wexler, K. 29–30, 48 fn4, 51–52, 53, 54, 60, 61,
Tsimpli, I. M., 120, 123 62, 108 fn1, 111, 120, 133, 137,138–141, 142–
Truncation hypothesis, 127–129, 130 144, 149, 170, 226
and functional categories, 122, 225 Wh-questions, 135, 150
and null subjects, 175–176 and null subjects, 166, 174
and postverbal subjects, 177 and wanna contraction, 16–20
Turkish, 133, 232, 233 infinitival, 115, 128, 140
Type of substance bias, 202 comprehension of, 127
long distance, 20–21
U wh-parameter, 173
White, L., 198
Underspecification, 129, 145, 187 Whitman, J., 110, 154
and subject drop, 170–172
of Tense, 141, 145, 222, 242 Whole-action assumption, 206
of Inflection, 146, 170–172, 189 Whole-object assumption, 199
of word meaning, 220, 221 Wijnen, F., 136, 137, 152, 232, 233, 234
Unique Checking Constraint, 144, 155 Williams, E., 198
Universal Grammar (UG), 37, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, Williams Syndrome, 32–33
67, 109, 148, 160, 165, 198 and theory of mind, 204
definition of, 55
and the Strong Continuity Hypothesis, 110, 119,
130 X
and the Discontinuity Hypothesis, 110, 120–
122, 130 X-bar theory, 56, 57, 73
and the Weak Continuity Hypothesis, 110, 122, and the No Functional Projection Model, 122
128, 130 violation of, 121
Universals Xu, F., 92, 93, 203
Y

Yamada, J., 31–32


Yamashita, Y. , 207

Zanuttini, R, 144
Zoom lens hypothesis, 211