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OIL AND NATURAL GAS

CORPORATION LIMITED

HAZIRA

PROJECT WORK ON

STUDY ON MECHANICAL
MAINTENANCE OF COMPRESSOR
(AIR/GAS) AND PUMPS IN HAZIRA
PLANT
Submitted by:-

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Acknowledgement
We convey our heartfelt gratitude to Mr. K. Radhavinod and
Mr. Anil Garg our mentor for the vocational training in ONGC,
Hazira Plant and for the project titled Study on mechanical
maintenance of Compressors (air/gas) and pumps in hazira
plant. Witout his consent this training would not have been
possible. We convey our thanks and gratitude to them,
without them this project and the vocational training wouldn’t
have been possible.

Mr. K RADHAVINOD C.E. (Meachanical)

Mr, ANIL GARG

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INDEX

SL.NO TITLE PAGE NO.

1. Introduction to HGPC 7
2. Gas Terminal & Slug Catcher 17
3. Gas Sweetening Unit 24
4. Gas Dehydration Unit 29
5. Dew Point Depression Unit 38
6. Condensate Fractionation Unit 43
7. Sulphur Recovery Unit 51
8. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Unit (LPG) 65
9. Kerosene Recovery Unit 70
10. Product Terminal & Storage 77
11. Utility System 97
12. Corrosion Control & Monitoring 135
13. Maintenance of Electrical Equipments 142
14. Mechanical Maintenance of Sour Gas Plants. 146
15. Safety Measures in Hydrocarbon Industry 162

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4
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LOCATION OF HAZIRA
HA ZIRA
Tapti

36”
231 km
42”
Mumbai
244 km
MP
Bombay
High Uran

South Basein
Gas Field

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Hazira Project
ACID GAS
SRU Sulfur

Sweet
SOUR GAS
gas to
GSU GDU DPDU
HBJ PL

Sweet gas
LPGU to Local
Gas Terminal con sumers
SOUR
COND LPG
CFU CWU
SKO
HC
KRU ARN
36” 42”
From Offshore
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INTRODUCATION TO HAZIRA GAS PROCESSING COMPLEX
Natural gas has gained increased importance in the recent past by
virtue of its usage as substitute for coal, petrol and diesel as fuel in industrial
boilers and furnaces. Natural gas being rich in propane and butane gives
straight run LPG. It has now become possible to liquefy and transport natural
gas. It is available for uses fuel in automobiles also.
Some of the gas fields in India are producing Sour Natural gas containing
poisonous Hydrogen Sulphide Gas in varying amount. Sour natural gas
containing H2S require special treatment for removal of the poisonous gas.
HC Condensate associated with Sour Natural Gas also becomes sour and
gives rise to production of sour LPG which requires additional treatment for
making it sweet, marketable and safe for use.
Hazira Gas Processing Complex is receiving sour natural gas from
South Bassein Gas Fields which is a sub sea reservoir. The gas is
transported from South Basin field to HGPC through a sub sea pipeline. The
gas is received at Gas Terminal in a Slug Catcher where gas and slug
containing HC Condensate, moisture and chemicals (like corrosion
inhibitors) are separated. Gas and associated Condensate are sent further in
separate system for processing.
The sour gas processing system at Hazira Plant, consist of followings:
1. Gas Receipt Terminal
2. Gas Sweetening Unit
3. Gas Dehydration Unit
4. Dew Point Depression Unit
5. Sulphur Recovery Unit
6. Sour Condensate Processing Unit
7. Gas Based LPG Recovery Unit
8. Kerosene Recovery Unit

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GAS RECEIPT TERMINAL

At the Gas Terminal after the first receiving valves the sour gas and
condensate are then routed through a set of Pressure Reduction Control
System. These control valves maintain down stream pressures at a pre set
value. (Normally set at 70 kg / cm2). In case the pressure exceeds the value,
these valves try to close and maintain the pressure. These control valves are
operated normally in automatic mode. The Gas and Condensate then
passes through cyclone separators / filters and further distributed to Slug
Catchers.

Slug, catchers are having liquid holding of 11,000 cubic meters each.
They are nothing but set of parallel pipe fingers of 48 inch diameter and
approximately 500 meters in length. These pipe fingers are mounted at a
slope of 1:500; thus forming separation and collection zone. The sour gas
separated is taken out from top riser pipes to Gas Sweetening Units and the
sour liquid thus collected is routed to Condensate Fractionation Units.

GAS SWEETENING UNIT

Sour Gas from slug Catcher is distributed to different GSU trains under
the pressure control and flow control. Sour gas is first preheated up to 40 –
45 Deg. C. sour Condensate of gas from CFU also enters down stream of
preheated under flow control. The combine Sour gas passes through knock
out drums and enters the bottom of high pressure absorber column.

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The Absorber is having valve type trays. The amine solution (Methyl Di
ethanol Amine of concentration 480 gm/liter) is pumped from individual trains
units tank and is injected at the desired tray of the column. The amine and
gas flow in the column is counter current. The sweet gas from the top of the
column is cooled and routed to GDU / LPG units through a knock out drum
(K.O.D).
The rich amine from the bottom of the column flows to medium
pressure absorber / flash drum. The flash gases go to fuel gas header. The
amine then passes to the plate heat exchanger (exchanger returns hot lean
amine solution) and enters a regenerator column where it regenerates.
Regenerated column is also having valve type trays with associated
reflux and reboiler arrangement. Regenerated lean amine from the bottom
goes back to the MDEA tank and is recycled in the process.
Liberated acid gas from top of the regenerator column goes to Sulphur
Recovery unit under pressure control. The acid gas mainly consists of
Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen Sulphide and some water.

GAS DEHYDRATION UNIT:


Sweetened gas from GSU trains enters inlet knock out drum of
dehydration unit where any entrained MDEA is knocked out. Gas then enters
the absorber column at its bottom, which has bubble cap type trays. Tri-
Ethylene Glycol (TEG) is injected at the top of the column and sent to Dew
Point Depression Unit (DAD) via outlet KOD under pressure control to a
degassing drum where the hydrocarbons are removed and used as fuel gas.
TEG then passes through a set of cartridge filter, charcoal filter and
sent to reboiler, regenerator to remove absorbed moisture and the
regenerated TEG is continuously recycled and reused in the system.

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DEW POINT DEPRESSION UNIT:
The dehydrated gas from GDU trains first passed through gas-gas
Exchangers and cooled to about 15 deg. C. this gas is further cooled to
about 5 deg. C in a chiller with the help of propane refrigerant in closed
circulation cycle. The chilling temperature is controlled by a temperature
control valve, which regulates the gas flow through chiller and operates at a
preset temperature valve in automatic mode. The cooled gas Condensate at
5 deg. C goes to a filter separator where the liquid and gases are separated.
The condensate is pumped to LPG Plant surge drum (for condensate feed to
distillation column). The cooled gas from the top passed through gas-gas
exchangers where the chillness of the gas is exchanged with the incoming
gas from GDU. The gas then flows out to Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL)
for transportation of Sweet Natural Gas to Hazira – Bijapur – Jagdishpur
(HBJ Pipeline).

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT:

Acid gas from GSU regenerator is brought to Sulphur recovery Unit to


convert the poisonous Hydrogen Sulphide Gas into elemental Sulphur by
liquefied oxidation catalytic process. Acid gas coming from GSU is taken to
Absorber / Oxidizer vessel via inlet KOD under flow control which contains
LOCAT solution. Hydrogen Sulphide is oxidized to elemental Sulphur by
atmospheric air in presence of the catalyst. Carbon dioxide, Oxygen,
Nitrogen, Water vapour and traces of Hydrogen Sulphide (within the
permissible limit set by Pollution Control Board) is vented to the atmosphere,
LOCAT solution returns back to Oxidizer / Absorber under pressure control
and Molten Sulphur thus separated is taken to a surge drum under level
control. Molten Sulphur from surge drum is pumped by vertical pumps to
preconditioning unit for temperature conditioning with the help if thermal fluid
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and the sent to Roto former. Here the Molten Sulphur is palletized and then
bagged in HDPE Bags, in the unit for final disposal (Selling in the Market).
Sulphur Recovery Unit has been installed as an environmental protection
unit only.

SOUR CONDENSATE PROCESSING UNIT


Sour Condensate Processing Unit is Hazira Project is called as
Condensate Fractionation Unit (CFU). Associated Sour gas condensate from
Slug Catcher is preheated and taken into a condensate surge drum
operating at slightly lower pressure than incoming pressure in CFU.
Condensate, Water and Gas are separated in the surge drum. Condensate
from bottom of the drum is pumped to a stripper column through coalesce
filters under flow control. In stripper column, H 2S is stripped along with lighter
Hydro carbons and taken out from the column. Liberated gas from surge
drum and stripper to are jointly compressed by Off Gas compressor and feed
to Gas Sweetening train for elimination of H 2S .
The liquid from stripper bottom is reboiled and feed to LPG column
under level and flow control in LPG Column LPG is taken out from the top
through Condenser reflux drum and NGL from the bottom through NGL
cooler, under level control to storage area. It is being continuously monitored
that LPG coming out from distillation column should not contain H 2S more
than 20 PPM. LPG thus produced from CFU is a sour LPG and the same is
sweetened through processing in Caustic Wash Unit before sending to LPG
spheres.
In case it is found that the LPG is sphere contains more than 4 PPM of
H2S after sampling (as preparation for dispatch to consumers), the bulk of
LPG is re-routed through Caustic Wash Unit to restrict the H 2S level below
permissible limit.

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KEROSENE RECORY UNIT
NGL produced from CFU is the main feed for Kerosene Recovery Unit
(KRU). The NGL (at 180 – 190 deg. & 10 kg/Cm2) is taken to Surge Drum
through a pressure reduction valve. NGL is flashed to 4.5 Kg/Cm2 and the
vapour steam is taken to feed tray (12 th Tray) of Naphtha Column (C-901).
The liquid steam from the Surge Drum is passed through the pre-heater (E –
902) and joined the vapour steam before entering the feed tray of C-901.

The Naphtha Column is operated at the pressure profile of 0.7 – 0.9


Kg/Cm2g & temperature profile of 118 – 207 deg. C with 20 no’s of Valve
Cap Tray inside the column. NGL is fractionated in C-901 to produce
Aromatic Rich Naphtha (ARN) i.e. IBP-140 deg. C CUT, from the top of C-
901 and 1410 deg. C+ CUT from the bottom.

The top vapour (at 118 deg. C) of Naphtha Column is condensed to 55


deg. C by passing through Air Cooler (E-903, Forced Draft, and Fan – 10
nos.) and getting accumulated in Reflux Drum. The Reflux Drum is
pressurized with IG. The angle of FAN blades can be changed to control the
air–cooler outlet temp. with a Feed Forward Advance Control System on the
basis of Internal Reflux Ratio (IRR) of the Column C-901. The Reflux Liquid
is pumped back to Column Top and ARN tapped out from the discharge of
Reflux Pump. ARN is cooled and being sent to storage in NGL Tank Phase 1
(4 nos of capacity 16,500 each). NGL Storage Ph-II is allocated for NGL
only. The NGL being produced from LPG Recovery Unit is equivalent to
ARN. So NGL from LPG is taken directly to ARN Storage.

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A part of Naphtha Column bottom (around 2/3 of the total quantity)
stream is vapourised through Furnace (fuel gas fired) H-901 at a temp of 259
deg. C and taken to bottom of C-901. the balance of 1/3 of the bottom steam
around 60 M3 (max)/Hr is passed through E-902 & E-901 (if required for
heating of Reprocessing NGL from tank in case of CFU shut-down).

This 140+ CUT is passed through E-905 (Kerosene Column Bottom


vs. Naphtha Column Bottom Exchanger) and being vaporized by passing
through Furnace H-902 (Fuel Gas Fired). The vapour at 280 deg. C is fed to
the bottom of C-902 (20 Valve Cap Trays). C-902 is operated with pressure
profile of 0.9-1.2 kg/Cm2 and at a temperature profile of 250-273 deg. C.
Kerosene column is associated with fan Cooler E-906 (2 fans) and reflux
drum like Naphtha Column. Kerosene thus produced from top of C-902
(taken from Reflux Pump discharge) is cooled to 60 deg C before sending to
storage tank (5 nos of capacity 500m3 each). Heavy cut from C-902 bottom
is cooled and stored in heavy cut tank (2 nos of 500m3 each).
The above detail of process has been given as per SERIES mode of
operation of C-901 & C-902. However facilities have been provided by the
designer for PARALLEL mode of operation of C-901 & C-902.

Kerosene quality is monitored by following parameters


I. Colour Index – (+) 10 (min.)
II. Flash Point – (Abel) 35 deg. C (min.)
III. Smoke Point – 18 mm (min.)

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 In case of CFU partial shutdown, reprocessing NGL can be taken
from NGL storage, which has been explained in feed handling
procedure.
 Existing Phase I NGL storage tank have been redesignated as
ARN Storage. Phase II storage tanks have been kept for NGL storage
only.
Alternative arrangement has also been provided to control the C-901 &
C-902 column pressure by pressuring the reflux drums V902 & V902
with fuel gas, if necessary.

LPG RECOVRY UNIT:


Sweet gas from outlet and sweet condensate from DPD are taken as
feed to LPF Recovery Unit. Gas under flow and pressure control, passes
through a KOD for separation of unwanted entrainment like MDEA. The gas
is taken through gas dryers (containing Molecular Sieve) and enters a cold
box (Multi steam heat exchanger) in which outgoing cold steams are passing
for pre cooling of incoming gas. Gas ex. Cold box is cooled to about -30 deg.
C and goes to separator (Separator-1). Cold gas from separator top goes to
feed gas turbo-expander where it is expanded (pressure dropped and gets
cooled up to – 57 deg. C.

The cold gas and liquid is taken to separator (Separator-2). The cold
lean gas passes through cold box again and feed gas cooler for pre cooling
of the incoming gas and compressed by the compressor of expander
compressor system. The lean gas is than further compressed through lean
gas compressor as per requirement of down stream consumers.

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The liquid thus separated in Separator 1 and 2 is taken out under level
and flow control and fed to Lightened Fractionation Column (LEF). DPD
condensate is received in a surge drum and directly fed to LEF column via
Liquid dryers. Lighter Hydrocarbons are fractionated and removed from top
of the LEF column. This low pressure (LP) gas is expanded in a LEF
overhead turbo-expander, gets cooled and then being heated by passing
through cold box. LP gas is also used for supplies as LP Lean gas under
pressure control. The rest of the gas is being pressured by residual gas
compressors and same is fed back to high pressure (HP) Lean gas header.
Liquid from bottom of LEF Column is then fed to LPF column under
level and flow control in LPG Column. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is
taken out from top and natural gas liquid (NGL) is recovered from bottom.
The products coming out from distillation column are sent to storage under
level control.
A part of LPG is further distilled to obtain propane which is used as a
refrigerant in LPG and DPD unit.
The Project has not only developed expertise in sour gas processing
but safety aspects of human being as well as nature are also being cared
with equal importance. The Project has made lot of investments for
ecological protection. Tree plantation is a regular feature in our day to day
activities. Liquid and gaseous effluents from processing units are treated and
closely monitored to make them suitable for disposal to nature as per the
guidelines set by pollution control board.

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Representative sample of liquid and gaseous effluents are given below
for reference.
Liquid Effluent Parameters
Parameters Permissible Limit Actual Avg. mg/1
(GPCB) mg/1
TSS 20 8.4
Sulfides 0.5 0.005
Oil & Grease 10 1.6
COD 100 20
BOD 15 6.7

Stock Emission Quality

Parameters Permissible Limits Actual Average


(GPCB) mg/1
SO2 100 PPM 0.44 PPM
NOX 50PPM 2.06 PPM
H2S 50 PPM TR
H.C. 25 PPM 0.06 PPM
SPM 125 mg/NM3 5.8 mg/NM3

Hazira Plant is giving its dedicated service to the nation over the period
of last 11 years. During this period it has successfully overcome a number of
critical situations and has ensured an uninterrupted gas flow to its
downstream consumers. The project has developed expertise in various
fields of gas processing operations and is keen to share experience with
other organization to make a better tomorrow.

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Hazira Gas Terminal
&
Slug Catcher

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HAZIRA GAS TERMINAL

Hazira Gas Terminal has the following responsibilities towards day to day
operation.

1) Receive two-phase flow of gas stream.


2) Stabilisation of separated condensate.
3) Distribution of gas and condensate.

GAS PIPELINE, 36”-OD, SBP-1 T0 HAZIRA

36” OD gas pipeline is the main element of the gas transport system from
south bassein to Hazira.

1. OFFSHORE SECTION :

Length = 217 Kilometers

a) Wall thickness = 1.125 inch.

Length = 72 kilometers
Vol. Per length = 576 cu.m. per km.

b) Wall thickness = 0.937 inch

Length = 145 km.


Vol. Per length = 589 cum. m. per km.

2. ONSHORE SECTION

14 Km. is the length of pipeline between Umbhrat to Hazira terminal.

Hence the total length of 36” pipeline is 231 Km. between SBM platform &
Hazira terminal.

There is a sub-sea interconnection between 36” line (BPA to HZR) and 26”
line (BH to URAN) by a 20” diameter section of pipeline through which sweet
gas can be transported to Hazira.

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The Onshore section is having No. 5 main line shut-off valves equipped with
pneumatic-hydraulic actuator.

1. 200-LP-1 - UMBHRAT

2. 200-MOV-1 - DANTI

Crossing of river Mindola.

3. 200-MOV-2 - BHIMPORE

4. 200-MOV-3 - Magdalla

Crossing of river Tapti

5. 310-MOV-1 - HAZIRA TERMINAL

The first valve at Umbhrat is positioned close to LTE, Nitrogen fed,


and equipped with line-break devise (pressure-gradient type). This LP-
device shuts off the line automatically in case of quick depressurization
caused by rupture of the line itself. The other three valves 200-MOV-1/2/3,
are not fed with LP-device and therefore portable Nitrogen bottles are
required to enable opening and closing maneuvers. Each main line valve is
equipped with a bypass line with valves and vent connections for eventual
pressurization/ depressurization of u/s and d/s section of lines.

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE STATIONS

The purpose of pressure reducing valve station is to maintain pressure


inside the terminal within the range allowed for terminal piping design i.e.
98Kg/Cm2 ab.

The pressure reducing device is supposed to be the bypass of the main gas
stream (36” going to slug catcher) having MOV-9. This device consists of
two control valves 310-PV-2A/2B, 10” diameter each together sized for flow
rates of 10 MMSCMD. In addition 3” control valve is provided for control at
very low flow rates. Hence in normal operation, if gas flow is reduced due to
any reason approx. below 10 MMSCMD causing terminal i/1 pressure to be
higher than set pressure of PIC-2 (e.g. existing set press, is 70 Kg/Cm2)
MOV-9 should be closed diverting the gas flow through press, reducing
section.
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Pressure high switches located on main gas stream i.e., 310-PSXH-2/3/4
(two operating and one S/B) will actuate in case terminal pressure exceeds
98 Kg/CM2 ab. which will trigger closure of terminal Inlet valve 310-MOV-1.
If the pressure can increase to 99 Kg/Cm2 abs, 310-PSV-2/3 may discharge
gas to flare to keep it within design limit. Similarly among other important
interlock logic, low level of slug catcher will close the condensate outlet valve
and inlet valve of CFU trains as well as for LPG. Low pressure of HP lean
gas header (35 Kg/Cm2) will close MOV-60. However, in the existing
system for total closure of gas supply to consumers from HP lean gas
header a ball valve has to be closed located u/s of K.O.D V1 & V2.

GAS PIPELINE, 42” OD, SBP-2 TO HAZIRA

42 inch OD gas pipeline is another pipe line along with 36 inch OD gas
pipeline to transport gas from South Bassein to Hazira.

Total length : 244 Km.


Offshore Section : 222 Km.
Onshore Section : 22 Km.

Valve Stations

1. Umbhrat

2. Bhatha

3. Abva.

Design Conditions:

Design Pressure : 120 Kg/Cm2

Design Temperature : 66 Deg. Centigrade

Pipe line capacity : 25 MMSCMD.

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SLUG CATCHER

Slug catcher is a gas liquid separator cum liquid reservoir. The slug catcher
has been sized so as to allow the separation of the maximum condensate
flow from gas coming through 36” line during pigging of sub-sea pipeline.
Slug catcher is made of 48 fingers (24 fingers each) having diameter of 48”
for each finger. It is split into two 24 pipe sectors fully self sufficient for 50%
running in the event of maintenance of one of them.

Slug catcher length - 490 meters


Area of separation - 5% slope
Area of storage - 0.5% slope

Two different sloping have been adopted to get a greater efficiency of


separation. This geometrical configuration has helped as follows :

i) To keep the height of slug catcher within limit.


ii) To reduce considerable length of storage area.
iii) Uniform sharing of gas in different fingers.
iv) Progressive decrease in the flow speed facilitating separation of liquid
from gas.

There are three risers (see Slug Catcher diagram) at beginning, centre, and
end of the section.

a) PRIMARY RISER :
Close to inlet side of slug catcher, allows separated gas to come out
during normal flow.

b) SECONDARY RISER :
Positioned approximately in the centre, diverts small quantities of gas
coming with liquid. Also it acts as escape route for gas left in this area
during arrival of condensate slug during pigging.

c) EQUALISING HEADER :
Positioned at the end of storage area, to prevent liquid agitation and
entrainment produced by the current flow of gas and liquid towards
primary header.

Total length - 490 meters.

Length of storage section - 459 meters.


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GAS
Figure 1

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Hence 10% of the total length is utilized for principal separation of gas and
liquid. Ninety percent of the length is utilized for the secondary separation
and storage of condensate.

The total capacity of slug catcher storage area is 22000 m3, i.e. 11000 m3
each. During the initial period of terminal operation when gas flow used to
be around 3 MMSCMD the estimated pipeline holdup was around 22000
m3. This is the basis of design of slug catcher storage capacity.

Total level glass length - 331.5 cm.


LSL - 15.0 cm.
LSH - 3.0 M
LSHH - 3.2 M

The length of level glass is calibrated against total volume of 10 936 m3.

GAS DISTRIBUTION FROM HAZIRA

Sl. CONSUMERS RATE SOURCE LOCATION OF


No (MMSCMD) CUSTODY
TRANSFER METER
1. GAIL 16.0 DPD d/s GAIL
2. KRIBHCO HP 3.0 LPG PLANT- KRIBHCO-ONGC
LP 0.5 HP LEAN GAS, METER
LP GAS
3. ESSAR 1.60 LPG PLANT- FC-6 AT TERMINAL
HP LEAN GAS
4. RPL 0.50 LPG PLANT- FC-3 AT TERMINAL
HP LEAN
5. GGCL 0.30 LPG PLANT- TERMINAL
HP LEAN GAS
6. HWP 0.07 LPG PLANT- KRIBHCO-ONGC LP
LP GAS METEIRNG
STATION.

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GAS SWEETENING UNIT
(GSU)

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GAS SWEETENING UNIT

This is India’s first Gas Sweetening Unit based on state of the art
MDEA process licensed by M/s SNEA(P), France for selective removal of
H2S from sour gas. Gas is treated with aqueous solution of MDEA in 7
identical and independent trains each of 5 MMNM3/D capacity (each train
accounting for 50” of the total capacity). Methyl diethanol amine (MDEA), a
tertiary amine, reacts with H2S selectively. Reactions in case of primary or
secondary amine with acid gas components are similar and are as follows.

H2S + R2NH ---------- HS R2NH2+


CO2 + 2R2 NH --------- R2NCOO R2NH+

Sour gas from slug catcher enters the Sweetening Unit and is heated
in a steam heater to prevent hydrate formation downs ream of pressure let
down valve, as a result of drop in pressure from 64.5 kg/cm2. Sour gas is
then mixed with the sour condensate gas from the Condensate Fractionation
Unit (CFU) & passes through a knock out drum and flows to the Absorber at
a pressure of 62.5 Kg/cm2.

ABSORPTION SECTION :

Raw Natural Gas from Slug catcher is mixed with a sour condensate gas
from the condensate fractionation unit. This sour condensate off gas enters
the MDEA unit battery limit at 65.0 Kg/cm2 pressure (depending upon the
raw natural gas pressure) and at a temperature of 45 Deg. C.

The raw gas mixture passes via a flow control valve to the knock out drum,
where liquid carry overs (water, hydrocarbons) are requested. Upon leaving
seperator, raw gas then enters the amine absorber where it comes into
counter contact wit the aqueous solution of MDEA. The absorber column
contains 14 valve trays. The lean MDEA solution enters the column upper
section at 45 deg. C. Different liquid feed nozzles on the column (at trays
1,3,5,7,9) give the flexibility of allowing the correct number of trays to be
selected to obtain the required results. The required inlet point will depend
upon the feed gas quality & operating conditions.

