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A

Project Report On
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF SHEET METAL ROLLING
MACHINE
Submitted By
HARSHDEEP SINGH
INAYATULLAH FAROOQUI
Under the guidance of

Prof. ALVI
Mr. H. Vishwakarma
Submitted as a partial fulfillment of

Bachelor of Engineering
B.E. (Semester VIII), MECHANICAL
[2013 - 2014]
from

Rizvi College of Engineering


New Rizvi Educational Complex, Off-Carter Road,
Bandra(w), Mumbai - 400050
Affiliated to

University of Mumbai

CERTIFI
CATE
This is certify that the project report entitled
"Title of the Project"
Submitted By
HARSHDEEP SINGH
INAYATULLAH FAROOQUI
of Rizvi College of Engineering, MECHANICAL has been approved in partial fulfillment of require- ment
for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering.

Prof. ALVI
Internal Guide

Prof.Mr. H. Vishwakarma
External Guide (If any)

Prof.Hussain
Head of Department

Dr. Varsha Shah


Principal

Prof. Internal Examiner

Prof.
External Examiner

Date:

Acknowledgement
Put your acknowledgement here. Refer below for a sample.

I am profoundly grateful to Prof. Alvi for his expert guidance and continuous encouragement
throughout to see that this project rights its target since its commencement to its completion.

I would like to express deepest appreciation towards Dr. Varsha Shah, Principal RCOE, Mumbai and Prof.
Hussain, HoD MECHANICAL whose invaluable guidance supported me in completing this project.

I am particularly grateful to Mr. H. Vishwakarma (BISHNU AND CO.) who allows me to work in the
company.

At last I must express my sincere heartfelt gratitude to all the staff members of MECHANICAL who
helped me directly or indirectly during this course of work.

HARSHDEEP SINGH
INAYATULLAH FAROOQUI

ABSTRACT
The component that can be manufactured using 3-roller bar bending machine are circular washer having
internal radius more than 150mm, circular collars, component used for balancing of wind tower assem- bly,
high stiffness spiral spring, etc. For parametric specification of 3-point bar bending machine, it is necessary
to analyze the stress induced in rollers and gear teeth radial force. Thus Finite element mod- eling is
necessary and suitable software must be selected for analysis and observation.There are many useful
software are available in the market like ANSYS V-13, LS DYNA, ABAQUS and soon. Hence the 3-point
bending machine consists of number of individual parts which to be model and assembled. The AUTODESK
INVENTOR professional 2013 is best suitable for modeling of this machine (AUTODESK provides ease of
man-machine interface, mating of parts both transitional to rotational, constrain edge- surface etc.). It also
assists for part detailing and presentation.The finite element analysis is carried out using ABAQUS 6.10 for
solving stress distribution across the rolling rollers with billet displacement of 67mm, stress distribution with
roller rotation, Gear drive analyses for minimum load case without billet and Gear drive analyses for
maximum load case with billet thickness. It also requires the gear train mechanism with the motor to drive
roller, to transfer torque to overcome the vertical load acting during operation, and speed reduction for ease
bending & rolling process. Thus analysis of load acting on the gear tooth is necessary to set the minimum
inside radius of roll for 3-roller bending machine.

Keywords :Bar Bending Machine, Autodesk Inventor, Hyper Mesh, Abacus 6.1, Stress Analysis, and
Spur Gear

Contents

Introduction
1.1 PROBLEM DEFINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
2

LITERATURE REVIEW

PROCESS OF ROLLING

STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL


4.1 Stresses in tangential direction and inner moment bending calculus . . . . . . . . . . .

64.2 Stresses in tangential direction and inner moment bending calculus . . . . . . . . . . .

A Design process
5.0.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.0.2 Concept of Iteration . . . . . . . . . . .
5.0.3 Definition Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.0.4 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.0.5 Preliminary stage . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.0.6 Manually operated pipe bending machine

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Lead screw
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Design for Lead Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Assumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 POWER SCREW FORCE AND TORQUE ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . .
6.5 INSIGHT OF THREAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.1 DETERMINATION OF THE FORCES WHICH ARE ACTING
6.6 STRESS IN THREAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.1 Axial Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.2 Shear stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.3 TORSIONAL STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 MANUFACTURING FASTENERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.1 THREAD ROLLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.2 ADVANTAGE OF ROLLING V/S CUTTING . . . . . . . . .
6.7.3 HEAD FORMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.4 STRENGTH OF STANDARD BOLTS . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18
. 18
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. 22

GEAR
7.1 INTRODUCTION: . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 GEAR NOMENCLATURE . . . . . . .
7.3 GEAR TOOTH THEORY . . . . . . .
7.4 FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF GEARING
7.5 The Involute Tooth Form . . . . . . . .
7.6 Mesh Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 Changing Center Distance . . . . . . .
7.8 DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.1 Assumptions: . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.2 Virtual Number of teeth . . . .
7.9 Lubrication in gear . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10 Manufacturing of gears . . . . . . . . .
7.10.1 Forming Gear Teeth . . . . . .
7.10.2 Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3 Machining . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.4 Roughing Processes . . . . . .
7.10.5 Finishing Processes . . . . . . .

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Bearing
8.1 Material Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Thrust Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Bearing Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rollers and Idlers


9.1 Shaft loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 Attachments and Stress concentrations . . . . . .
9.2.1 Designing to Avoid Stress Concentrations
9.3 Force Flow analogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4 Design considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10 Coupling
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 10.2 Rigid ange
coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

37

11 Gear reduction box

42

12 Power unit Assembly

44

13 Modelling
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

46

14 Future scope of Project

49

15 Test Cases, Project Time Line & Task Distribution


15.1 Test Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.1 Case 1: Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.2 Case 2: Procurement of parts . . . . . .
15.1.3 Case 3: Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . .

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51
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15.1.4 Case 4:Load testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


15.2 Project Time Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
References

52

APPENDICES

52

A Project Hosting

53

List of Figures
1.1

3.1

three roller bending machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


11.2
manual pipe bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Process of rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43.2
Steps in rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1

Radial distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mechanical scheme of processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastic bending stress distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bending scheme on bending roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.- Bending moments at the plastic bending with cold-hardening. . . .
Scheme of positioning rollers with three and four symmetrical rollers.

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.6 4.2
.7 4.3
.7 4.4
.8 4.5
.9 4.6
. 11

5.1
5.2

A DESIGN PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Manually operated


pipe bending machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

6.1

ACME Thread profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

8.1
8.2
8.3

Material comination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Thrust


bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Bearing mounting . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

9.1
9.2
9.3

Roller and Idler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Force ow . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Method to remove stress
concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

10.1 Rigid protected typeange section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


11.1 Details of reduction box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
12.1 Induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 12.2 Comparison table
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction
It has been seen that the 3-roller bending machines are widely using in many industries for many different
applications such as, sheets are bent and roll to form a shell like structure which are used in pipe line. I & L
channel are bending to a required angle used to form structural stress (roofing) in construction industries.
Some of them are used for conical bending which are costly to produce using conventional machines. As
discussed above the two rollers A & B are connected to the shaft and are driven by the gears, each rollers
are interconnected by individual gear having same number of teeth on it to facilitate same rotary motion to
it. For construction of various structures as well as integral part of machines

Figure 1.1: three roller bending machine

various cylindrical sections are widely used. Such cylindrical sections are manufactured by various
methods and 3-roller conical bending process is one such process. It consists of two bottom rollers and a top
roller. Metal plates with specified contours are rolled without decrease in thickness to get the desired cone
angle. The plate undergoes plastic deformation and it is cold forming process and hence it has
higher. Dimensional accuracy. 3-roller shell bending process has four stages:
1. static bending,
2. forward rolling,
3. backward rolling, and 4.
unloading.
The motor used here to generate a required torque consists of 7.5 HP with 960 rpm of speed. We know that
thisspeed cannot be used directly as a output speed and the torque obtain from this motor is also very less,
so tomanipulate the value of torque and to reduce the input speed on to the roller A&B a proper gear train
is necessary. Thisgear train is properly designed and used in this 3-roller bar bending machine.A component
for balancing of wind blades & wind tower assembly can easily mass produced by the application of3-point
bar bending machine. A unique process for manufacturing the above circu- lar component is divided into 3
steps(clearly explained in component chapter). It was estimated that the processing speed for manufacturing
this component by3-point bar bending machine can greatly advance
Rizvi College of Engineering, Bandra, Mumbai.

