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BA101/CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Algebra is the branch of mathematics that uses letters in place of some unknown numbers.

Literal numbers (the letters used in algebra) can either stand for variables (where the value

of the letter can change, such as the area of a rectangle and the area of a square) or constants

(where the value does not change), for example e (which has a constant value of 2.781828...).

Algebra is a powerful tool for problem solving in science, engineering, economics, finance,

architecture, ship-building and many other day-to-day tasks. If we did not use letters in place

of numbers (and used words instead), we would be writing many pages for each problem

and it would be much more confusing.

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

Al-Khwarizmi

Al-Khwarizmi lived in Baghdad, 780 to 850 AD. He was one of the first to write about

algebra (using words, not letters).

Around 825 he wrote Al-jabr wal muq abala, from which we get the word algebra (meaning

'restoration of broken parts'). This book included many word problems, especially to do with

inheritance.

He was also influential in the establishment of Hindu-Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, ...) which

replaced Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV,...). The Hindu-Arabic system was much easier to

use when performing mathematical operations, since it is a base-10 system.

1.1

Algebraic fraction has the same properties as numerical fraction. The only difference being

that the numerator (top) and denominator (bottom) are both algebraic expressions. Fractional

1

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

algebra is a rational number usually stated in the form of p , where p and q are integers.

q

Meanwhile, an ordinary fraction is usually use to represent a part of an object or figure. For

example: a cake is cut into 6 equal parts. One part can be represented with fractional

expression of 1/6, similarly if expressed in the fractional algebra. There are some important

terms to be familiarize with before solving fractional algebra.

i.

1

2

ii.

iii.

2

4

4

8

Lowest fractional form is a fraction that cannot be simplified further, or, its

numerator and denominator does not have a common factor.

p

q

Numerator

Denominator

Example 1

Complete the equivalent fractions below :

2

6

a)

5

10

20

b)

c)

A

AB

2

BC

AB C

d)

XYZ

XYZ

XZ

XYZ

20

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Solution:

2

4

6

8

a)

5

10

15

20

2

6

20

b)

2

1

3

10

c)

A

A2 B

AB

2

2

BC

AB C

B C

d)

XYZ

XYZ

XY 2 Z

2

XZ

XYZ

X YZ 2

2

Example 2

Simplify each of the following fractions:

2b

7b 2

a)

b)

3x x 2

6x 2

c) 6m (2m) 4m

Solution:

(a)

(b)

2b

2b

2

2

7 b b 7b

7b

2

3x x

x(3 x) 3 x

2

x (6 x )

6x

6x

NOTE: The cancellation in (b) is allowed since x is a common factor of the numerator and

the denominator. Sometimes extra work is necessary before an algebraic fraction can be

reduced to a simpler form.

6m (2m) 4m 6m 2m 4m

(c)

12m

Example 3

Simplify the algebraic fraction:

x 2 2x 1

x 2 2x 3

Solution

In this case, the numerator and denominator can be factorised into two terms. Thus,

x 2 2 x 1 ( x 1) 2 and x 2 2 x 3 ( x 1)( x 3)

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

x 2 2 x 1 ( x 1)( x 1)

x 2 2 x 3 ( x 3)( x 1)

So,

x 1

x3

Exercise 1

Simplify each of the following algebraic fractions.

(a)

7a 6 b 3

14a 5 b 4

(b)

y 2 7 y 10

y 2 25

Solution

(a)

7a 6 b 3

. Instead of expanding the factors, it is easier to use the rule of

14a 5 b 4

indices (powers) :

The fraction is

am

a mn

n

a

,

Thus,

7a 6 b 3

7 a 6 b3

14a 5 b 4 14 a 5 b 4

(b)

1

a 6 5 b 3 4

2

1

a 6 5 b 3 4

2

a

2b

y 2 7 y 10 ( y 5)( y 2)

and

y 2 25 ( y 5)( y 5)

Thus,

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

y 2 7 y 10 ( y 5)( y 2)

( y 5)( y 5)

y 2 25

y2

y 5

Exercise 2

Which of the following is a simplified version of

(a)

t4

t2

(b)

t4

t2

(c )

t4

t2

(d )

t 2 3t 4

?

t 2 3t 2

t4

t2

Solution

Factorize the numerator and denominator is respectively

t 2 3t 4 (t 1)(t 4)

t 2 3t 2 (t 1)(t 2)

and

so that,

t 2 3t 4 (t 1)(t 4)

t 2 3t 2 (t 1)(t 2)

t4

t2

So far, simplification has been achieved by cancelling common factors from the numerator

and denominator. There are fractions which can be simplified by multiplying the numerator

and denominator by an appropriate common factor, thus obtaining an equivalent, simpler

expression.