The treated gas leaves the top of the absorber containing less than 4 ppm
(Vol.) H2S at a temperature of 48 Deg. C. The treated gas is then cooled to
40 Deg. C by heat exchanger with cooling water in the cooler before entering
the treated gas knock out drum. In this drum, the liquid phase resulting from
cooling (condensed water, amine carry over) is separated from the gas
stream and collected. From knock out drum the liquid flows under level
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control to the rich amine flash drum. The treated gas leaves from the top of
31V302 and is piped to the TEG dehydration unit.

AMINE REGENERATION SECTION :

The rich amine solution flows under level control valve from the bottom of the
absorber to the rich amine flash drum. The sour flashed gas from this drum
contains about 200 ppm (vol) of H 2S. In order to meet the fuel gas
specifications (less than 4 ppm vol of H 2S), this sour fuel gas is contacted
with a small lean MDEA flow in the absorption tower, this is located on top of
the rich amine flash drum. It contains 6 valve trays. The gas, containing
less than 4 ppm (vol.) H2S leaves the top of 31C303 and is sent under
pressure control to the fuel gas system.

The flashed rich amine solution flows from the flash drum to the rich/lean
amine exchanger. The rich amine flash drum level control valve is located
down steam of the exchanger in order to minimize solution degassing in the
exchanger. MDEA solution stripping is accomplished in the regenerator.
Stripping vapour is generated in the re-boiler.

The lean amine leaves the bottom of the regenerator under level control,
which is located in the lean amine line down stream of the coolers to prevent
degassing in either 31E302 A/B or 31E301.

This lean amine stream is cooled in the Plate Exchanger by exchange with
the rich amine feed to the regenerator. It is further cooled by exchange with
cooling water in the Coolers to a temperature of approx. 45 Deg. centigrade
before going to the lean Amine storage tank. The amine regeneration
system is designed to operate at 100% capacity.

The hot acid gas/vapour mixture leaving the top of the regenerator is cooled
to 45 Deg.C by exchange with cooling water in the condenser. The
condensed water is separated and collected in the reflux drum. The water
collected is pumped by the reflux pump. It goes under level control as reflux
back to the top tray of the regenerator. The top tray of the regenerator is
provided for washing of the acid gas stream with water in order to minimize
amine carry over.

Acid gas leaves the top of the reflux drum under pressure control and goes
to SRU via acid gas header. This pressure control valve maintains a
minimum of 20 Kg/Cm2 pressure on the reflux drum.

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H.P. ABSORPTION
SOUR GAS SWEET
FROM CFU GAS
60kg/cm2

35 C

ABSORBER
SOUR GAS
FROM S/C

AMINE
TA NK
PUMP
RICH45
AMINE

28
AMINE REGENERATION
COOLER

ACID
RICH AMINE
GAS
1 kg/cm2

REGENERATOR
128 C REFLUX

LP STEAM

LEAN AMINE
REBOILER

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Gas Dehydration Unit

(GDU)

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PROCESSING CAPACITY
TRAIN # CAPACITY
PHASE I 41
42 5.4 MMSCMD each

43
PHASE II 44 5.4 MMSCMD each

45
PHASE III 46 5.4 MMSCMD each

47
PHASE III A 6.3 MMSCMD each
1

31
DESCRIPTION OF GAS DEHYDRATION TRAIN

Treated gas leaving the gas sweetening unit enters the dehydration unit at a
pressure of 60.0 Kg/Cm2g, and temperature of 40 Degree C. The
dehydration is supposed to be run with same liquid flow while the pressure is
varying.

So, the gas at the TEG Unit battery limit passes firstly through 41-FV-1101 to
the Feed gas knock out Drum 41-V-404 entrained or condensed liquids are
removed.

Liquid collected at the base of 41-V-404 are sent to the rich amine flash
drum (Units 31 32/33) under level control by 41-LV-1101.

The gas leaving the top of 41-V-404 then flow to the absorption column 41C-
401 where it is contacted with the lean tri-ethylene glycol solution (TEG)
(99.7% wt.). The column 41-C-401 is fitted with 9 bubble cap trays, 8 of
which are absorption trays and a top dry tray (Tray No.1). The purpose of
this dry tray is to retain the major part of carry over to reduce the glycol
losses.

The feed gas enters the lower part of the column below the bottom tray (Tray
No.9) and is scrubbed by the lean glycol as it passes up the column
counter-current to be glycol which enters above tray No. 2.

The scrubbed gas leaving the top of 41-C-401 passes to the dried gas
scrubber (41-C-401) where entrained glycol carry is removed. The gas
leaving the top of 41-V-401 is routed to the hydrocarbon dew point
depression unit.

Rich glycol collected in the base of the Absorber is sent under level control
(41-LV-1106) to the Rich Glycol Degassing Drum (41-V-402). Before
entering 41-V-402 this stream is combined with the glycol from the scrubber
41-V-401. The level in 41-V—401 is controlled by 41-LV-1110.

Due to the lower operating pressure 7.0 Kg/Cm2g of the Degassing Drum
(41-V-402) absorbed hydrocarbons are released from the glycol. The
released light hydrocarbons are sent under pressure control of either 41-PV-
1110 to the fuel gas header or via 41-PV-1111 as a stripping medium to the
stripping column 41-C-403. If sufficient gas is available from 41-V02 for use
as stripping gas, this will be made up directly from the sweet, dry gas stream
from 41-V-401 via 41-PV-1108.

32
The Degassing Drum 41-V-402 is fitted with 2 skimming lines for the removal
of any condensed hydrocarbons which accumulate on the surface of the
glycol. These condensed hydrocarbons must be drained manually to the
flare header.

The rich degassed glycol from the base of 42-V-402 goes to the filter
package under level control (41-LV-1116) which is located downstream of
the filters.

TEG FILTERATION PACKAGE

Tri-ethylene glycol will not exhibit a high degree of foaming if it is kept free of
surfactant type materials. These materials may be introduced through
compressor oil plug cock lubricant, and corrosion inhibitors used in either the
formation or in the gas gathering system. So such products must be chosen
carefully.

Special attention has been given in the design to foaming and fouling by use
of :-

- TEG degassing and hydrocarbon condensate removal in 41-V-402.

- Cartridge filter 41-X-401 A/B on the full rich glycol stream with a standby
unit.

- Charcoal filter 41-X-402 on 30% of the rich glycol stream.

REGENERATION SECTION

Before entering the regenerator column (41-C-402), the glycol is


preheated in heating coil at the top of the regenerator. The flow of glycol to
the heating coil is controlled by a 3 way valve 41-TV-1215 which controls the
top temperature of 41-C-402. Temperature controller 41-TV-1215 opens to
allow cold rich glycol to flow to the heating coil. As the glycol flow through
the coil it cools and partially condenses the hot vapour rising up the column
41-C-402 thereby reducing the overhead temperature and providing an
internal reflux for the column. The glycol which is not required to maintain
41-C-402 top temperature flows through the by pass part of 41-TV-1215 and
rejoins the preheated glycol stream from the heating coil.

33
The rich glycol stream then flows to the rich/lean glycol plate type exchanger
(41-E-401), where it is heated from 65 Degree C. to 145 Degree C by
exchange with the regenerated lean glycol, before entering the glycol
regenerator column 41-C-402.

The regenerator column 41-C-402 is an atmospheric column, which contains


4 bubble cap type trays and the previously mentioned heating coil.

The temperature in the regenerator reboiler (41-E-402) is controlled at 180


Degree C. by 41-TV-1212 which controls the flow of HP steam. Glycol from
the reboiler 41-E-402 over flows to the stripper (41-C-403) which is end
mounted on to the reboiler. The stripper is a packed column and here the
glycol is stripped by hot dry fuel gas to achieve a concentration of 99.7% wt.
The fuel gas from 41-V-401/402 is preheated in a second coil of the reboiler
41-E-402 by exchange with the hot liquid glycol before it enters the stripper
41-C-403.

The hot, stripped glycol from the base of 41-C-403 flows by gravity through
the rich/lean glycol plat type exchanger 41-E-401, here it is cooled from 185
Degree C to 80 Degree C by exchange with the cold rich glycol feed to 41-
0C-402, before going to the surge drum 41-V-403. The gases from the top of
the stripper 41-C-403 are piped to the reboiler 41-E-402 and the surge drum
41-V-403 to maintain a slight positive pressure in these vessels.

The lean glycol collected in the surge drum 41-V-403 at 80 Degree C. is


pumped by the lean glycol injection pumps 41-P-401 A/B to the trim collar
41-E-403, where it is cooled to 38 Degree C. by exchange with cooling
water, in then returns to the absorber 41-C-401.

34
35
GAS DEHYDRATION

SWEET & DRY


LEAN
GLYCOL

SWEET
GAS
ABSORBER
53 kg/cm2 KOD

35 C
RICH
GLYCOL

36
GAS DEHYDRATION

LEAN
GLYCOL

SWEET
GAS
ABSORBER
53 kg/cm2 KOD

35 C
RICH
GLYCOL

37
38
Dew Point Depression Unit

(DPD)

39
DEW POINT DEPRESSION PLANT

The Sweet and dehydration gas feeding the Dew point Depression Unit
contains significant quantities of heavy hydrocarbons. In order to avoid
condensation in the HBJ pipeline, which may occur due to seasonal
temperature variations, the heavy hydrocarbons need to be removed.

The Dew point Depression Unit is designed to achieve this objective by


lowering the gas well below the minimum temperature which the gas may
attain the H-B-J pipeline. There are 8 identical DPD trains, each of 5
MMNM3/D handling capacity.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Sweet and dehydrated gas is treated in this unit to lower hydrocarbon dew
point of gas well below the minimum temperature which the gas may attain
in the
H-B-J pipeline. Expected minimum temperature that the gas may attain is
11 Deg. C. Dew Point Depression unit process description is described in
two sections.

- Chill down section

- Propane Refrigeration Section.

CHILL-DOWN SECTION

The feed gas is first cooled by outgoing (Dew Point depressed) product gas
in gas-gas exchangers (E-501 A/B//C/D) and it is then finally cooled to –
2.5deg C. in a Gas Chiller (51-E-502) by evaporating refrigerant propane.
The gas temperature at the outlet of chiller is controlled by a bypass control
valve (51-TV-1101). Provision is kept to inject tri ethylene glycol at up-
stream side of gas-gas exchanger to avoid freezing problems in chill down
section which may crop up during malfunctioning of the dehydration unit.

Normally TEG injection shall not be done. The chilled gas is sent to filter
separator (51-X-501) to knock out hydrocarbon condensate, traces of water,
and glycol (if any) formed. The separated gas from 51-X-501 exchanges
cold with incoming feed gas in gas-gas exchangers (51-E-501 A/B/C/D).

40
The gas is then sent to pipeline compressor station for transportation in H-B-
J pipeline. Hydrocarbon condensate from filter separator is pumped through
condensate transfer pumps (51-P-501 A/B) to LPG plant/or slug catcher
condensate header by level control valve. During phase I , when LPG plant
is in operation, condensate transfer pumps are by passed, since the filter
separater (51-X-501) operating pressures are higher than condensate
coalescer (10-X-103) pressure of LPG plant. However, when the LPG plant
is shutdown, then both the pumps (51-P-501 A/B) are employed in series to
transfer the condensate to slug catcher condensate header.

PROPANE REFRIGERATION SECTION

Propane refrigeration system has been provided in the DPD Unit to supply
refrigeration required in gas chiller (51-E-502). Propane refrigeration
system is provided as a part of the DPD unit. Once the system is filled with
liquid propane it operates in a closed cycle and little make up from external
source is required. A single stage refrigeration is provided. Propane from
accumulator (51-V-502) at 46 degree C. flows over to sub-cooler (51-E-504)
where it is sub-cooled by cooling water to 40 degree C. Then it flows over
to gas chiller (51-E-502) through level control. Refrigerant propane after
evaporation in the chiller flows over to propane compressor suction knock
our drum (51-V-501).Propane vapour is compressed by reciprocating
propane compressor (51-K-501) A/B driven by electric motor. The resulting
vapour is condensed in propane condenser (51-E-503) and taken to
accumulator (51-V-502) for reuse in propane cycle.

Suction pressure of propane compressor is controlled by compressor


discharge to suction bypass control valve 51-PV-1102. Temperature of the
bypassed propane gas is maintained at 0 degree C. by spraying liquid
propane in a quench nozzle via a temperature control valve 51-TV-1102.

In each train two refrigerant propane compressors & are provided. While
one compressor is in operation, other one is standby.

41
GAS CHILLING
SWEET & PROPANE VAP. TO
GAS/GAS
DRY GAS COOLER COMP RESSOR
FROM GDU

12oC CHILLER

SEPARATOR
GAS TO GA IL
5oC
/HBJ PIPELINE

LIQ. PROPANE F ROM


ACCUM ULA TOR
COND.
38
TO LPG

42
PROPANE REFRIGERATION CYCLE

LIQ.
2.7 kg/cm2
15 kg/cm2
PROPANE
QUENCH
0 oC COMPRESSOR 70oC
KOD
CONDENSER
40oC

- 5oC

CHILLER ACCUMULA TOR

30oC

SUPER 39
COOLER
43
Condensate
Fractionation Unit

(CFU)

44
PROCESSING CAPACITY
TRAIN # CAPACITY
71
PHASE I 72
51.5 tones/hr each
73 =
PHASE II 74
75 m3/ hr each
75
PHASE III 76 TOTAL CAPACITY
525 m3/ hr
PHASE III A 77 12600 m3/ day

23

CONDENSATE FRACTIONATION UNIT


45
PROCESS DESCRIPTION

The condensate Fractionation unit is designed to remove H2S and to


recover L.P.G. & N.G.L. from pipeline condensate. Seven trains are
provided to process the total condensate corresponding to 41 MMNM3/day
of slug catcher gas. A stand by condensate stabilisation facility is provided
to dispose the pipeline condensate in case one of the gas condensate
fractionation unit is shutdown.

The fractionation unit consists of condensate receiving system, H2S stripper,


condensate off-gas compressor and LPG column.

CONDENSATE RECEIVING SYSTEM

The condensate as it is received from the slug catcher is heated up in the


condenste heater and it is received in the surge drum. Any free water
droplets in the condensate will be separated in the surge drum and collected
in the water boot. Water is removed under interphase level control. The
hydrocarbon liquid is then pumped by transfer pumps to the filter coalesces.
The pump is designed to give deficient head to avoid any hydrocarbon
flashing in the downstream filter-coalescers.

Two units of cartridge type filters are provided (one operating & one
standby). The filtering elements of condensate filter coalescers is used for
filtering out scale/dust/debris, which may occur during commissioning or
pigging operation of the subsea pipeline. The coalescer element is used for
removal of free water. The free water collected in the boot is removed
through inter phase level control. Dew point depression unit condensate can
be processed in the condensate fractionation unit when LPG unit is under
shutdown.

H2S STRIPPER

Stripper is designed, to strip off H2S from condensate so that the sweet
condensate in the bottom of the column has a maximum content of 4 ppm of
H2S and retains maximum propane & butane in the bottom sweet
condensate.

LPG COLUMN
46
The stripper bottom liquid enters the LPG column at the 19 th or 24th tray.
This column has 60 trays and designed to separate LPG (Propane and
Butanes) from heavier components.

Most of the Hydrogen Sulphide (about 4 ppm) present in the LPG column
feed appears in the LPG product resulting in 5-20 ppm concentration. This
LPG is sweetened in a caustic wash unit (Bubbling of LPG liquid in a static
bed of 15% caustic soda solution) in offsites and sent to storage.

CONDENSATE OFF-GAS COMPRESSION

The stripper overhead vapour passes to the compressor suction knock out
drum. The surge drum flashed vapour is also combined with this stream.
Two reciprocating compressor (one operating & other standby) are provided
to compress the sour gas.

FLARE SYSTEM

A common flare header, Flare knockout drum and flare blow-down pumps
are provided within the battery limits. All the Hydrocarbon vapour/liquid
collected from vents and pressure relief valves will go to flare knock out
drum from there the gas flows to the main flare stack through an offsite flare
header, the liquid collected is pumped out to a slop tank located in offsites.

Instrument air, Plant air, Service water, Inert gas are received at battery limit
and supplied to the unit through headers.

47
DISTILLATION COLUMN PRINCIPLE
CONDENSER
COLD LIQUID
REFLUX

RECTIFYING
SECTION

TOP
FEED PRODUCT

STRIPPING
SECTION

VALVE TRAY

REBOILER

BOTTOM
PRODUCT HOT VAPOR 26

48
STRIPER & OFF GAS COMPRESSOR
OFF GAS
TO GSU
FROM
18 kg/cm2
FILTE R / 60 kg/cm2
COALCR.
COMP RESSOR

60
val ve trays

MP STEAM
140o C
TO LPG COLM.

4 PPM H2S max.


28

49
LPG COLUMN
10 kg/cm2
TO FLARE

60 oC
REFLUX
REFLUX DRUM
FRM
STRIPPE R
BOTTM. 60 valve
trays

190 oC
LPG TO
HP SPHERE
STEAM

NGL TO
KRU / TA NK
29

50
Sulphur Recovery Unit

(SRU)

51
PROCESSING CAPACITY
TRAIN # CAPACITY

PHASE I 61 7.0 KNM3/hr each


62
63

64
PHASE II 7.0 KNM3/hr each
65

PHASE III 66 7.0 KNM3/hr each

52
SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT (SRU)

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Capacity
The SRU is designed to treat 42,000 NM3/hr. of acid gas originating from the
Gas Sweetening Unit. Each train is capable of treating upto 7000 NM3/hr.
of acid gas with a hydrogen sulphide concentration ranging between 0.3 and
5.2 mole percent. The Sulphur production will range between 0.7 and 12.2
metric tonnes per day. Under normal circumstances five trains will operate
at full capacity while one remains on standby.

Acid Gas Feed Distribution

Acid gas from the Amine Gas Sweetening Unit enters the south battery limits
of the SRU Unit through a 24” pipeline header. The pipeline is sized to
handle acid gas for both Phase-I, Phase-II and Phase-III of the Gas
Processing Complex, or a total of 35,000 NM3/hr of Acid Gas.

An on stream H2S analyser on the acid gas header maintains a record of the
H2S concentration of the acid gas in ppm (V).

Acid gas flows from the header to five of the six operating sulphur recovery
trains. The trains are numbered 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 and 65. Any combination
of five trains may operate at any one time.

The end of the acid gas header is equipped with a block valve and blind and
provides expandability into Phase-II. In the event flow to one of the
operating trains is choked, the pressure of the acid gas header will increase
and controller 60-PIC-1102 will open control valve 60-PV-1108, sending the
appropriate amount of acid gas to the incinerator in order to maintain
pressure in the header. Pressure controller 60-PIC-1102 is set at a higher
pressure than the normal operating pressure of the acid gas sent to the
incinerator.
A high flow alarm 60-FAH-1110 on the incinerator line warns operators
when the acid gas rate to the incinerator is approaching the design rate of
7000 NM3/hr. This is required since the incinerator is designed to handle
upto the equivalent of only one train or 7000 NM3/HR. Spectacle blinds

and block off valves are provided at the branch connections of each one of
SRU trains.

53
ABSORBER / OXIDIZER

ACID
GAS

LOCA T ADDITIVES
ARI 310 C
ARI 310 M
Surf actant
Biochem
Def oamer

BLOWER
SULP HUR
SLURRY
AIR
TO MELTER
SLURRY 19
PUMP

54
The flow to each train is controlled by a flow controller 61-FIC-1101 which is
reset by the acid gas header pressure (60-PIC-1101). This allows equal
distribution of acid gas to the two operating trains regardless of acid gas
pressure fluctuations.

Each train is designed to process amine unit off gas at approximately 0.7
kg/sq.cm g and at a rate of 7000 Nm3/hr. The feed gas H2S concentration
is to be reduced from a maximum of 5.2 mole % to 10 ppm (V).

The feed gas enters unit 61 through flow control valve 61-FV-1101 and on to
the Feed Gas Knock out Drum 61-V-601, which removes any condensate
entering the unit. The condensate is removed on level control and sent off to
the MDEA Sump Storage Tank (60-V-654). Low level switch 61-LSL-1101
will automatically close 61-LV-1101 to prevent the acid gas from entering 60-
V-654. The scrubbed acid gas continues to the oxidizer/Absorber 61-V-602.

Hydrogen Sulphide Absorption and LO-CAT Solution Regeneration

Absorption of H2S is accomplished by contacting the sour gas with basic


solution of ARI-310 catalytic regent in the center well of the liquid full
Absorber/Oxidizer 61-V-602. The process gas is introduced into each of the
four (4) absorber sections through four (4) 8” process gas sparger
assemblies. Process gas leaves the absorber section of the vessel through
a perforated gas-liquid distributor plate at the top of the center well it is
mixed with spent air from the oxidizer section of the vessel and is finally
vented to the atmosphere through the cooling tower 61-X-601. An H2S
analyser located in the discharge neck of 61-X-601 will activate an alarm
when the H2S concentration reaches 15 ppm.

Circulating Lo-cat Solution is introduced into the Absorber section of the


vessel by spilling over the centre well wall through the gas liquid distributor
plate. The absorption volume required to obtain the design H2S removal is
maintained by providing enough liquid in the system to allow circulation (this
will be explained further below). Circulating liquid leaves the absorber
section of the main process vessel by under flowing the centre wall, through
the settler section and into the oxidizer section of the vessel.

The sulphur created by the reaction forms in the absorber section of the
vessel. Since the density of such sulphur is approximately twice that of
water, the formed sulphur will settle down into the settler section of the
vessel. A small amount of fine sulphur particles will continuously be
circulated with the liquid catalyst solution but this will equilibrate at a low
enough concentration not to interfere with H2S removal.
55
The reduced solution from the absorber section of the vessel under flows the
center well wall and enters to the oxidizer section.

As the reduced solution proceeds through the oxidizing section, it is


regenerated by contract with air. The injection of air also serves the purpose
of providing the driving force necessary to circulate the Lo-Cat solution by
lowering the bulk density of the oxidizing section.

The solution is completely regenerated by the time it reaches the top of the
oxidizer section. Regenerated solution passes over the top will of the
absorber center wells and proceeds down ward making counter current
contact with upward flowing acid gas bubbles, thus completing the
oxidation/regeneration cycle. Liquid flow down the center well is evenly
distributed by a perforated baffle at the top of the center well section.

It is very important that the oxidizer air flow be maintained at all times. If the
air supply is interrupted while the acid gas continues to flow into 61-V-602,
the most apparent consequence is the breakthrough of H2S to the
atmosphere. A less apparent consequence is the over reduction of the Lo-
Cat solution.

Excessive over-reduction may result in the change out of the entire charge
since it will reach a point where it will no longer be regenerable. The auto
circulation system circulates catalyst solution between the oxidizer, absorber
and settler sections of the vessels without the use of a circulating pump.

The driving force for liquid circulation is provided by the difference in density
between the aerated catalyst solution in the absorber and oxidizer sections
of the vessel. The density of an aerated solution decrease with increasing
superficial gas velocity. The superficial gas velocity in the oxidizer section of
the vessel is set at about twice that in the center well absorber section of the
vessel.

The oxidizer section has been designed with sufficient superficial gas
velocity to assure adequate agitation for mixing gas and liquid in the oxidizer
as well as providing a driving force for circulation liquid through the oxidizer
and absorber sections of the vessel. The oxidation volume required to
regenerate the catalyst solution at design H2S load is provided for with the
level controller-water make up system which also takes care of the net loss
of water experienced by the process. Demineralised water on flow control is
added either to the Absorber/Oxidizer, to the recirculating sulphur slurry line
or a combination of both. DM water is added on flow control (61-FIC-1204)
which is reset by level (61-LIC-1204).
56
The system has been designed to provide sufficient catalyst circulation over
the entire expected range of process gas flow rates. Liquid flows up-flow co-
current to the air-flow in the annular oxidizer section and down flow counter
current to the process gas flow in the center well absorber section. Since
circulation is accomplished by spilling liquid over the center well baffle, it is
critical to the operation of the system that the liquid catalyst level be
maintained considerably higher than the top of the center well baffle.

Lo-Cat Solution Cooling

The reactions occurring in the process are exothermic, resulting in a net gain
of heat by the Lo-Cat solution. During winter months and/or times of low
H2S concentration in the feed, the heat gain is more than compensated by
the heat losses by evaporation of water into the oxidizer. However, during
summer months and/or times of high concentration in the feed, the heat gain
will result in Lo-Cat solution temperatures greater than the recommended 50
Deg.C. It is during these times that a heat removal system is necessary.