Introduction

Chapter 1

by the amount of around 30 to 40% than that of using conventionalmachine. Although the use of raw
material for above manufacturing purposes is minimized up to 35-55%both conditionwill sets the component MRP with lesser cost. This idea brought the Bishnu and co. to process the abovecomponent by using
3-roller bar bending machine.

1.1 PROBLEM DEFINATION


By reviewing all the above paper brings further experimental study on 3-roller bar bending machine. This
study shows the bending of bar into required radius of curvature having greater thickness with shorter
width. Bending of this thick sheet executes higher load on center roller of machine. As the thickness of the
sheet increases the load acting on the top roller also increases, thus for rolling of thick material brings
changes in design parameter (mainly on sheet thickness t). Hence, this problem can be related to bending
of rectangular bar at the mid span and bending moment equation. Consider abar having a depth & width of
207 respectively is to be bend in a circular curve by radius R (i.e. radius of curvature). Baris made up of
mild steel having youngs modulus of E=2.1GPa (210KN/mm2).
By visualizing the figure we can state that the load acting on the above roller is more than the roller acting
as a resistance to bend (A & B).
Thus the steps executing on this problem are listed below:

Analytical calculation of load and stress acting on the rollers.


Calculation of required deection at the mid span which is required to bent the bar to obtain radius
of curvature R.

Design of gears and gear trains.


Calculation of speed reduction factor from input to the output
Estimating of torque for input motor power.

Modelling parts and assembly of 3-roller bar bending machine.


Analyzing of stress distribution across rollers.

Analyses of radial load on gear & pinion contact tooth

Figure 1.2: manual pipe bending

Rizvi College of Engineering, Bandra, Mumbai.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
Himanshu:
Himanshuhas done bendability analysis for bending of steel plates on heavy duty 3-roller bendingmachine. In this experiment they found out the equivalent thickness, equivalent width and maximum width
analytically &based on power law material model.
Ahmed Ktari:
have done Modeling and computation of the three-roller bending process of steel sheets.This experiment
consists of two-dimensional finite element model of this process was built under the Abaqus /Explicit
environment based on the solution of several key techniques, such as contact boundary condition treat- ment,
material property definition, meshing technique, and so on.
Jong GyeShin:
has done the experiment on Mechanics-Based Determination of the Center RollerDisplacement in Three- Roll
Bending for Smoothly Curved Rectangular Plates. The objective of this paper is to develop a log- ical
procedure to determine the center roller displacement, in the three-roll bending process, which is required
in the fabrication of curved rectangular plates with a desired curvature.
M K Chudasama:
have done the experiment on Analytical Model for Prediction of Force during 3-RollerMulti-pass Con- ical
Bending. In this paper, the total deection of the top roller required is divided in steps to get the
multipassbending.
M. B. Bassett, and W. Johnson:
The bending of plate using a three rollpyramid type plate bending machine, J. strain Analysis
Processmanual, maintenance manual, machine capacity chart and technical specification of rollingmachine,M/s Larsen& Toubro ltd,Hazira, Surat, India.

Rizvi College of Engineering, Bandra, Mumbai.

PROCESS OF ROLLING

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

PROCESS OF ROLLING
In the first stage the plate is kept between top roller and bottom rollers as shown in Figure and the top roller
is given vertical displacement to get the required bend. In next stage the bottom rollers are driven using
motors in forward direction to get the roll bending of the plate. Similarly the rollers are driven in reverse
direction to get better dimensional accuracy of the final product. The bent plate is than unloaded by raising the
top roller. For continuous single-pass four roll thin plate bending a model was proposed considering the
equilibrium of the internal and external bending moment at and about the plate-top roll contact. They had
considered varying radius of curvature for the plate between the rollers and proposed a mathematical model
to simulate the mechanics in a steady continuous bending mode for four-roll thin plate bending process and
also investigated Inuence of material strain hardening on the mechanics of steady continuous roll and
edge-bending mode in the four-roll plate bending process For continuous multi-pass bending of cylinder on
3-roller bending machines with non compatible (cylindrical) rollers, Gandhi et al. had reported the
formulation of spring back and machine setting parameters They incor- porated the effect of change of
exural modulus during the deformation in the formulation to study the effect on spring back prediction. For
plane strain ow of sheet metal subjected to strain rate effects
during cyclic bending under tension He also included

Figure 3.1: Process of rolling

Bauschinger factors in the model for stress reversal. The roll bending process is used for years, it can be
observed from the literature reviewed that conical bending process is untouched area as far as force
prediction is concerned. Even in the industries the normal practice of plate roller bending still heavily
depends uponthe experience and the skill of the operator. Working to templates, or by trial and error.

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PROCESS OF ROLLING

Chapter 3

Figure 3.2: Steps in rolling

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STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL


The working by bending of work-pieces creates inner of this in deformed zone stresses in tangential and
radial directions. The metal strata placed to curving center are pressed in tangential directions, becoming
shorter and in especially cases are stretchingin transversal direction. The metal strata placed to external
piece are stretching in tangential direction and in especially cases are pressed in transversal direction,
making the piece narrowing. Between the stretching and pressing strata is founded the neutral stratus M-N .
The neutral status with the radius nis founding displaced to the curving center before the weight center,
what is placed on the median arc with radius m. The radius value where the tangential direction stresses are
null and is not produced the deformation in tangential direction is determined by the following relation.

Figure 4.1: Radial distribution

Practically, it is considered that the neutralstratus position coincides with the medianstratus with nradius
when the relativeradius bending has the value.

4.1

Stresses in tangential direction and inner moment bending calculus

200and even less, theinuence exercised by elastic deformation ofmaterial near neutral stratus very little, thus
can be considered that the plastic deformation zone are spreading until neutral stratus,corresponding by
scheme at figureBarely, can be considered in neutralstratus is reached the material owing stress,cThe
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STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL

Chapter 4

Figure 4.2: mechanical scheme of processing

radial stresses by pressing notproduce resistant moment in bending process.This requests the work-piece
material atradial direction compression in bending zonewith maximum 10% of material owingstress
cvalue.Because the sheet metal bending on machineswith rollers is making with relative radiusr/smuch more
than 5 value, it can consider thattransversal section, while the broad workpiecesis take place with a very little
breadthdeformation, because the great work pieceresistance deformation opposed the neu- tral stratus
coincides with the medialstratus If it is approximated the real coldhardening characteristic of material
atrequirement in tangential direction with alinear curve, correspondently figure the realtan- gential stress can
be determinate byrelation Or, if we consider the geometry of bending If the bended

Figure 4.3: Plastic bending stress distribution system

work-piece has the sectionb x s and is bending on median stratus with mradius, the inner forces moment
M,according in figure 3, can be definite byrelation
In relation (7), the double of first integralrepresent the transversal section staticallymoment S, and
the double of second integralis the transversal section inertial moment . Thus, relation can be written

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STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL

Chapter 4

If it is multiplied and divided with thebended work-piece section resistancemodulus W, is obtained

If it take account thatS/Wfrom relationis a section characteristic and is noted K1, and is a physics and
material characteristic and is noted K2, the relation (9) become The coefficient K1, because depend onlyby
geometrical transversal section form canbe named the profile coefficient.The coefficient K2 ex- press
coldhardening intensity of plastic banded material,can be named strengthening coefficient.