Exercise 3

Simplify the following fractions:

1

y

4

1

2

a)

3x

b)

1

x

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Solution

(a)

In this case, multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by 4 gives:

1

1

y 4( y )

1 4y

4

4

1

1

2

4( )

2

2

(b)

by 2 x. Thus

1

1

x(3x )

2

x

x 3x 1

2

2x

2x

3x

Exercise 4

Simplify each of the following algebra fractions.

4y

(a)

3

2

1

3

(b)

1

z

2

z

Solution

(a)

The fraction is simplified by multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by

2.

3

3

2(4 y )

2

2 8y 3

2

2 2

4

4y

(b)

In this case, since the numerator contains the fraction 1/3 and the denominator

contains the fraction 1/2, the common factor needed is 2 3 = 6. Thus

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

1

1

6( z )

3

3 6z 2

1

1

6z 3

z

6( z )

2

2

z

Exercise 5:

1

x 1 ?

x 1

x2 x 1

(a) 2

x x 1

(c )

x2 x 1

(b)

x2 1

x2 1

x2 x 1

(d )

x 2 1

x2 1

Solution:

For

1

x 1

x 1

1

1

( x 1)( x

)

x 1

x 1

x 1

( x 1)( x 1)

( x 1) x ( x 1)(

( x 2 1)

1

)

x 1

( x 2 x 1)

( x 2 1)

Exercise 7:

1.

a) 2rs 3r 2 s 3t

5

b) 4 p 2 q ( p 3 q 2 x)

12

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

c) 24ab 2 c 6ab

36 f 3 g 2 h

d)

9 f 2 g 2h

3 p 2 q 15npq 2

10npq

26 xy 2 z 3 12 xyz 18xz

7r 2 s 2 (4r 2 s 2 ) 3rs 2

6mn 2 xy 3mn 5xy 4

5(2ab 3by)

(6mk 15ab 12c 2 ) 3

(5xy 3z 2 ) (2 xy 4 z 2 )

(3 p 2 k 2mn) (rs 3mn p 2 k )

1

9 (8m 4n)

2

10 x 12

2(5 x 3)

2

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

n)

1.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

n)

6r 3 s 4 t

5

p5q3 x

3

4bc

4f

9 2 2

p q

2

39xyz 3

11r 2 s 2 3rs 2

3mn 7 xy 4

10ab 15xy

2mk 5ab 4c 2

7 xy z 2

4 p 2 k mn rs

9 4m 2n

15x 12

12

2.

BASIC ALGEBRA

2.

BA101/CHAPTER 1

find the value of

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

2

2

3. 2a b xy ax

10

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

4.

11

BASIC ALGEBRA

1.2

BA101/CHAPTER 1

It is make revenue process of finding increase and revenue push of two or more fraction algebra. In

settling these operations there were 3 moves that must be followed.

ADDITION

Example 1:

Calculate

3 1

5 5

.

Solution:

Since the denominators are the same, the denominator of the answer will be 5. Adding the

numerators , 3 + 1 = 4. The result will be:

3 1 3 1 4

5 5

5

5

Example 2:

Calculate

1 1

2 3

Solution:

The denominators are different, so you must build each fraction to a form where both have

the same denominator. Since 6 is the common factor for 2 and 3, build both fractions to a

denominator of 6.

1

1 3 3

1

2

2 3 6

and,

1

1 2 2

1

3

3 2 6

Then

1 1 3 2 3 2 5

2 3 6 6

6

6

SUBTRACTION

12

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Example 1:

3 1

Calculate

5 5

Solution:

The denominators are the same, so you can skip step 1. The denominator of the answer will

be 5. Subtract the numerators for the numerator in the answer. 3 - 1 = 2. The answer is

3 1 3 1 2

5 5

5

5

Example 2:

Calculate

1 1

2 3

Solution:

Since the denominators are not the same, you must build each fraction to a form where both

have the same denominator. As 6 is the common factor for 2 and 3, use 6 as the

denominator.