Sulphur Melting and Separation

Sulphur particles produced in the absorber section of 61-V-602 drop out into
the settling section. The sulphur particles are about two times the density of
water and rely on gravity to settle out into the cone section of 61-V-602.

Sulphur will accumulate in the cone section to a concentration of


approximately 10 wt. %. A continuously operating scrapper 61-X-610
prevents bridging of sulphur by keeping the sulphur off the inside wall of the
cone. An air blast sparger ring directs air jets towards the wall of the cone
to prevent sulphur bridging in the lower section of the cone (below the
scrapper). An adjustable timer has been incorporated with the air blast valve
to provide a series of pulsating air jets.

Sulphur is withdrawn from the bottom cone of the settler section of 61-V-602
and pumped to the sulphur melter section of the unit by one of the two
moyno type progressive cavity positive displacement pumps (61-P-601 A/B).
De-mineralized water make-up is added to the sulphur slurry upstream of
61-P-601 A/B. This is done in order to wash the sulphur and produce a
better quality sulphur product. As was mentioned earlier, this water make up
can either be added directly to the Absorber/oxidizer or just upstream of the
Sulphur Slurry pumps. The rate or water added upstream of 61-P-601 A/B is
controlled by manually adjusting the ball valve downstream of 61-FI-1201.

57
Sulphur slurry from 61-P-601 A/B proceeds to the sulphur Melter 61-E-603.
61-PSH-1203 and 61-PSL-1202 alarm in the control room when the sulphur
slurry pressure is either too high (possible restriction problems downstream)
or too low (malfunction of 61-PV-1307 or 61-P-601 A/B. The Sulphur Melter
is a vertical exchanger with the sulphur slurry flowing downward in the tube
section. Low pressure steam which has been de-superheated is the heat
source and is introduced into the shell side of the Sulphur Melter through 61-
TV-1305.

Temperature controller 61-TIC-1305 maintains the temperature of the Lo-


Cat/Molten Sulphur leaving the Sulphur Melter at 130 Degree C. by adjusting
61-T.V-1305. Condensate steam by gravity flows to condensate separator
61-V-606 from which it is removed on level control through 61-LV-1305.
Steam condensate proceeds to the condensate steam header. The Sulphur
Melter is fully insulated and is equipped with a melting coil (for start-up and a
jacketed bonnet on the discharge sides. The hot molten Sulphur/Lo-Cat
solution proceeds through a jacketed line to the molten sulphur separator.
Molten Sulphur settles to the bottom of 61-V-603 and is removed on
interface level control (61-LIC-1306), through 61-LV-1306 to the Sulphur
Surge tank (61-V-604).

Low level switch 61-LSLL-1306 will close 61-LV-1306 when the sulphur level
drops too low. This prevents contamination of the molten sulphur with Lo-
Cat solution. A high level switch 61-LSHH-1302 will shutdown 61-P-601 A/B
in the event the sulphur level approaches the top of the vessel high and low
temperature alarms on 61-V-603 will warn operators of possible malfunction
of 61-E-603. Hot Lo-Cat solution leaves the top of 61-V-603 and returns to
the cooling tower (61-X-601) which is located on top of 61-V-602. In
returning, it goes through 61-PV-1307 which maintains a pressure of 4.5
Kg/Cm2g in the melting section.

SULPHUR STORAGE AND SULPHUR FORMING

Liquid Sulphur from the sulphur separators flows to the sulphur surge Tank
61-V-604 where it is stored. The storage capacity of these tanks is about 7
days.
58
The sulphur surge Tank is fully jacketed and insulated as elector system is
provided to sweep the tank with air and remove sulphur vapour to a safe
location. An internal, coil is provided to speed up start-up is the sulphur has
been allowed to solidify within the tank.

Liquid sulphur is pumped from 61-V-604 by Sulphur Transfer Pumps 61-P-


603 A/B, to the sulphur preconditioning system 61-X-652 A/B. The Sulphur
preconditioning system controls the temperature of the liquid sulphur feeding
the sulphur forming system. Liquid sulphur continues to the sulphur Forming
system (Rotoformers) which produces high quality sulphur pellets.

Pressure of the liquid sulphur entering the Rotoformers is maintained by


diverting sulphur back to the Sulphur surge Tanks through 60-PV-1503.
High and low pressure alarms warn operators of a possible malfunction of
either 60-PV-1503, 61-P-603 A/B or a plugging problem in 61-E-653 or 61-X-
602.

The Liquid sulphur header feeding the preconditioning units is completely


integrated with all five SRU trains. Molten Sulphur may be treated by any
three preconditioners and proceed by any three of the sulphur forming trains
(61/62/63-x-602).

The sulphur pre-conditioning system controls the temperature of the molten


sulphur to the sulphur forming system. In order for the sulphur forming
system to operate efficiently and at the design capacities, the molten sulphur
temperature must be in the range of 125 Degree C. to 135 Degree C. A high
pressure Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) is circulated through the preconditioning
system.

The HTF is pumped by the HTF circulation pumps (61-P-656 A/B) through
the HTF Heater (61-E-652) and then through the HTF cooler (61-E-651). A
bypass around the cooler is controlled by the Molten Sulphur temperature
the cooler is controlled by the molten sulphur temperature leaving the
Sulphur pre-conditioners (61-E-653). The HTF proceeds to 61-E-653 where
it heats or cools the molten sulphur as is required, the HTF exits 61-E-653
and proceeds to 61-P-656 A/B, thus closing the cycle. Expansion Vessel
(61-V-651) takes up any changes in volume in the HFT system due to
temperature changes.

Molten Sulphur proceeds to the sulphur Former (61-x-602) where it enters in


the rotoformer which drops molten sulphur into a rotating stainless steel belt.
The belt transports the sulphur pellets across a cooling section where the
59
sulphur solidifies and cools. Cooling water is sprayed to the opposite
(bottom) side of the belt providing the heat rink required for solidifying and
cooling the sulphur pellets. Cooling water returns to the sewer system and
serves as cooling water blow down for the Hazira Cooling Water System.
The pastilles proceed to the Sulphur Pellets conveyor (61-x-603) which
transports them to a Bagging Hopper (61-x-604). The sulphur pellets are
automatically fed into 25 kg. Sulphur bags. Weighted (61-x-605) and then
transported to a sewing machine which sews shut the sulphur bags. The
bags are subsequently transported to a storage area.

Chemical Requirements

Chemical make up is normally required in order to maintain the Lo-Cat


solution at its most desirable chemical composition. The Lo-Cat process
uses the following make up Chemicals.

- ARI - 310M

- ARI - 300

- KOH

- Surfactant ARI - 600

- Biochem ARI - 400

- NALCO DEFOAMER

The addition of these chemicals on a regular basis has been provided for the
process design. However, chemical addition should be governed by the
chemical composition of the circulating Lo-Cat Solution.

A no-flow switch 61-FSL-1703 warns operators when the flow of ARI-310 to


the Chemical supply header is interrupted.

The dosing pump rate is manually adjustable to control chemical addition. A


graduated level gauge on 61-T-605 is used to verify the rate of chemical
addition.

Surfactant

The sulphur particles sometimes agglomerate and entrap air bubbles.


Dosage of 10 ppm per day of surfactant are ordinarily sufficient to provide
60
adequate settling if the system is free of hydrocarbons. Larger does are
required if oil or other organics are absorbed in the circulating solution. ARI
600 Surfactant, a special low foam composition, is the surfactant used.

Surfactant Dosing pumps (61-P-606 A/B) transfers Surfactant from


surfactant Tank (61-T-604) to the Chemical Header. At the rate of 0.21 1/h.
61-T-604 provides about 7 weeks supply of chemical.

A no-flow switch 61-FISL-1704 warns operators when the flow of surfactant


to the chemical supply header is interrupted.

The Dosing pump rate is manually adjustable to control chemical addition. A


graduated level gauge on 61-T-604 is used to verify the rate of chemical
addition.

Biochem

Biochem is required to prevent biological degradation of the catalyst solution.


Very small dosages of 10 ppm per day are usually adequate to suppress
biological oxidation. ARI-400 Biochem, which serves as a bacterial growth
inhibitor, is the recommended Biochem for this application.

Biochem Dosing Pumps (61-P-608 A/B) transfers Biochem from Biochem


Tank (61-T-603) to the Chemical Header. At the rate of 0.23 liters/hr. 61-T-
603 provides about 7 weeks supply of Chemicals.

Defoamer

Foaming can sometimes occur with in the absorber/oxidiser. Both the


surfactant and biochem have a tendency to cause foaming if used in excess
as do some organic materials contained in the process stream.

In the event foaming occurs, Defoamer would be injected directly into the
absorber/oxidizer in ½ to 1 liter dosages. The recommended defoamer is
NALCO 5740 which is ‘air blown’ into 61-V-602.

61
SRU BLOCK DIAGRAM
STACK AT 28 M HEIGHT

KOH
ARI 600
ARI350 LOCAT
ARI310C RET URN
ARI400
CW

ABSORBER
OXIDISER

ACID
GAS
MELTER
KOD

SEPERAT OR
KOD

COOLER
SLURRY
MOLT EN
SULPHUR
SUMP
SURGE
DRUM

ACID GAS BLOWER ROT OFORMER


BAGGING
FROM GSU 10

62
ABSORBER INTERNALS
Acid Gas
Air

Acid Gas Spargers Regenerated LoCAT

Center Well ( 4 Nos. )

Air Spargers Reduced LoCAT

Auto circulation Sulphur Particles


Flow path
Scraper
Air Blast Line 11

63
MELTER / SEPARATOR
LOCA T RE TURN
ROTOFORMER
FROM
ABSORBER

4 kg/cm2
SEPARATOR
BAGGING
MELTER

140 oC

STEAM

MOLTE N SURGE DRUM


SULP HUR 12

64
LPG RECOVERY UNIT

65
CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

Hazira Gas Processing Complex is designed to process 20 MMNCMD of gas


and associated condensate. The gas and condensate are received at the
complex from offshore platforms in Bombay High/South Bassein fields
through sub-sea pipeline.

LPG Plant is designed to process 5 MMNCMD of sweet gas. The balance


15 MMNCMD gas will be supplied to various fertilizers along the 1700 KMs
long pipeline route from Hazira to Jagdishpur (HBJ pipeline) in U.P.
Condensate collected in DPD units is also processed in LPG recovery plant.

The process for LPG recovery involves expansion and consequent cooling of
gases to produce condensate which is distilled to give LPG and Natural
Gasoline. The lean gas is supplied at two pressure levels to the consumers.

LPG PLANT DESIGN DATA

FEED

(I) Gaseous Feed stock

5 MMNCMD free gas from South Bassein field after sweetening


Or
5 MMNCMD associated gas from Bombay High offshore field.

(II) Liquid Feed Stock

Average amount of condensate generated in 3 Dew Point Depression


Units
Or
Pipeline condensate corresponding to 5MMNCMD of associated gas
from Bombay High.

66
PRODUCTS

LPG : 2,20,000 TPA

- Specifications : (as per IS-4576)

- Propane :Butane : 50 : 50 by weight

- Vapour Pressure : 16.87 kg/cm2g (max.) at 65 deg. C.


10.0 kg/cm2g (min.)

NGL

- A mixture of pentane and heavier Hydrocarbon.

- Vapour pressure = 0.9 kg/cm2g (max.) at 40 deg. C.

Lean Gas

- 3.78 MMNCMD as high pressure gas at 44.0 kg/cm2g (min.)

- 0.607 MMNCMD as low pressure gas at 10.0 kg/cm2g (min.)

67
C H A P T E R - II

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

LPG recovery plant is designed to handle 5 MMNCMD of sweet gas and


condensate generated in Dew Point Depression unit to recovery LPG and
NGL.

Feed gas from gas sweetening unit is available at the LPG plant battery limit
at a pressure range of 62-56 kg/cm2g and a temperature of around 38
degree Centigrade flows through a feed gas cooler to a feed gas knock out
drum. Bulk of the water is removed from the gas due to cooling it up to 24
degree. C. After this the gas from the feed gas knock out drum flows
through gas dryers where the moisture is reduced to 1ppm level.

This dried gas is cooled to –30 degree C. in a chiller (cold box) and the
condensed liquid is separated out in Separator-I. Vapors from separator are
expanded in an expander as a result of which the temperature further falls
down to –55 to –58 degree C. The liquid condensed on cooling is separated
out in Separator-II. The refrigeration of the vaporous from Sep-II is
recovered to cool down the feed gas stream. Further this lean gas is used to
cool the feed gas at feed gas cooler. After this the gas is compressed by
expander compressor to about 36 kg/cm2g and then compressed by lean
gas compressors to 47.5 kgh/cm2g and supplied to consumers as high
pressure lean gas.

Condensate from dew point depression unit available at plant battery limit at
a pressure of 63 to 59 kg/cm2g is flashed into a surge drum after heating to
avoid any hydrate formation. Condensate is passed through a coalescer
where most of the free water present in the condensate is separated out.
After this the condensate flows to liquid dryers where moisture content is
reduced to 5ppm level.

Liquid from Sep-I & Sep-II along with the condensate from liquid dryer is
routed to LEF (Light End Fractionator) Column. The light hydrocarbons (a
part of propane and lighters) are removed from the top of the column. These
lighters are expanded in LEF overhead expander and the refrigeration is
recovered by cooling the feed gas stream in cold box. After cold box this
gas is compressed to supply to KRIBHCO as low pressure lean gas and also
used for fuel gas consumption. Excess gas is compressed by Residue Gas
Compressor to supply as high pressure lean gas.
68
Liquid from the bottom of LEF column is routed to LPG column. Liquefied
Petroleum Gas is the top product from this column and bottom is NGL
(Natural Gasoline Liquid).

The entire LPG plant may be divided into the following sub-sections.

1) Feed gas supply


2) Feed gas cooling & drying
3) Feed gas chill down & separation
4) Lean gas compression & dispatch
5) Condensate handling system & drying
6) Dryers regeneration & residue gas compression
7) Light Ends fractionators Column
8) LPG column
9) Propane column
10) Refrigeration system
11) Fuel gas system
12) Steam & steam condensate system

69
KEROSENE RECOVERY
UNIT (KRU)

70
KEROSENE RECOVERY UNIT

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited has facilities at Hazira to


receive and process about 40 MMNCMD gas and associated
condensate, set up under phase-I,II, III & IIIA.

The processing facilities at Hazira consist of Gas Sweetening,


Dehydration, Dew Point Depression, Sulphur Recovery and
Condensate Fractionation. Also the complex has a LPG recovery
Unit to process 5 to 6 MMNCMD sweetened gas, LPG produced
from Condensate Fractionation Units (CFU) and LPG unit is being
cleared to oil companies.

The NGL produced from CFU trains contains appreciable amount of


Aromatic Rich Naphtha, Kerosene (SKO) and Residues (Heavy
Cut). ONGC has set up Kerosene Recovery Unit (KRU) to extract
these high value products. The NGL produced in the CFU is the
feed stock to KRU.

1.1. DESIGN BASIS

The purpose of KRU is to fractionate NGL produced in Condensate


Fractionation Units, into Naphtha, Kerosene (SKO) and Heavy Cut.
SKO has a TBP (True Boiling Point) range of 140° c to 290° c. The
fraction lighter than SKO having FBP of about 140° c is Naphtha.
The fraction heavier than SKO having IBP of about 290° c is Heavy
cut.

1.2 UNIT CAPACITY

Feed NGL : 1.07 MMPTA

PRODUCTS

Naphtha : 0.752 MMTPA


Kerosene : 0.285 MMTPA
Heavy cut : 0.033 MMTPA
Turndown : 40%
No. of trains : one *

71
Effectively, with the series column operation, we have one train.
KRU may be run in parallel also as two trains, if required, when the
TBP of feed NGL is less than 290° C.

1.3 FEED/PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

• Feed NGL

Specific Gravity @ T, P : 0.583


Vapour Pressure at 45° c : 0.65 kg/cm2

• Naphtha

TBP Cut : IBP to 140° C

• Kerosene
Flash point : 35°C (min.)
Smoke point : 18 MM (min.)
TBP cut : 140°C - 290°C

• Heavy cut

TBP Cut : 290°C to FBP

2.0 Process Description

Kerosene Recovery Unit is designed to fractionate 148 t/h from


seven CFU trains and reprocessing NGL produced during annual
shut down of KRU.

The Kerosene Recovery Unit consists of the following sections:

• NGL feed receiving


• Naphtha column feed preheat
• Naphtha fractionation
• Kerosene column feed preheat
• Kerosene fractionation
• NGL reprocessing
Description of each section given below :

72
2.1 NGL Feed Receiving

NGL from four trains of phase-I & II and three trains of phase-III &
IIIA of CFU is taken through two common 8” headers to Kerosene
Recovery Unit. The feed NGL from individual trains is taken
upstream of existing NGL coolers. It flows under level control and
joins the main headers to KRU. In case of NGL unit’s emergency
shutdown, automatic routing of NGL from individual units to storage
has been provided. This requires continuous cooling water
circulation in existing NGL coolers. NGL feed is received at plant
B/L at a pressure of 9.5 Kg/cm2g and a temperature of 170° c. In
order to avoid excessive flashing in the offsite line a back pressure
control valve is installed on the feed line. NGL is then led to a surge
drum (V-901) operating at a pressure of 4.6 kg/cm2g and a
temperature of 155° C.

The vapor generated due to flashing in the surge drum is fed under
back pressure control to the 12th tray of Naphtha column (C-901).

The liquid from V-901 flows under level to flow cascade control to
the Naphtha column feed preheat section. This control ensures
steady feed to Naphtha column.

2.2. Naphtha Column feed preheat

The feed to this section enters at pressure of 2.9 kg/cm2g and a


temperature of 141.5°c (due to pressure drop across the control
valve FV-1102). It is led into the feed/bottoms exchanger E-902
where it exchanges heat with the bottom product of Naphtha column
and is heated to 146.5°C. The Naphtha column bottom product in
turn is cooled from 206.5°c to 175°C. This arrangement has been
provided to reduce the load on Naphtha column reboiler, thereby
resulting in energy optimisation.

The feed at a temperature of 146.5°C is then mixed with vapor


liberated from V-901 and led to the Naphtha column (C-901)
2.3 Naphtha Fractionation Section

Naphtha product has an end point of 140°C. Naphtha column is


designed to separate Naphtha from heavier components.
73
The feed, which is a mixture of liquid and vapor, enters the column
9C-901) at the 12th tray. The column has a total of 20 valve trays.
Due to higher vapor load in the top section, the diameter is higher
(3350 mm I.D) as compared to the bottom section (3000 mm I.D)

The column pressure is maintained at 1.9 kg/cm2g at bottom and


1.7 kg/cm2g at top with the help of inert gas whose flow is regulated
through two make up and two flare pressure control valves that
operating in split range.

Column top temperature is maintained at around 118.3°c. The


overhead vapors are condensed in an air-cooled condenser 9E-
903) and led to a reflux drum 9V-902) operating at a temperature of
55°c. V-902 is provided with a boot to separate out any water
flowing along with hydrocarbons. A part of the liquid from V-902 is
refluxed to the column with the help of pumps P-902 A/B under flow
control which is regulated by an advanced controller, APC-1101
(presently not installed). The rest of the liquid after being cooled to
43°c. in trim cooler E-904 is withdrawn under level control as
Naphtha product.

Since the bottom temperature of the column is very high (206.5°c),


steam can not be used for reboiling. Hence, a double pass gas
fired heater (H-901) reboiler has been provided. The liquid to the
reboiler is circulated using pumps P-901 a/b. The outlet
temperature from the heater is controlled at 245°c by regulating
fuel gas flow to the heater. The flow to the individual passes of the
heater is maintained same with the help of flow control valves.
(Also ‘Pass Balancer’ part of proposed APC).

The bottom product is withdrawn under level control at a


temperature of 206.5°c and sent to exchanger E-902 as described
in section 2.2.

Kerosene product has an IBP of 140°c and FBP of 290°c. If the


Naphtha column bottom product has an FBP of less than 290°c no
further fractionation is required. The product after heat exchange in
E-902 is further cooled to 60°c in air cooled exchanger E-906 and
sent to drum V-903. From here, it is pumped (using P-904 A/B)
under level control to storage after being cooled further to 43°c in

74
trim cooler E-907. However, in case the FBP less than 290°c, the
columns can be used in parallel as two separate trains with capacity
of 1.5 MMTPA.

If however, the Naphtha column bottom product has an FBP of


higher than 290°c, it needs to be further fractionated in Kerosene
column C-902. In such case, after heat exchange in exchanger E-
902, it is sent under level control to Kerosene column feed preheat
section.

2.4 Kerosene Column Feed Preheat Section :

The feed to this section is at a pressure of 13.5 kg/cm2g and a


temperature of 149°c. It is led to a feed/tops exchanger E-905
where it exchanges heat with Kerosene column overhead vapor and
is heated to 229.5°c. The column overhead vapors are in turn
cooled from 239.5 to 2085°c.

The feed to kerosene column is then led to a single fired heater 9H-
902) where 98% of it is vaporised and the outlet temperature
attained is 250°c. The outlet temperature of the heater is controlled
by regulating the fuel gas supply to the heater as in case of heater
H-901.98% vaporised feed is fed to the Kerosene column.

2.5 Kerosene Fractionation Section

Kerosene product has an end point of 290-300°c. Kerosene column


is designed to separate Kerosene from heavier components.

The feed, which is almost total vapor (98% by wt.). enters the
column C-902 at the 21st tray. The column has total 21 valve trays.

The column pressure is maintained at 2.2. kg/cm2g at bottom and


2.0 kg/cm2g at top with the help of inert gas blanketing in kerosene
reflux drum V-903, whose flow is regulated through two makeup and
two flare pressure control valves in split range as in (C-901).

Column top temperature is maintained at around 246.3c. The


overhead vapors are first partially condensed in exchanger E-905
as described in the previous section and then led to air cooled
exchanger E-906 where they are cooled and totally condensed at
60°c. The condensed liquid is led to a reflux drum V-903. A part of
75
the liquid from V-903 is refluxed to the column with the help of
pumps P-904 A/B under flow control and is regulated by advanced
controller (presently APC is not implemented). The rest of the liquid
after being cooled to 43°c in trim cooler E-907 is withdrawn under
level control as Kerosene product.

The bottom product (Heavy cut) at 273°c is pumped with the help of
pumps
P-903 A/B under level control to storage after being cooled to 45°c
in a cooler.

3.0 NGL REPROCESSING

During the annual shutdown of KRU, the NGL produced from the
CFUs will be diverted to storage. When KRU is restarted, it is
proposed to reprocess this stored NGL. The total feed to KRU in
such a case is 148 t/h.

NGL to be reprocessed is received at plant B/L at a pressure of 6.4


kg/cm2g and a temperature of 35°c. It is heated to about 100.5°c in
exchanger E-901 using Naphtha column bottom stream emerging
from Exchanger E-902 at about 147°c. This stream in turn gets
cooled to 114°c.

The preheated feed then flows under flow control to surge drum V-
901 after mixing with the main feed from CFU.

4.0 UTILITIES SYSTEM WITHIN B/L

The requirement of utilities is as given below.

Cooling water : 161.5 m3/hr


Instrument air : 200 Nm3/hr.
IG : 230 Nm3/hr.
LP Steam : 400 kg/hr
Fuel gas : 1200 kg/hr.

Other utilities like plant air, service water are needed occasionally.

76
PRODUCT TERMINAL

AND

PRODUCT STORAGE

77
UNLOADING PROCEDURE FOR LPG TANK WAGONS

1) Please the wagon at proper position

2) Slowly lower the flapper bridge.

3) By using brass hammer, connect the liquid arm and fuel gas arm to

wagon and check for any leakage in the connections.

4) Open both the valves of wagon as well as fuel gas line valves.

5) Open the liquid line valves as per the requirement to start the

unloading.

6) Continue the unloading as per the requirement and after that close all

liquid line valves.

7) After the unloading is over, remove the excess fuel gas from wagon

through vent pipe. Keeping main fuel gas inlet valve closed.

8) Close the fuel gas arm valve and vent off the pressure from both the

arms.

9) Disconnect both the arms.

10) Remove the flapper bridge from the wagon.

11) Release the wagon for weighment.

78
LOADING PROCEDURE FOR NGL/ARN TANK WAGONS

1) Place the wagons at proper position after the weighment.

2) Slowly lower the flapper bridge.