4.2

Stresses in tangential direction and inner moment bending calculus

A plan work-piece bended on a rollerproperly figure, start from section wherethe curvier radius of median stratus is null,and is finalized in section , where themedial stratus curvier radius is .To calculate the torque Mt what to be applied on roller, it is considered a size Ls

Figure 4.4: Bending scheme on bending roll

Taking account figure 5, the mechanical workof inner forces Li, for plastic bending of the work-piece
size Lscan be determined byrelation
The inner moment value creates theCurvier a current section betweensection can be calculate witrelation
, what become:
Replacing the My relation in relation andmaking calculus, it is obtained:

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STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL

Chapter 4

Figure 4.5: .- Bending moments at the plastic bending with cold-hardening.

Taking account by the moment make at thebending on roller, relation (13) can be written thus:

Taking account by the moment make at thebending on roller, relation (13) can be writtenthus:

where Mt is defined by relation (21) in Nm;Mf friction moment necessary for defeatingrolling fric- tion
resistance between rollers and work-piece and rollers bearings in Nm; tangentialperipheral speed of rollers, in
transmission efficiency from electricmotor to rollers.

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Chapter 4

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STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL

10

STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL

Chapter 4

Figure 4.6: Scheme of positioning rollers with three and four symmetrical rollers.

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11

A Design process

Chapter 5

Chapter 5

A Design process

Figure 5.1: A DESIGN PROCESS

5.0.1

Introduction

The notion of useful work is basic to machines functioning, as there is always some energy transfer
involved . The mention of forces and motion is critical to our concern as in converting energy from one form
to another , machine creates motion and develop forces . it is engineers task to define and calculate those
motion , forces and changes in the energy in order to determine the size shape and material needed for each of
the interrelated parts of the machine.
The goal in machine design is to size and shape the parts(machine elements) and choose the appro- priate
material for manufacturing process so that machine is expected to perform its intended function without
failure .In this design project there is negligible acceleration so static force analysis will be
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12

A Design process

Chapter 5

suffice . Static force analysis deals with structure which are to be designed against failure to external
loading. The process of design is essentially an exercise in applied creativity. Various design process have
been defined to help organize to attack upon un-constructed problem definition is vague for which many
solution exist .some of this design process as shown below consist of 10 steps but can be extended to 25 steps.

Identification of need
Background research
Goal statement
Task specification
Synthesis
Analysis Selection
Detailed design
Prototyping and testing
Production
The initial step is Identification of need, usually consist of an ill defined and vague problem statement.
The development of the Back ground Research is necessary to fully define and understand the problem after
which it is possible to re state the goal in a more reasonable and realistic way than the original problem
statement. Step (4) calls for the creation of detailed set of task specification which bound the problem and
limit the scope .The synthesis step (5) is the one in which as many alternative possible design approaches
are sought , usually without regards of quality and value .We can also state this step as ideation and invention
step in which largest number of creative solution are generated.
In step (6) the solution of the previous steps are analyzed and they are accepted , rejected and modified . the
most promising solution is selected at step 7 once the acceptable design are filtered and once the way is
finalised then the Detailed design is done where all the loose ends are tied up complete engineering
drawing is made , vendors are identified and manufacturing specification is defined . The actual construction
of the working design is first done as a proto type in step (9)anfinally in quantity in
production at step (10)
5.0.2

Concept of Iteration

The above description may give an erroneous impression that this process can be accomplished in a linear
fashion as listed .on the contrary iteration is required within the entire process moving from any step back to
any previous step in all possible combination and doing this repeatedly . The best ideas are generated at the
step (5) will invariably be discovered to be awed when later analyzed. Thus the step of the ideation will be
necessary in order to generate more solution thus the return to the background phase may be necessary to
gather information . the task specification may be may need to be refined if it turn out to be unrealistic.

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A Design process

Chapter 5

5.0.3

Definition Stage

The first definition of the project in clear and concise manner is sheet metal rolling machine that means
bending long rectangular plates into cylinders. Machine should be semi-automatic which means load is
applied manually and driven by electrical power unit. Bending of the sheet should be based on the three roller
bending concept.

5.0.4

Assumptions

Plate is always having line contact with the roller which is parallel to roller axis during the process.
The forces acting during the bending are larger than the self weight of the plate. So theself weight
of the plate is neglected.

The shift of the neutral plane is zero, i.e., it is considered to be at the center line of the plate
thickness.

Frictional force at the bottom roller and the plate interface is always tangent to the roller surface.
Rollers are assumed to be rigid. Roller material and plate material is assumed to have stable
microstructure throughout the deformation process.

Deformation occurs under isothermal conditions and E, i.e., Modulus of Elasticity Remains constant during the process.

Plane section remains plane, before and after the bending. Blank thickness (t) remains constant
during and after the bending.

Baushinger effect is neglected. Blank is having uniform/constant radius of curvature for the supported length of the blank between two bottom rollers.

Further simplifying assumptions are discussed as and when required during the Formulation.
5.0.5

Preliminary stage

This stage we will define the experimental setup and the design outline that we have to go with.
The reasons and justification for these decisions are documented.

The design sketches so submitted will clearly explain the intentions of a designer and will be
understandable to another engineer or even to one self after the time has passed.

It is an observed and experienced fact that the 90


The purpose of the PDR is to insure that the project is on schedule for going into the detailed
design phase. Having others from outside your group look over your project will hopefully result
in an improved product. The design review is informal, but sloppiness in presentations will not be
viewed favourably.

In this stage we have studied various products in the market and then defined our criteria of going
further with the design so intended for the purpose

This machine is available in more than 20 different sizes that cover a pre-bending range of wall
thicknesses of up to 320 mm. Standard sizes can be built with roll lengths of up to 4 500 mm.
Special designs with roll lengths of up to 8 000 mm are feasible.

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A Design process

Chapter 5

5.0.6

Manually operated pipe bending machine

Bending machines are fabricated from 30mm square section tubing to provide a rock solid frame which
moreThan stands up to the rigors of daily use. The frame is designed to give maximum stability, minimizing the risks of sideways movement or skidding across oors, making operation as easy and effective as
possible. The formers, which are key to creating a perfect bend, are machined cast aluminum. This means
they can provideA superior and highly accurate bend as the machined area provides a perfect profile to
support the pipe and gives Excellent contact and virtually no movement. By comparison, most other brands
use non machined die casts.

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15

A Design process

Chapter 5

Figure 5.2: Manually operated pipe bending machine

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16

Lead screw

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Lead screw
6.1 Introduction
The nuts and bolts might seem to be one of its least interesting but the fact is one of the most fascinating. The
success and failure of design can hinge on a proper selection and use of its literally thousands of different
designs of fasteners are offered by vendors we will investigate the application of screw as a fastener can be
arranged to take tensile load, shear load or both which can have significant bending to load carrying abilities.

