NOTE POLYTECHNIC

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NOTE POLYTECHNIC

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5.1 State Characteristics of solid , liquid and gas

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

in a regular pattern.

Fixed shape

Fixed volume

regular arrangement.

Follow container

Fixed volume

regular arrangement.

Undefined Shape

Undefined volume

Low

Average

High

Hard to compress

Does not flow

Vibrate (jiggle) but

generally do not move

from place to place.

Compressible

Flows easily

Vibrate, move about,

and slide past each

other.

Easily to compress

Flows easily

Microscopic

view

Particle

Arrangement

Shape

Volume

Kinetic Energy

Content

Compressibility

Flow Ability

Movement

at high speeds.

DEFINITION

The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit

volume.

SYMBOL

The symbol of density is (rho).

DENSITY

FORMULA

Where:

(rho) is the density,

m is the mass in kg,

V is the volume in m3.

m

V

SI UNIT

Page 42

DEFINITION

Relative Density

volume) of a substance to the density of a given

reference material.

respect to water.

SYMBOL

The symbol of relative density is RD.

FORMULA:

RD

The density of water

SI UNIT:

No Unit

Example 1:

Calculate the density and relative of wooden block which has dimensions

mass of

.

and a

Solution:

m

v

40 10

2 10 5 10

3

110

4000

kg

m3

Page 43

Example 2:

A solid metal cylinder has radius

cm and length

density of the metal and its relative density.

. Its mass is

. Find the

Solution:

m

v

65 10 3

3.93 10 6

kg

16539.4 3

m

Volume r l

2

0.5 10 2

3.93 10 6 m 3

density of material

density of water

16539.4

1000

16.539

Relative Density,RD

DEFINITION:

The pressure, P, is defined as the ratio of force to area

SYMBOL:

The symbol of Pressure is P.

FORMULA:

Where:

PRESSURE

P is the Pressure,

F is the Force in newton,

A is the Area im m2.

SI UNIT:

N

m2

or

F

A

Pascal Pa

and tip of thumbtack.

Page 44

Example 3:

A hammer supplies a force of

pressure?

. What is the

Solution:

F

A

700

7.0 10 4

9.86 105

N

m2

9.86 10 5 Pa

or

Relating Pressure

of density

and Density

of the liquid:

Density of

liquid

Area A

Volume of liquid in the container

V Ah

Force on point X

:

:

m V Ah

mg

Ahg

Pressure on point X

F

A

Ahg

A

hg

P gh

Therefore

Page 45

Example 4:

What will be the:

(a) the gauge pressure and

(b) the absolute pressure of water at depth

, and

).

Solution:

a)

Pgauge water gh

1000 9.81 12

N

117720 2

m

kN

117.72 2

m

b)

117.72 101

kN

218.72 2

m

Pascals principle states that pressure exerted on an enclosed fluid (liquid) is transmitted equally

to every part of the fluid (liquid).

Hydraulic systems can be used to obtain a large force by the application of a much smaller

force.

We can turn this phenomenon to our advantage if we alter the areas exposed to equal

pressures, as in an hydraulic lift:

Pressure is;

F

A

So;

Pat 1 Pat 2

F1 F2

A1 A2

F2

F1 A2

A1

Page 46

This says that the Force at the outlet (at 2) is augmented by the size of the area of the outlet.

So if we make the area 1000 times larger, we can lift 1000 times the force we apply at F1.

By applying Pascals principle on a simple hydraulic system,

F F

A A

1

Ax A x

1

Where:

F1 = force at 1

F2 = force at 2

A1 = cross sectional Area at 1

A2 = cross sectional Area at 2

x1 = distance moved at 1

x2= distance moved at 2

Applications of Pascals principle include the hydraulic jack, hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes.

Example of Applications of Pascals Principle (Hydraulic Lift).

Page 47

Example 5:

A hydraulic car lift has a pump piston with radius

. The resultant piston has a radius

of

. The total weight of the car and plunger is

. If the bottom ends of the

piston and plunger are at the same height, what input force is required to stabilize the car and

output plunger?

Solution:

We need to use the area for circular objects,

Pascal's Principle:

A

FA FB A

AB

rA 2

FB

2

r

B

0.0120 2

20500

2

0

.

150

131.20 N

5.5 Archimedes' Principle

Archimedes principle states that an object which is partially or wholly immersed in a

fluid (liquid or gas) is acted upon by an upward buoyant force equal to the weight of the

fluid it displaces.

An object weighs less in water than it does in the air.

This loss of weight is due to the upthrust of the water acting upon it and is equal to the weight of

the liquid displaced.

Archimedes Principle:

The buoyant force is equal to the

weight of the displaced water.

If the weight of the water displaced is less than the weight of the object, the object will sink.

Otherwise the object will float, with the weight of the water displaced equal to the weight of the

object.

Page 48

Floatation:

The principle of floatation states that a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it

floats.

According to Archimedes Principle:

Buoyant force = Weight of liquid displaced

Therefore;

F mg

Vg

Wo F

However;

Situation 1

Buoyant force

Rising

Wo Wl

Weight

mo g ml g

>

oVo g lVl g

oVo lVl

For totally submerged object;

Vo Vl

Wo F

Situation 2

However;

Buoyant force

Wo Wl

Rising

mo g ml g

Weight

<

oVo g lVl g

oVo lVl

For totally submerged object;

Vo Vl

UNIT SAINS JMSK PUO/DIS 2012

Page 49

Wo F

Buoyant force

Situation 3

Floating

However;

Weight

Wo Wl

mo g ml g

oVo g lVl g

oVo lVl

Vo Vl

Weight of object Buoyant force

Wo F

Floating

Buoyant force

However;

Situation 4

Weight

Wo Wl

mo g ml g

oVo g lVl g

oVo lVl

Vo Vl

NOTE : o object, l liquid dis placed

Sink

Float

Applications of Archimedes principle can be found in ships, submarines, hot-air ballons and the

hydrometer.