3) Insert the loading arms inside the wagons.

4) As per the filling memo received from IOCL, feed the preset quantity in

the accuload.

5) Start the loading pump.

6) Open the line valve & arm valve and start loading through accuload.

7) Once 1000 litters (appx.) loaded in the wagon, continue the loading

only after getting confirmation from TEXR staff of Railway regarding

the fitness of the wagon valve.

8) After the completion of loading, check the dip of wagon.

9) Remove the loading arm from the wagon.

10) Close the lid of wagon and seal it properly.

11) Remove the flapper bridge.

79
UNLOADING PROCEDURE FOR NGL/ARN TANK WAGONS

1) With the help of non sparking tools connect the tank wagon to
unloading pipe through hose pipe.

2) Open the valves of tank wagon and unloading pipe.

3) Keep watch on the level of underground sump and start the pump,
whenever required.

4) After the unloading is over, (Ensure by checking the dip) remove the
hose pipe connections.

80
LOADING PROCEDURE FOR NGL/HEAVY CUT TRUCK TANKER

1) Guide the truck to proper position after weighment and

2) get the engine switched off.

3) Ensure that main switch is in OFF position.

4) Put wooden wedges against the tyre of truck.

5) Check the incoming paper.

6) Check the dip road, viz truck no. P.L, year of calibration etc.

7) Attach the earthing holder to the tanker.

8) Insert the hosepipe in to the compartment of tanker.

9) Feed the quantity to be filled for that compartment in Accuload.

10) Open the valve of loading line and start loading through

accuload.

11) Check the dip and accordingly complete the loading.

12) Fill the remaining compartments in the similar manner and in the

end recheck dip of all compartments.

13) Close the valve and remove the hose pipe.

14) Remove the earthing holder and wooden wedges.

15) Release the tanker for weighment.

81
UNLOADING PROCEDURE FOR NGL/ARN TANK WAGONS

01) ………

2) Ensure that main switch is in off position.

3) Put wooden wedges against the tyre of truck.

4) Put portable fire extingubes at proper place opposite to wind

direction.

5) With the non-sparking tools make leak proof connection of liquid

arm & fuel gas arm with bullet.

6) Open both the valves of tanker and valve of fuel gas line.

7) Partially open the liquid line valve as per the requirement, once

the pressure in bullet reaches upto 150 PSI.

8) Observe the rotogauge & pressure gauge readings and continue

the unloading as per the requirement.

9) Close the liquid line/arm valves & main fuel gas inlet valve and

vent off the excess fuel gas through vent pipe as per the

requirement.

10) Close the tanker valve and vent off the pressure from both the

arms through vent pipe.

11) Disconnect the arms and put blind flanges with tanker valves.

12) Remove wooden wedges.

13) Register the rotogauge reading & pressure on incoming slip.

14) Release the tanker for weighment.


82
LIQUID PRODUCTS OF HGPC

PRODUCT NAME QTY.


PRODUCED
* LPG 0.5 MMTPA
* NGL 1.5 MMTPA
* ARN 1.1 MMTPA
* SKO 0.4 MMTPA
* HEAVY CUT 0.03 MMTPA

INSPECTION FOR HORTON SPHERE

* VISUAL INSPECTION
* NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS:-
- ULTRA SONIC THICKNESS MEASUREMENT
- ULTRA SONIC FLAW DETECTION TEST
- WET MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION
- RADIOGRAPHY
- DYE PENETRATION TEST

* HYDROTEST

83
FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION

TYPE OF STORAGE TYPE OF INSPECTION


External Internal

* HOTRON SPHERE TWO YRS. FIVE YRS.


* NGL/ARN TANKS THREE YRS. SIX YRS.
* SKO TANKS FOUR YRS. SEVEN YRS.
* HEAVY CUT TANKS FIVE YRS. TEN YRS.

STORAGE CAPACITY FOR DIFFERENT PRODUCT

PRODUCT STORAGE CAPACITY


LPG HORTON SPHERE(9 NOS) 22500 CU.M.
ARN FLOATING ROOM TANKS(4) 66000 CU.M.

NGL FLOATING ROOM TANKS(4) 66000 CU.M.


SKO FLOATING ROOM TANKS(5) 25000 CU.M.
HEAVY CUT FIXED ROOF TANKS(2 NOS) 1000 CU.M

PROPANE HORTON SPHERE 311 CU.M.

INSPECTION FOR TANKS


• VISUAL INSPECTION INCLUDING CONDITION OF PLANT

• FOAM SEAL AND WEATHER PROTECTOR INSPCTION

• ULTRA SONIC THICKNESS MEASUREMENT

• DYE PENETRATION TEST

• VACCUM BOX TEST

• HAMMER TEST

• HYDROTEST

LOADING PUMPS IN STORAGE AREA

PRODUCT PUMP NO. NOS. RATING M3 MODE OF TPT

84
LPG 20-P-213 05 80 ROAD LOADING
20-P-226 04 300 RAIL LOADING
NGL/ARN 20-P-215 02 190 ROAD LOADING
20-P-218 03 1400 RAIL LOADING
20-P-231 03 1400 SBM LOADING
20-P-239 01 675 PLT TO NTPC
SKO 27-P-202 02 675 PLT TO IOCL
HEAVY CUT 27-P-204 02 35 ROAD LOADING
* LPG PLANT TO IOCL BOTTLING PLANT
* NGL/ARN PLANT TO M/S NTPC, KRIBHCO, ESSAR,
IOC DEPOT

Safety Features of LPG/ARN Rail/Road Loading at Hazira

Introduction

ONGC, Hazira is in the business of processing sweet/sour natural gas


received from Bombay High though a 36” diameter 231 Km, long
pipeline 242 Km. sub-sea and 14 km, onshore). The finished product
after processing are –

i) LPG
ii) ARN
iii) Sulphur
iv) Lean Gas

To market the produced LPG and ARN, ONGC has set up a most
modern loading facility both for Road Trucks and Rail Wagon loading.
As per Government directive IOC is the main marketing agency to
coordinate the product dispatch to various locations.

1) LPG STORAGE :

To handle average production of LPG of about 1500 MT, Hazira Plant


has created total storage capacity of 22500 Cubic Meter in 9 Horton
spheres each of 2500 Cubic Meter capacity. These Horton spheres are
hydraulically tested to a pressure of 180 PSI. The suction and
discharge of each sphere are connected to a common pumping
header.

2) ARN STORAGE :

85
To cater to the need of approximate 90,000 MT month of ARN
production the storage capacity at ONGC is 1,32,000 cubic meters. In
all there are 8 floating roof tanks each of 16500 cubic meter capacity.
The suction and discharge of each tank are connected to the common
pumping header.

The average product loading from Hazira is in the order of 1500 MT of


LPG and 5000 cubic metre of ARN per day. To cater to this daily
upliftment, on an average 170 truck tankers and 1.5 Rail wagon rakes
are loaded from Hazira to various destination in India.

LPG/NGL being a volatile and hazardous product, the truck tankers and
wagons transporting it to long distances, are subjected to severe safety
checks prior to their approval for filling. This chapter describes the
existing system of safety checks on the truck tankers and railway
wagons within the stipulated guidelines.

It also deals with the inbuilt safety features of the loading gantries to
combat emergencies.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION FOR SAFETY CHECKS :

Whenever a road tanker or a wagon is calling in for LPG/NGL loading


it is subjected to a vigorous three times safety checks viz.

a) Safety checks prior to filling.

b) Safety checks during filling.

c) Safety checks after filling.

Since the safety features related to tankers and wagons are different,
the visual inspection check points of both are different and are being
discussed separately.

A. SAFETY CHECKS OF TANKERS :

1) PRIOR TO FILLING :

Before a tanker is cleared for loading a street safety check is carried out
on the road tank truck body and its documentation. Various check list
points to which these trucks are subjected to are :
i) Tanker No.
ii) Customer’s Name

86
iii) Validity of Explosive Licenses/R.T.O fitness certificate/Driver
License.
iv) No. of Fire Extinguisher with last date of inspection.
v) Battery covered.
vi) Main switch O.K.
vii) No. loose/Named wiring
viii) Height barrier – O.K.
ix) ST out guard around tanker.
x) Pressure – O.K.
xi) Roto Gauge covered.
xii) Valve Stopper provided.
xiii) CCE approved spark arrestor
xiv) Any visible sign of damage to bullet.
xv) Any leakage from joints/fittings
xvi) Spare standard gaskets.

The above inspection points are prepared in consultation with the CCE
representative from Baroda whose observation have been taken care in
this list. This list is being supplemented from time to time with more
checks that were previously being neglected but have become need of
the circumstances. One such example is the point No. 16 namely
‘Checking of gaskets”.
It was observed that road tankers every time coming in for filling, used
non standard rubber or defective gaskets in the flange joints of liquid
and vapour outlets.

2) SAFETY CHECKS DURING LOADING:

When a tanker is under filling its vulnerable places like flange joints,
Roto-gauge, pressure gauge and safety valves etc. are continuously
monitored. Maximum allowed Roto-gauge reading of approximately
90% over sides all other quantitative measurements, so as to allow
sufficient vapour space in the tanker for the purpose of long distance
transportation.

3) SAFETY CHECKS AFTER LOADING:

Once the loading is over and the tanker valve outlets are properly
blinded, the whole tanker is inspected for any possible leak of LPG from
the vulnerable points as mentioned in the column- 2 above.

The tanker is then released from the gantry for weighment. At the
weight bridge it is further insured that the tanker does not contain a load
87
which is in excess to the maximum allowable limits as permitted by Chief
Controller of Explosives (CCE).

If all the above tests are successful, it is considered safe to leave the
plant for its onward journey.

B) LPG WAGON SAFETY CHECKS :

1) SAFETY CHECKS PRIOR TO FILLING :

Once a LPG rake (normally 65 wagons) arrive for filling, Railway TXR
staff examine the LPG wagon chassis and the body of the LPG bullet for
any visible leak. After this check, wagons are brought in for filling with
LPG in the Rail loading gantries. In the gantry ONGC staff first checks
the positive pressure in to the wagon by operating the vapour line
isolation valves of the wagon. If there is no vapour in the wagon it is
considered full of air and it is rejected. The other checks are only visual
checks for any observed leak from any fittings.

2) SAFETY CHECKS DURING AND AFTER LOADING :

In the LPG wagon, it is only physical observation which accounts for its
entire safety checks both during loading and after loading. There is no
other means available for close scrutiny as it is in the case of LPG
tanker (Ref. to note at the end of this test.).

LOADING FACILITY INBUILT SAFETY FEATURES :

Despite all the precaution being observed as mentioned above


accidental eventualities have happened and cannot be totally ruled out
for reoccurrence.

Thus as a second time of protection ONGC has incorporated the


following safety features and fire fighting devices in its most modern
tanker and Railway Wagon loading gantries.

1) Computerized flow control system for LPG road, LPG & ARN Rail
loading system is activated only if the body of the tanker or tank wagon
is earthed properly. If this circuit is not through, the flow of fluid will not
take place. This feature ensures that in the event of any electrostatic
charge it shall be immediately grounded and no spark shall generate.

88
For ARN road loading also this feature is being incorporated.

2) 210 CONTROL VALVE:

The control valve located in the liquid supply line to the loading media
has in built computerized flow control feature. At the commencement of
loading the valve controls the flow rate to maximum 150-175 lits/min. till
approx. 600 lits. Are filled in the tanker or wagon. There after the flow
shoots up automatically to approx. 550 lits/min. This controls the
velocity impact in the first start and thus reduces to a great extent
electrostatic charge development.

In addition this control valve will shut off and cut off the LPG supply if
the rate of filling or flow exceeds 10% higher 550 lits/min. This insures
safety if a line rupture downstream of the 210 control valve.

3) EXCESS FLOW CHECK VALVE :

In each LPG liquid supply line one excess flow check valve is also
located. This excess flow check valve is designed to cut off LPG supply
if due to any abnormal condition (like flange joint failure, line rupture
etc.) flow rate exceeds 575 lits/min. in tankers and 675 lits/min. in the
case of wagons.

4) VAPOUR BALANCE LINE :

A 2” vapour balance line connecting tanker or wagon to the LPG


sphere continuously insures its pressure does not go beyond the RVP
of LPG at any time of filling.

5) GAS DETECTORS :

Each loading gantry has a gas detector which transmits an alarm if


there is an explosive mixture formation in the gantry. Once the LEL
limit reaches 10% or more the alarm in the supervisory control room is
sounded for corrective action by the operators.

6) ELECTRONIC WEIGHBRIDGE :

A most modern, computerised, sophisticated Weight bridge insures that


the CCE limits are not violated in the loaded tanker or wagon. It reads
up to 0,05% accuracy of weights.

7) FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS :

89
All the loading gantries have sufficient no of water spray nozzles which
can be operated from the remote controlled valves to form a water
blanket in the eventuality of a fire in the gantry.

8) MISCELLANEOUS :

CO2 and DCJP extinguisher, Fire Monitors, steam and Inert Gas
header etc. are spread all over the gantry area.

CONCLUSION :

To conclude it can be inferred from the above that there are adequate
means available to ensure safety of Road tankers prior to loading.

TOTAL LOADING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

(A) ROAD TANKER LOADING : (LPG,ARN/KEROSENE/HEAVY CUT)

It comprises of the following:

90
1) One No. loading gantry with 8 loading points (For each).

2) One no. Sick Tanker unloading Bay (for each)

3) Two nos. Electronic Weigh bridges (load cell type) with computer
control

4) Volumetric flow meter with local setting and shutdown facility for each
arm (PD meter for LPG and Turbine meters for NGL/Kerosene/ARN).

5) Excess flow check valve (only for LPG system).

6) Loading Arms (for LPG) and loading hoses (for NGL/Kerosene/ARN).

7) Vapour return Arms (only for LPG).

8) Accuload for each loading point.

9) 210 Control Valve etc.

10) Earthing Cable system for each loading point.

B) FOR - LPG

1) Field staff examines safety fittings of tankers.

2) Empty Trucks are weighed on the bridges after checking necessary


papers/documents and found in order.

3) Empty truck is authorized to processed to loading gantry with


authorization slip generated from computerized weigh bridge.

4) Field staff advices specific loading points.

5) Field staff positions truck.

6) Field staff connects liquid & vapour arms to respective truck as well as
earthing connections.

7) Field staff checks for leakage/loose connection.

8) Field staff monitors completion of filling operation.

9) Field staff checks roto-gauge readings while loading is in progress to


restrict loading to permissible levels.

10) Field staff disconnects the liquid and vapour arms and directs the
tanker to weigh bridge.
91
11) In case excess/less loading as verified after weighment, actions either
for decanting/refilling will be taken.

12) Filled truck weighted on the weight bridges and required delivery
documents including Central Excise Document got prepared in weigh
bridge room and delivered to the tanker driver through the respective
Oil Company.

13) Sick (aborted) road tanker will be lead to unloading bay for complete
decantation and empty truck sent out under acknowledgement of
respective Oil Company.

FOR NGL/KEROSENE/ARN :

1) Field staff examines safety fittings of tankers.

2) Empty trucks are weighed on the bridges, after checking necessary


papers, documents and found in order.

3) Empty truck is authorized to proceed to loading gantry with


authorization slip generated from computerized weight bridge.

4) Field staff positions the trucks at loading bays.

5) Field staff connects the earthing holder the truck body, holds the fill
hose while filling checks the dips of each compartment prior to and
with the progress of loading. Filling of each compartment up to the
require mark is checked and ensured by the field staff.

6) Field staff programmes for the required quantities compartment wise


and fills each compartment as per prescribed literages by constant
monitoring of physical drips.

7) In case of excess/less filling as verified subsequently actions for


decanting /re-filling will be taken by the field staff.

8) Filled trucks weighed on the weigh bridges and required delivery


documents including Central Excise document got prepared in weigh
bridge room and delivered to the tanker driver through the respective
Oil Company.

9) Sick (aborted) road tanker will be lead to unloading bay for complete
decantation and empty truck sent out under acknowledgement of
respective Oil Company.

92
D) RAIL WAGON LOADING (LPG, NGL/KEROSENE/ARN) :

It comprises of the following:

1) 2 Nos. Rail loading gantry, each with 40 nos. of loading points. (20
each on East and West side of the gantry).

2) 2 Nos. in motion electronic weigh bridge (load cell type).

3) Volumetric flow meters (PD meter types).

4) Acculoads for each loading points.

5) Excess flow check valves (only for LPG).

6) 2 Nos. of PD Meter Provers.

7) Loading arms (for liquid) with 210 control valve having local and
remote shut-down facilities.

8) Vapour Return firms. (only for LPG system).

9) 4 nos. sick rail wagon unloading points.

10) Loading system description of rail loading is as follows :

a) Full rake of 70 wagons (maximum) received.

b) The rake is split into two halves.

c) One par of the half rake is pulled by shunter on to track No. 1


weighed in motion on weigh bridge for tare weight.

d) The tare weighed wagons are split into another two halves.

e) Wagons contained in these two have i.e. ¼th rake each are
properly positioned in one of the gantries in East and West sides
with the help of wagon positioners. Wagon pressure is checked
for LPG and dips for NGL/KEROSENE/ARN.

f) The loading arms and return vapour lines are connected to each
wagon and leak proof connections are ensured (for LPG system).
In case of NGL/KEROSENE/ARN wagons, loading arms are
inserted in filling holes of the wagons.

g) The loading starts after feeding the calculated quantities in each


accuload in local control by field staff.

93
h) The wagons of remaining half rake are pulled by shunter on to
track No. 2 and actions as described at point Nos. (iii) to (vii) are
initiated in the other gantry.

EACH LOADING OPERATION WILL HAVE THE FOLLOWING


STEPS :

1) Field staff connects/inserts loading arms as well as earthing


holders to each wagon.

2) Field staff has to assess the quantity of product to be loaded in


each wagon and accordingly feed the same in respective
Accuload.

3) Filling starts by local command with provision for local start/stop.

4) Field staff continuously monitors progress of loading by checking


flow rate, temperature, pressure, dip etc.

5) On delivery of set quantity of Accuload in the wagon, 210 control


valve for respective wagon shuts off automatically.

POST LOADING OPERATIONS COMPRISE OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS

1) Dip checking, sealing and labeling wagons as per requirement are


carried out.

2) The loading arms and earthing connections are disconnected and put
back to normal positions.

3) Shunter pushes the wagons of first half rake after unitizing and
withdrawing from gantry on track no. 1 to weigh bridge no. 1 where
the same is weighed in motion for gross weight and pushed further to
railway yard and returns to other gantry.

4) Shunter moves to track no. 2 pushes wagons of the other half rake on
track no. 2 to weigh bridge no. 2 in the same manner as at Sl. No. 3
wagons weighed in motion for gross weight and pushed to railway
yard.

5) Sick (aborted) wagons shall be isolated from individual rake.

94
6) Aborted wagons shall be emptied by means of available system,
using fuel gas pressure (for LPG) and by gravity for
NGL/KEROSENE/ARN.

7) Weighment sheets sent to Shift-In-Charge for documentation and


preparation vouchers for handing over to the respective Oil Company.

FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES

FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM :

In sensitive areas like main Control Room, Co-generation Control Room,


Terminal Building etc. Detectors area installed to detect the fire/smoke. The
sensors are of heat and smoke detection type.

For storage area control panel of fire alarm is situated in LPG control room,
as well as in fire station. They are of break glass type with the facility of line
communication.

FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES AVAILABLE IN STORAGE AREA

HYDRANT PROTECTION

This system is spread all over the plant. Being buried under the ground it
continues to be in operation even when part of the buildings, structures have
collapsed. The jet of water effectively screen off the adjoining properties
from the fire, simultaneously cooling the area affected by fire or prevent the
spread of fire. Hydrant supplies water at 9.0 to 5.0 kg/cm2 pressure.

Each external hydrant consists of 63mm double headed hydrant valve with
instantaneous coupling. Hydrant valves are mounted on the stand pipe at 1.0
mt above ground level. Stand pipe is connected to hydrant mains.

WATER MONITOR PROTECTION :

This is provided in storage area to cover the following :


i) NGL/ARN Tanks.
ii) LPG Spheres
iii) Propane sphere
iv) SKO Tanks
v) Heavy Cut tanks

95
FOAM MONITOR PROTECTION : for NGL, ARN and SKO Tanks

WATER SPRAY PROTECTION : For

i) NGL/ARN, SKO & Heavy Cut tanks


ii) LPG Spheres
iii) Propane sphere.

SAFETY DEVICES IN LPG AND PROPANE SPHERES

Any vessel maintained at a pressure above 1 kg/cm2 is called a pressure


vessel. Suitable means of pressure release is required to be provided. For
LPG & Propane spheres pressure safety valves have been provided. The
data for the same is as follows. :

i) No. of PSV : 2 on each sphere


ii) Capacity per PSV : 14996 kg/hr.
iii)Set pressure : 13.7 kg/cm2
iv) Inlet nozzle : 2”
v) Outlet nozzle : 3”
vi) Basis of selection : Extensive fire
vii) Philosophy of operation : One in line

96
UTILITY SYSTEM

97
CW PRE
IG PLANT - PFD FILTER X 103

FG

PROTECTOR E 102
X 102 V 104

X 1 01
V 102
AFTER
COOLER MOISTURE
FILTER
SEPARATOR

C 1 02 A

H 1 01
COMBUSTION C 1 02 C
C 10 1 CHAMBER V 101
IG RECEIVER
AIR BLOWER
C 1 02 B
TO TR. B
KOD
COMPRESSORS

FROM TR. B
SEAL POT
V 105 V 105
AD-A AD-B

V 106
AFTER
DRYERS
COOLER
MOISTURE
SEPARATOR
KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002
SUMP
V 10 7 E 10 3
E 10 4
X 10 5
14
P 1 0 3 A/B HEATER FILTER

98
4 WAY
FROM VALVE
COMP .
x
AIR DRYERS
o
BANK I 190 C o
o 185 C
BANK II 220 C
o
BANK III 220 C

P RE FILTER HEATER

o
x 35 C

COOLER
MOISTURE
TOWER I TOWER II SEP ARATOR

o
FIC 190 C

x
IA TO
HEADER

AFTER FILTER
KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002 10

99
V 43 - 2

25K001 N 2 BLOW SILEN CER

F 002 / F 003
F 001 V 103
K 101A

FI 1 0 1
V 101 V 104 A V 104 B V 102

K 101B PRE FILT ER PRODU CT


FLOW ME TE R
COMP RESSORS
PRO DUCT G AS
FI LTERS

AD SO RBE RS
PROD UCT N 2
N 2 V ESSEL STORA GE
AI R RE CEI VE R

V 43 - 1

N 2 PLANT PFD O 2 BLOW SILEN CE R

KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002 16

100
RESERVOIRS
RAW WATER TR EA TMENT PLANT

SAND FILTERS
1 2 3 4
CLARIFIER I

LIFT
PUMPS
1 2 3
FLASH
MIXER

6
4 5

STILLING
DRAIN TO RIVER
CHAMBER
CLARIFIER II

FILTER WATER SUMP P 002 D/E


P205 A/B/C

P 208 A/B
FILTER WATER SUMP P 002 A/B/C
KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002 P 210 D
22

101
HEAT EXCHANGERS
PROCESS FLUID IN CWR

FLARE
VENT

TUBES

DOME DRAIN

PROCESS FLUID OUT CWS

KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002 26

102
TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS

FAN
FAN

AIR

S S
Y Y
S S
T T
E E
AIR
M M

BASIN
BASIN

PUMP
PUMP

CROSS FL OW COUNTER FLO W


INDUCED DRAFT INDUCED DRAFT
KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002 29

103
FAN X203

FROM SYSTEM

T 203 A T 203 B T 203 C


SAND FILTER X 207
FIRE WATER

SHMP
HEDP ZnSO4 X 204
MAKE UP
WATER
V 210
SUMP LEVEL CONTROLLER
Cl2

BASIN
CHANNEL

MAIL CELL O/L VALVE


SUMP

T 202

PUMP P 204
ACID STORAGE
ACID TRANSFER PUMP
TANK
P 206

COOLING
KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002 TOWER PFD 43

104
TO OWS
DM WATER PLANT
NEUTRALISATION PIT TO MP BOILERS

22P203A/B

22C201A/B
DEGASSING
TOWER

20T201
DM WATER
TANK

22B201A/B/C/D
AIR BLOWERS
RAW WATER 20P205A/B
STORAGE TANK
22X201A/B/C 22X202A/B/C
22X203A/B/C
STRONG ACID WEAK BASE 22X204A/B/C
STRONG BASE
CATION ANION MIXED BED
ANION
EXCHANGER EXCHANGER EXCHANGER
EXCHANGER

22V201A/B
20 T 213 DEGASSED 22T201
WATER TANK DM WATER
TANK

20 P 207 A/B

22P201A/B/C/D AIR
22P205A/B/C
HCL NaOH HCL
NaOH
KSS/HZR-UTLT/2002 52
TO HP BOILERS

105
106
RAW WATER RECEIPT AND TREATMENT SYSTEM

Raw Water Receipt and Storage

The raw water is received from the IOL EX-Hazira sub-canal from the
Irrigation canal and stored in earthern concrete reservoirs. The water
receipt at the inlet is measured by a 4 ft.-Par shall flume, possessing
both a direct reading dial indicator and a gauge strip in inches of water
column. The quantity of water is measured in M3/Sec and average of
6 readings per day taken and converted into M3/day receipt. A pair of
gates at the inlet before the par shall flume are provided to open/
close/ regulate water flow in the canal. The canal transports water to
the four reservoirs. Table-III presents the data sheet for the canal and
the reservoirs. The quantity of water in each reservoir can thereby be
calculated.