1

1 3 3

1

2

2 3 6

and,

1

1 2 2

1

3

3 2 6

Then,

1 1 3 2 32 1

2 3 6 6

6

6

MULTIPLICATION

Example 1:

3 8

4 9

Solution:

Multiply the numerators and the denominators, and simplify the result. Thus,

13

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

3 8 24 2

4 9 36 3

Example 2:

2 6

7 15

Solution:

Multiply the numerators and the denominators, and simplify the result. Thus,

26

12

4

7 15 105 35

DIVISION

Example 1:

3 9

4 16

Solution:

Change the division sign to multiplication and invert the fraction to the right of the sign.

3 16

4 9

Multiply the numerators and the denominators, and simplify the result.

3 16 48 4

4 9 36 3

Example 2:

3 9

40 8

Solution:

Change the division sign to multiplication and invert the fraction to the right of the sign.

3 8

40 9

Multiply the numerators and the denominators, and simplify the result.

14

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

3 8 3 8

24

1

40 9 40 9 360 15

Exercise 1:

Exercise 2:

Exercise 3:

Simplify

(5st )(8s 2 t 3 )

10s 3t 2

Solution:

4t 2

3 2

3 2

10s t

10s t

Simplify

12a 2 b

(3ab 2 ) 2

Solution:

12a 2 b

12a 2 b

4

3

2 2

2 4

(3ab )

9a b

3b

Simplify

2m 2 n 6mn

2m

Solution:

both with denominator 2m. Thus,

2m 2 n 6mn 2m 2 n 6mn

mn 3n

2m

2m

2m

Exercise 4:

Simplify

1

x

5

4

x

Change the top expression into a single fraction with denominator x.

3

1 3x 1

x

x

5

5 4x

4

x

x

15

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

1

3x 1

x x

5

5 4x

4

x

x

3x 1 5 4 x

x

x

3x 1

x

3x 1

x

5 4x 5 4x

The x's cancelled out, and we have our final answer, which is in its simplest form.

Solution 2 - Multiplying top and bottom

Multiply "x" to both the numerator and denominator. So, by just multiplying

the top and bottom part by x, everything will be simplified.

1

(3 )

x x 3x 1

5

x 5 4x

( 4)

x

ADDITION

Example 1:

Given a = b + c, make c as the subject.

Solution

Since:

a = b + c,

Subtract b from both sides of the equation,

ab= b+cb

or

ab = bb+c

then,

ab= c

Therefore:

c= ab

SUBTRACTION

16

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Example 1:

Given a = c d, make d as the subject.

Solution

Since:

a = c d,

Add d to both sides of the equation.

Then,

a+d=cd+d

a+d=c+dd

a+d=c

Deduct a from both sides of the equation.

We have:

a+d=c

Then,

a+da=ca

aa+d=ca

d=ca

Example 2:

Solve the equation

x 6 = 10

Solution:

Add 6 to both sides of the equations.

We have:

x 6 = 10

x 6 + 6 = 10 + 6

Then,

So,

x = 16

Check with the given question:

16 6 = 10. It checks out to be correct.

MULTIPLICATION

Example 1:

If V = IR, make I as the subject.

Solution

Given V = IR.

17

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

V IR

R R

Then:

V

I

R

or

V

R

Example 2:

Solve:

5x = 35

5 ? = 35

5x 35

5 x 35

5

5

x7

DIVISION

Example 1:

Make t as the subject for formula v

s

.

t

Solution

s

. Find t.

t

Multiply both equations with t,

s

vt t , then vt s .

t

Given v

vt s

Since:

vt s

s

Then,

or t

v v

v

18

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Example 1:

Make x as subject for formula y mx c .

Solution

Given y mx c .

Subtract c from both sides of the equation,

y c = mx + c c

thus,

y c = mx.

Divided both sides with m,

y c = mx,

y c mx

m

m

then

yc

x

m

yc

x

m

Thus,

Example 2

Given V = E Ir, make r as the subject.

Solution:

then

V = E Ir ,

V + Ir = E

Ir = E V.