Figure 6.1: ACME Thread profile

6.2 Design for Lead Screw


Selection of the material for screw and nut
Screw Plane carbon steel
Nut At Caste Iron

6.3 Assumption

Type of thread i] Square thread


Dimensions do = 55
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Lead screw

Chapter 6

2 TPI let us select fine thread as they are more resistant to vibration and this is due to the fact that
the helix angle in this case is small than the course thread from P.S.G. pg. no. 5.69 we get for do =
55 mm we get minor

dia as 52 So,
Pitch circle dia = = 53.
Determination of the pitch P We know that the thread is configured with 2 TPI So Pitch = 9
Now for square thread hl = 0.5 P a = 0.25 r = 0.12 H = hi + a = 1.25
6.4 POWER SCREW FORCE AND TORQUE ANALYSIS
The nut is turned and the torque is applied so as to turn it and the screw translates up to lift the load p up or
down to lower it. There need to be some friction at the load surface to prevent the screw from turning with the
nut. Once the load is engaged then it is not a problem.

6.5 INSIGHT OF THREAD


Screw thread is essentially an inclined plane that has been wrapped around a cylinder to create a helix if we un
word the helix of one revolution of the helix it would look like a below shown fig.
The above fig. shows the free body diagram of the same nut as it slides up and down. Here
we can see the friction force, that will always oppose motion.

6.5.1

DETERMINATION OF THE FORCES WHICH ARE ACTING

Where is the coefficient of friction between screw and nut. Now solving the above equation we get the below
shown expression.
Now,
The screw torque Ts required to lift the load is
we can also express the above equation in the form of lead L rather than the screw torque is not only the
sole contribution to the torque, but the thrust collar also contribute a friction torque.
But in our case we do not have the thrust bearing so it want play any role in the calculation of torque.

6.6 STRESS IN THREAD


When the nut engages the thread, theoretically all the thread in engagement should share the load. In
actuality, inaccuracies in the thread spacing, cause virtually all the load to be taken by the first pair of
threads. Thus the conservative approach in calculating the thread stress is to assume the worst case of one
thread pair is taking entire load equally or the other extreme case is to assume that all the engaged threads
share the load equally. Now both the assumption can be used to calculate the stress in thread.
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Lead screw

Chapter 6

The true stress will be between these values. Most likely to come closer to one thread value.

6.6.1

Axial Stress

A power screw can see the axial loads ton either tension or compression. In our case it will be compres- sion
and so Buckling analysis in done for the same.

6.6.2

Shear stress

One possible failure mode involves stripping of the thread either out of the nut or off the screw, which, it
either of these scenarios occur is dependent on relative strength of the nut and the screw material. If the nut
material is weaker then it may, strip from the major diameter. If the screw is weaker then it may strip the
thread along with minor diameter and if the strength of both are same then it may strip on the
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Lead screw

Chapter 6

pitch circle diameter.


In any event we must assume degree of load sharing among the threads in order to calculate the stress. One
approach is to consider that since complete failure requires the thread to strip all can be considered to share
the load equally. This is probably a good assumption as long as nut or the screw is ductile to allow each
thread to yield as the same assembly begins to fail. However if both the parts are brittle as in our case and the
thread is poor one can envision each thread taking the entire load until it factures and passes the job to the
another thread.
Again the reality is between both the ends. If we could express the shear area in terms of number of
thread then we could define the degree of load sharing.
Striping area at minor diameter
d1 = minor dia
w1 = Factor defining % of pitch occupied by metal at minor diameter.
P = pitch
striping area at major diameter

6.6.3

TORSIONAL STRESS

The torque that twist the screw is dependent on the screw nut interface, if the screw and nut are well
lubricated, less of applied torque is transmitted to the screw. If the nut is rusted the screw all applied torque
will twist the screw. To accommodate the worst case of high thread friction, use the total applied
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20

Lead screw

Chapter 6

torque in the equation for the torsional stress in round section.

6.7 MANUFACTURING FASTENERS


Thread cutting several techniques are available for making threads. Internal thread are usually cut with the
special tool called a tap that has desired thread form and looks like a screw. A tap is made up of hard end tool
steel and has axial grooves that interrupt its thread provided the cutting edge in the shape of threads. A pilot
hole is drilled with a proper size tap drilled and the lubricated tap is turned slowly into the hole while being
advanced at the suitable rate. Nuts too large to tap are threaded in lathe, with thread shaped single-point
cutting tool that has advanced axially through the hole by a lead screw to control its lead and pitch. External
thread can also be cut with a single point tool in a lathe or alternative with a die, which is external thread
equivalent to tap the rod to be threaded s the same size as to be the outside diameter of the thread. Specialized
machines called screw machines are used to produce lead screws.

6.7.1

THREAD ROLLING

Another superior method for making external thread by thread rolling also called thread forming. Hard- ened
steel dies in the form of threads are forced into the surface of the rod being threaded. The dies cold ow the
material into thread shape. The final outside diameter of the thread is larger than the initial diameter of the rod,
because the material is forced out into the roots and into the rest of the thread.

6.7.2

ADVANTAGE OF ROLLING V/S CUTTING

The cold forming work-hardens and strengthens the material.


The crest radii at the roots and the crest and introduces favourable compressive residual stresses at
threads.

The disruption of the material shape into the thread form causes a re-orientation of materials grain.
In contrast thread cutting interrupts the grain.
All the above stated factors contribute to significant increase in strength.
Rolled thread compare to cut threads have less waste than the cut threads as no material is removed
and the blank is consequently smaller in volume.
Thread rolling should be done after hardening the bolt, IF POSSIBLE, as thermal hardening process will
relieve the desirable stress introduced by rolling.
6.7.3

HEAD FORMING

The heads of the bolts and screws are typically 899 cold formed in upsetting process.
The shank of the bolt to be gripped tightly in the cold heading machine with appropriate length stick- ing
out. A die of desired head diameter surrounds this exposed end when the hammer comes down, it cold
ows the material into the round head. IF POSSIBLE Heat & Treatment should be done.

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Lead screw

Chapter 6

6.7.4

STRENGTH OF STANDARD BOLTS

For our application we have selected entire range of bolts based on proof strength sp as defined by ISO
specification. Proof strength can be defined as the stress at which bolt begins to take permanent set.

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Chapter 7

GEAR

Chapter 7

GEAR
7.1 INTRODUCTION:
Gears are used to transmit torque and angular velocity in a wide variety of applications. There is also a wide
variety of gear types to choose from. The simplest type of gear, the spur gear, designed to operate on parallel
shaft and having teeth parallel to the shaft axis. Other gear types such as helical, bevel, and worm can
accommodate nonparallel shafts.
Gears have a long history. The ancient Chinese South-Pointing Chariot, supposedly used to navigate
across the Gobi desert in pre-Biblical times, contained gears. Leonardol Da Vinci shows many gear
arrangements in his drawings. Early gears were most likely made crudely of wood and other easily worked
materials, their teeth merely being pegs inserted in a disk or wheel. It was not until the industrial revolution
that machines demanded and manufacturing techniques allowed, the creation of gears as we now know them
with specially shaped teeth formed or cut into a metal disk.

7.2 GEAR NOMENCLATURE


the

shows two teeth of a gear with the standard nomenclature defined. The tooth height is defined by the
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Chapter 7

GEAR

addendum (added on) and the dedendum (subtracted from), which are referenced to the nominal pitch
circle. The dedendum is slightly larger than the addendum to provide a small amount of clearance between
the tip of one mating tooth (addendum circle) and the bottom of the tooth space of the other (dedendum
circle). The tooth thickness is measured at the pitch circle. and the tooth space width is slightly larger than
the tooth thickness. The difference between these two dimensions is the backlash. The face width of the
tooth is measured along the axis of the gear. The circular pitch is the arc length along the pitch circle
circumference measured from a point on one tooth to the same point on the next. The circular pitch defines
the tooth size. The definition of circular pitch Pc.