Raw Water Lift Pumps

Three nos. raw water lift pumps have been provided on the
embankments between reservoirs 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4
respectively. The lift pumps are of the vertical turbine type of make
Kirloskar Bros. Ltd.

107
TABLE:III-DATA SHEET FOR RAW WATER INLET CANAL AND
RESERVOIRS

Raw water inlet canal


Flow Max 1.271 M3/Sec.
Average 0.555 m3/Sec.
Min. 0.3 M3/sec.
No. of canal One
Length 3850 M
Depth of water 0.9 M
Side slope 1 in 2
Bed slope 1 in 5135
Material of construction Earthern embankment with
concrete and LDPE lining
No. of inlet gates Two
Size of inlet gate 750 mm x 900 mm

Raw Water Reservoirs


No. of units Four
Capacity (Approx.) 207,000 M3 each
Liquid depth 2-3 M Minimum
Material of construction Same as raw water canal
Inlet Control Through 750 mm x 750 mm
inlet sluice gate
Outlet control Through Spur gear operated
450 Φ CI sluice valve
Slope (horizontal to vertical) 2:1
Width of embankment 4M

108
Model No. BHQ-27M. Each pump has a rated discharge capacity of 1000
M3/Hr. and head 14 M. To operate the lift pump.

a) Check whether the correct reservoir gate is open and the other
closed.
b) Keep discharge valve closed.
c) Rotate pump and motor by hand to check for freeness.
d) Start pump-& open discharge valve
e) Check discharge pressure gauge reading.
f) Throttle the discharge valve to get 1.5 kg/cm discharge pressure
against pump to minimize vibration.
g) Close the discharge valve before stopping pump.
h) Check flow rate and bearing cooling return water temperature
time to time.

The raw water lift pump delivers water to the stilling chamber of the
raw water treatment plant.

Principle and design features of treatment plant :

The raw water treatment plant is designed to deliver 2000 M3/hr


meeting following specifications.

PH 7-8
Turbidity 5 NTU Max.

The plant can handle inlet raw water of 1000 NTU.

There are three stages of treatment:

a) Stilling : To kill Kinetic energy of the water being processed.


b) Clariflocculation : To trap colloidal and the suspended matter
In flocks and settle the same.
c) Filtration : Removal of suspended particles by passing
through sand filter beds.

109
After stilling in a stilling chamber the flow is measured and then alum in
solution form is dosed, the water being sent through a flash mixer to
the clariflocculator. Blow down is given at the clariflocculator, to
remove sludge. Finally, the clarified water is filtered and stored in
underground treated water reservoir. The residence time for water in
the clariflocculator is 3 hrs. Alum dosage is established by a jar test.

Chemicals handling and dosing :

Facility is provided to dose two chemicals

a) Alum - as coagulant and flocculent


b) Lime - For PH correction

If PH of inlet water remains on alkaline side, only alum dosage is


necessary.

Alum is stored in drums in the chemical house store and lifted up to the
top floor by a hoist. The alum is transferred manually into open alum
tanks 4 nos. tanks have been provided –two for solution making and
two for service. Each tank has an agitator and water connection.
Required quantity of alum is to be taken and the solution made in the
alum tank. Alum solution is drawn through the constant head feed tank
on adjustment of the weir to control solution flow rate which is dosed
through HPE pipelines to the flash mixer to operate the alum dosing
facility.

a) Load predetermined quantity of alum into solution tank and make


solution in water.
b) Once all alum dissolves, take solution tank in line to feed
constant head feed tank.
c) A float in the constant head feed tank keeps the level steady. A
V-notch on the outlet is used to control the flow, marked in GPM.
d) Use till alum solution tank gets empty and recharge.

110
Clariflocculation :

The plant is equipped with 2 nos. clariflocculators fed from two flash
mixers independently plus a bypass route to both clariflocculators,
directly to filters from the stilling chamber after measurement in the par
shall flumes. The clarifloccuator design data is presented at Table-V.

TABLE-V : DESIGN DATA FOR CLARIFLOCCULATOR


Dimensions 33.0 M dia x 4.1 M height
Material of construction RCC
Sludge collection sump size 3.5 M(OD) x 2.7 M(ID) x 0.6 M
Central pier size 1.7 M (OD) x 1.0 M(id) x 0.9M
Intermediate wall size 13.2 M (ID) x 0.16 M thick
concrete wall supported on 12
nos. pedestal and 0.25 M square
ring.
Nomenclature of zones
Flocculating zone Between central pier and
intermediate wall
Clarifying zone Between intermediate and outer
wall
Rated flow 1000 M3/Hr.
Residence time 30 Mins. -Flocculating zone
155 Mins.- Clarifying zone

To operate the clariflocculator, the structure must be filled up and then


sequentially the inner and outer drive mechanisms must be started.
Clariflocculator is to be blown down by opening out the drain valve for
10 Mins once in 8 hrs. or as required depending upon the
clariflocculator outlet turbidity.

Filteration :

There are six gravity sand filters each with two compartments. The
filter operates on the principle of low and head control. The
mechanism for control is described as under.

The outlet control gear consists of a double beat valve operated by a


float, by means of a level. The float is placed in a separate chamber
cut off from the inspection box. In the inspection box is placed a
vertical tube having a sliding tube in it. The top of this inner sliding
tube is in the form of a circular weir. The height of this inner tube can
be adjusted by means of a gear provided with a hand wheel . When
111
the water in the inspection box over flows the main weir, a portion of it
enters the sliding tube and is continuously discharged into the float
chamber. In the float chamber is provided a small orifice which is
always submerged in water and through which a small flow of water is
continuously discharged out of the float chamber. When there is a
balance set up between the water coming into the chamber through
the sliding tube and the water going out of it through, the submerged
orifice, the level of water in the float chamber remains the same. If
more water than desired, it flowing in to the inspection box, the level of
water over the weir will increase and more water will enter the float
chamber through the sliding tube. The level in float chamber will
increase and thereby the float will rise and throttle the outlet control
valve.

In the reverse way, if less water is coming into the inspection box the
level will fall down lower than the top of the sliding tube and no water
will discharge into the float chamber. The submerged orifice however,
will drop down, bring the float down and open the control valve.

Alternation of the outflow is very easily and quickly effected by simply


raising or lowering the sliding tube in the inspection box by rotating the
wheel or nut. A scale and pointer is provided in the raising gear or the
rate better, so that the flow can be set in a few seconds correctly at
any desired rate. This setting can be alternated any number of times
without the least trouble.

A float rides on the water in the filter unit and its movement controls the
play of the valve in the inspection box. When the water on the filter
unit falls below a certain level, a link at the end of vertical rod restricts
the play of the lever joining the outlet control valve to the inspection
box float. When the level of water reaches the level of the waste
through the lever is completely pulled up which closes the outlet
control valve. When the filter is to be started after a washing
operation, the level of water in the filter at the beginning is at the waste
through and the outlet control valve is thus closed. When settled water
is admitted in to the filter by opening in the inlet valve, the level slowly
raises. The float riding on it gradually releases its hold, through the
link on the lever, on the control valve and allows it to open gradually to
the required stage.
Major steps involved in the normal operation of a filter are :

a) Air scouring to loosen the bed


b) Backwash, and
112
c) Service
Following steps are undertaken :

a) Taking bed off service and air scouring


i) Close the inlet valve
ii) Allow the bed to drain to the filter water level reaches 350
mm above bed.
iii) Close filter outlet valves.
iv) Check oil level in blower
v) Open air inlet valve to bed. Close all other bed inlet
valves.
vi) Confirm air bubbling smoothly over bed.
vii) Stop blower after 3 Mins.
viii) Close bed air inlet valve and blower outlet valve
ix) Repeat steps (v) to (ix) for second bed of same filter.

b) Back washing :

i) Check level in backwash tank to be 650 M or more-Level


Indicator is provided near the backwash pumps.
ii) If level is more, backwashing can be done. Go to step
(viii). If level is less, fill up backwash tank as follows>
iii) Open backwash pump suction valve.
iv) Prime pump using tapping available with pump vent valve
open and discharge valve closed.
v) When filled, start pump, close priming connection and vent
valve when water comes out of vent.
vi) Open discharge valve of backwash pump slowly.
vii) Check level of backwash tank. When level reaches 650
mm, close discharge valve and stop pump.
viii) Open wash outlet valve of filter.
ix) Open wash inlet valve of bed to be backwashed.
x) Allow water to wash through, check for quality or drained
water. Continue washing for 1 minute after the outflow
water into the channel is observed to be clean.
xi) Close backwash inlet valve.
xii) Repeat steps (viii) to (xi) for second bed of filter.
xiii) Close wash outlet valve after channel is fully drained.

c) Service :

i) Open both filter outlet valves.

113
ii) Set the rate setter at the required setting not exceeding
400 M3/Hr.
iii) Open filter inlet valve.
iv) When channel is full, confirm that the loss of head gauge
reads zero.
v) When filter fills up further the filter float starts raising and
flow control valve starts opening. When equilibrium is
reached, water level in the filter would be 600 mm approx.
below the top of the filter and flow rate would be as set.
adjust rate setter suitably.
vi) Monitor loss of head. When head loss reaches .5 kg/cm2
take filter to air scouring as at (a) above.

Make-up water & service water pumps :

The underground storage tank consists of two sections each of 400 M3


capacity with inlet, outlet and interconnecting gates leading to two
pump suction sumps-one for make up and service water pumps and
the other a drinking water sump.

3 Nos. make-up pumps (2 operating + 1 standby) of rate capacity 700


M3/Hr. and head 25 M take suction from the sump and delivery
water to a 20 inch dia header supplying make up water to the cooling
towers, fire water storage tank and raw water tank at boiler house.

2 Nos. (1 operating + 1 standby) service water pumps of rated capacity


and head 150 M3/Hr. and 7.2 M delivers water to a 8” dia service
water header.

Drinking water chlorination and pumping :

Water from the underground treated water storage tank enters the
drinking water sump. Two chlorination units (1 operating + 1 standby)
are provided to inlet chlorinated water into the drinking water sump.
Each chlorinator unit consists of a chlorine gas filter, pressure reducing
valve, flow control valve, flow indicator, pressure indicator, moisture
trap, and check valve before the gas enters the absorption tower.

114
The gas filter reduces gas velocity so that any liquid carry over, if any,
is vaporised. In addition, it traps ferric chloride, if any, to prevent line
choking.

Pressure reducing valve (PRV) is set to control pressure downstream


of the valve constant at 2 kg/cm2g which is low enough to maintain the
fluid in the vapour state. Constant pressure assures constant
chlorine injection rate so long as the gas cylinder liquid. The only
valves in the gas stream that may be throttled are the cylinder valve
(1/4 turn open). PRV and the flow control valve. All other valves shall
remain fully open during chlorination to ensure reliability of the flow
indicator.

The chlorinator is of the absorption type. The open type absorption


tower 1950 mm high and 175 mm dia and made of FRP, includes 1200
mm high column packed with PVC rasching rings. Water tapped off
the discharge of the service water pumps, is fed into the distributor
located above the packing. Outflow into the drinking water tank sump
is from the sump below the packing through the CIRL diaphragm valve
and HDPE piping.

Recommended water flow rate is 1 M2/Hr. chlorine injection rate can


be chosen in the range 50 gm/hr. to 500 gm/hr. The rate should be
based on the residual free chlorine content at a reference load centre.

Operating practice for the chlorinator should meet the following criteria.

i) Start chlorination 5 mins. before starting drinking water pump.


ii) Water flow through the absorption tower shall be established
first.
iii) The PRV shall be set at 2 kg/cm2.
iv) Cylinder valve shall not be opened unless all valves other than
the flow control valve are fully open, valve opening shall be
limited to ¼ turn open and handle shall be left on the spindle.
v) Chlorination is stopped by closing the cylinder valve and other
valves in the gas stream shall remain open till pressure
downstream of the PRV falls to zero and the flow indicator reads
zero with flow control valve fully open.
115
vi) None of the other valves in the gas stream shall be closed unless
the requirements in (V) are met.
vii) Chlorine cylinder valve may be closed 5 mins. after stopping
drinking water pumps and
viii) Water flow through the absorption tower shall continue for at
least 10 mins. after chlorine gas flow has stopped.

Chlorine content in the drinking water is to be maintained between 0.5


to 1.0 PPM. Residual chlorine can be checked by means of
CHLOROTEX Reagent which given the appropriate colour according
to chlorine content of the drinking water.

Chlorinated drinking water is transferred to the overhead drinking water


storage tank and the administrative building by means of 3 nos.
drinking water pumps (2 operating + 1 stand by) with capacity 60
M3/Hr. and head 3.5 Kg/Cm2.

Drinking water distribution net work :

The drinking water pumps deliver chlorinated drinking water to the


overhead drinking water storage tank of capacity 20 M3 via a 6” dia
underground GI pipeline supply header also supplying water to the
overhead tank on the administrative building.

A network of underground GI pipelines takes water from the overhead


drinking water storage tank and delivers it to the various
buildings/installations viz :

a) Marketing building
b) Old EIL office
c) Stores
d) Railway station – through the old construction water network.
e) Cooling water system Ph-I & Ph-II
f) Substations # 1,2,3,10,11
g) Control Room
h) Work shop
i) EIL/Materials Management
j) Canteen
k) Satellite Building
l) Fire Station
m) Chemistry Laboratory
n) Training Centre
o) Administrative Building
116
p) CISF Office
q) CISF Quartrs
r) Terminal Control Room
s) Transit accommodation and Bunk House.

117
WASTE WATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT SYSTEM

Underground waste water collection Network :

The various units of the Hazira Gas Processing Complex utilize water
in various forms and then drain the waste water to the extent
contaminated determine its drainage route to either of the following
system.

a) Process waste system (PWS): This is the concentrated chemical


bearing waste water from the process units, directly drained into
tunnels and carried through the underground PWS to the
Process waste treatment Plant (PWT).

b) Oily water system (OWS): The floor washings and lube oils
drained from various plants and the NGL drained from the NGL
storage tanks all flow through the OWS to the contaminated Rain
Water treatment plant (RWTP).

c) Sanitary sewage (SS): The sewage and sullage caused due to


human activities are collected in the SS and transferred via the
underground route to the sanitary sewage treatment plant
(SSTP).

d) Storm water drainage system: The rain water and open water
drainages are carried out from the plant by a network of storm
water pits and canals through a main storm water rain canal
leading finally to River Tapti.

e) Spent Locat: Spent locat from sulphur recovery unit is drained


out and collected in pits transferring spent locat to the spent
caustic treatment plant.

f) Spent Caustic: The spent caustic drained out from the caustic
wash unit flows via a short underground network to the spent
caustic treatment plant.

118
Process Waste Treatment Plant :

A) The process waste treatment plant is designed to treat a flow of


50 m3/hr. on continuous basis and produce treated effluent with
characteristic as given in table.

The treatment plant has unit arranged to carry out following


major process operations:
i) Equalization of waste stream
ii) Separation of free oil
iii) Chemical treatment for removal of emulsified oil and
suspended solids.
iv) Biological treatment for removal of BOD, COD and phenols
by biodegradation.
v) Tertiary treatment for removal of suspended solids and
COD.
vi) Final polishing in a Guard pond.

TABLE: PROCESS WASTE TREATMENT PLANT – EFFLUENT

PARAMETER QUANTITY
PH 6.5 – 8.5
Total suspended solids Upto 20 PPM
Oil & Grease Upto 10 PPM
Chemical oxygen Upto 100 PPM
Demand
Biochemical oxygen Upto 15 PPM
Demand
Sulphides Upto 0.5 PPM
Phenol Upto 1 PPM

119
During dry weather, the effluent is directly pumped at the rate of 30
M3/Hr to one of the equalization tanks. A constant flow OF 25 m3/HR.
is taken to cross flow interceptor for removal of free oil to the maximum
extent. The oil will be skimmed off from the surface of the cross flow
interceptor by an oil skimmer and collected slop in oil sump. During
Monsoon, the excess flow to the extent of 135 M3/Hr. will overflow into
the wet weather sump and pumped to the on stream equalization tank
along with dry weather flow. The excess effluent will overflow into the
second equalization tank. A constant flow of 50 M3/Hr. is withdrawn and
both the chains of 25 M3/Hr. will be in operation till minimum level is
reached in On stream equalization tank. After attaining a minimum
level, approximately 40 M3/Hr.flow from the second equalization tank is
taken to the dry weather sump which will overflow into wet weather
sump. Effluent from wet weather sump is pumped to the on stream
equalization tank at the rate of 70 M3/hr. During this period, dry weather
pumps will not be in operation. A 50 M3/hr. flow is processed through
the plant and the excess flow will accumulate in the tank. This process
will go on till entire content of the second equalization tank is processed.
After this, the second tank is ready to collect another lot of process
waste water.

The oil free effluent from cross flow interceptor, is fed to the chemical
treatment section comprising of flash mixer and CPF/TPF Microflotator.
This section is provided to remove emulsified oil and suspended solids.
Alum is used as coagulant and is added in flash mixer. The floating
matter from the surface of the TPF is skimmed and collected in chemical
sludge sump. The chemical sludge is pumped by pumps to the sludge
thickener. The slop oil from the slop oil sump is pumped by pumps to
slop oil tank at the contaminated Rain Water Treatment Plant. The
effluent from air flotation system is fed to the biological treatment unit,
consisting of aeration tank. The biological process is an extended
aeration type activated sludge process. The oxygen is by supplied by
two mechanical fixed type surface aerators. The requisite
nutrients,Nitrogen and Phosphorus is added in the form of Urea and
Phosphorus acid. The Urea and Phosphoric acid will be dosed in the
solution from into the inlet chamber of aeration tank. The final clarifier is
provided to separate the biological solids from the effluent from the
aeration tank. The clear effluent will overflow into the launder of the
clarifier and fed to the filter feed sump. The underflow sludge from the
final clarifier is collected in a biological sludge sump and recirculated by
pumps to the inlet of aeration tank through splitter box. The splitter box
will divert the recirculation sludge flow to aeration tank and the sludge
thickener and the clean overflow from the thickener will be recirculated
120
to receiving sump and the thick slurry from sludge thickener underflow
collected in thickened sludge pump to be pumped by pumps to a
centrifuge. The cent rate from the centrifuge is recirculated to the inlet
of the receiving sump. The sludge in the form of sludge cake is
discharged from centrifuge. Polyelectrolyte solution dosing is done in
the centrifuge and air floatation system.

The effluent from filter feed sump is pumped by pumps to tertiary


treatment facility consisting of filtration of the effluent in pressure sand
filters followed by activated carbon filters. These units will reduce the
suspended solids and COD in the effluent from the clarifier overflow.
The pressure filter and activated carbon filter are provided with
arrangement for back-washing with treatment effluent. The back
washing will be done with treated effluent and air scouring will be done
by plant air. The treated effluent is stored in backwash sump and
pumped by backwash pumps during the time of back washing of the
filter. A provision for steam heating is also provided for activated carbon
filters, which is required to remove any oil deposited on the carbon. The
filtered water from activated carbon filter is passed through Guard Pond
before disposal. The guard pond works as a polishing unit.

The Chemicals and nutrients solutions will be made in the respective


solution tanks. Alum, Urea and phosphoric acid are dissolved to a
solution consistency of 10% and then dosed in the process.
Polyelectrolyte solution is of 1% consistency. All the nutrient/chemicals
solutions are dosed by separate metering pumps.

(B) The Chemistry of the treatment process constitutes of :

a) Chemical Coagulation :

Alum is used as coagulant for precipitating the suspended solids. When


alum is added to waste water, the reaction that takes place is as following:

Al2 (SO4)3, 18H20 + 3Ca (HCO)2 – 3CaSo4 + 2Al (OH)3 + 6H2O + 18 H2O

This reaction results in reduction of PH of the waste water. The aluminum


hydroxide is in the form of a gelatins folk that settles slowly through the
waste water, sweeping out the suspended matter, as well as producing other
changes.

b) Biological treatment :

121
Microorganisms play a very vital role in the biological degradation of the
organic matter present in the waste. Bacteria, Fungi, algae, protozoa,
rotifers, crustaceans and sometimes viruses actively participate in the
biological transformation of the organic matter and the end products of the
biological degradation are the formation of fresh microbial cells and carbon
dioxide etc. During this process the organic substances present I the waste
both in the dissolved and suspended and colloidal state are metabolized in
presence of air. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the waste is
reduced. Temperature and PH play a vital role in the metabolic activity of the
microorganisms. The rate of microbial activity increases with temperature,
doubling with every ten degree centigrade rise in temperature up to a certain
limit. The microorganisms use the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and other
trace elements, present in the waste, for the synthesis of fresh cells. Most of
the industrial waste waters are deficient in the nutrients such as nitrogen and
phosphorous with the exception of the waste water from the food and
fermentation group of industries. The waste waters from petroleum and
petrochemical industries are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These
wastes are rendered amenable for biological treatment by suitable adaptation
of the microorganisms to the organic constituents present in the waste. A
culture which is very rich in microbes, which are most active on oils can be
developed under field conditions from normal solids which are contaminated
with oil in a culture tank, from which the microbial culture can be continuously
fed into the treatment system.

c) Phenol removal :

The microbial culture developed can also be suitably acclimatized to


degrade phenol, which will be present in low concentration of about 1 mg/1
under normal dry weather flow conditions and about 0.5 mg/1 under
monsoon conditions. Biodegradation of phenol is highly efficient and high
removal efficiencies of 98 percent are feasible even at a high phenol content
in the incoming waste to the biological treatment system. The microbial
degradation of phenol also results in the removal of the BOD contributed by
the phenol.
Phenol + 02 (from air) + microbes New microbial + CO2 water cell.

122
d) Sulphide removal

The sulphide concentration at the inlet of aeration tank is of the


order of 1 mg/1. This will be removed in biological treatment to
desired final level.

e) Terriary Treatment :

The suspended solids settle down in the clarifier. The overflow from the
clarifier will meet the required pollutants level but it is likely to exceed the
suspended solids, and/or COD limits. The pressure sand filters provided
remove suspended solids and also reduce the COD value of the effluent
to the extend contributed by solids. The activated carbon filters further
reduce the COD of effluent by absorbing the organic matter.

B) The Instrumentation and control philosophy is as under :

a) Flow Control :

The flow through the system is controlled by the main flow control valve at the
outlet of the equalization tanks which has a range 0-50 M3/Hr. The venturi
meter acts as the flow element on the equalization tank outlet line and the
differential pressure across the venturi is measured across the manifold and
converted into appropriate electronic signal in the transducer which acts as
the flow transmitter. This signal goes to the flow indicator and controller (FIC)
on the control panel.

The FOXBORD model FIC has a visual section on top consisting of a digital
figure display in M3/Hr. and three columns indicating the analog of the
values of the variables concerned, along with a lower keypad section
consisting of 8 keys-soft push button type.

123
The three digital column gradations represent from left to right.

SV – Set point – the value of the flow fixed in the Auto state.
PV - Process value – the actual flow at any time.
MV - Manipulated variable – the position of the control valve in %.

In Auto state, SV controls the PV through MV and the UP & DOWN Keys.
The Auto or Manual state is represented by A or M on the visual section.
The SET key can be used to shift a cursor on top of each visual column of
SV, PV or MV to read the individual values on top of the columns.

The FIC thereafter, relays the electronic signal for the Manipulated variable
9MV) to the current-to-pneumatic converter which further relays the
pneumatic signal to the control valve to position itself accordingly and control
the flow rate.