Ir E V

I

I

So,

E V

I

Example 3

Solve 5 (x + 2) = 5x

19

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Solution

First, we open the bracket:

5 (x + 2) = 5x

5 x 2 = 5x

3 x = 5x

By adding x to both sides of the equation,

We have: 3 = 6x

Now divide both sides by 6 and swap sides:

Thus:

x = 0.5

Example 4

Solve 5x 2(x 5) = 4x

Solution:

Expanding the bracket:

5x 2(x 5) = 4x

5x 2x + 10 = 4x

3x + 10 = 4x

Subtracting 3x from both sides gives:

x = 10

Example 1:

Make C as the subject given that A BC D

C

Solution

Given: A BC D ,

C

AC

BC D

C

C

= BC BD

20

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

AC BC = BD

Factorization of C,

C (A B) = BD

BD

A B

BD

A B

BD

A B

or

BD

B A

Exercises

Example 1:

Make d as the subject for V

d 2 h

4

Solution:

Given V

d 2 h

4

4V

d 2 h

4

4V = d2h

Divide both sides with h,

4V d 2 h

h

h

4V

d2

h

4V

d2

h

21

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

4V

d

h

Example 2:

The area of a circle is given by A = r2 . Find the value of r.

Solution

Making r as the subject, we have,

r2 = A

Divide both sides with :

A

r2

So,

Problem Solving

A copper wire with a length of = 2 cm, resistance R= 4 and resistivity

= 17.2 x 10-6 cm. Calculate the cross-section area A, of the wire, by using

the resistivity formula, R

1.

Solution

R

(17.2 10 6 )(2)

A

A 8.6 10 6 cm 2

Exercise 1:

1. Simplify the following:

(a)

3

a

2a 3bc

(b)

1

2

m(m 1) m

22

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

(c) 2 5 4 y

x 15 xy

(d) 3 5

2x y

2

(e) p pq

(f)

4

2

9 xy y

(g)

t

5w 3

2

10 z 3t

p

p2 q2

2

2

(h) x 3y 2 x 2 2 y

3xy

x y

2. If F Newton's force, m kg mass and a ms-2 acceleration are connected with the formula

F ma , determine the acceleration if a force of 2 kN was imposed on a mass of 1000 kg.

1 2

mv , where m is the mass in kg and v is the velocity in

2

ms-1. Determine the mass if it is being hurled vertically up with a velocity of 20 ms-1 and a

kinetic energy of 1000 Joule.

3.

4.

Three resistor R1, R2 and R3 are connected in parallel in an electrical circuit. Determine the

total resistance RT, using the formula below:

1

1

1

1

RT R1 R2 R3

(b) Calculate R2, if RT = 1 , R1 = 2 and R3 = 6 .

1.

a)

c)

9bc 2a 2

6abc

2y 1

3 xy

p2

e)

2( p q)

g)

w2

6t

2m 1

m(m 1)

b)

15

2 xy

d)

f)

2

9x

h)

x( x y )

6y2

0.028m

2.

3.

4.

a 2ms 2

m 5kg

23

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

5.

a) 3

b) 3

1.4

Solve the Quadratic Equations Using Factorization, Formulas And Completing The

Squares.

QUADRATIC EQUATION

A Quadratic equation in a unknown (variable) is one equation have one unknown only and his

unknown's supreme power is 2.

Root of a quadratic equation can be found by using three methods:

a) Factorization

b) Quadratic formula

c) Completing the square

a.

Factorization

Example:

Solve the quadratic equations below, using factorization method.

a) 2x2 + 13x + 10 = 0

b) 6x2 20 = 2x

c) 3x = - 6x2

Solution:

a) Given: 2 x 2 13x 10 0

Then: (2 x 3)( x 5) 0

x3 0

x 3

b) Given:

Then:

x5 0

x 5

6 x 2 20 2 x

6 x 2 2 x 20 0

(3x 5)(2 x 4) 0

3x 5 0

5

x

3

24

or

or

or

or

2x 4 0

x 2

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

3x 6 x 2

c) Given:

6 x 2 3x 0

x(6 x 3) 0

Then:

x0

b.

x 3

or

Quadratic formula

If quadratic equation given by form ax 2 bx c 0 , then value x can find through quadratic

formula, x

b b 2 4ac

2a

Example:

Solve quadratic equation using quadratic formula method

a. 9 x 2 21x 18 0

b. 2 x 2 17 x 35

c. 5x 2 4 x 2 0

Solution:

9 x 2 21x 18 0

a.