7.3 GEAR TOOTH THEORY


The simplest means of transferring rotary motion from one shaft to another is a pair of rolling cylinders. They
may be an external set of rolling cylinders, as shown in or an internal set. If sufficient friction is available at
the rolling interface, this mechanism will work quite well. There will be no slip between the cylinders until the
maximum available frictional force at the joint is exceeded by the demands of torque transfer.
The principal drawbacks to the rolling-cylinder drive mechanism are its relatively low torque capa- bility
and the possibility of slip. Some drives require absolute phasing of the input and output shafts for timing
purposes. This requires adding some meshing teeth to the rolling cylinders. They then become gears.

7.4 FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF GEARING


the
Conceptually, teeth of any shape will prevent gross slip. Old water-powered mills and windmills used
wooden gears whose teeth were merely round wooden pegs stuck into the rims of the cylinders. Even
ignoring the crudity of construction of these early examples of gearsets, there was no possibility of smooth
velocity transmission because the geometry of the tooth pegs violated the fundamental law of
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Chapter 7

GEAR

gearing, which states that the angular velocity ratio between the gears of a gearset must remain constant
throughout the mesh. The angular velocity ratio mv is equal to the ratio of the pitch radius of the input gear
to that of the out gear.

7.5 The Involute Tooth Form


From the involute as shown in fig. The involute of a circle is a curve that can be generated by unwrap- ping a
taut string from a cylinder, as shown in Figure.
Note the following about this involute curve.

The string is always tangent to the base circle.


The center of curvature of the involute is always at the point of tangency of the string with the base
circle.
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Chapter 7

GEAR

A tangent to the involute is always normal to the string, which is the instantaneous radius of curvature of the involute curve.

Figure shows two involutes on separate cylinders in contact or in mesh. These represent gear teeth. The
cylinders from which the strings are unwrapped are called the base circles of the respective gears. Note that
the base circles are necessarily smaller than the pitch circles, which are at the radii of the orig- inal rolling
cylinders, rp and rg. The gear tooth must project both below and above the rolling-cylinders surface (pitch
circle), and the involute only exists outside of the base circle. The amount of tooth that sticks out above the
pitch circle is the addendum, shown as ap and ag for pinion and gear, respectively. These are equal for
standard, full-depth gear teeth.
There is a common tangent to both involute tooth curves at the contact point, and a common normal,
perpendicular to the common tangent. Note that the common normal is, in fact, the strings of both involutes, which are collinear. Thus the common normal, which is also the line of action, always passes
through the pitch point regardless of where in the mesh the two tooth are contacting. The pitch point has the
same linear velocity in both pinion and gear, called the pitch-line velocity. The angle between the line of
action and the velocity vector is the pressure angle .

7.6 Mesh Geometry


The points of beginning and leaving contact define the mesh of the pinion and gear. The distance along the
line of action between these points within the mesh is called the length of action Z, defined by the
intersections of the respective addendum circles with the line of action, as shown in Figure. The distance along
the pitch circle within the mesh is the arc of action, and the angles subtended by these points and the line of
centers are the angle of approach and angle of recess. The arc of action on both pinion and gear pitch
circles must be the same length for zero slip between the theoretical rolling cylinders.

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GEAR

Chapter 7

7.7 Changing Center Distance


When involute teeth (or any teeth) have been cut into a cylinder with respect to a particular base circle to
create a single gear, we do not yet have a pitch circle. The pitch circle comes into being only when we mate
this gear with another to create a pair of gears, or gearset. There will be some range of center-to- center
distances over which we can achieve a mesh between the gears. There will also be an ideal center distance that
will give us the nominal pitch diameters for which the gears were designed. However, the limitations of the
manufacturing process give a low probability that we will be able to exactly achieve this ideal center
distance in every case. More likely, there will be able to exactly achieve this ideal center distance in every
case. More likely, there will be some error in the center distance, even if small.
If the gear tooth form is not an involute, then an error in center distance will cause ripple, in the output
velocity. The output angular velocity will then not be constant for a constant input velocity, violating the
fundamental law of gearing. However, with an involute tooth form, center-distance errors do not affect the
velocity ratio. This is the principal advantage of the involute over all other possible tooth forms and is the
reason why it is nearly universally used for gear teeth. Figure shows what happens when the center distance is
varied on an involute gearset. Note that the common normal still goes through the pitch point, and also through
all contact points within the mesh. Only the pressure angle is affected by the change in center distance.

7.8 DESIGN
Since we have reverse gear meshing so we use helical gear as they are quite and dont make noise as
parallel Helical gears mesh with the combination of rolling and sliding with the contact starting at the one
end and whipping at the another across its face width.

Power to be transmitted Pm = 10 Hp
Input speed to the pinion = 15 rpm
Output speed desired = 4 rps
Assume helix angle B1 = B2 = 170
Pressure angle = 200 for involute profile
Velocity ratio = i = 3.5
7.8.1

Assumptions:

Let us take tooth profile as n = 200 full depth


Gear Quality we have selected prevision cut gears to control dynamic load and wear
Type of gear standard Sn gear has been selected
Helix angle
For1 Pinion Right Hand Helix
B1 = 170
For Gear Left Hand Helix
B2 = 170

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GEAR

Chapter 7

Number of teeth on pinion (Z1) and gear (Z2)

7.8.2

Virtual Number of teeth

We can then define a virtual number of teeth Ne as the quotient of the circumference of a virtual pitch circle
of radius re and the normal pitch Pc. This defines a virtual gear that is equivalent to a spur gear with N
teeth thus giving a stronger tooth in both bending and surface fatigue than a spur gear with the same
physical number of teeth as the helical gear. The larger number of virtual teeth also reduces under- cutting in
small pinions, allowing a lower minimum number of teeth for helical gears than for spur gears.

7.9 Lubrication in gear


to avoid premature failure from one of the surface-failure. Such as adhesive or abrasive wear. Controlling
temperature at the mesh interface is important in reducing scuffing and scoring of the teeth. Lubricants
remove heat as well as separate the metal surfaces to reduce friction and wear. Sufficient lubricant must be
provided to transfer the heat of friction to the environment without allowing excessive local temperatures in
the mesh.
The usual and preferred approach is to provide an oil bath by housing the gears in an oil-tight box,
called a gearbox. Gear rotation will carry the lubricant to the meshes and keep the unsubmerged gears oiled.
The oil must be kept clean and free of contaminants and should be changed periodically. A much less
desirable arrangement, sometimes used for situations in which a gearbox is not practical, is to periodically
apply grease lubricant to the gears when they are stopped for servicing. Grease is merely petroleum oil
suspended in a soap emulsion. This topical, grease lubrication does little for heat removal and is
recommended only for low-velocity, lightly loaded gears.
Light oils (10-30W) are sometimes used for gears with velocities high enough and/or loads low enough
to promote elastohydrodynamic lubrication (see components, extreme pressure (EP) lubricants are often
used. These are typically 80-90W gear oils with fatty-acid type additives that provide some protection
against scuffing under boundary-lubricated conditions.

7.10

Manufacturing of gears

Several methods are used to manufacture gears. They can be divided into two categories, forming and
machining. Machining further divides into roughing and finishing operations. Forming refers to the direct
casting, molding, drawing or extrusion of tooth forms in molten, powered, or heat-softened materials.
Roughing and finishing are material removal techniques used to cut or grind the tooth shape into a solid
blank at room temperature. Roughing methods are often used alone without any subsequent finishing
operation for nonprecision gears. Despite their name, the roughing processes actually create a smooth and
accurate gear tooth.
7.10.1

Forming Gear Teeth

In all tooth-forming operations, the teeth on the gear are formed all at once from a mold or die into which the
tooth shapes have been machined. The accuracy of the teeth is entirely dependent on the quality of the die or
mold and in general is much less than can be obtained from roughing or finishing methods.