B)DAF Unit Aeration and Skimmer Control :

The Dissolved Air Floration operates on the philosophy the aeration of the
flocs by air injection into the waste water stream after alum and
polyelectrolyte dosing to make the flocks lighter and to make then float, and
further to remove the flocks by skimming.

The DAF control panel function based on instrument air supplied to the
panel. The regulators I control pressure to device the flow of air to the
aeration part and the skimming device. The air flow to the air injection parts
is metered across a Rota meter M. The skimmer is powered by a pneumatic
cylinder P operated forward and backward through the air supplied by
solenoid valves based on timer operation.

C) Filters flow and Backwash Instrumentation :

The pressure sand filters and the active action filters operate in batch mode
and heed be backward and/or regenerated time to time. The sketch at Fig.
21 indicates the flow and backwash lines including the instrumentation
involved used to monitor filter performance. During normal flow through, the
Rota-meter and RIB reads the flows and the pressure gauges PG1 and PG2
indicates the respective filter pressure, white DP1 and DP2 indicate
differential pressure across the filter beds, which go on increasing till a stage
that flow through reduces drastically. At this stage, flow is stopped and
backwash is resorted to. During backwash, Rota meter R2 gives the rate of
backwash flow. DP2, And DP2 are isolated during backwash. After
backwash, the flow through is resumed.
124
D) Process waste effluent data recording :

The out flowing effluent from the guard pond is monitored for :

a) Flow rate – this is measured across V-notch


b) Hydrogen-ion concentration –this is done by a PH
probe
c) Dissolved oxygen – this is measured by a DO probe

The flow rate, PH & Dissolved oxygen measured are recorded on a chart
graph in the instrument panel. In addition, a totalizer is provided to totalize
the out flow rate.

CONTAMINATED RAIN WATER TREATMENT PLANT :

The inlet receiving sump consists of a dry well sump and a wet well sump.
Dry and wet weather pumps installed in the pump house delivery waste water
to the surge ponds. The surge ponds consists of two compartments with
individual feeding chamber and isolation gates. The outlets have been
provided with an oil skimming device and collecting chamber from where oil
collected flows to the slop oil sump.

Waste water from the surge pond flows through a flow control valve to the
battery of four API separators. The API separator consists of two basic
sections- the inlet sections and the oil water separation channels. The pre-
separator section is provided with an inlet sump channel overflow weir and
velocity head diffuser which reduces the velocity of the effluent and collects
floating oil. The equipment for oil skimming is basically a conveyor with long
wooden slats. The oil that is pushed off the slats towards the weir is collected
by the slotted oil skimmer pipe which leads off to the slop oil sump on the
return flight off the conveyor chain, the wooden slats push the sludge to the
hopper portion of the channels. The sludge goes to the oily sludge sump.

Water from the API separators flow through Hay filters provided for removal
of residual free oil. The effluent disposed is measured through a parshall
flume.

125
The sludge collected in the oily sludge sump is pumped by oily sludge
pumps to the sludge lagoons for separation of sludge from liquor
supernatant liquid is drawn off and taken to the inlet sump. Sludge is
allowed to settle in the sludge lagoon, after which it is manual removed
periodically.

The slop oil from slop oil sump is pumped to the slop oil tank via slop oil
pumps. Water is allowed to settle in the slop oil tank and then drained off
into the inlet sump. Slop oil is disposed off periodically through tankers.

Table-XIII : Data sheet for Annubar, Butterfly valve and Parshall flume
at CRWTP
ANNUBAR
Accutube Inner diameter 28.425 Inches
Flow 5283.4 9PM (1415 M3/hr.)
Differential pressure 2.938 inches of water
Probe diameter 1.0 inches
BUTTERFLY VALVE
Size & type 700 MM full bore
End connection Flanged
Actuator type Piston-double acting cylinder
Close at 90°
Open at 0°
Air fall/operation position AO/AFC
Pressure drop 0.0057 M WC.
PARSHALL FLUME FLOW METER
Width 305 MM (1 foot)
Max design flow permissible 1000 M3/Hr.
Head for max. flow 549.53 MM
Converging section length 1343 MM
Throat section length 610 MM
Diverting section length 914 MM
Inlet/outlet angle 1” x 1” x 1/8

(I) The parameters controlled in the CRWTP are oil content and total
suspended solids. The entire plant is capable of running in auto-made with
the following instrumentation.

a) Sump level based start-stop logic for pumps:

126
Three sump having pumps are designed to start the pumps on high level and
stop on low level, the sumps and pumps being:

(i) Inlet sump –Dry weather pumps and wet weather pumps
(ii) Slop oil sump- slop oil pumps
(iii) Oily sludge pump – oily sludge pumps.

Each of the pumps has the option to operate either in Auto/Manual or


local/remote. To operate the pumps based on level switch operation, the
switches on the MCC breakers must be kept in AUTO and REMOTE. It kept
in MANUAL, the pump will start from the MCC room breaker “ON” switch and
stop with the “OFF” switch therein, where the second switch in REMOTE,
and the pump will only start and stop from local switch near the pump in
MANUAL local position.

b) Process flow through control:

The flow control from the sludge ponds to the API separators and the
measurement of the outflow from the hay filter section. Data sheet for the
Annubar Butterfly valve and par shall flume is given at table. The pneumatic
circuit for the operation of the butterfly valve is controlled by the FIC-01 on
the instrument panel having a hand operated set point positioner and a
switch for Auto/Manual changeover. The control valve operates in the
conventional manner with the FIG.

SANITARY SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT :

The Raw sewage sump has been provided to receive sanitary waster from
the gravity sewers and the raw sewage transfer pump. The sewage is
pumped to the package waste water treatment plant by non-dog horizontal
pumps. The package treatment unit is designed for a flow of 60 M3/hr.

The package unit is provided to reduce the bio-chemical oxygen demand of


suspended solids by biological oxidation. The unit mainly comprises of:

a) Contact Chamber :

Sewage is pumped to the contact chamber first where activated sludge from
the Reaeration chamber is also added. An air blower is used to blow air
through the sewage to facilitate the mixing of active bio-mass with inlet
127
sanitary sewage. In the process, organic substance present in the inlet
sewage is utilized by the bio-mass from the aeration chamber.

b) Clarifier :

One segment of the circular package treatment plant is located at the centre,
which is also the clarifier used for removal of biological solids. The feed to
the clarifier is from the contact chamber. The treated effluent is led off into
the chlorine contact chamber.

c) The sludge settled at the bottom of the clarifier and the floating scum at of
the top of the clarifier is led off to the sludge Recirculation sump.

c) Chlorine contact chamber :

This unit has been provided for disinfectation of treated effluent. Chlorine
gas is obtained from a chlorine cylinders which is solutionised is water
through a chlorinator and bubbled through the effluent in the chlorine contact
chamber.

d) Reaeration chamber :

This unit is provided for aeration and stabilization of biological sludge.


Sludge from the Recirculation sludge pump is pumped by recirculation
sludge pumps of the splitter box for distribution of the sludge between the
Re-aeration chamber and the Digestion chamber. Air is blown from the
bottom. The aerated biological sludge flows from the bottom of the bottom of
the baffled to the contact chamber.

e) Digestion chamber :

This is provided to stabilize the excess biological sludge. Air supplied by an


air grid at the bottom of the chamber.

Sludge leaves the package treatment unit from the Digestion chamber to the
sludge drying beds where the liquor filters off and flows back to the Raw
sewage sump. Dried sludge is removed manually.

The outlet flow is monitored across a V-notch with internal angle 28.4° and
maximum flow permissible 10 M3/Hr, the minimum being 1.2 M3/Hr. The
chlorinator is operated to achieve a Cl2 content of 15 ppm to 10 ppm. To
operate the chlorinator, open the water valve, then the chlorine gas inlet

128
valve, and the outlet valve. Adjust the chlorine flow as desired by setting the
flow meter accordingly.

SPENT CAUSTIC TREATMENT PLANT :

The treatment plant is divided into two sections.

a) Wet air oxidation package: Spent caustic is received in


a spent caustic sump and pumped to an equalization tank for storage. Spent
caustic from the equalization tank is pumped via a heat exchanger to an
oxidation tower. The oxidation tower is packed with ceramic rings and air
and steam are provided to oxidize sulphide to thiosulphites at 3.2 kg/cm2
pressure and 121°C temperature. The off gases are knocked out in the
overhead drum. The oxidized liquid flows via the heat exchanger to the pit
adjustment tank.

b) Biological treatment section Spent locat from the


process unit is received in the locat receiving sump and is pumped to the PH
adjustment tank where it mixes with oxidized spent caustic, 98% sulphuric
acid is added to control PH and dilution water-treated effluent from the
process waste treatment plant is added. This mixture then flows to the
Aeration tank where three surface aerators provide air to meet the BOD
requirement. Nutrients-urea, phosphoric acid and magnesium sulphate are
dosed into the tank. The liquor is then clarified where the supernatant goes
to the filter feed sump to be pumped via a pressure sand filter the of the
guard ponds. The guard ponds are used alternatively. The guard pond
effluent overflows to the treated effluent sump from where treated effluent
pumps discharge the effluent to final disposal. The backwash water is
tapped off from the pressure filter outlet to the guard pond.

The biological sludge from the clarifier collects in the biological sludge sump
from where it is pumped to the sludge thickener for thickening of the sludge.
If the sludge quality is poor or dilute, it is returned back to the aeration tank.
The sludge thickener concentrates the sludge and sends it to the thickened
sludge sump whereas liquid is recyded back to the aeration tank. The
thickened sludge pumps deliver thickened sludge from the thickened sludge
sump to the centrifuge. Additionally, polyelectrolyte is added to thickened
sludge at the centrifuge inlet to help concentrate the sludge. The sludge in
the form of sludge cake is discharged from the centrifuge to a trolley for
disposal. The cent rate from the centrifuge is taken back to the aeration
tank.

129
The plant is designed to treat influents as presented at table-XIV with
dilution water being supplied at the rate of 25 M3/Hr. and treated effluent of
50 M3/hr. leaving the plant as per MINUS standards (Table –XII).

TABLE –XV- SPENT CAUSTIC AND SULPHIDES TREATMENT PLANT


INFLUENT STREAMS

Sr. INFLUENT STREAM FLOW COMPOSITON


No CHARACTERISTICS
.
1. Spent locat 11.0 M3/day (Max.) K2S2O3 25.1%

K2SO3 & 8.5%


KHCO3
Iron 0.04%
Organics 0.34%
Sulphur 0.01%
Water 68.0%
2. Spent Caustic 2M3/Day- min. NaOH 4.8 – 7%
3M3/day - nor NAHS 0.15-2.9%
5M3/day - max. Water 95.05-
90.1%
3. Dilution water 25 M3/Hr. Treated PWTP effluent

The chemistry of the process is likewise as follows :

a) Wet air oxidation : The spent caustic is contacted with air at 121°C and
3.2 Kg/Cm2 in a packed tower and the sulphides are oxadised to sodium
thiosulphate and sodium sulphate according to the following equations :

2Na2S + 202 + H2O → Na2S2O3 + NaoH

130
2NaHS + 202 + H2O → Na2S2O3 + H2O

Na2S2O3 + 202 + H2O → Na2SO4 + H2SO4

Oxidation to thiosulphate is the predominant reaction, with approx. 10% of


the thiosulphite being further oxadised to sulphate. Release of H2S is
minimal at high PH.

b) Biological treatment: The influent is first dilution to bring down the


thiosulphate level to 3000 PMM or less and then admitted in the PH
adjustment tank to bring down the PH to the neutral range, which is an
optimum one for the micro organisms for degradation tank is presented at
table-XV which is fed after dilution and PH correction to the extended
aeration type bio-reactor in the aeration tank. The bio-reactor is designed to
stabilize almost all thiosulphates and also remove the COD and BOD. The
biomass is fed with requisite nutrients. The flocculated.

TABLE –XV : DESIGN POLLUTION LOAD AT INLET OF BIOLOGICAL


TREATMENT SECTION

Name of Pollutant Chemical formula Load provided by


Spent Caustic Spent Locat
Alkali Thiosulphate K2S2O3 215 PPM 4217 PPM
Na2S2O3 Nil 1428 PPM
Carbonates of K2W3 & KHCO3 Nil 1428 PPM
potassium
Ferric and ferrousion Nil 6.7 PPM
Organics Nil 57 PPM
Sulphur particles 5 Nil 1.7 PPM
Sodium hydroxide NaoH 367 PPM Nil
Total flow (M3/day) 5 11.1

Biomass is later separated out in the clarifier. The instrumentation and


control philosophy of the plant can be divided into the following control zones.

a)Temperature and pressure control in the oxidation tower:

Spent caustic feed is pumped under flow control to the oxidation tower via
the feed/effluent heat exchanger in which temperature is raised to 95°C.

131
Plant air enters the bottom of the tower and flows up through the packing
contacting the liquid. The ensuing reactions are exothermic and provide the
greater part of the heat required to raise the liquid temperature to the
optimum reaction temperature of 121°C. This temperature is maintained, if
required, by the injection of a small amount of steam with air. The process
and instrumentation diagram of the oxidation process is presented at Fig.
28. The tower normally operates flooded with the liquid level held at a point
above the top of the upper packed bed. The treated effluent leaves the
bottom of the tower under level control and is cooled to 67°C by heat
exchange with the feed. However, oxidation tower can be operated in
alternative modes.

i) Flooded counter - current mode


ii) Normal counter - current mode
iii) Counter current mode for low flow rate application.

Operation in the normal counter-current mode described above in that the


liquid level in the tower is controlled at a point beneath the steam/air injection
point. In the concurrent mode, the spent caustic after preheating enters the
tower at the bottom along with air and steam and there is a two phase flow
up the tower.

Plant air and LP steam are injected into the tower below the packed beds.
Air injection is controlled buy FIC-0201. LP steam injection rates is controlled
by FIC-0202, the set point signal being derived from TIC-0209 which
measures either top temperature TT-207 or bottom temperature TT-208,
either of which can be selected by hand switch HS-0202.

Similarly for level control, hand switch HS-0203 can be moved to either of
three positions.

LT-0201 - Tower top


LT-0202 - Tower bottom
LT-0203 - Overhead drum

LT-0201 is used in normal counter current mode, LT-0202 in co-current mode


and LT—203 in flooded counter current mode.

132
The tower system pressure is controlled by PIC—201 set at 3.2 Kg/Cm2 TIC-
0209 is set at 122°C as per process requirement.

b) Sulphide Monitoring and control facility: The sulphide monitoring


facility consists of 3 nos. tanks each of 1.7 M3 capacity to collect the
oxadised effluent being discharged from the oxidation tower. Each tank is
designed to provide 8 hrs. storage capacity at designed flow of 5 M3/day.
Please refer Fig. 24. The tanks are operated in rotation, viz :

I) Filling - 8 hrs.
ii) Isolation - 8 hrs.
iii)Draining - 8 hrs.

Each tank can be drained to either the locat sump or spent caustic sump. A-
5 position switch is provided with each tank and a timer controller setting the
timer for hours of operation before change-over is provided. The 5 position
switch operates thus :

Position –1 Start filling


Position-2 Stop filling
Position-3 Isolate
Position-4 Drain to LOCAT sump
Position-5 Drain to spent caustic sump.

During the isolation period, sample of liquid in the tank is drawn and
checked for sulphide. If the sulphide content is less than 3 PPM, tank is
drained to LOCAT sump, and more than 3 PPM, tank is drained to spent
caustic sump.

c) Ph adjustment tank Ph Control :

The scheme of Ph control is based on stroke adjustment of the acid pump.


98% sulphuric acid is stored in storage tank T-03, capacity 15 M3. Acid
dosing pumps MP-02 A/B deliver sulphuric acid from tank to Ph adjustment
tank. The Ph adjustment tank is a 6.5 M3 RCC tank equipped with an
agitator for effective mixing. The spend locat and partly—oxadised spent
caustic available in the locat sump S-02 is pumped by locat pumps MP-01
A/B to the Ph adjustment tank where it mixes with sulphuric acid from MP-02
133
A/B. The Ph of the composite mixture is measured by the Ph probe PHI-
0101 and signal transmitted to the PH indicator and controller AIC-0101.
The AIC-0101 is used to adjust the plunger setting on the acid dosing pump
to regulate flow of acid. This closed loop control is used to control the Ph at
the outlet of the Ph adjustment tank to 7.0.

d) Biological sludge recirculation control: The control philosophy is explained as


follows. Ph adjustment liquid from the PH adjustment tank mixer is taken
into the aeration tank. 25 M3/Hr. of dilution water- treated PWTP effluent
mixes with this liquid 3 nos. aerators provide oxygen for biomass growth.
A DO analyzer on the outlet indicates biomass health. The biological sludge
is removed in a clarifier and taken to the biological sludge pump. From the
biological sludge sump S-06, biological sludge recirculation pumps P-05 A/B
are used to pump sludge back to the aeration tank and excess sludge to the
thickener. The diversion is provided by a control valve FCV-104 controlled
by flow controller FIC-104.

If DO falls below to PPM, sludge to aeration tank is to be decreased slowly.


Also, the ratio of nutrient dosing is to be maintained strictly as BOD: N:P as
100:5:1. To increase or decrease sludge flow, FIC-104 can be operated
either in AUTO or manual modes. As much sludge’s as possible must be
required for most effective activated sludge treatment.

e) Level control for sump :

All sumps are provided with level switches to start pump at high level and trip
pumps on low level. All pumps operate in AUTO mode.

134
CORROSION CONTROL

AND

MONITORING IN SOUR
SERVICE

135
CORROSION MONITORING AND CONTROL IN SOUR SERVICE

The production of sour gas, its transportation and sweetening constitute a


complex and demanding process. Various problems are encountered in this
process and corrosion is a major one. The cost of lost time, the replacement
of materials of construction and constant personnel involvement in corrosion
is substantial and if not controlled can be catastrophic.

A) SOUR ENVIRONMENT :

The environment encountered during sour gas processing is usually devoid


of oxygen and the corrosives present in sour gas are mainly hydrogen
sulphide and carbon dioxide.

Hydrogen Sulphide : Hydrogen sulphide gas when dissolved in water is a


weak acid and is corrosive because it is a source of hydrogen ions. It can
also act as a catalyst for the absorption by steel of atomic hydrogen
produced by the cathodic reduction of hydrogen ions leading to sulphide
stress cracking (SSC) in high strength steels.

B)CORROSION MONITORING :

Corrosion may lead to catastrophic failures and it is essential to


monitor the corrosion rates to ensure safe operation of the plants.

i) WEIGHT LOSS METHOD :

A sample of material to be evaluated is placed in the fluid in the


form of circular or rectangular shape. From the weight loss of
the coupon the surface area and the time of exposure, the
average rate of corrosion is calculated.

ii) ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE PROBE :

If the corrosion probe is made in the form of a thin wire, its


electrical resistance increases due to the reduction in cross
section when corrosion takes place.

136
iii) THICKNESS MEASUREMENT :

Periodic thickness measurement of the equipment and piping is


carried out to determine the present thickness of the equipment
versus the required thickness.

iv) PIT DEPTH :

A pit is a depression that is deep in comparison to is length.


Pitting occurs due to the localised attacked of the metal. Depth
of pitting in the field can be measured by pit gauge. Microscope
can also be used to measure the pit depth.

C) INSPECTION

Inspections are carried out to determine the physical condition of


the vessel/pipings and structures and to detect conditions that
may lead to their failure. Corrosion is one of the prime reasons
for deterioration of the equipments and structures.

i) EXTERNAL INSPECTION :

External inspection is carried out for checking the external


surface condition of the vessels, condition of the insulation,
condition of the supports, anchor bolts, alignment of the vessels
on the support. Checks are also be made for any signs of
leakages from the equipment. Cracks are more commonly
observed on the nozzle welds of the vessels.

ii) INTERNAL INSPECTION :

Internal inspection is carried out during the shutdown of the


equipment for checking the internal surface condition of the
vessel and its internals for any sings of corrosion, nature of
deposits, scales etc. All parts of the vessels should be inspected
for corrosion, erosion and cracking. Thickness readings are to
be taken for the areas which are normally not approachable from
outside. Putting corrosion is checked by scratching the surface
of the vessel and pit depths are noted where pit depths are
significant. In case cracking is suspected dye penetrate,
magnetic particle inspection or ultrasonic flaw detection tests are
to be carried out to detect the cracks.
137
D) NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING :

Various non-destructive testing techniques normally used during inspection


are :-

i) VISUAL INSPECTIONS :

A visual inspection is made to determine if corrosion thinning is taking place,


cracks are developing, welds are sound and the connections made to the
various devices are unobstructed and in general to ensure that no serious
dterioration is taking place. Boroscopes and Fibrescopes are used as aids
to checks the areas which are different to see.

ii) LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION

This test is carried out to detect surface defects. This test is applicable for
all type of materials except the materials which are porous in nature.

In liquid penetrant method a suitable penetrant containing a bright coloured


dye is applied to the surface to be checked.

E) CORROSION PREVENTION :

Several methods are in practice to control or to provide protection against


corrosion.

a) Selection of proper material for corrosive service.


b) Alteration of environment
c) Use of proper design
d) Cathodic and anodic protection
e) Use of coating
f) Use of inhibitors.

a) SELECTION OF PROPER MATERIALS :

The judicious use of chemically resistant metals and non metals is very
essential for corrosion control in Sour Gas Processing plants. Low alloy
steels are most common materials of construction. For oxidising conditions
Chromium containing alloys are preferred.

Non metallic such as rubber, PVC, HDPE, etc. are used as linings.
Ceramics offers excellent resistance to corrosion and high temperature.
138
NACE standard MR 0175 95 may be referred for selection of materials for
sour services.

b) ALTERATION OF CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENT :

By changing the environment conditions reduction in corrosion rate can be


achieved. Environment can be altered by :-

- Lowering the temperature


- Decreasing velocity
- Removal of oxygen or oxidisers
- Changing concentration

c) USE OF PROPER DESIGN :

Design has an important rile in preventive corrosion in some environments


and should be considered in relation to the materials and/or treatments and
coatings. The different factors are :-

- Accurate design
- Proper heat treatment
- Stray current considerations
- Careful inspection

d) CATHODIC AND ANODIC PROTECTION :

CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM :

When an electric current flows between the cathodic and anode on the
corroding surface, the higher the current the greater is the corrosion rate.
Cathodic protection is an electrochemical method of corrosion control in
which the opposing current is applied to nullify corrosion. The structure to
be protected behaves entirely as the cathode and it does not have the
anodic areas. This method is extensively used to protect underground
pipelines and structures from soil corrosion.

139
I) USE OF COATINGS :

Coatings provide a barrier between the metal and the environment.


Corrosion control can be effectively achieved economically by painting. In
order to obtain maximum corrosion resistance it is essential to have proper
surface preparation, selection of the right type of paint and correct method of
application. Various types of paints are commercially available. More
commonly used among them are chlorinated paint, coat tar epoxy,
polyamide cured epoxy, zinc rich etc.

III) USE OF INHIBITORS :

Corrosion inhibitors are materials both organic and in organic added to water
or other fluids or gases in small quantities to reduce corrosion.

PREVENTION OF SCALING AND CORROSION IN COOLING WATER


SYSTEM

SCALE CONTROL Ca & Mg SALTS WHICH FORMS SCALE CAN BE


PREVENTED BY DOSING OF H2S04 (98%) BY LOWERING
THE pH OF COOLING WATER AND ADDITION OF
INHABITORS LIKE SHMP, STPP, PHOSPHONATES ETC.
CORROSION CONTROL CORROSION ON METAL SURFACES IS CONTROLLED BY
USE OF CORROSION INHIBITORS LIKE
POLYPHOSPHATE, ZnS04, ORGANO PHOSPHONATES
ETC.

• POLYPHOSPHATE ION REACTS WITH IRON


FORMED IRON POLYPHOSPHATE FILM. THIS FILM
COMBINED WITH ZINC IS TIGHTLY BONDED TO THE
METAL SURFACE AND PROVIDE A BARRIER
BETWEEN WATER AND METAL WHICH PREVENTS
CORROSION.
• ZINC ACTS AS CATHODIC INHIBITOR AND HELPS TO
MAKE OTHER INHIBITOR FILMS MORE ADHERANT TO
THE METAL SURFACE.
PREVENTION OF CHLORINE IS WIDELY USED FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
BIOLOGICAL GROWTH DUE TO ITS TOXICITY TOWARDS BACTERIA SHOCK
DOSING IS PREFERABLE.

