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1st National and International Conference on Education Research and Social Development

April 24, 2015, KU Home, Bangkok, THAILAND

Leadership of the Local Leader to Accommodate to the AEC


Dr.Chanchai Chairungrueang

Abstract
The study is mainly designed to find out Chongmek Sub-District Municipality personnels opinions
toward their local leaders to accommodate to the AEC. The study also attempts to obtain
recommendations from the respondents. 119 staff member of the municipality comprised the sample for
the study. The sample was selected by resorting to stratified sampling techniques and simple random
sampling technique. The study instrument was a set of self-administered questionnaires containing
questions with a five-point, rating scale; the collected data were analyzed by means of the descriptive
statistics, a t-test and an F-test. The data analysis has brought to light the following facts: Holistically, the
personnels opinions toward their local leaders were found to be at a medium level. Separately, the
personnels opinions toward their leaders on the five aspects were found to be at a medium level.
Comparatively, speaking, their opinions in descending order of degree were as follows: personality, human
relations, knowledge and administrative skills, leadership style, and ethics. In terms of opinions of the
position, it was found, holistically and separately, that personnel with different positions differed in their
opinions toward their leaders pertaining to their accommodation to the AEC; the difference was
statistically significant at the .05 level. According the recommendations made by the personnel, the local
leader should keep up with the times.
Keyword: Local Leader, AEC

Introduction
The eagerness of all ASEAN countries to unify themselves into the ASEAN Economic Community
on December 31, 2015 plays a crucial role in stimulating the Thai public sectors particularly the local
administrative organizations located near to ASEAN countries to accommodate themselves to cope with
the future change. Those who are expected to play dominant roles in this regard are local leaders; their
leadership style is a critical factor in bringing about the effective administration. Only the local leaders are
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Public Administration Program, Faculty of Political Science, Bangkokthonbuti University

1st National and International Conference on Education Research and Social Development
April 24, 2015, KU Home, Bangkok, THAILAND
capable of creating the synergy of the staff members of their organizations. In a sense, they are in a better
position to combine traits, skills and behavior of the staff members. Also, the leaders are bound to create
the quantity, quality and image of the organizations reflecting the effectiveness and efficiency of the work
performance in the organizations they lead. Moreover, the leaders must set good examples for their
followers. Needless to say, the leaders are of paramount importance to co-workers, subordinates,
institutions, and the organizations success. As a saying goes: the administrator as a leader must have
desirable leadership traits which are deemed essential to the success of the organization; it is so largely
because he is the decision-maker and the creator of all things. He is the creator of organizational culture;
the good organizational culture cannot come into being without his/her creation; only the leader can
create the organizational culture. For all the reasons, all kinds of administrative practices require good
leadership particularly the local leaders of the local administrative organizations; it is of special
importance simply because he is close by related to the people in the locality.
Local administrative organizations come in different forms; a municipality is a kind of local
administrative organization established by the Municipal Act B.E.2476; it has authority to formulate
policies, make decisions on various public affairs, and initiate administrative practices to satisfy the public
needs and serve the public interest in the locality. All administrative practices are in line with the
regulations and must focus on peoples participation. The present structure of the municipality
established by the Ministry of Interiors based on the Division of Government Units B.E. 2541; divisions,
sections can be formally established regardless of number depending on the size, potentiality and
capability of each municipality.
Chongmek Sub-District Municipality is located in Sirinthorn, Ubonratchathani; it is a small sized
municipality; the organizational structure of the municipality is as follows: the Permanent Secretary Office,
Financial Division, Mechanic Division, Educational Division, Religion and Culture Division, and Public Health
and Environment Division. Each division has its unique structure as well as different administrative
practices. However, the leader (mayor) is the highest leader of the municipality and must make all
possible efforts to achieve the target of the municipality. Since the municipality is located near to the
Thai-Laotian border; the Thais and Laotian people have made greatest use of the road linking Thailand to
the Democratic Republic of Laos, the researcher has given greatest importance to the study on this topic.
The objectives of the study are threefold: 1) to investigate the municipality personnels opinions toward
their leader regarding the accommodation to the AEC; 2) to compare the opinions of the personnel with
different personal backgrounds; and 3) to obtain recommendations from the personnel with regard to
their opinions toward their leader in connection with the accommodation to the AEC.

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1st National and International Conference on Education Research and Social Development
April 24, 2015, KU Home, Bangkok, THAILAND
Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework
Local Leadership to Accommodate
to the AEC on 5 Dimensions :
- Leadership Traits
- Personality
- Human Relations

Position Held
1. Sub-District Officers
2. Temporary Employees

- Ethics and Morality


- Administrative Knowledge and Skills

Personnels recommendations

Concepts, Theories and Previous Studies


Definition of Leadership
Stogdill (1974), leadership is defined as the process of using influence on various activities of the
group for the purpose of setting the target and achieves the set target.
The definition has the followings implications:
1) The leader is perceived as the person who can influence other people in a persuasive manner
so that their behaviors are directed in the direction desired by the leader.
2) The process of influence takes place in the context of unchanged group; the group members
are the subordinates of the leader. Thus emphasis is placed on the relations between the leader and
his/her subordinates.
3) The leader has influence on the groups behavior in that the leader could persuade his/her
subordinates to the direction the leader desires. In other words, the effective leader could lead the
subordinates with an eye to achieving the desired goals of the group.
Leader Theories
Transformational Leadership
According to Burn (1978), this type of leader is both the leader and the follower. Both parties
help each other to enhance the ethics and morality. The leader and the followers also help get rid of
fear, passion, envy and hatred; the leader will find ways and means to boost the spiritual level of the