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GEAR

Chapter 7

7.10.2

Casting

Teeth can be sand cast or die cast in various metals. The advantage is low cost, as the tooth shape is built into
the mold. No finishing operations on the teeth are typically done after casting, though they could be.
7.10.3

Machining

The bulk of metal gears used to transmit power in machinery are made by a machining process from cast,
forged, or hot-rolled blanks. Roughing processes include milling the tooth shape with formed cutters or
generating the shape with a rack cutter, a shaper cutter, or a hob. Finishing processes include shaving,
burnishing, lapping, honing, or grinding. Each of these methods will be briey described.
7.10.4

Roughing Processes

Gear Shaping Gear Shaping uses a cutting tool in the shape of a gear which is reciprocated axially across
the gear blank to cut the teeth while the blank rotates around the shaper tool as. It is a true shape generation
process in that the gear-shaped tool cuts itself into mesh with the gear blank. The accuracy is good, but any
errors in even one tooth of the shaper cutter will be directly transferred to the gear. Internal gears can be cut
with this method as well.
7.10.5

Finishing Processes

Lapping and Honing Lapping and Honing both employ an abrasive-impregnated gear or gear-shaped tool
that is run against the gear to abrade the surface. In both cases, the abrasive tool drives the gear in what
amounts to an accelerated and controlled run-in to improve surface finish and accuracy.

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Chapter 8

Bearing

Chapter 8

Bearing
We use the term bearing here in its most general sense. Whenever two parts have relative motion, they
constitute a bearing by definition, regardless of their shape or configuration. Usually, lubrication is needed
in any bearing to reduce friction and remove heat. Bearings may roll or slide or do both simultaneously.
A plain bearing is formed by any two materials rubbing on one another, whether a sleeve around a shaft
or a at surface under a slider. In a plain bearing, one of the moving parts usually will be steel or cast iron
or some other structural material in order to achieve the required strength and hardness. Transmission
shafts, links, and pins are in this category. The parts that move against will usually be made of a bearing
material such as bronze, Babbitt, or a nonmetallic polymer. A radial plain bearing may be split axially to
assemble it to the shaft, or may be complete circle called a bushing. A thrust bearing supports axial loads.
Alternatively, a rolling-element bearing, which has hardened steel balls or rollers captured between
hardened steel raceways, may be used to provide very low friction. Plain bearings are typically custom
designed for the application, while rolling-element bearings are typically selected from manufacturers
catalogs to suit the loads, speeds, and desired life of the particular application.

8.1 Material Combination


Some combinations of materials that have proven either successful or unsuccessful in engineering applications of bearings and sliders.
Some properties sought in a bearing material are relative softness (to absorb foreign particles), reasonable strength, machinability (to maintain tolerances), lubricity, temperature and corrosion resistance, and,
in some cases, porosity (to absorb lubricant). A bearing material should be less than one-third as hard as the
material running against it in order to provide embedability of abrasive particles. In addition, the compatibility
on adhesive wear are of concern and these also depend on the mating material. Several different classes of
materials can be useful as bearings, typically those based on lead, tin, or copper. Aluminium, alone, is not a
good bearing material, although it is used as an alloying element in some bearing materials.
Gray Cast Iron and Steel are reasonable bearing materials when run against each other at low veloci- ties.
The free graphite in the cast iron adds lubricity but liquid lubricant is needed as well. Steel can also be run
against steel if both parts are hardened and lubricated. This is a common choice in rolling-contact as in rollingelement bearings. In fact, hardened steel will run against almost any material with proper lubrication.
Hardness seems to protect against adhesion in general.

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Bearing

Chapter 8

Figure 8.1: Material comination

8.2 Thrust Bearing


Ball and roller bearings are also made for pure thrust loads as shown in Figure. Cylindrical-roller- thrust
bearings have higher friction than ball-thrust bearings due to the sliding occurs between roller and raceways
(because only one point on the roller can match the varying linear velocity over the raceways radii) and
should not be used in high-speed applications.

Figure 8.2: Thrust bearing

8.3 Bearing Mounting


Rolling bearings are made with close tolerances on their inside and outside diameters to allow press- fitting
on the shaft or in the housing. The bearing races (rings) should be tightly coupled to the shaft and housing to
guarantee that motion only occurs inside the low-friction bearing. Press-fitting both rings can make for a
difficult assembly or disassembly in some cases. Various clamping arrangements are commonly used to
capture either the inner or outer ring without a press fit, the other being secured by pressing. The inner ring is
usually located against a shoulder on the shaft. Bearing catalog tables provide recommended shaft shoulder
diameters, which should be observed to avoid interference with seals or shields. Maximum allowable fillet
radii to clear the rings corners are also defined by the manufacturers.
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Bearing

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Figure shows a nut and lock-washer arrangements used to clamp the inner ring to the shaft to avoid a
press fit. Bearing manufacturers supply special nuts and washers standardized to fit their bearings. Figure
(b) shows a snap ring used to axially located the inner ring, which would be pressed to the shaft. Figure (c)
shows the outer ring clamped axially to the housing and the inner ring located by a sleeve spacer between
the inner ring and an external accessory ange on the same shaft.

Figure 8.3: Bearing mounting

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Chapter 9

Rollers and Idlers

Chapter 9

Rollers and Idlers


The term shaft usually refer to rotating machine element, circular in cross section, which supports transmission element like gear, pulley and sprocket and transmit power. The shaft is always stepped with
maximum diameter in the middle portion and minimum dia at two ends. Shafts are given specific names in
typical application although all application involve transmission of power motion and torque. Ordi- nary
transmission shafts are made up of medium carbon steel with the carbon content from 0.15 to 6.40 such as
3068 and 4068 these steels are commonly called machinery steel for the purpose where greater strength is
required high carbon steel 45 c8 and 50 c8 alloy steels are also provided for the same purpose 16 Mn 5cr4.
Alloy steels are costly compared to plane carbon steel but serves the purpose when it comes to strength,
hardness and toughness, they also serve high resistance so corrosion as compare to plane carbon steel so the
increase in the price of the same is justified.

9.1 Shaft loads


The loading on rotating transmission shafts is principally one of two types : torsion due to the transmitted
torque or bending from transverse loads at gears, sheaves, and sprockets. These loads often occur in
combination, since, for example, the transmitted torque may be associated with forces at the teeth of gears
or sprockets attached to the shafts. The character of both the torque and bending loads may be either steady
(constant) or may vary with time. Steady and time-varying torque and bending loads can also occur in any
combination on the same shaft.
If the shaft is stationary (nonrotating) and the sheaves or gears rotate with respect to it (on bearings), then
it becomes a statically loaded member as long as the applied loads are steady with time. However, such a
nonrotating shaft is not a transmission shaft, since it is not transmitting any torque. It is merely an axle, or
round beam, and can be designed as such. This chapter is concerned with rotating, transmission shafts and
their design for fatigue loading.
Note that a rotating shaft subjected to a steady, transverse-bending load will experience a fully reversed stress state as shown in Figure 9-1a. Any one stress element on even for steady bending loads, a
rotating shaft must be designed against fatigue failure. If either or both the torque and transverse loads vary
with time, the fatigue loading becomes more complex, but the fatigue-design principles remain the same,
Chapter 6.