140
MINOTORING OF CORROSION RATE

1. MONITORING OF CORROSION RATES BY EXPOSURE OF TEST


COUPONS.
• ONE SET OF TEST COUPON IS INSTALLED IN COOLING
WATER RETURN LINE.
• CORROSION RATE BASED ON WEIGHT LOSSS MPY (MILLS
PER YEAR).
22.3XWT.LOSS IN Mg.
= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SP.GR.OF METAL x EXPOSED AREA OF COUPON IN
SQ.INCH x TIME IN DAYS

2. ELECTRIC RESISTANT PROBE :


1
RESISTANCE OF ELECTRICAL ---------------------------------------
AREA OF CORSS SECTION

THE CHANGE OF RESISTANCE IS CORRELATED WITH CORROSIVITY


OF COOLING WATER WHICH IS MEASURED AT CORROSO METER.

141
MAINTENANCE
MANAGEMENT
OF
ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENTS
AT
HGPC

142
MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS AT
HGPC

INTRODUCTION :

There are about 5000 electrical equipment, scattered all over the plant area,
like HT and LT motors, power and distribution transformers. UPS, Battery
banks, HT and LT breakers, CP system, A/C Plant etc. For such a critical
plant 100% availability of critical equipment depends upon two vital factors.

a) Proactive Maintenance approaches


b) Management of information of each equipment to monitor its status.

Monitoring life cycle of equipment is very essential and is very useful in


planning the maintenance activities for doing their maintenance.

TYPE AND NO. OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HGPC

HT Motors 102 Nos. (240kw to 1710 kw)


LT Motors 1075 Nos. (upto 160kw)
Transformers 62 Nos.
Switch Gear Panels 08 Nos. (154 HT feeer)
Power Motor Control Centre 20 Nos.
Power Control Centre 20 Nos.
UPS System 12 Nos.
DC Distribution Board 16 Nos.
Central A.C. Plants 13 Nos.
Auxiliary Switch Boards 09 Nos
Air Handling Units in S/S 10 Nos.
Air Handling Units in A/C Plant 29 Nos.
Cooling Appliances 275 Nos.
Lighting Distribution Board 23 Nos.
Lighting Transformers 32 Nos.
C.P. System Tr. Unirs/Anodes 42 Nos.
C.P. System Test Pit 329 Nos.
Earthing Pits 380 Nos.
Lighting Fixtures More than 16500 Nos.
Junction Boxes 12500 Nos. approx.

143
PRESENT SYSTEM OF ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE AT HGPC

Transformers Quarterly & annual


HT & LT Breaker Halt yearly & annual
PMCC & PCC Half yearly & annual
HT & LT Motors Half yearly & annual
UPS System Annual(During Plant Shutdown)
DCBD Half yearly & annual
AC Plant Monthly and annual
ASB Half yearly & annual
AHU in Substations Half yearly
AHU in A/C Plants Monthly
Battery Bank Weekly and annual
Lighting Transformer Annual
Earth Pit Annual
CP System Monthly

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE

AMMETERS/VOLTMETERS :

→Based on regular monitoring & feedback from operators

PROTECTION RELAYS :

→ Based on regular monitoring & malfunctioning.

SWITCH GEAR PANEL :

→ Based on regular monitoring & malfunctioning.

BEARING REPLACEMENT OF MOTORS :

→ Based on condition monitoring reports

REWINDING OF MOTORS

Based on malfunctioning

144
UPS SYSTEM :

→ Based on daily monitoring or malfunctioning.

BATTERY BANKS :

→ Based on weekly reports

GAS CHARGING IN COOLING APPLIANCES & AC PLANT


COMPRESSORS :

→ Based on regular checking and complaints from users.

TRANSFORMERS OIL FILTRATION AND DRYING OUT :

→ Based on di-electric strength of transformer oil and D.C. analysis.

145
Mechanical
Maintenance
Activities
For Sour Gas
Processing Units

146
THE MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHY

The continuous operation of Hazira Gas Processing Complex is very critical


for keeping the sheels of down stream industries running. Therefore the
down time costs are enormous as compared to the running costs or
maintenance costs. In order to keep the plant equipment and machinery in
good shape and to achieve highest level of equipment and system
availability, a stringent maintenance regime is adopted.

All the plant equipments are divided into three groups, viz;

i) Rotary Equipment - Includes all the rotating and reciprocating


Eqpts. Such as compressors, pumps, gear
boxes, engines, Motors, agitators, fans,
conveyers etc.

ii) Semi Rotary Eqpts.- Includes eqpts. Such as safety valves, control
valves, shutdown valves, MOV’s Manual
operated valves, NRV’s.

Iii) Static Eqpts. - Includes all eqpts. Such as pressure vessels,


heat Exchangers, columns, furnaces, boilers,
flare stacks, Piping networks.

The above three groups of equipments are maintained for its regular & long-
time needs through dedicated maintenance teams of;

a) Mechanical Discipline.
b) Electrical Discipline
c) Instrumentation/Electronics Discipline

Most of the planned and unplanned jobs are carried out during general shift
timings (8.45 a.m. to 6.15 p.m.) by the respective maintenance groups
dedicated to different units. However to cater to the emergencies and
minor jobs during odd hours, a round the clock shift maintenance teams of

147
different disciplines are also deployed. These teams are under the
supervision of resident engineers 9RE’s), stationed at the plant itself for 24
hours.
This adds to the increased availability of maintenance people during holidays
and other odd hours. Apart from this all the key maintenance engineers
have been provided with telephones at their residences and can be called for
duty within very short span of time.

MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES

In order to keep the equipments and other facilities in proper condition so


that risk of equipment failure are minimized, the following maintenance
strategies are adopted.

A. PLANT TURNAROUND STRATEGY :

- The complete plant is subdivided into a number of units based on t their


operations and the units are further broken up into Trains (Process
Streams).

- With continuous operation of the equipments and various systems, their


efficiency slowly reduces over the time. In order to bring these systems
back to original efficiency and also to attend to many accumulated
maintenance jobs, the units are shutdown, one by one, and
repair/maintenance work is carried out. This whole process of planned
shutdown and turning around the plant efficiency, is called plant turn
around. The plant turn around are also necessary to meet the statutory
requirements of OISD standards and Factory Act requirement, to inspect
all the Pressure Vessels once in four years and get the safety certificates
from these agencies.

- Since the whole plant cannot be put under shut down to take up the turn
around jobs, a running plan strategy is adopted so that different units turn
around is staggered over a period of time.

- During the turn around, the unit is positively isolated from other process
units and all the rotary, semi static and static equipments are taken up for
repairs/overhauls/inspection etc. To accomplish this help from expert
outside agencies/OEM representatives, etc. is obtained. The planning
and execution of turn around work is closely monitored by the
management. A typical plan for carrying out the turn around, is placed at
Annexure-II.
148
During turn around safety is ensured for safe working. After
depressurising/drawing the medium from vessels/tanks/etc. inert
gas/steam/plant air purging is carried out. Before man entry oxygen
content is measured (min 20%) in the equipment.

All nozzles to the equipment are blinded. Internal cleaning and inspection
carried out. Hydrotesting is normally done at 15 times design pressure
for 30 minutes. After hydrotesting water is depressurized, drained and
equipment is dried up. IG purging is again carried out after deblinding of
nozzles to ensure oxygen content below 0.5%.

B. Rotary Equipment Maintenance Strategies :

The equipment critically can be described in the following categories;

i) Category -A+ Main process equipments of continuous operation


not having standby and whose outage results in
immediate production loss.
ii) Category –A Main process equipments of continuous operation
but having standby and whose outage results in
immediate production loss.
iii) Category- B Process and auxiliary equipment usually spared,
whose outage does not normally cause
immediate production loss.
iv) Category –C All process equipments required for intermittent
operation.

There are over 714 rotary equipments in HGPC. A summary of rotary


equipments is placed at annexure-I. Now depending upon the
criticality of the equipment the spares availability and maintenance
needs are given due priority.

All the rotary equipments are subjected to the following maintenance


regime.

i) Pro-Active Maintenance

a) Predictive Maintenance
b) Preventive maintenance
c) Overhauling

149
ii) Reactive/Breakdown Maintenance.

A brief about these maintenance techniques.

I) Pro-Active Maintenance
I) Predictive maintenance :
While the equipment is in operation any growing internal problem is detected
by trouble shooting techniques called CONDITION MONITORING
TECHNIQUES.

The recommendations made based on these observations are immediately


implemented by the concerned maintenance group. This helps in preventing
the unplanned shutdown/breakdowns of the equipments and excessive
damage to the parts. This is achieved by system of regular monitoring of
vibrations, noise level and lube oil condition, of all the equipments. The
frequency of these checks depends on the criticality of the equipments.

iii) Time Bound Preventive Maintenance :

This is the oldest way of preventive maintenance. All the equipments are
subjected to monthly, quarterly, half yearly, annual preventive maintenance
checks as per the Preventive Maintenance Schedules prepared in advance.

III) Overhauling :

For all the major critical equipments, the overhauls are planned depending on
the running hours and the recommendations of Original Equipment
Manufacturer (OEM). For category A+ equipments these overhauls are
clubbed with the plant turn around. Sometimes the experts from OEM are
called to carry out the overhauling of the critical equipments.

II) Break down Maintenance :

In spite of regular preventive, predictive, and overhaul maintenance, there are


a few cases of break down maintenance. These break downs of equipment
are attended immediately, some times working overnight depending upon the
criticality of the equipment.

Each break down case is thoroughly analysed using defect analyses


technique, so that such occurrences can be avoided in future. In case of
major break down the help from OEM experts is also sought.

150
The above maintenance regime has been helpful in achieving nearly 100%
system availability and above 98% equipment availability.

151
PUMP MAINTENANCE :

Most of the pumps in process units are of end suction centrifugal type. The
various rotating parts are prone to wear & with timely action through vibration
analysis & preventive measures, major failures can be avoided. The pump
should run smoothly with minimum vibrations at all times. It must never be
allowed to run dry. Prolonged operation against a closed shut off is also not
permitted.

In bearing housing, correct oil level is to be maintained & bearing temp.


should not exceed atm. Temp. by 30 deg. C. Any standby pump installed is
switched-on & then off again once in two weeks to keep them operational.
Pumps handling liquids posing health hazards must be depressurised with
extreme care. When draining the medium, it should be ensured that no risk
to persons or the environment occurs.

In a pump the most general failures are in mechanical seals & bearings.
Mechanical seals prevent the leakage of pumping fluid along the shaft
through stuffing-box.

Extreme care & cleanliness during assembly leads to trouble free operation
of the mech. Seal. Careful examination of the failed seal parts will help
determine whether the problem lies in seal selection or installation, the liquid
environment or pump operation. It is possible only if the entire seal is
available in a condition as undisturbed as possible.

Good seal installation practices require all lines & openings in to the seal
chamber to be checked to make sure clear. Frequently, orifices are installed
in flushing lines to minimise recirculation or to break-down pressure. If an
orifice is used, it should not be less than 1/8” in dia. to avoid clogging.

For mech. Seal failure analysis following points may be noted :

1) Check the alignment of the bearings, gland plate & stuffing box.
If experienced frequently, pump repair & installation practices may need
review.
2) Identify source of vibration. Take corrective action i.e. rotor
balancing, realignment.
3) Flush designs should preferably be developed in cooperation
with seal & pump vendors.
4) Shaft run out must be reduced. A rule of thumb is there should
be no more than 0.002 Total indicator reading TIR) Per inch of shaft
dia. radial run out on smaller pumps & no more than 0.001 TIR per
152
inch of shaft dia. on larger pumps. After 0.005 run out, most seals with
start having problems.

Bearings are used to take radial & axial loads in the pump. Some of the
most common conditions resulting in bearing failures are listed as follows
with the reasons of the failure.

1) Inadequate lubrication : Wrong type of oil or low oil level.


2) Excessive lubrication : Housing oil level too high.
3) Insufficient clearance in bearing : Selection of wrong fit.
4) Bearing pinched in housing : Housing bore out of round.
5) Vibration : Excessive clearance in the bearing or
unbalanced loading.
6) Shafts out of line : Misalignment is to be checked.
7) Bearing loose on shaft : Shaft diameter is too small or
adopter not tightened sufficiently.
8) Overheating of bearing : Oversized/Undersized housing
bore or oversized shaft.

In order to keep the pumps in top most condition preventive maintenance


schedules are prepared for each type of equipment which are strictly
followed. For a single stage centrifugal pump, a schedule is shown in
annexure-2.

A part from preventive measures vibration readings are taken either weekly,
fortnightly or monthly depending on the criticality of the equipment. Major
overhauling is carried out as per vendor’s recommendations which are
generally based on cummulative running hours. In “Amine charge pump”,
P-301, a 8-stage centrifugal pump handling MDEA, overhauling is carried out
after 35,000 hours.

During overhauling of P-301 multistage pump, all impellers are removed


from the rotor and clearances at the wear rings, run out of the shaft, bearing
clearance, etc. are checked. Spare parts are used whereever wear or
clearance is more and rotor is reassembled. A typical clearance chart of P-
301 is shown in annexure-3.

153
RECIPROCATING GAS COMPRESSOR MAINTENANCE :

The reciprocating compressors handle propane in DPD and off-gas (a


composition of methane, ethane, propane, CO2, butane, H2S) in CFU plant.
These compressors consists of 2 horizontally opposed cylinders, double
acting, single stage type.

Knocking sound from suction/discharge valves in a compressor is the most


common problem. The valves are dismantled and valve seat, plate and
springs are checked. The parts are assembled and valve passing is ensured
with the help of NGL.

During continuous running, the jack bolts, which hold the valve cage and
suction/discharge valves on to the seat, becomes loose and causes
knocking sound. The bolts should be tightened periodically to avoid the
problem.

Piston-Liner clearance is also checked periodically so as to not allow the


liner in contact with piston. The wear of non-lubricating type of piston shoe
(rider band) which consists of 35% carbon is checked with feeler gauge &
piston shoes are sued till it reaches minimum level of 0.5 mm clearance.
Gas packing/intermediate packings/oil scraper rings are replaced when
leakage/wear is more.

A preventive maintenance schedule is prepared and strictly adhered to for


keeping the compressor in good running condition. The activities under the
preventive schedule are in annexure-4. Also vibration readings are taken
weekly and follow-up actin is immediately taken to reduce the vibrations.

Before dismantling the valves or fluid end side, inert gas purging is done and
hydrocarbon content is checked. (Maximum 1%) After maintenance &
boxing up of compressor IG purging is done for oxygen content. (Maximum
0.5%).

154
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS (PHE) :

A plate heat exchanger consists of thin corrugated SS plates (0.6mm thk)


which are clamped together in between fixed plate and pressure plate
through tie-rods. A total of 15 PHE’s are installed in GSU/GDU plants for
heat transfer between lean MDEA/rich MDEA in GSU unit and lean/rich TEG
in GDU plant.

Whenever high differential pressure across the PHE occurs, strainers are
checked and cleaned but if the problem still exists insitu chemical cleaning is
done with 10% Nitric acid. This process has been developed in house. A
schematic diagram of the chemical cleaning set up is enclosed at annexure-
5.

Initially clean water is circulated through PHE for 30 minutes to flush out the
loose deposits on the plates. When the outlet water is almost clean, Nitric
acid is added into the tank with maximum 10% concentration and closed
circulation is carried out for 2 hours. Dosing of corrosion inhibitor is also
done to prevent corrosion. After 2 hours. The Nitric acid solution with the
removed slug is slowly drained out with caustic as neutralizing agent. Finally
for 1 hour clean water is again circulated through PHE and pipings are
boxed up.

During normal operation of PHE leaks through plates, tie-rods are initially
tightened, but if leakage does not get arrested, PHE is unpacked and plates
are replaced.

OTHER RELATED ACTIVITIES :

1. SPARE PARTS MANAGEMENT :

- WHAT TO ORDER ?

Manufacturer’s operation & maintenance manual plus the past


experience becomes the basis for spares requisition.

- HOW MUCH TO ORDER ?

The past consumption, age of equipment, expected running hours,


reputation of supplier from the basis for determining the quantity of
spares.

155
- WHEN TO ORDER ?

In ONGC a system of projecting the requirements of spares annually is


followed. Whereby the maintenance group forward its spares
requirements to Engg. Resources Group in the month of December for
the coming financial year.

2. FAILURE ANALYSIS :

To avoid recurrence of equipment break down in future a team


consisting of personnel from operation, maintenance, condition
monitoring departments investigate causes of failure and suggest
remedial measures. Assistance from OEM is also sought if felt
necessary.

3. MAINTENANCE HISTORY :

Records of all maintenance jobs performed, spares consumed,


observations regarding clearances etc. are noted in history books
prepared for al the equipments.

4. SERVICE CONTRACTS :

Services such as supply of worker force for routine maintenance,


fabrication and machining jobs, turn around jobs etc. are hired from
outside agencies on annual rate contract basis or as and when
required basis.

5. MODIFICATIONS AND/OR DE-BOTTELENECKING :

Modifications to improve the existing system duly vetted by technical


cell and approved by competent authority are executed by
maintenance deptt. in association with concerned operation group.

6. ON-LINE LEAKAGES :

In case leakages occur in operational units and immediate shutdown is


not possible, leakages in the flange joints, pin holes, valve bonnets are
arrested by injecting a rubber compound with suitable clamps without
depressurising the pipeline. This is accomplished by a separate
contractor which operates under annual rate contract.

156
7. TESTING OF LIFTING TACKLES :

Every year all lifting tackles like E.O.T./H.O.T. etc. are load tested by
dead weights. A separate contract is awarded to perform the job who
has the experience in similar fields. A test certificate for each lifting
tackle is furnished after completion of the job.

MAINTENANCE JOB EXECUTION :

1. TYPE OF JOBS :

A. PLANNED JOBS :

- Scheduled preventive maintenance jobs, like monthly, quarterly, half


yearly, annual maintenance checks.
- Scheduled overhauling jobs, performed on major equipments based on
running hours.
- Scheduled jobs, based on the recommendations of condition
monitoring department.

B. UNPLANNED JOBS :

- Equipment failures, noticed/informed by operating crew.


- Equipment failures, noticed by maintenance crew.

2. JOB PLANNING AND EXECUTION :

A. Preliminary information collection, from concerned operating


crew in shift.
B. Preliminary fault identification, using past experience or condition
monitoring techniques.
C. Spares, tools, manpower and repair time estimation and
deployment of the same to complete the job in minimum possible time
without any hold ups for want of these items.
D. Issuance of work order safety permit to concerned group, such
as manpower supplier, so as to mobilize the resources for execution of
job and as a safety requirement to work inside the batter limits of plant.
E. Isolation and /or de-pressurisation of equipment by the operating
crew and handing over to maintenance personnel for repair work.
F. Actual repair job execution, by systematically, one by one,
eliminating the possible root causes of problem. Don’t jump to the
conclusion too quickly, check all possible causes giving priority to the

157
most likely ones.(While attempting problem solving using one method
prepare mentally and physically for alternative or contingent method).
G. Test run in the presence of operation personnel and handing the
requirement back to operation personnel.
H. Failure analysis, to avoid future re-occurrences. Intimate the
findings to all concerned and record in history book.

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS :

The following safety precautions must be informed before taking up


maintenance jobs;

- De-pressurize and purge the equipment free of hydrocarbons.


Isolate the equipment electrically by taking out the circuit breaker
out of its switch-gear in sub-station.

- Isolate the equipment electrically by taking out the circuit breaker


out of its switch gear in sub-station.

- Positive blinding of all process and associated piping is


necessary if the equipment is to be under maintenance for
longer period or man entry is required.

- Before man entry the vessel should be purged of


hydrocarbons, sufficient provision for air supply should be
made.

- Hot jobs inside the battery limits should be avoided as far as


possible and if necessary maximum precaution should be taken
in consultation with safety department.

REMEMBER SAFETY IS EVERYBODY’S BUSINESS AND IT


SHOULD BE PRACTICED 24 HOURS A DAY, AND 365 DAY’S A
YEAR.

158
ANNEXURE-I

Summary of Rotary Equipments in HGPC(On criticality Basis)

Sl. Criticality No. of Equipments


No.
1. Category + 08

2. Category A 249

3. Category B 239

4. Category C 218

Total 714

159
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED DURING MONTHLY PREVENTIVE.

A)

1) EXTERNAL CLEANING OF EQUIPMENT


2) TOP UP, COLLECTION AND REPLACEMENT OF LUBE OIL
WHEREEVER REQUIRED.
3) ARRESTING ALL SORTS OF LEAKGES.
4) CHECK FOR FAULTY GAUGES.
5) CHECK FOR ANY ABNORMAL NOISE AND TEMPERATURE
6) GREASING OF STUDS
7) FILLING OF SEAL POT FLUID.

ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED DURING QUARTERLY PREVENTIVE :

ALL ABOVE ACTIVITIES AS IN A) AND B)

1) ALL THE FILTERS AND STRAINERS OF PUMPS ARE TO BE


READTHOUROUGHLY WHEREVER POSSIBLE.

ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED DURING HALF YEARLY PREVENTIVE :

ALL ABOVE ACTIVITIES AS IN A) , B) & C)

1) CHECK TIGHTNESS OF FOUNDATION BOLTS


2) FLUSHING/REPLACEMENT OF LUBE OIL

ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED DURING YEARLY PREVENTIVE :

ALL ABOVE ACTIVITIES AS IN A), C) & D)

1) ALIGNMENT CHECKING & CORRECTION

160
ANNEXURE-4

A) ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED DURING MONTHLY PREVENTIVE :

1) EXTERNAL CLEANING OF EQUIPMENT


2) TOP UP, COLLECTION ND REPLACEMENT OF LUBE OIL
WHEREEVER REQUIRED.
3) ARRESTING ALL SORTS OF LEAKAGES
4) CHECK FOR FAULTY GAUGES
5) CHECK FOR ANY ABNORMAL NOISE AND TEMPERATURE
6) GREASING OF STUDS

B) ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED DURING QUARTERLY PREVENTIVE :

CHECK TIGHTNESS OF FOLLOWING BOLTS AND TICHTEN IF


REQUIRED.

a) BETWEEN SLIDE BODY AND DISTANCE PIECE


b) SUPPORTING PLATE BOLTS
c) PISTON ROD LOCK NUT WITH THE CROSS HEAD
AND CROSSHEAD PIN LOCKING BOLTS
d) FOUNDATION BOLTS
e) CLEAN LUBE OIL FILTER ELEMENTS

C) ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED DURING HALF YEAR PREVENTIVE :

1) CHECK PISTON SHOE AND LINER CLEARANCE


2) CHECK PISTON RING CLEARANCE
3) CLEAN SUCTION STRAINER OF COMPRESSOR
4) ALSO CHECK TIGHTNESS OF FOLLOWING BOLTS AND TIGHTEN IF
REQUIRED.

a) BETWEEN SLIDE BODY AND DISTANCE PIECE.


b) SUPPORTING PLATE BOLTS
c) PISTON ROD LOCK NUT WITH THE CROSS-SHED AND
CROSSSHED PIN LOOKING BOLTS.
d) FOUNDTION BOLTS.

161
D) ACTIVITIES TO BE COVERED OVERHAUL BASED ON ACTUAL
RUNNING HOURS :

1) CHECK MAIN ND CONNECTING ROD BEARING CLEARANCE.


2) CHECK WEAR AND CLEARANCE OF CONNECTING ROD BUSHINGS.
3) CHECK SCORING AND WEAR OF BEARING AREAS IN CRANK
SHAFT.
4) CHECK THE TIGHTENING OF LOCKIGN SCREWS OF COUNTER
WEIGHTS.
5) CHECK THAT THE FOLLOWING CONNECTIONS ARE TIGHT,

a) CROSSHED GUIDES TO FRAMES


b) CYLINDE TO CROSSHEADS EXTENTIONS
c) FOUNDATION BOLTS
d) CYLINDER SUPPORTS.

6) CLEAN CYLINDER COOLING JACKETS


7) CHECK WEAR OF THE POSTON ROD AND CYLINDER LINER
8) CHECK WEAR OF SHOES AND PISTON RINGS.

162
Safety Measures for
Handling
Hydrocarbon &
Hydrogen Sulphide

163
HYDROCARBON SAFETY

CRITICAL TERMINOLOGIES

1) VAPOUR CLOUD AND VAPOR CLOUD EXPLOSION :

Whenever liquefied gas is released from its containment some portion of


the liquid starts to vaporise. The remaining is heated up by the
surroundings and causes the liquid to boil. The vapour generated by this
process then mixes with the air and gets carried downwind. This is called
a “Vapour Cloud”. If the vapour cloud after being formed is very large
within the flammability limits, the cloud explodes on ignition from a source
of sufficient energy. This is a “Vapour cloud explosion”.