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1st National and International Conference on Education Research and Social Development
April 24, 2015, KU Home, Bangkok, THAILAND
followers by diverting the followers attention to the ideal morals and desirable values such as freedom,
justice, equality, peace and humanitarianism.
Transactional Leadership
Bass (1987) divided this kind of leadership into three types:
1) Contingent reward. The leader will give rewards to the followers on various occasions
depending on circumstances. 2) Active Management by Extension. This leader will intervene in the
followers activities only when they behave or perform their duties in a deviant manner, and at the same
time the leader makes effort to remove all obstacles faced by the followers while performing their duties.
3) Passive Management by exception. the leader will get involved in solving the problems only when the
problems become extremely serious. The leader strictly adheres to the procedure without any flexibility;
the leader will ignore minor errors but pay special attention to major errors or serious problems.

Research Methods
Population and Sample
Population: The total member of municipal officers and temporary employees working for the
municipality was 142 peoples.
Sample: Based on Krejcie and Morgans table, 119 people were used as the sample for the study.
Study Instrument
A set of self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data about the local leadership to
accommodate to the AEC.
Data Collection
The data collection was undertaken with the cooperation of Chongmek Sub-District Municipalitys
personnel.
Statistics Used for the Data Analysis
The following statistics were used for the analysis of the collected data: Cronbachs alpha to find
out reliability coefficient); frequency and percentage (to analyze personal backgrounds of the
respondents); mean and standard deviation (to determine the personnels opinions); a t-test and an Ftest (to test all the hypotheses of the study) and finally, the descriptive statistics were used to analyze
the recommendations offered by the respondents.

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1st National and International Conference on Education Research and Social Development
April 24, 2015, KU Home, Bangkok, THAILAND

Findings
As a results of data analysis, the researcher has found the following facts:
1) Holistically considered, the municipality personnels opinions toward the leadership of the
local leadership in regard to the accommodation to the AEC were found to be at a medium level.
Separately considered, the opinions on all dimensions or aspects were found to be at a medium level.
From comparative perspective, the personnels opinions on various dimensions in descending order of
degree were as follows: personality, human relations, administrative knowledge and skills, leadership
style, and ethics plus morality. It was noteworthy that the personnel with different positions differed in
their opinions toward the leadership of the leader of Chongmek Sub-District Municipality; the difference
was statistically significant at the .05 level.
2) With respect to the recommendations made by the respondents (the personnel), the following
conclusions can be made:
The leader should be well-informed about the changing world, should give trust to the
subordinates regardless of ranks or positions, should set a clear-cut vision, should perform his/her duties
with integrity and transparency, should create a democratic atmosphere in the organization, should give
opportunities to subordinates to speak their mind or express their opinions, should treat subordinates
with fairness and impartiality security, should strictly adhere to the religious teachings, should set a good
example so that the subordinates could follow suit; should treat every subordinate with fairness, should
motivate the subordinates to work, and finally, the leader should create secure team work.

Findings Discussions
1) In the opinions of the personnel, the leadership of the leader of Chongmek Sub-District
Municipality was at moderate levels on all dimensions. These dimensions include human relations,
administrative knowledge and skills, leadership style, and ethics as well as morality. The findings were
consistent with those of Sarawut Wongsekes (2010) who studied on the peoples opinions toward the
knowledge of Lord Mayor (a leader) of Tabos Songkram Sub-District Administrative Organization, SriSongkram District, Nakornpanom Province. The findings of the study were also congruent with those of
Jitraratana Songkrom (2011) who studied on the leadership of Lord Mayor of Popratabchang Sub-District
Municipality, Popratabchang District, Pichit Province. According to that study, the community committee
members and the people living under the jurisdiction of the municipality were of the opinion that the
leader had a pleasant personality, had good human relations, had good knowledge and understanding of
administration, had transparency management practices and strictly adhered to the fair treatment.
2) The fact that the personnel with different positions differed in their opinions t oward the
leadership of the leader of Chongmek Sub-District Municipality was in agreement with what Tunawasana
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1st National and International Conference on Education Research and Social Development
April 24, 2015, KU Home, Bangkok, THAILAND
Kongsabna (2001) discovered in his study on the Desired Leadership According to the Buddhisms
Teachings. That was, to say people with different ages, marital statuses, occupations, work experience,
education, and incomes differed vastly in their opinions toward the leadership of the leader.

Recommendations
1) Policy Recommendations
The local leader must have a strong conviction to perform his/her duties in such a way that the
leader as well as the followers keep well-informed about the changing world; the leader must have an
open-door policy, adhere to the principle of ethics and morality, motivate the followers to work with
eagerness, involve all followers to take part in all activities, and finally exercise compassion, and fairness
to the subordinates so that they could be willing to cooperate with the leader to bring about great
efficiency and effectiveness to the organization.
2) Recommendation for Further Research
2.1 Study on the factors influencing good local leadership of Chongmek Sub-District Municipality
should be conducted so that the findings could be used to further improve the leadership of the
municipality.
2.2 Participative management should be undertaken so that all the people can have a chance to
participate in the administration of the municipality.

Reference
Burn, J. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Stogdill, R. 1974. Handbook of Leadership. New York: Free.

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