Thus:

a = 9, b = 21 and c = -18

21 212 49 18

x

29

25

21 441 648

18

21 1089

18

21 33

18

21 33

18

or

12

18

54

18

or

21 33

18

BASIC ALGEBRA

2

3

So,

or

2 x 2 17 x 35

b.

BA101/CHAPTER 1

then: 2 x 2 17 x 35 0

(17) 17 2 4(2)(35)

2(2)

17 289 280

4

17 9

4

17 3

4

17 3

4

or

x 5 or

17 3

4

7

2

5x 2 4 x 2 0

c.

26

(4) 4 2 45 2

25

4 16 40

10

4 56

10

4 7.48

10

BASIC ALGEBRA

x

4 7.48

10

11.48

10

x 1.148 or

x

c)

BA101/CHAPTER 1

or

4 7.48

10

or

3.48

10

0.348

Example

Solve the quadratic equation using completing the square

a) 4x2 + 5 = -9x

b) x2 = 4x + 4

c) 2x2 +4x 8=0

Solution

a)

Given 4x2 + 5 = -9x

Step 1: Arrange to the form into ax 2 bx c

4 x 2 9 x 5

Step 2:

4x 2 9x

5

4

4

4

9x

5

x2

4

4

9 1

9

Step 3:

Add ( ) 2 ( ) 2 to both sides

4 2

8

x2

9x 9 2

5 9

( ) ( )2

4

8

4 8

9

5 9

(x )2 ( )2

8

4 8

80 81

64

9

1

(x )2

8

64

27

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

9

1

(x )

8

64

1

8

9 1

9 1

or x

x

8 8

8 8

8

10

or x

x

8

8

x 1

b)

Given

or x

5

4

4x2 = 4x + 4

Step 1:

4x2 4x = 4

Step 2:

4x 2 4x 4

4

4 4

x2 x = 1

Step 3:

1

1

Add (1 ) 2 ( ) 2 to both sides

2

2

1

1

x2 x ( )2 1 ( )2

2

2

1

1

(x )2 1

2

4

28

5

4

1

5

2

4

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

1

5

2

4

x 0.5 1.118

x 0.5 1.118

or

x 1.618

x 0.618

or

x 0.5 1.118

c) Given 2x2+4x-8 =0

Step 1:

2x2 + 4x = 8

Step 2:

2x 2 4x 8

2

2 2

x 2 2x 4

Step 3:

1

Add (2 ) 2 (1) 2 to both sides

2

x 2 2 x 12 4 12

( x 1) 2 5

x 1 5

x 1 5

x 1 2.236

or x 1 2.236

x 1 2.236

or

x 3.236

x 1.236

Exercise:

1. Solve quadratic equation

i. by factoring

(a) x 2 6 x 8 0

(b) 3x 2 14 x 5 0

(c) 3x 2 13x 4 0

ii.

29

by quadratic formula

Prepared By : Lim Yeong Chyng

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

(a) 2 x 2 6 x 1 0

(b) 5x 2 3x 9 0

1

(c) x 2 9 x 10

2

iii.

(a) x 2 6 x 7 0

(b) 2 x 2 6 x 0

(c) 3x 2 6 x 12 0

Answer:

1. i.

By factoring

(a)

x 2, x 4

(b)

1

x , x 5

3

(c)

1

x , x 4

3

(a)

(b)

(c)

iii.

x 2.823, x 0.177

x 1.075, x 1.675

x 1.05, x 19.05

(a) x 7, x 1

(b) x 3, x 0

(c) x 1.236, x 3.236

30

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

1.5 To solve Simultaneous Linear Equation with two variables using the Elimination and

Subtitution Methods.

A linear equation is an equation in one or more variables where each term's degree is not

more than 1. That means a variable x may appear, but neither any higher power of x, such as

x2, nor any product of variables, such as xy, may appear. It has to be a pretty simple equation

such as ax + by + cz = d ( Example :

3x + 2y - 5z = 8 ). Any other equation in other

degree is known as a non-linear equation.

A system is just a collection of such linear equations, and to solve a system, look for the values

of the variables which make all the equations true simultaneously. For instance, if x and y are

the variables, then an example system of linear equations is

5x - 2y = 4

x + 2y = 8

There are various ways of solving this system, and they lead to the unique solution where x = 2

and y = 3. We'll look next at two common algorithm for solving systems of simultaneous

equations called substitution and elimination.

