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SOLID AND FLUID

5.0 SOLID AND FLUID

5.1 State Characteristics of solid , liquid and gas

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

Tightly packed, usually

in a regular pattern.
Fixed shape
Fixed volume

Close together with no

regular arrangement.
Fixed volume

Well separated with no

regular arrangement.
Undefined Shape
Undefined volume

Low

Average

High

Hard to compress
Does not flow
Vibrate (jiggle) but
generally do not move
from place to place.

Compressible
Flows easily
and slide past each
other.

Easily to compress
Flows easily

Microscopic
view
Particle
Arrangement
Shape
Volume
Kinetic Energy
Content
Compressibility
Flow Ability
Movement

at high speeds.

5.2 Define the Density and Pressure

DEFINITION
The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit
volume.
SYMBOL
The symbol of density is (rho).

DENSITY

FORMULA
Where:
(rho) is the density,
m is the mass in kg,
V is the volume in m3.

m
V

SI UNIT

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DEFINITION

Relative Density

Relative density is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit

volume) of a substance to the density of a given
reference material.

Specific gravity usually means relative density with

respect to water.

SYMBOL
The symbol of relative density is RD.

FORMULA:

RD

The density of mater ial

The density of water

SI UNIT:

No Unit
Example 1:
Calculate the density and relative of wooden block which has dimensions
mass of
.

and a

Solution:

m
v

40 10
2 10 5 10
3

110

4000

kg
m3

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

Example 2:
A solid metal cylinder has radius
cm and length
density of the metal and its relative density.

. Its mass is

. Find the

Solution:

m
v
65 10 3

3.93 10 6
kg
16539.4 3
m

Volume r l
2

0.5 10 2

3.93 10 6 m 3

density of material
density of water
16539.4

1000
16.539

Relative Density,RD

DEFINITION:
The pressure, P, is defined as the ratio of force to area
SYMBOL:
The symbol of Pressure is P.
FORMULA:
Where:

PRESSURE

P is the Pressure,
F is the Force in newton,
A is the Area im m2.

SI UNIT:

N
m2

or

F
A

Pascal Pa

Application of pressure: cutting tools, injection needle

and tip of thumbtack.

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

Example 3:
A hammer supplies a force of
pressure?

. What is the

Solution:

F
A
700
7.0 10 4

9.86 105

N
m2

9.86 10 5 Pa

or

5.3 Variation Of Pressure With Depth

Relating Pressure

of density

and Density

of the liquid:

Density of
liquid

which is filled with a liquid

Area A
Volume of liquid in the container

V Ah

Force on point X

:
:

m V Ah

F weight of the liquid

mg
Ahg

Pressure on point X

F
A
Ahg

A
hg

P gh
Therefore

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

Example 4:
What will be the:
(a) the gauge pressure and
(b) the absolute pressure of water at depth
, and

).

Solution:
a)

Pgauge water gh
1000 9.81 12
N
117720 2
m
kN
117.72 2
m

b)

117.72 101
kN
218.72 2
m

5.4 Pascals Principle

Pascals principle states that pressure exerted on an enclosed fluid (liquid) is transmitted equally
to every part of the fluid (liquid).
Hydraulic systems can be used to obtain a large force by the application of a much smaller
force.
We can turn this phenomenon to our advantage if we alter the areas exposed to equal
pressures, as in an hydraulic lift:

Pressure is;

F
A

So;

Pat 1 Pat 2
F1 F2

A1 A2
F2

F1 A2
A1

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

This says that the Force at the outlet (at 2) is augmented by the size of the area of the outlet.
So if we make the area 1000 times larger, we can lift 1000 times the force we apply at F1.
By applying Pascals principle on a simple hydraulic system,

F F

A A
1

Ax A x
1

Where:
F1 = force at 1
F2 = force at 2
A1 = cross sectional Area at 1
A2 = cross sectional Area at 2
x1 = distance moved at 1
x2= distance moved at 2

Applications of Pascals principle include the hydraulic jack, hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes.
Example of Applications of Pascals Principle (Hydraulic Lift).

