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Distributed Generation in India- Scope, Opportunities, Challenges

,
and Power Quality Issues during the Integration of DG Sources.
J.P.Sridhara1, Dr. R.Prakash2
1

Assistant Professor, Dept of EEE, SJBIT, Bengaluru

2

Professor, Dept of EEE, Acharya I T, Bengaluru

Abstract- A conventional electrical power
can be generated at central large generating
stations and then transmitted over a long
distances to the load centres. But due to the
rapid industrialization & large population
the load demand increasing every year. To
meet the increasing load demand the main
tasks to power engineers is to generate
power from renewable energy sources to
overcome this problem and at the same time
reduce environmental impact of power
generation. Distributed Generation (DG) is
one of the new trends in power systems used
to support the increased energy-demand.
There is not a common accepted definition
of DG as the concept involves many
technologies and applications.
The
different DG technologies and impacts of
DG during the integration are explained in
this paper; and also the impact of power
quality issues arises during the integration
DG on distribution network are presented.
Index terms-Distributed Generation
I. INTRODUCTION
Distributed Generation (DG) is one of the new
trends in power systems used to support the
increased energy-demand. There is not a
common accepted definition of DG as the
concept involves many technologies and
applications. Distributed generation is
considered as an electrical source connected to
the power system, in a point very close to/or at
consumer´s site. DG makes use of small-scale
low carbon renewable and non-conventional

power generation technologies and the units
are usually located close to the load being
served. As the yearly electric energy demand
grows, there is a significant increase in the
penetration of distributed generation (DG) to
fulfil this increase in demand. Interconnecting
DG to an existing distribution system provides
various benefits to several entities as for
example the owner, utility and the final user.
DG provides an enhanced power quality,
higher reliability of the distribution system and
can peak shaves and fill valleys. However, the
integration of DG into existing networks has
associated several technical, economical and
regulatory questions. Penetration of a DG into
an existing distribution system has many
impacts on the system related to power quality,
security, protection and other issues related to
the power system operation.
II.SCOPE
The electrical sector in India has an installed
capacity of 258701.45 MW as of 30th January
2015 [1] which is very high as compared to
the installed capacity of 1362MW as of 31st
December 1947 [2]. Still it is anticipated that
India will face electricity shortages of 5.1% at
base loads and 12% at peak load hours during
2015 [3].With the increase in circuit
kilometres, Transmission and Distribution
losses (T&D) are also increasing, which are
accounted to 35.03% of total generation
during 2014-15 [3]. This has become one of
the main limitations for centralized power
generation. On the other hand, the increased
concern for generating electricity with low
carbon emissions (Green Power), tending
power sector to move from conventional
methods of electricity generation using fossil
fuels to alternative techniques. It is estimated

wind turbines. In this system. In India. First the rotor extract the kinetic energy of the wind.1 Photovoltaic Systems A photovoltaic system. when they are exposed to sun light. Some of the DG technologies. to covert thermal energy into mechanical energy. which cannot be stored. The cells are placed in an array that is either fixed or moving to keep tracking the sun in order to generate the maximum power [9]. 3. turbines. synchronous and induction generators are introduced.that the required installation capacity by 2030 would reach 772GW (considering 8% growth in gross domestic product). The wind is a highly variable source. thus. there is a need to include renewable and non-renewable (small scale) power generations located nearer to load centers known as distributed generation (DG). and small hydropower plants. To bridge the gap between supply and demand by reducing Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses and carbon emissions . which transform the self-contained energy of photons into electricity. changing it into mechanical torque in the shaft. The figure illustrates the technology options for distributed power generation. The combustible (usually . solar thermal and photovoltaic systems. small wind turbines (aero-generators). fuel cells? Or on the basis of fuel resources used? Renewable and nonrenewable. The technologies include biomass gasifiers. it must be handled according to this characteristic. 3. fuel cells. and in the second step the generation system converts this torque into electricity. this is the charge of the fuel cell together with air. The DC voltage is converted into AC voltage using inverters and then is delivered to the grid.3 Fuel Cells Fuel cells operation is similar to a battery that is continuously charged with a fuel gas with high hydrogen content. III. semiconductor materials are used in the construction of solar cells. which supplies the required oxygen for the chemical reaction [9].2 Wind Turbines Wind turbines transform wind energy into electricity. which are available at the present are: photovoltaic systems. micro turbines. 3. Technological Opportunities DG options can be classified either on the basis of the prime movers used? Engines. The fuel cell utilizes the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen with the aid of an ion conducting electrolyte to produce an induced DC voltage. converts the light received from the sun into electric energy. 3. many renewable energy technologies are being employed in a number of distributed generation projects.4 Micro-Turbines Fig (1): Types of Distributed Generation A micro-turbine is a mechanism that uses the flow of a gas. The principle of operation of a wind turbine is characterized by two conversion steps.