Substitution method

This method is used when one of the variables is the subject of the equation and the

coefficient of the variables is 1.

Example:

m 2n

a)

and

mn 9

b) x 2 y 3 and 2 x 3 y 7

Step 1:

Express one variable in terms of the other variable by rearranging one of the

equations.

Step 2:

Step 3:

Solve the value of the chosen variable from the resulting equation.

Step 4:

31

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Example 1

Given a linear equation of :

Use y as subject.

Solution:

3x 4y = 24

3x 4y = 24

4y = 24 3x

y = 24 3x

4

Example 2

Solve the linear equations below, using the substitution method.

2x y = 7

3x + 2y = 14

(1)

(2)

equation (1) and (2) for

easy reference.

Solution:

Step 1 :

Choose equation (1), and use y as the subject.

2x y = 7

y = 7 2x

y = 7 + 2x (3)

Step 2 :

Substitute equation (3) into equation (2).

3x + 2y

= 14

3x + 2 (-7 + 2x) = 14

3x 14 + 4x

= 14

7x = 14 + 14

7x = 28

x = 28

7

So,

x=4

Step 3 :

Substitute the value x = 4 from step (2), into equation (3).

y = 7 + 2(4)

= 7 + 8

y=1

Thus, x = 4 and y = 1.

32

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Example 3

Solve the simultaneous equations below, using the substitution method.

3x 2 y 5

2 x 5 y 12

Solution:

Let,

3x 2 y 5 ..(1)

2 x 5 y 12 (2)

2x + 5y = 12

5y = 12 2x

y

12 2 x ..(3)

5

5

3x 2

12 2 x

5

equation to eliminate the

denominator 5.

15x 24 4 x 25

19 x = 25 + 24

= 49

x=

Then substitute the value of

49

19

19

y =

12 2 x

5

49

12 2

19

5

=

=

33

12

98

19

5

228 98

19

5

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

=

130 1

19 5

= 130

y =

95

26

19

26

Therefore, value of x = 49 and value of y =

19

19

Elimination method

This method is suitable when the substitution method involves an awkward fraction. To

eliminate, remove one of the variables to give an equation with only one variable.

Example:

x

2y 5

5

and 2 x y 8

Step 1:

make the coefficients of one of the variable equal.

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

Example 1

Solve the linear equations below:

xy=2

x+y=6

Solution

x y = 2 .(1)

x + y = 6 .(2)

Step 1 :

Choose the variable to be eliminated. Multiply the equation with any suitable number, so that

the variables coefficient to be eliminated is the same.

34

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

For this example, variable x is selected to be elimunated. Therefore equation (1) (2):

x y = 2

() x + y = 6

_____________

2y =4

y = 4

2

y=2

Step 2 :

Then substitute the value of

x 2 = 2

= 2 + 2

x=4

Therefore, value x = 4 and y = 2

Example 2

Using the Elimination Method, solve the linear equations below:

2x y = 7

3x + 2y = 14

Solution:

2x y = 7..(1)

3x + 2y = 14..(2)

Choose the variable y for elimination. Therefore, equation (1) needs to multiply

with 2.

Equation (1) 2 : 4x 2y = 14..(3)

3x + 2y = 14.(2)

35

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Equation (3) + (2):

7x = 28

x=

So,

28

7

x=4

Equation (2):

3x + 2y = 14

3(4) + 2y = 14

12 + 2y = 14

2y = 14 12

y=2

2

y = 1

Exercise

1. Solve the simultaneous linear equations below, using substitution method.

x y 3 and 2 x 3 y 1

2. Solve the simultaneous linear equations below, using elimination method.

2m 3n 7 and 2m 5n 9

3. Solve the simultaneous linear equations below:

(a)

x 2y 1

2 y 3x 5

(b) 5 y 2 x 3

2 y 3x 4

(c)

x 2y 5

2x y 6

(d)

2x y 9

3x y 4

(e)

2x 5 y 4

3x y 7

(f)

36

2d 3e 4

5d 2e 1

BASIC ALGEBRA

BA101/CHAPTER 1

Answer:

1. x 2, y 1

2. m 2, n 1

3.

(a) x 1, y 1

14

17

,y

19

19

7

4

(c) x , y

3

3

(d) x 1, y 7

(b) x

(e) x 3, y 2

(f) d 1, e 2

37

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