9.2 Attachments and Stress concentrations


While it is sometimes possible to design useful transmission shafts that have no changes in section diameter over their length, it is most common for shafts to have a number of steps or shoulders where the
diameter changes to accommodate attached elements such as bearings, sprockets, gears, etc., as shown
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Chapter 9

in Figure, which also shows a collection of features commonly used to attach or locate elements on a shaft.
Steps or shoulders are necessary to provide accurate and consistent axial location of the attached elements as
well as to create the proper diameter to fit standard parts such as bearings.
Keys, are often used to secure attached elements to the shaft in order to transmit the required torque or to
capture the part axially. Keys require a groove in both shaft and part and may need a setscrew to prevent
axial motion. Snap rings groove the shaft, and cross-pins create a hole through the shaft. Each of these
changes in contour will contribute some stress concentration and this must be accounted for in the fatiguestress calculations for the shaft.
9.2.1

Designing to Avoid Stress Concentrations

The designer is always faced with the problem of stress concentrations at sections having abrupt changes of
shape. The best that can be done is to minimize their effects. In general, the sharper the corner and the
larger in magnitude the change in contour, the worse will be the stress concentration. For the stepped bar in
Figure, larger D/d ratios and smaller r/d ratios give worse stress concentration. From these obser- vations, we
can state some general guidelines for designing to minimize stress concentrations. 1. Avoid abrupt and/or
large-magnitude changes in cross section if possible.
2. Avoid sharp corners completely and provide the largest possible transition radii between surfaces of
different contours.

Figure 9.1: Roller and Idler

9.3 Force Flow analogy


Figure shows a shaft with an abrupt step and a sharp corner, while Figure 4-37b shows the same step in a
shaft with a large transition radius. A useful way to visualize the difference in the stress states in contoured
parts such as these is to use a force-ow analogy, which considers the forces (and thus the stresses) to ow
around contours in a way similar to the ow of an ideal incompressible uid a pipe or duct of changing
contour. A sudden narrowing of the pipe or duct causes an increase in uid velocity at the neck-down to
maintain constant ow. The velocity profile is then concentrated into a smaller region. Streamlined shapes are
used in pipes and ducts to reduce turbulence and resistance to ow. Streamlining our part contours can have
similar beneficial effects in reducing stress concentrations. The force-ow
contours at the abrupt step-transition in Figurea are more concentrated than in the design of Figure.
A similar approach of removing material to improve the force ow is seen in Figure 4-39a, which
shows a snap-ring groove in a shaft with additional relief grooves provided on each side to smooth the
effective transition of the cross-sectional dimension. The effect on the force ow lines is similar to
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Rollers and Idlers

Chapter 9

that shown in Figure 4-38c. Another common source of stress concentration is a key needed to torquecouple gears, pulleys, y-wheels, etc. to a shaft. The keyway groove creates sharp corners at location of
maximum bending and torsional stresses. Different key styles are available, the most common being the
square key and the circular-segment. Woodruff key as shown in Figures 4-38b and 4-38c.
Another example of removing material to reduce stress concentration (not shown) is the reduction of the
unthreaded portion of a bolt shanks diameter to a dimension less than that of the root diameter of the thread.
Since the thread contours create large stress concentrations, the strategy is to keep the force-ow lines within
the solid (unthreaded) portion of the bolt.

Figure 9.2: Force ow

9.4 Design considerations


Some general rules of thumb for shaft design can be stated as follows :
1. To minimize both deections and stresses, the shaft length should be kept as short as possible and
overhangs minimized.
2. A cantilever beam will have a larger deection than a simply supported (straddle mounted) one for the
same length, load and cross section, so straddle mounting should be used unless a cantilever shaft is dictated
by design constraints.
3. A hollow shaft has a better stiffness/mass ratio (specific stiffness) and higher natural frequencies than a
comparably stiff or strong solid shaft, but will be more expensive and larger in diameter.
4. Try to locate stress-raisers away from regions of large bending moment if possible, and minimize their
effects with generous radii and reliefs.
5. If minimizing deection is the primary concern, then low-carbon steel may be the preferred material, since
its stiffness is as high as that of more expensive steels and a shaft designed for low deection will tend to
have low stresses.
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Rollers and Idlers

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6. Deections at gears carried on the shaft should not exceed about 0.005 in and the relative slope between the gear axes should be less than about 0.03O
7. If plain (sleeve) bearings are used, the shaft deection across the bearing lenth should be less than the
oil-film thickness in the bearing
8. If non-self-aligning rolling element bearings are used, the shafts slope at the bearings should be kept
to less than about 0.04
9. If axial thrust loads are present, they should be taken to ground through a single thrust bearing per load
direction. Do not split axial loads between thrust bearings, as thermal expansion of the shaft can overload
the bearings.
10. The first natural frequency of the shaft should be at least three times the highest forcing frequency
expected in service, and preferably much more. (A factor of 10x or more is preferred, but this is often
difficult to achieve in mechanical systems.

Figure 9.3: Method to remove stress concentration

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Chapter 10

Coupling

Chapter 10

Coupling
10.1 Introduction
A coupling can be defined as a mechanical device that permanently joins two rotating shafts to each other.
The most common application of coupling is joining of shafts of two separately built or purchased units so
that a new machine can be formed. There is a basic difference between a coupling and a clutch can connect or
disconnect two shafts at the will of the operator.
A wide variety of commercial shaft couplings are available, ranging from simple keyed, rigid couplings to elaborate designs that utilize gears, elastomers, or uids to transmit the torque from one shaft to
another or to other devices in the presence of various types of misalignment. Couplings can be roughly
divided into two categories, rigid and complaint. Compliant in this context means that the coupling can
absorb some misalignment between the two shafts and rigid implies that no misalignment is allowed
between the connected shafts.

10.2 Rigid ange coupling


The rigid ange couplings have the following advantages:
i) Rigid coupling has high torque transmitting capacity. ii) Rigid
coupling is easy to assemble and dismantle.
iii) Ridig coupling has simple construction. It is easy to design and manufacture.
The rigid ange couplings have the following disadvantages :
i) It is a rigid type of coupling. It cannot tolerate misalignment between the axes of two shafts. ii) It
can be used only where the motion is free from shocks and vibrations. iii) It requires more radial
space.

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Coupling

Chapter 10

Figure 10.1: Rigid protected typeange section

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Chapter 10

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Coupling

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Chapter 10

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Coupling

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 11

Gear reduction box

Chapter 11

Gear reduction box


First off, let me explain that gear reduction in the context of this help section refers to speed reduction in
general whether it be by traditional gear, chain and sprocket, or belts. The goal of this section is to give
anyone a basic understanding of what gear reduction is and how it can be used to help give an idea on how to
implement it in a robot. Because there are different areas in a robot that could benefit from gear reduction
we will focus on the most important one, the drive train. And, we will talk only about AC electric motors
but the fundamental can be applied to other motors as well.
The reason that we need to know about gear reduction is because the output speed of a motor is usually
too fast for normal use. Most DC motors at normal operating voltages spin at well over 1,000 rpm
(revolutions per minute) and some even as high at 50,000 rpm for brushless DC motors. If we had a motor
than spun at say, 3,000 rpm, and we attached a 6 inch wheel to it then the wheel would theoret- ically be able
to move the bot at almost 54 miles per hour! That is way too fast to control in an arena due to other
considerations that wouldn't happen but we'll get into that later. So we need to reduce the rate at which the
wheel spins so that we get a robot that we can at least control. Hint, the quick way of determining the speed
of a wheel is to multiply the diameter (in inches) of the wheel by the rpm and divide the result by 336.
Quite simply, gear reduction involves using gears/sprockets/pulleys of two different sizes to work
together. Because they are of differing sizes they will have different circumferences (distance around the
outer edge) and we can use this to our advantage. Let's take a look at what this circumference thing really
means. To the left is a representation of a 4 inch diameter wheel.
Well, how do we determine the final reduction of a multistaged gearbox? It's really pretty easy. Mul- tiply
the reduction of the first set of gear times the reduction of the next set times the reduction of the next set
and so on until you have included them all. That will give you the total gear reduction. So, if we had a three
stage gearbox where the first gear set was reduced 4:1, the second set reduced 5:1, and the third set 6:1 then
we would multiply 4 x 5 x 6 to get 120:1. Now, let's use the motor that we talked about at the beginning and
put this gearbox on it and then attach a wheel to the output shaft. Input rpm is 3000. With a 120:1 reduction
we divide 3000 by 120 to get 125 rpm. If we attach a 6 inch wheel to that then our bot would move at 2.32
miles per hour. That's a little slow for our taste so we'll have to come up with a gear box that gives us what we
are looking for. So, let's determine what type of reduction we would need to achieve a target speed of 15
miles per hour for our bot. First, we know that we are using 6 inch wheels and our motor spins at 3000 rpm
and are target speed is 15 mph and our constant is 336. Plug them into this formula ((wheel size) x (motor
rpm))/((target speed) x 336). If we plug in our numbers we would get (6 x 3000)/(15 x 336) = 3.57:1. It
would be pretty hard to get that exact reduction
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Gear reduction box