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

Example 5:
A hydraulic car lift has a pump piston with radius
. The resultant piston has a radius
of
. The total weight of the car and plunger is
. If the bottom ends of the
piston and plunger are at the same height, what input force is required to stabilize the car and
output plunger?
Solution:
We need to use the area for circular objects,
Pascal's Principle:

for both the piston and plunger. Apply

A
FA FB A
AB
rA 2

FB
2

r
B
0.0120 2

20500
2

0
.
150

131.20 N
5.5 Archimedes' Principle
Archimedes principle states that an object which is partially or wholly immersed in a
fluid (liquid or gas) is acted upon by an upward buoyant force equal to the weight of the
fluid it displaces.
An object weighs less in water than it does in the air.
This loss of weight is due to the upthrust of the water acting upon it and is equal to the weight of
the liquid displaced.

Archimedes Principle:
The buoyant force is equal to the
weight of the displaced water.

If the weight of the water displaced is less than the weight of the object, the object will sink.
Otherwise the object will float, with the weight of the water displaced equal to the weight of the
object.

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

Floatation:
The principle of floatation states that a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it
floats.
According to Archimedes Principle:
Buoyant force = Weight of liquid displaced
Therefore;

F mg
Vg

Wo F
However;

Situation 1

Buoyant force

Buoyant force Weight of liquid displaced

Rising

Wo Wl
Weight

mo g ml g

>

oVo g lVl g
oVo lVl
For totally submerged object;

Vo Vl

Wo F

Situation 2

However;
Buoyant force

Buoyant force Weight of liquid displaced

Wo Wl

Rising

mo g ml g
Weight

<

oVo g lVl g
oVo lVl
For totally submerged object;

Vo Vl
UNIT SAINS JMSK PUO/DIS 2012

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Wo F
Buoyant force

Situation 3

Floating

However;

Weight

Wo Wl
mo g ml g

oVo g lVl g
oVo lVl

For totally submerged object;

Vo Vl
Weight of object Buoyant force

Wo F
Floating

Buoyant force

However;

Situation 4

Weight

Wo Wl
mo g ml g

oVo g lVl g
oVo lVl

For totally submerged object;

Vo Vl
NOTE : o object, l liquid dis placed

Sink

Float

Displaced water weight = hull weight

Applications of Archimedes principle can be found in ships, submarines, hot-air ballons and the
hydrometer.

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

Example 6:

Object
Liquid
Buoyant Force

The buoyant force acting on the object will decrease when the:

weight of the object decrease

Example 7:
A concrete slab weight is
, when it is fully submerged under the sea, its apparent weight is
. Calculate the density of the sea water if the volume of the sea water displaced by the
concrete slab is
.
Solution:

150 102
48 N

Buoyant force weight of sea water displaced

FB mg
Vg

48 4800 10 6 9.81
48

4800 10 6 9.81
kg
1019 3
m

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BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

Example 8:
Figure below shows a boat loaded with some goods floating on the sea. The density of the sea is
.

(a) Calculate the weight of the boat.

(b) Figure below shows the situation of maximum loading of the boat.

Calculate the additional weight of goods that has to be added to the boat to reach this
situation.
Solution:
(a)

(b)

Vg
1020 1.5 9.8
14994 N

Vg
1020 4.5 9.8
44982 N
Therefore;

29988 N

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Tutorial 5a (Density and Pressure)