2) UNCONFINED VAPOUR CLOUD EXPLOSION (UCVCE)

UCVCE may occur when a massive quantity of flammable vapour is


released to the atmosphere at a very high when a significant delay in (30
minutes or more) ignition occurs so as to form the cloud sufficiently. This
type of explosion is very destructive and spreads over a considerable
area.

3) BLEVE

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE) is the given to the


catastrophic failure of a pressurised storage tank containing a liquefied
gas. BLEVE can occur when a pressurised tank is exposed to a fire or
when the tank has been weakened by mechanical damage. In case of
exposure to fire, the internal pressure increases and that weakens the
tank until the tank can no longer contain the pressure. The tank then
ruptures violently with parts of the tank being propelled to great distances,
creates large fire ball causing thermal radiation and causes over pressure
similar to an explosion.

4) FLASH POINT

It is the lowest temperature of a flammable liquid at which the liquid gives


off sufficient vapour to give a momentary flash when ignited.

164
5) FIRE POINT

It is the lowest temperature of a flammable liquid at which the liquid gives


off sufficient vapour to continue to burn when once ignited. (The fire point
is usually a few degree higher than the flash point).

6) AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE

For a range of flammable gas-air mixture there is a composition, which


has the lowest ignition temperature. It is called ‘Auto Ignition
Temperature’. In other words, when the temperature of a flammable gas
air mixture is raised in a uniformly heated apparatus it eventually reaches
a value at which combustion occurs in the bulk gas. This temperature is
Auto Ignition Temperature.

7) FLAMMABILITY LIMITS

A flammable gas burns in air only in a limited range of composition.


Below a certain concentration of the flammable gas, the mixture is too
lean called lower flammability limit Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). While
above a certain concentration, it is too ‘rich’ ‘Upper flammability limit or
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL)’.

The concentration between these two limits constitutes the ‘Flammable


range’. Flammability Limits are affected by pressure, temperature,
direction of flame propagation, gravitational field and surroundings.

8) STATIC ELECTRICITY

It is the electricity at rest caused by movement of electrons, which occurs


when dissimilar substances in contact with each other get separated. As
a result, one of the electron body (substances) accumulates excess of
electron becomes negatively charged and the deficient electron body
becomes positively charged when the rise in potential between the two
bodies attain a dangerous value, a spark is generated.

Example:

Filling of LPG tanker through swivel joints.


9) INTRINSICALLY SAFE

165
It is a type of protection provided to electrical apparatus or circuits when
spark or thermal effect produced by opening or closing the circuit or
produced by opening or accidentally (e.g by short circuit or earth fault) is
incapable of causing ignition of a specified gas or vapour. This form of
protection is applicable to electrical apparatus or circuits in which the out put
or consumption of energy is small.

10) EXPLOSION PROOF ENCLOSURE

It is an enclosure for electrical apparatus that will withstand an internal


explosion of the flammable gas or vapour which may enter it, without
suffering damage and without communicating the internal flammation to the
external flammable gas or vapour through any joints or structural openings in
the enclosure.

11) PYROPHORIC IRON OR IRON SULPHIDE

It is formed when an iron vessel handles Sulphur or Sulphur compounds


(e.g. Hydrogen Sulphide) in operation which gets deposited on the walls of
the vessel. This when scrapped and brought out gets dried up and self
ignited, as the auto ignition temperature of this substance is almost equal to
the ambient temperature. This poses serious fire hazard if kept wet always
by water or light oil and disposed off to a area.

IGNITION SOURCES

Vapour can be ignited in various ways, not all obvious. All sources of
ignition must be eliminated from Hazardous Areas except under the
controlled conditions of the Work Permit System. Observe precautions, look
out for anything that appears dangerous and report it.

SOURCE OF IGNITION

There is always the possibility of a flammable atmosphere in a Hazardous


Area, therefore all sources of ignition have to eliminated.

OPEN FLAMES

SPARKS FROM FRICTION OR IMPACT

ELECTRIC SPARKS

166
SPARKS FROM STATIC ELECTRICITY OR STRAY CURRENTS

LIGHTNING

HOT SURFACES AND HOT SPOTS

HEAT FROM CHEMICAL REACTINS AND SPONTANEOUS


COMBUSTION

VERY LITTLE ENERGY IS NEEDED TO IGNITE A FLAMMABLE MIXTURE

The static electricity which can be held on a man’s shirt will ignite any
hydrocarbon vapour if it is within the flammable limits.

Two instances have occurred on one plant where men wearing nylon
clothing ignited flammable vapours from sparks produced by static
discharge.

A 30 mA spark at 240 volts will also ignite a flammable mixture. Any


electrical equipment working in its normal way is likely to ignite a flammable
vapour that occurs in its vicinity. Ignition would have been easier with a
material such as polystyrene or foam rubber.

IGNITION CAN BE CAUSED IN SURPRISING WAYS BY UNEXPECTED


HOT SURFACES

Flameproof motors became coated with cellulose paint and suddenly burst
into flame. This was due to one case to the fact that a bearing failed
allowing the rotor to rub against the starter. In another the paint deposits
fired when the carcass temperature rose above the auto-ignition temperature
of the paint (340 F). Similar heating could have been caused by the motor
being so coated with paint deposits or other obstruction that the cooling
could not take place. Alternatively a fan could have been rubbing against
the end shields.

BY VIBRATION

A flameproof light was fitted to a reactor vessel. This was fed by conduit
which snapped off due to heavy vibration. The conductors were damaged
as the conduit broke allowing ignition of the flammable mixture which was
present. Ignition was also caused on another plant when Pyrotenax was

167
connected to a motor without a vibration loop. After approximately 5 years
the Pyrotenax snapped due to work hardening about ¼” outside the gland.

BY WELDING AND HOT WORK

Many ignitions offshore are caused by welding and hot work. The following
instances have been reported.

1) A welder on an upper deck caused blistering of paint on the underside


to flake off into a tray containing small parts for cleaning in a solvent. This
ignited and the fire spread. There was a fire alarm accompanied by
production shut down.
April, JUNE, 1979

2) A fire was caused by hot slag falling onto welding gas lines. A fire
blanket had been laid down but did not provide complete coverage

January/March, 1979

3) Arc welding was taking place. The fire blankets were disturbed and
sparks fell on polypropylene sheets. The fire was put out at once with hand
extinguishers.
July/September, 1979

4) While a portable Oxy-acetylene torch was being lit, it apparently


flew back to gas bottles igniting the acetylene bottle at the Regulator.
Rubber hose and valve were damaged.
December, 1979

5) Hot work was being carried out above the stores. A fire broke out
in the stores amongst cardboard boxes and plastic sacks. It is thought that
welding sparks penetrated a hole in the bulkhead causing ignition. The fire
was extinguished by the installation fire fighting team.
January/March, 1980

What went wrong? The proper practices and precautions applicable to these
circumstances need to be set up and checked through the operation of the
Work Permit system.

168
BY SPARKS FROM SHOTBLASTING, CUTTING, SCRAPPING
HAMMERING

After aluminium paint has been on a steel surface for a considerable time
rust may build up under the surface. In the event of the paint receiving a
mechanical impact a thermite reaction is produced the results in a spark
which can ignite a flammable vapour. Generally aluminium itself should not
be struck with rusty steel or iron. For this reasons aluminium paint should
not be used where the aluminium and rust could mix and be affected by
either a blow or a jet of gas being expelled from (say) a flameproof fitting.
Aluminium paint, therefore, should not be used in hazardous areas.

BY SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION

Iron sulphide formed by the combination of iron in vessels of pipelines


hydrogen sulphide or other compounds becomes active chemically exposed
to air. It rapidly oxidizes and becomes so hot that it ignite a hydrocarbon air
mixture. This is known as a pyrophoric. The reaction can be prevented by
wetting the deposits or by exclusion of air.

BY UNKNOWN CAUSES

New process lines had been installed during shut down. On start up a leak
became evident in compressor module. The plant was shut down. The
production supervisor and the operator entered the module to locate source
of gas leak. During their search the gas cloud ignited. The pockets of fire
were extinguished. The source of the gas was traced to ½” vent valve on a
newly installed line which had been left open. The cause of ignition is not
known. Damage was limited. A common cause in such circumstances is an
electrical fault.

BY UNUSUAL CIRCUMSTANCES

A process man carried a small can of petrol and placed it on the floor 4 feet
under a starter switch he decided to operate. In his own the petrol got
ignited.

BY HIGH VELOCITY JETS

A can of hair lacquer in aerosol form will generate between 4,000 and 5,000
volts when used. In the same way a steam jet carrying droplets of water will
produce voltages of up to 10,000 volts and more. If these are allowed to
169
collect on an insulating piece of equipment then the discharge would have
sufficient energy to ignite a vapour.

BY LIGHTNING

GENERAL

Lighting is something that we must live with and its energy is clearly
sufficient to ignite flammable vapors. Most offshore installations are of metal
construction and readily discharge lightning to earth but lightning can ignite
discharges from vapour vents or other open sources of vapour.

A typical lightning strike may release energy of a thousand billion


horsepower in a few millionths of a second. It is this high rate of energy
released which gives lightning its destructive effect. However, good
conductors, such as steel structures, pipelines tanks etc. do not normally
suffer damage if they are correctly earthed because the current is harmlessly
discharged into the ground.

If earthing and bonding connections are not correctly installed and


maintained, secondary sparks, caused by lightning, may occur. If these take
placed in a hazardous area, a fire may result.

A) PRECAUTIONS

The following precautions should be enforced

i) All earthing and bonding connections should be regularly


inspected and maintained intact. During dry weather, earthing points
should be kept moist to ensure that the electrical resistance between the
earthing rods and the surrounding ground is maintained at an acceptably
low level (see Institute of Petroleum Electrical Safety Code).

ii) All earthing and bonding procedures should be strictly enforced.

iii) Dip hatches, man ways and other tank openings should be
kept tightly closed when not in use.

iv) Operations which entail or may entail the release of


flammable vapors should be avoided during thunder storms and tank
dipping or sampling not be permitted.

170
BY STATIC ELECTRICITY

The generation and accumulation of static electricity is a surface


phenomenon associated with the contact and separation of dissimilar
surfaces. This occurs for solid/solid, liquid/liquid, solid/liquid and liquid/gas
interfaces, and is of no practical significance until the surfaces are moved
relatively to each other.

Electrical charges are then carried away by the separating materials and
become evident as static electricity, for example, when hydrocarbon
liquids flow through pumps, pipes and filters, the liquid carries away with it
an electrical charges of one sign, and an equal amount of charge of the
opposite sign is left on equipment through which it has passed.

The quantities of electricity transferred are very small indeed in comparison


with those continuously carried by the electrical currents used in
conventional electrical equipment, but even so they can given rise to very
high potentials when they accumulate on electrically insulated bodies.

Examples of electrostatic generation are

- Passage of liquid through pipes and filters during fuelling of vehicles and
loading tanks;

- Settling of solid particles in liquids, as when rust and sludge particles


settle in a tank;

- Settling of droplets of one liquid through another e.g. water droplets


separating out in a tank containing a petroleum liquid;

- Breaking up of liquid columns in free fall, which may occur, for example
during overhead filling of tanks.

- Bubbling of gas through liquid, as when air trapped in a liquid rises to the
surface.

- Splashing by the break-up of jets or bubbles, e.g. during splash filling of


tanks and high-speed ejection of liquids from nozzles;

- Impingement of solids on solids, e.g. during grit or shot blasting;

171
- Flow of wet steam through a pipe, e.g. steam lances and leaks at
flanges.

PRECAUTIONS

Following precautions should be enforced :

1. All earthing and bonding should be maintained in good conditions.


2. All earthing and bonding procedure should be strictly enforced.
3. All electrical equipment should be checked and maintained by a
competent person.
4. Keep tank filling rate velocity low at 1 m/s until the tank contents are
above the outlet of the fill line.
5. Drain water regularly from tankage.
6. Avoid the use of water to clear pipelines or to separate different
products.
7. Avoid agitation of tank contents by air, steam or gas.
8. Do not normally gauge a tank when liquid is in movement.
9. Allow some period of 30 minutes after filling to facilitate water content
to settle before gauging the tank.

BY TELE-COMMUNCATION

Radio receivers, transmitters, telephones, electronic testing devices and


similar equipment, if not flame proof or intrinsically safe, may generate
sparks at the switching contacts.

PRECAUTIONS

1) All communication equipment should be regularly inspected and


maintained by competent person.

2) All maintenance work should be done in safe area which is gas


free.

172
3) Only intrinsically safe or flame-proof equipment should be used
in hazardous area.

4) During loading or unloading operations ignition switches and


radio equipment must be switched off and the bonnet kept shut. Battery
covers must not be removed or the terminal exposed.

HYDROGEN SULPHIDE SAFETY

INTRODUCTION

Although Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is dangerous, deadly gas, its effects


are controllable and generally reversible, provided appropriate action is
taken in time.

The danger of exposure to H2S can not be eliminated altogether but the
potential of danger can be minimised by :-

A) Providing adequate safety equipments on location.

B) Proper training to personnel before posting.

C) Establishing strict operating and emergency procedures.

D) Creating general awareness of potential HAZARDS OF H2S.

CHARACTERISTIC AND PROPERTIES OF H2S:

- H2S gas is toxic, irritant and asphyxiant. It is colourless, which at low


concentrations is accompanied by rotten egg odour.

- Detection of H2S, solely by smell is highly dangerous as sense of


smell is rapidly paralysed by H2S.

It is more toxic than carbon monoxide and almost as toxic as Hydrogen


Cyanide gas.

- Heavier than air, specific gravity 1.189 – Vapours may travel considerable
distance to a source of ignition and forms an explosive mixture with air in
concentration between 4.3 and 46% by volume.

173
- It has Auto ignition point of 260 degree centigrade.

- Burns with blue flame to evolve SO2, which also is very toxic.

- Threshold Limit Value – Time Weighted Average – 10 ppm.

- Threshold Limit Value – Short Term Exposure Limit – 15 ppm.

- Corrosive to all electro-chemical series metal.

- Soluble in water, alcohol, petroleum solvents and crude petroleum.

- Agitation or temperature increase produces toxic liberation.

- Melting Point (-) 85.5 Degree Centigrade, Boiling Point (-) 60.4 Degree
Centigrade.

- Molecular Weight: 34.08 Heat Value : 3820 Cal/Kg.

EFFECTS OF H2S ON PERSONNEL

It depends on:-

a. Duration
b. Frequency
c. Intensity
d. Individual susceptibility

H2S goes into the blood through lungs. To protect itself, body “Oxidizes”
the H2S. The excess H2S, which body can not oxidize, builds up in blood
and individual becomes poisoned. The nerve centers in the brain which
control breathing are paralysed. The lungs stop working and the person
asphyxiated. Other lower levels of exposure may cause the following
symptoms individually or in combination.

- Headache
- Dizziness
- Excitement
- Nausea
- Coughing
- Drowsiness
- Dryness and sensation of pain in nose, throat and chest.
174
TOXICITY OF H2S AND EFFECTS

10 ppm = 1/1000 of 1% - Can smell, safe for 08 hrs. exposure

100 ppm = 1/100 of 1% - Kills smell in 03 to 15 mins. may sting


eyes and throat.

200 ppm = 2/100 of 1% - Kills smell shortly, stings eyes and throat.

500 ppm = 5/100 of 1% - Loses sense of reasoning and balance.

Respiratory paralysis within 30 to 40 mins.


Needs prompt artificial Resuscitation.

1000 ppm = 1/10 of 1% - Unconsciousness at once. Permanent


brain damage, if not rescued promptly.

H2S IS MORE DEADLY THAN CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) AND AS


TOXIC AS HYDROGEN CYANIDE (HCN) GAS, WHICH IS USED FOR
THE EXECUTION OF CRIMINALS IN SOME COUNTRIES.

01. Threshold Limit - Concentration at which it is believed that all


workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without
adverse effects.

02. Hazardous Limit - Concentration that causes death.

03. Lethal Concentration - Concentration that will cause death with


short term exposure.

04. Threshold Limit - 10 ppm – 1972 ACGIH (American


Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists).

SUDDEN EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE 150 PPM, OR


CONTINUED EXPOSURE TO LOWER CONCENTRATIONS MAY RETARD
OR ARREST THE ABILITY TO DETECT THE ODOUR.
175
ESSENTIAL MEDICAL STANDARDS FOR WORKING IN H2S AREA:

Employees working in areas, mentioned earlier, where H2S may be present


or could conceivably be likely to be found should be checked medially by a
doctor to ensure that the employees has no medial defects that might
endanger his health or performance during a possible H2S exposure. The
examination should include heart, blood pressure, lung condition, existence
of perforated ear drums, standards of health or mental anxieties.

CAUTION

H2S MAY PASS THROUGH A PERFORATED EAR DRUM AND ENTER


THE LUNGS.

SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN USE OF B.A. SETS.

01. FACIAL HAIR : Can prevent effective sealing to the wearers


of B.A. sets.

02. CONTACT LENSES : Contact lenses are a definite hazard and


should not be worn while wearing a respirator in a H2S Contaminated
atmosphere.

DETECTION

Philosophy of detector location is governed by (a) where leaks are most


likely to occur and (b) where gas accumulations are most likely to be the
greatest.

KNOWLEDGE OF LIMITATIONS AND CAPABILITIES OF DETECTION


DEVICES/SYSTEMS ARE MOST IMPORTANT FOR SAFE
OPERATION.

During abnormal condition of leak and testing etc. high concentration of


gas may be encountered. Following are some of the common detection
devices :

176
- FIXED MONITORING SYSTEMS :

Sensors monitor H2S concentrations continuously at various locations.


Alarms are actuated when concentrations reach present values. The H2S
concentrations is continuously indicated on the analog digital display at
the control room.

- PERSONAL ELECTRONIC MONITORS :

The unit is hand held or attached to dress, to warn at preset values, when
attached with dosimeter, stores the individuals exposure to H2S and gives
a print out, when required. These can also be provided with system to
relay the exposure levels to control room for information and record.

- LEAD ACETATE AMPULES OR COATED STRIPS :

These change or colour (Usually turn brown or black) in the presence of


H2S. They should be used as alternate method of detection.

SHORT TERM MEASUREMETN WITH TUBE DETECTORS

The system consists of tubes, the bellow pump and a scale that gives a
reading of H2S presence and amount of H2S on the tube is shwon by
length of colour change on the tube.

DO NOT RELY ON YOUR NOSE TO DETECT H2S. THE SENSE OF


SMELL IS NOT A RELIABLE DETECTION METHOD.

KNOW THE CROSS SENSITIVITIES OR GASES WITH REFERENCE


TO YOUR MEASURING DEVICES.

ADDITIONAL SAFETY MEASURES

When approaching the job site it is necessary to take the following


precautions to ensure safe entry.

1. Observe for audio/visual alarms.


2. Check for wind direction
3. Look for personnel and their activities
4. Enter job site slowly
5. Look for the escape route.
177
6. Continuous detection.
7. Gas ignition hazards must be eliminated and “No smoking”
regulations Strictly enforced.
8. Reduce H2S exposure.
9. H2S awareness training programme and regular drills are a
must.
10. Continued observation of wind indicators is a must.
11. During atmospheric contamination by H2S, move upwind or
cross wind from source, not downwind as such you have to make
yourself always away from source.
12. H2S is heavier than air, therefore avoid low lying area.
13. Maintain and observe warning signs.
14. Maintain reliable communication systems.

EMERGENCY RESCUE IN H2S

The most important part of any rescue attempt at any time and especially
in toxic H2S environment is to protect yourself before attempting a
rescue. A successful rescue can only be accomplished by first being
prepared for such an emergency.

A) Be prepared :
i) Make sure the proper respiratory equipment is being
used.

ii) Check the air supply in the cylinder to ensure that there is
sufficient air to make the rescue and escape with the victim to a safe
area.

iii) Before entry into the contaminated area, check the seal of
the mask (negative pressure test).

iv) Observe wind socks to determine where you will take the
victims –UPWIND SAFE AREA.

v) Always use the “Buddy system” when making a rescue.

B) Aids to be used

i) If at all possible, atleast two people should aid in a rescue.

ii) Make use of all rescue equipment that may be on location,


Safety harness, ropes, slings, stretchers etc.
178
c) Removing the victim

1. If a victim is unconscious or is incapacitated, when wearing


BA set, drag the victim to safety, use stretcher.

2. If a victim is unconscious due to inhalation of lethal amounts


of H2S, time is important. The victim must be taken immediately to a safe
area upwind from the contaminated area.

FIRST AID FOR H2S POISONING

CONTACT WITH EYES

Eye contact with liquid and/or gas containing H2S will cause painful
irritation.

1. Keep patient in a darkened room.


2. Apply ice to eyes and put ice on forehead.
3. Take him to a Doctor.

CONTACT WITH SKIN

In case of skin contact, the affected area should be thoroughly washed.

Inhalation

1 Get the victim to fresh air as quickly as possible.


2 Keep him at rest and chilling should be prevented.
3 If respiration is stopped, give artificial respiration (Mouth to
mouth).
4 Call a doctor/take victim to a Doctor.

If the stomach rises, gently press on it to remove air, it is recommended


that the victim’s head be turned to one side before doing this.

Watch the victim’s chest. When you see it rise, stop blowing. Raise your
mouth and turn your head to the side and listen for exhalation. Watch the
victim’s chest to see that it falls. When the victim’s exhalation is finished,
repeat the blowing cycle. As the victim attempts to breath, co-ordinate
your blowing with his breathing- After reviving the victim, watch closely

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and treat for shock. NEVER LEAVE THE VICTIM ALONE, have some
one else contact a Doctor.

NOTE : A person properly trained in Artificial respiration can save a life.

CORROSIVE EFFECTS ON METAL

Almost all metals react with H2S to form metal sulfide. The most significant

action of H2S is its ability to form hydrogen embrittlement known as sulfide

stress cracking.

Blistering and pitting are two other signs of orrosion that can indicate the

presence of H2S.

PRECAUTIONS IN SAMPLING

01. Before proceeding for sampling, control room and other operating
personnel shall have to be informed.

02. While sampling, stand in the upwind direction.

03. Protective clothing shall be worn to avoid any spillage on body.

04. Breathing protection (e.g. escape mask i.e. ELSA shall be used.).

05. Look before hand for the escape route.

06. In case of any leakage, the isolation points shall be found out before
hand for quick isolation of the sampling point.

07. Any other measures as per established practice shall be followed for
specific areas.

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MAINTENANCE IN H2S ENVIRONMENT /OPENING OF EQUIPMENT
CONTAINING H2S.

i. Established work procedure are to be followed.

ii. Where the equipment can not be totally depressurised, (e.g.


connections to flare headers), the pressure be reduced to and maintained at
the lowest practicable level.

iii. Any cleaned material from SRU, GSU, CFU and other H2S
handling areas shall be suitably disposed, as these materials can catch fire.

iv. It should be noted that equipment which had contained H2S


may have iron sulphide. In the dry state iron sulphide can spontaneously
ignite in an oxygen containing atmosphere and appropriate precautions (like
keeping it water wet etc.) need to be taken.

v. If in case, the mercaptan dosing line ruptures, the portion of


the line exposed to the atmosphere can catch fire.

BREATHING PROTECTION AND RESCUE EQUIPMENT

The Gas Processing Complex, Hazira is having the following types of


Breathing Protection & Rescue equipments.

-Breathing Appartaus set (30 mins. & 20 Mins.)

-ELSA (Emergency Life Support Appliances) 10 mins.

-Cartridge type Escape mask.

-Airline Trolley.

-Auto Resuscitator.

-Manual air Resuscitator

-Portable Oxygen inhaler

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-Oxygen cylinder Assembly

-Stretcher

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE IN H2S ENVIRONMENT / ENTRY


INTO EQUIPMENT IN H2S AREA.

1. Where possible, entry into equipment which contains H2S


should be avoided.

2. For all entry situations, procedures for escape and rescue


should be established prior to starting the work.

3. Entry into vessels, hole, pits or drains which contained H2S (or
may still contain H2S contaminated residue), shall be undertaken only
after a vessel entry permit has been issues.

4. The equipment shall be depressurised completely to


atmospheric pressure.

5. For pressure vessels and other fully enclosed equipments


draining of all free liquid from the equipment is essential.

6. Positive isolation of the equipment must be achieved.

7. The equipment be purged to a safe location with inert gas,


steam or water and then air (until the concentration of H2S is below
detectable level and that of oxygen is above 20% by volume).

8. Any possible residues, which may be pyrophoric be kept water


wet.

9. A flow of fresh air be established through the equipment.

10. A means of communication be established between the


person entering the equipment and coworker.

11. The person entering the equipment and the coworker

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