Chapter 11

but we can get close using a 10 tooth input sprocket or gear and a 35 or 36 tooth output sprocket or gear. But,
also remember that the 3000 rpm is for an unloaded motor. Loaded motors will spin at a slower speed but
determining that speed is beyond the scope of this help section.
Well, the two main disadvantages are 1 you lose speed and 2 you have added weight for the gear box.
But, on the other hand, there are some great advantages to using gear reduction. First, you bring the bot
down to a manageable speed. Second, the motor doesn't have to work as hard to spin the wheel which means it
won't draw as much current from your batteries. And third, along those lines, the torque produced by the output
is inversely proportional to the amount of reduction in the gear box. Say what?
Basically, if you have a 4:1 gear box then the bot moves 1/4 as fast but has 4 times the torque!
The optimum configuration will give you greatest speed but still have enough torque to cause the
wheels to break traction (peel out) before the motor stalls. That optimum configuration varies from bot to bot
and is up to you to figure out how to best implement it with your own robot.

Figure 11.1: Details of reduction box

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Power unit Assembly

Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Power unit Assembly

Figure 12.1: Induction motor

An induction or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor
needed to produce torque is induced by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator
winding. An induction motor therefore does not require mechanical commutation, separate-excitation or
self-excitation for all or part of the energy transferred from stator to rotor, as in universal, DC and large
synchronous motors. An induction motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.
In both induction and synchronous motors, the AC power supplied to the motor's stator creates a
magnetic field that rotates in time with the AC oscillations. Whereas a synchronous motor's rotor turns at the
same rate as the stator field, an induction motor's rotor rotates at a slower speed than the stator field. The
induction motor stator's magnetic field is therefore changing or rotating relative to the rotor. This induces an
opposing current in the induction motor's rotor, in effect the motor's secondary winding, when the latter is shortcircuited or closed through an external impedance. The rotating magnetic ux induces currents in the
windings of the rotor in a manner similar to currents induced in a transformer's secondary winding(s). The
currents in the rotor windings in turn create magnetic fields in the rotor that react against the stator field. Due
to Lenz's Law, the direction of the magnetic field created will be such as to oppose the change in current
through the rotor windings. The cause of induced current in the rotor windings is the rotating stator magnetic
field, so to oppose the change in rotor-winding currents the rotor will start to rotate in the direction of the
rotating stator magnetic field. The rotor accelerates until the magnitude of induced rotor current and torque
balances the applied load. Since rotation at synchronous speed would result in no induced rotor current, an
induction motor always operates slower than synchronous speed. The difference, or "slip," between actual
and synchronous speed varies from about 0.5 to 5.0% for standard Design B torque curve induction motors.

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Power unit Assembly

Chapter 12

Figure 12.2: Comparison table

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Chapter 13

Modelling

Chapter 13

Modelling
13.1 Introduction
The modelling of 3-roller bar bending machine consists of many number of part components and requires
proper connectivity between its neighbouring components. A minute error in the assembly causes the
machine a major damage during it run. Hence this machine build-up high stress on its component (gear, shaft
& roller) during bending and rolling of billet. The modelling of this machine must be carefully selected;
the best suited modelling software for the above machine is Autodesk Inventor Professional 2013.It
contains some special features like error correction, mating transitional, mating rotational, mat- ing constrain
set, mating transverse to rotational, backup detailing, parting, presenting etc. these features makes convenient
and ease of modelling. The 3-D model drawing created from solid edge are shown below.

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Chapter 13

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Modelling

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Chapter 13

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Chapter 14

Future scope of Project

Chapter 14

Future scope of Project

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Chapter 14

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Test Cases, Project Time Line & Task Distribution

Chapter 15

Chapter 15

Test Cases, Project Time Line & Task


Distribution
15.1 Test Cases
15.1.1

Case 1: Design

15.1.2

Case 2: Procurement of parts

15.1.3

Case 3: Fabrication

15.1.4

Case 4:Load testing

15.2 Project Time Line


The following table shows the expected ow of work for the accomplishment of the required result.

No.
1
2
3
5

Describtion

Table 15.1: Project Time Line


Duration

Literature Survey of basics process


Literature Survey of various methods available for
rolling
Design of various assembelled part
Procurement of parts
Fabrication of machine

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Complexity

Status

1 week
3 weeks

4
4

Done
Done

1 weeks
1 week
2 week

4
3
5

Done 4
Done
Not Done

51

References

References
1. Bend ability Analysis for Bending of C-Mn Steel Plates on Heavy Duty 3-Roller Bending Machine,
International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering 1:2 2007, presented by Himanshu V.
Gajjar, Anish H. Gandhi, Tanvir A Jafri, and Harit K. Raval.
2. Modeling and computation of the three-roller bending process of steel sheets, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 26 (1) (2012) 123 128, presented by Ahmed Ktari, ZiedAntar,
Nader Haddar and KhaledElleuch. (Manuscript Received July 9, 2010; Revised December 13, 2010;
Accepted September 18, 2011).
3. Mechanics-Based Determination of the Centre Roller Displacement in Three-Roll Bending for
Smoothly Curved Rectangular Plates, KSME International Journal Volume 15. No.12, pp. 1655-1663,
2001. Presented by Jong Gye Shin, Jang Hyun Lee, HyunjuneYim and Iu Kim.
4. Analytical Model for Prediction of Force During 3-Roller Multi-pass Conical Bending And Its
Experimental Verification, international journal of mechanical engineering and robotics research, ISSN
2278-0149S, VOL.1, NO.3, October 2012, presented by M K Chudasama1* and H K Ra val. 5.
Analyses of Non-Kinematic Conical Roll Bending Process with Conical Rolls, proceedings of the
ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conference(IDETC), August 15-18,
presented by zhengkunfengandhenrichampliaud.
6. Boresi, A. P. and Schmidt, R. J. and Sidebottom, O. M., 1993, Advanced Mechanics of Materials,
John Wiley and Sons, New York.
7. Libai, A. and Simmonds, J. G., 1998, The Nonlinear Theory Of Elastic Shells, Cambridge
University Press.
8. Timoshenko, S. and Woinowsky-Krieger, S., 1959, Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill.
9. Shigley J, "Mechanical Engineering Design", p44, International Edition, pub McGraw Hill, 1986,
ISBN 0-07- 100292-8.
10. Gere, J. M. and Timoshenko, S.P., 1997, Mechanics of Materials, PWS Publishing Company.
11. Cook and Young, 1995, Advanced Mechanics of Materials, Macmillan Publishing Company: New
York.

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Project Hosting

Appendix A

Project Hosting
The project is hosted at Google Code. The complete source code along with the manual to operate the
project and supplementary files are uploaded.
Project Link : https://code.google.com/p/proquiz
QR CODE:

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