You are on page 1of 2

Summary: Returning to Nature

In this essay, the author introduced four eras of human nature to readers. At the
beginning of the essay, through the framework and some ideas of Thomas Berry and
Marshall McLuhan, the author gives some opinions of four eras of communications and
some of his analyses.
This essay explores the long cultural journey of humanity from the primal culture up
to the postmodern culture. The first culture is the primal culture, which called The
Organic Root-Metaphor and Matrifocal Tribal Community. At the beginning of this era,
people live in a society without hierarchical. The structure of culture is a matriarchal
system period. People call this Earth-Mother Goddess. Gradually, with the ending of
matriarchy and the establishment of man’s dominance in the society, women’s role,
known as the “second sex”, changed from the rule of society into the subjugated of men.
The second culture is classical culture that called The Hierarchical Root-Metaphor,
Patriarchal-Aristocratic City-States, and Mercantile Empires. This is the second form of
culture in the human journey. In this era, the matriarchal society into a patriarchal society,
people built great agricultural empires through violent plunder. Aristotle, which was one
of the greatest philosophers coming in this period. Against this human background, both
the urban and rural setting, one of the history’s most influential civilizations took shape,
leaving behind a cultural legacy that survives in part today.
Then is the Modern Culture, which called The Mechanistic Root-Metaphors, HyperMasculine Bourgeois Nation-States, and Industrial Empires. In this period, the western
capitalism was on the rise, in the emergence of this new bourgeois process, Western
culture went through a series of traumatic spiritual, philosophical, religious, scientific,

. such as the return of poor. these are the process of human civilization. the human civilization involves. the author told us this is a global postmodern era. the New Global Civilization. However. Through the four eras of the human nature. which called The Root-Metaphor of Creative-Communion. all of which progressively ushered in the modern Western industrial-colonial world in both capitalist and socialist forms. While peace is the ultimate goal of all our undertaking in this world. The last one is the Postmodern Culture. concern about the development of human settlements and prospects for urban ecological sustainability is rising around the world. and Sustainable Local Communities. p10). As the author said. some problem are manifest. This statement is an acknowledgement of postmodernism’s influence on contemporary culture. We are all living in postmodern times. peace is welcome. as war is repugnant. our understanding of the era is not like what we saw. “only a civilization that cares for Earth. war has been inevitable in the course of human civilization. and the drinks of its spiritual nourishment will be a sustainable civilization for the future” (Holland. At the same time. 2010. that leans from it. In this essay. unemployed. with the development of human civilization.political and economic revolutions.