Page 50

Example 6:

Object

Liquid

Buoyant Force

The buoyant force acting on the object will decrease when the:

Example 7:

A concrete slab weight is

, when it is fully submerged under the sea, its apparent weight is

. Calculate the density of the sea water if the volume of the sea water displaced by the

concrete slab is

.

Solution:

150 102

48 N

FB mg

Vg

48 4800 10 6 9.81

48

4800 10 6 9.81

kg

1019 3

m

Page 51

Example 8:

Figure below shows a boat loaded with some goods floating on the sea. The density of the sea is

.

(b) Figure below shows the situation of maximum loading of the boat.

Calculate the additional weight of goods that has to be added to the boat to reach this

situation.

Solution:

(a)

(b)

Vg

1020 1.5 9.8

14994 N

For maximum loading;

Vg

1020 4.5 9.8

44982 N

Therefore;

29988 N

Page 52

1. An object has a mass of

and a volume of

. What is the density of the object?

2. A substance having a density of

. What is the volume of the substance if the mass is

?

3. A room with a dimension of

is filled with

of air. What is the mass of

the air?

4. A measuring cylinder is filled up with a

liquid having a mass of

. What is the density

of the liquid?

5. A liquid having a density of

. If 1cm3 of the liquid turn into

vapors, find the

density of the vapor.

6. Liquid and having a density of

and

respectively. Without any changes

of volume, a

liquid is added to

liquid . Calculate the additional density of the liquid.

7. A

pressure is exerted on the

floor. Calculate the force acting on the floor.

8. A wood block with a dimension of

height having a mass of

. Determine the pressure exerted by the wood block.

9. A blade with a dimension of

having a force of

to cut a meat. What is the

pressure exerted by the blade?

10. A tank with a dimension of

is filled with paraffin.

(

)

Calculate :

a) The pressure exerted on the base of the tank

b) The force that acted on the base of the tank

11. A density of seawater is

. What is the pressure exerted by the seawater at a vertical

depth of

. ( Given:

)

1. Figure shows a simple hydraulic system. Piston A & B has a cross sectional area of

and

respectively.

load is placed on it?

b) What is the pressure at piston B.

c) If load W placed at piston B, determine the load W that can be pushed by piston B.

2. Figure shows a pipe system that is filled with oil. If the piston A is pushed with

(a) What is the pressure exerted by the oil

(b) What is the force acted on piston B

Page 53

force:

a)

b)

c)

d)

force acting on a piston ?

If load placed at piston , determine the load that can be pushed by piston .

If the distance moved by the piston A is 1.5m, what is the distance moved by piston B?

If load is being replaced with 210kg load, what is the force acted on piston in order to

support the load at piston ?

1. An empty boat having a weight of

is floating statically .

(

)

a) What is the buoyant force?

b) What is the volume of the displaced water?

2. A cube of metal having a volume of

is completely submerged in .

a) water (

)

b) oil (

)

c) Oxygen (

)

According to the following, what is the buoyant force?

3. A metal block having a weight of

is completely being submerged in to the water. The weight

of the block when it completely submerged is

a) What is the volume of the block

b) What is the density of the block (

).

4. Figure (a) shows an object is weighed in air and found to have a weight of 2.0N. While Figure (b)

shows the object is completely submerged into the water.

a) What is the mass of the object?

b) What is the buoyant force?

c) What is the mass of the displaced water?

d) What is the volume of the water?

Page 54

Answer 5a:

1) 1500 kg/m3

5) 2 kg/m3

9) 8.3 x 106 Pa

2) 0.0003 m3 3) 97.5 kg

4) 800 kg/m3

3

6) 840kg/m

7) 20 N

8) 159.6 Pa

10a) 15696 Pa

10b) 188352 N 11) 303129 Pa

Answer 5b:

1a) 200kPa b) 200kPa c)100 kg

2a) 66.67 kPa b) 13.33N

3a) 500 Pa b) 600N c) 0.1 m d) 140N

Answer 5c:

1a) 2000 N 1b) 0.2 m3

2a) 7.848 N

2b) 6.28 N

3a) 2 x 10-5 m3

3b) 5000 kg/m3

4a) 0.2 kg 4b) 0.2 N 4c) 0.2 kg 4d) 2 x 10-4 m3

2c) 0.12 N

1 Theory Test & 1 End-of-Chapter

Specification of Theory Test: CLO1- C1 & CLO3-C2, A1

Specification of Labwork: CLO2- C2, P1

****************************************************************************************************

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME (CLO)

Upon completion of this topic, students should be able to:

1.

2.

3.

Apply concept of solid and fluid to prove related physics principles. (C2,P1)

Apply the concept of solid and fluid in real basic engineering problems. (C2, A1)

****************************************************************************************************

Compliance to PLO

PLO 2, LD2 (Practical Skills)- Experiment 3

PLO 3, LD4 (Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills)- Test 2

Page 55

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