1. An object has a mass of
and a volume of
. What is the density of the object?
2. A substance having a density of
. What is the volume of the substance if the mass is
?
3. A room with a dimension of
is filled with
of air. What is the mass of
the air?
4. A measuring cylinder is filled up with a
liquid having a mass of
. What is the density
of the liquid?
5. A liquid having a density of
. If 1cm3 of the liquid turn into
vapors, find the
density of the vapor.
6. Liquid and having a density of
and
respectively. Without any changes
of volume, a
liquid is added to
liquid . Calculate the additional density of the liquid.
7. A
pressure is exerted on the
floor. Calculate the force acting on the floor.
8. A wood block with a dimension of
height having a mass of
. Determine the pressure exerted by the wood block.
9. A blade with a dimension of
having a force of
to cut a meat. What is the
pressure exerted by the blade?
10. A tank with a dimension of
is filled with paraffin.
(
)
Calculate :
a) The pressure exerted on the base of the tank
b) The force that acted on the base of the tank
11. A density of seawater is
. What is the pressure exerted by the seawater at a vertical
depth of
. ( Given:
)

Tutorial 5b (Pascal Principle)

1. Figure shows a simple hydraulic system. Piston A & B has a cross sectional area of
and
respectively.

a) What is the pressure at piston A, when

load is placed on it?
b) What is the pressure at piston B.
c) If load W placed at piston B, determine the load W that can be pushed by piston B.
2. Figure shows a pipe system that is filled with oil. If the piston A is pushed with
(a) What is the pressure exerted by the oil
(b) What is the force acted on piston B

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force:

a)
b)
c)
d)

What is the pressure at piston , if

force acting on a piston ?
If load placed at piston , determine the load that can be pushed by piston .
If the distance moved by the piston A is 1.5m, what is the distance moved by piston B?
If load is being replaced with 210kg load, what is the force acted on piston in order to
support the load at piston ?

Tutorial 5c (Archimedes Principle)

1. An empty boat having a weight of
is floating statically .
(
)
a) What is the buoyant force?
b) What is the volume of the displaced water?
2. A cube of metal having a volume of
is completely submerged in .
a) water (
)
b) oil (
)
c) Oxygen (
)
According to the following, what is the buoyant force?
3. A metal block having a weight of
is completely being submerged in to the water. The weight
of the block when it completely submerged is
a) What is the volume of the block
b) What is the density of the block (
).
4. Figure (a) shows an object is weighed in air and found to have a weight of 2.0N. While Figure (b)
shows the object is completely submerged into the water.
a) What is the mass of the object?
b) What is the buoyant force?
c) What is the mass of the displaced water?
d) What is the volume of the water?

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1) 1500 kg/m3
5) 2 kg/m3
9) 8.3 x 106 Pa

BB101- ENGINEERING SCIENCE

2) 0.0003 m3 3) 97.5 kg
4) 800 kg/m3
3
6) 840kg/m
7) 20 N
8) 159.6 Pa
10a) 15696 Pa
10b) 188352 N 11) 303129 Pa

1a) 200kPa b) 200kPa c)100 kg
2a) 66.67 kPa b) 13.33N
3a) 500 Pa b) 600N c) 0.1 m d) 140N
1a) 2000 N 1b) 0.2 m3
2a) 7.848 N
2b) 6.28 N
3a) 2 x 10-5 m3
3b) 5000 kg/m3
4a) 0.2 kg 4b) 0.2 N 4c) 0.2 kg 4d) 2 x 10-4 m3

2c) 0.12 N

Minimum requirement assessment task for this topic:

1 Theory Test & 1 End-of-Chapter
Specification of Theory Test: CLO1- C1 & CLO3-C2, A1
Specification of Labwork: CLO2- C2, P1
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COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME (CLO)
Upon completion of this topic, students should be able to:
1.
2.
3.

Identify the basic concept of solid and fluid (C1)

Apply concept of solid and fluid to prove related physics principles. (C2,P1)
Apply the concept of solid and fluid in real basic engineering problems. (C2, A1)

****************************************************************************************************
Compliance to PLO

PLO 1, LD1 (Knowledge)-Test 2

PLO 2, LD2 (Practical Skills)- Experiment 3
PLO 3, LD4 (Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills)- Test 2

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