. The increased number of power electronics based equipments has produced a significant impact on the quality of power supply. 2003). IV. Therefore. are uncontrollable parameters which are bound to affect the generated power quality.9 per unit (pu) in rms voltage at the power frequency for durations from 0.gas) is mixed in the combustor chamber with air.5 Induction and Synchronous Generators Induction and synchronous generators are electrical machines which convert mechanic energy into electric energy then dispatched to the network or loads. sudden load reduction and open neutral connection. Deregulation of electricity market may also contributes to rising the penetration level of DG from Renewable energy sources. variation in solar radiation etc. 4. The voltage swells are usually associated with system fault conditions.3 Voltage Swells A voltage swell can be defined as an increase to between 1. The challenge is most of the DG sources which are integrated to the grid through power electronic interface. They can increase the efficiency of the systems by local power generation. This product makes the turbine to rotate. Interruptions can be results of power system faults. V.2 Voltage Sags Voltage sag is defined as a decrease to between 0. 3. The major types of power quality problems are: Interruptions. damage of equipment or appliances. 4. which at the same time. but they are not as common as voltage sags. VoltageSag. impulses the generator and the compressor.4 Current Harmonic Distortion The harmonic voltage and current distortion are strongly linked with each other because . current or frequency deviation that results in failure of customer equipment is known as power quality problem. Therefore. Voltage Distortions and Harmonics. (Dugan et al. More reliable and uninterrupted power can be provided to customers. insulation breakdown. Low power quality affects electricity consumers in many ways.1 Interruption An interruption occurs when the supply voltage or load current decreases to less than 0. hence injection of additional frequency harmonics in the system is obvious. equipment failures. which is pumped by the compressor.1 and 1.1 and 0.. 4. it is obvious to maintain high standards of power quality (a). variable wind speed. Voltage sags are generally related with system faults but can also be caused by energization of heavy loads or starting of large motors and overloaded wiring. Challenges Distributed Generation (DG) systems have both advantages and disadvantages in connection with grid Power Quality (PQ). Furthermore. 4. interference with communication lines and so forth. additional grid integration problems are also important related to the grid stability. and also from the perspective of environmental protection from harmful emissions from conventional power generation. The lack of quality power can cause loss of production.5 cycle to 1 min. Power Quality Issues in DG Any problem manifested in voltage. Swells can also be caused by switching off a large load or energizing a large capacitor bank. increased power losses.8 pu in rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycle to 1 min. One way that a swell can occur is from the temporary voltage rise on the unfaulted phases during a single line to ground fault. Voltage-Swell. and control malfunction.1 pu for a period of time that is not exceeding 1 min. with energy cost savings.

March 2009. pp. IEEE. 2. M. vol. . Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES). [2] Technical Report. pp. 1357.. vol. Asia-Pacific.” Elect. CP devices are generally used for voltage regulation. Ambrish Chandra. injection transformers. electronic fluorescent lighting ballasts. IEEE/PES.S.Fuchs and Mohammad A. On the other hand. 1-6.Masoum. Current harmonic distortion requires over-rating of series components like transformers and cables. nonlinear loads and unbalanced loads have degraded the power quality (PQ) in the power distribution network. [3] Technical Report. Custom Power devices also called as power quality compensator employ power electronic or static controllers in medium or low voltage distribution systems for the purpose of supplying a level of power quality that is needed by electric power customers that are sensitive to root mean square (RMS) voltage variations and voltage transients. Oct 2002. Vinod khadkikar . June 2014”. pp. “Grid Interconnection of Renewable Energy Sources at the Distribution level with Power-Quality Improvement Features” .harmonic voltage distortion is mainly due to non-sinusoidal load currents. the renewable energy sources are increasingly being connected to the distribution systems. a distorted current will cause more losses than a sinusoidal current of the same rms value. load balancing or power factor correction. APPEEC 2009. Power and Energy Conference. Res.Soder. Types of equipment that generate current harmonics are single-phase loads. Custom Power devices include static switches. Sadeghi. switched mode power supplies. Andersson. 195–204. [6] Mukhtiar Singh. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) of India. G. “Distributed generation: A definition. 1-5. “Monthly All India Installed Generation Capacity Report. As the series resistance increases with frequency. master control modules and/or energy storage modules that have the ability to perform current interruption and voltage regulation functions in a distribution system to improve power quality. Furong Li “Impact of Distributed Generation Technologies on Generation Curtailment”. Ackermann. pp. active filtering. with the proliferation of the power electronics devices. [4] T. Kazemi. “Distributed Generation Allocation for Loss Reduction and Voltage Improvement”. 2001 [5] Ewald F. Rajiv Verma. [10] Understanding power quality problems by M H J Bollen. IEEE [8] Thomas Ackermann. VI Conclusions and Future Scope With the advancement of power electronics and digital control technology. power converters. 2015”. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the importance and Scope of Distributed Generation to meet the growing energy demand by Integrating DG sources by considering the power quality issues in mind and the lot of research is going on for possible methods to mitigate the power Quality issues during the integration References [1] Technical Report. 08858977/2010 IEEE. IEEE Member. July 2013. Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition 2002: Asia Pacific. IEEE. “Monthly Executive summery for January. 57. “Power quality in power system and Electrical Machines” 2008. [7] Mohammad Noor Hidayat. “Growth of Electricity sector in India from 1947-2012”. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) of India. Power Syst. small Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) units and variable speed drives. [9] A. and L. Custom power devices have been proposed for enhancing the quality and reliability of electrical power. Valey Knyazkin “Interaction between Distributed Generation and Distribution Network: Operation Aspects”.1362. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) of India.

P. M.M.(Electrical and Electronics Engineering) from Manonmaniam Sundaranar University. Selvan. completed B. international conferences and journals. (Computer Applications in Power Systems) from IIT Madras.(Power Systems) from National Institute of Technology. He has published forty fi ve technical research papers in various national.E. distributed generators and power quality. Tirunelveli.D. He is currently Assistant Professor in Electrical and Electronics Engineering department of NIT Tiruchirappalli. His areas of interest include computer applications to power system analysis.E. Tiruchirappalli. Ph. He has nine years of teaching and research experience in the fi eld of power systems. .