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EPIDEMIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION:
INTRODUCTION Epidemiology is a events that occur in community, epidemiology focuses on population or
community to measure the distribution and determinants of disease for the purpose of preventing disease and
maintaining and promoting health
DEFINITION :
Epidemiology is the study of occurrence causes and distribution of infectious diseases as it occur in human Acc.
To McMohan Epidemiology is a study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequently in man
Acc. To Johan. M Last The study of the distribution and determinants of health related status or events in
specified population & the application of this study to the control of health problems
SCOPE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY:
It is a concerned with the systematized study of : 1 . Whole population in their living &working environment 2.
Factors that determine a state of health & disease 3. Pattern of health as well as pattern of illness 4. Measures of
prevention & control 5. Distribution & causes of human health problems 6. Multiple factors of causation The
ultimate aim is to reduce problems & its consequences in the community by .. 1.Establishing a community
diagnosis 2 Studying 3. Identifying causes 4. Identifying & describing various syndrome in the community 5.
Investigating epidemic problems 6. Completing natural history of disease 7. Estimating individual risk & chances
towards disease occurrence
USES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY :
To study historically the rise & fall of disease in the population To diagnose the health of the community Planning
& evaluation Evaluation of individual’s risk and chances Syndrome identification ,Completing the natural history of
disease Searching for causes & risk factors
NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE:
The term ‘natural history of disease’ is a key concept of epidemiology. Each disease has its own unique natural
history which is necessary the same in all individuals Prepathogenesis phase Pathogenesis phase
PREPATHOGENESIS PHASE:
It is a preliminary period of disease in man the disease agent has not yet entered man but its factors which favor
its interaction with the human host are already existing in the environment. The causative factors of disease may
be classified as.. AGENT,HOST, ENVIRONMENT these are required to initiate the the disease in man
PATHOGENESIS PHASE:
It begins with the entry of the disease agent in the susceptible human host. The further events in this phase are
clear cut in infectious diseases The pathogenesis phase may be modified by intervention measure such as
immunization & chemotherapy
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD:
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD HOST AGENT ENVIRONMENT
AGENT :
A disease agent may be defined as a substance living or non living or a force tangible or non tangible, the
excessive presence or relative lack of which the immediate cause of a particular disease The disease agents are
classified as follows… Physical agent Biological agent
Chemical agent Endogenous agents Exogenous agents Genetic agents Mechanical agents Nutrient agents
HOST :
HOST Host refers to humans or animals that in contact with the agent. Host factors influence the interaction with
the agent & environment as follows Age Sex Race Genetic factors Habits
6. Immunity Social class Economic status
ENVIRONMENT:
The environment refer to the aggregate of all external condition & influences affecting the life & development of
an organism human behavior and society. These are follows Physical environment Biological environment
3. Social environment 4 . Economic environment
SUMMARIZATION :
SUMMARIZATION Introduction Definition Scope Uses of epidemiology Natural history of disease Epidemiological
tried - Agent - Host - Environment