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JJ205 Engineering Mechanic

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JJ205

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES :

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve

engineering problems (C3)

CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)

CLO 3. study the theory of engineering mechanics to solve related

engineering problems in group (A3)

Objectives:

At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:

1. Understand the conditions for the equilibrium of a

particle.

a.

a.

b.

Draw free body diagram

i.

ii.

iii.

c.

Show all forces

Identify each force.

a.

b.

c.

Analyze procedures for the analysis of coplanar force

equilibrium

Solve problems regarding coplanar force equilibrium problem

for a particle.

CHAPTER 3:

EQUILIBRIUM

CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve

engineering problems (C3)

CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)

Prepared by:

Siti Syazwani Binti Ilmin

Particle

A particle is in equilibrium provided it is at rest of

originally at rest or has a constant velocity if originally in

motion.

Term equilibrium is used to describe an object at rest.

To maintain equilibrium, it is necessary to satisfy

Newtons first law of motion, which requires the resultant

force acting on a particle to be equal to zero.

Mathematically, it be stated as:

F = 0

(3.1)

Dec-12

continue

Free-Body Diagram

particle.

This follow Newtons second law of motion, which

can be written as F = ma.

and therefore the particles acceleration a=0.

act on the particle.

To count this, draw the particles free-body diagram.

This diagram is simply a sketch which shows the

particle free from its surroundings with all the forces

that act on it.

velocity or remains at rest.

Diagram:

There are three necessary steps to construct a freebody diagram.

1. Draw Outlined Shape.

surroundings by drawing its outlined shape.

Indicate on this sketch all the forces that act on the particle.

These forces can be active forces, which tends to set the

particle in motion, or,

They can be reactive forces which are the result of the

constraints or supports that tend to prevent motion.

To account for all these forces, it may help to trace around the

particles boundary, carefully noting each force acting on it.

Dec-12

Example 3.1

continue

The forces that are known should be labeled with their proper

magnitudes and directions.

Letters are used to represent the magnitudes and directions of forces

that are unknown.

shown. Draw a free-body diagram of the sphere, the cord CE, and

the knot at C.

TB

A

B

Continue

TC

Suspended from the crane boom. If we wish to

obtain the forces in cables AB and AC then we

can consider the free-body diagram of the ring

at A since these forces act on the ring. Here the

cables AD exert a resultant force of W on the

ring and the condition of equilibrium is used to

obtain TB and TC.

Solution:

Sphere:

By inspection, there are only two

forces acting on the sphere.

Its weight

The force of cord CE.

The sphere has a weight of 6kg

(9.81 m/s2)= 58.9 N.

FBD shown as Figure (b).

Continue

Solution:

Cord CE:

FBD shows only two forces

acting on it.

FCE and FEC pull on the cord and

keep it in tension, so that, it

doesnt collapse.

For equilibrium,

FCE = FEC

-Knot:

-Knot at C is subjected to 3

forces caused by the cords

CBA and CE and

the spring CD.

Dec-12

continue

These scalar equations of equilibrium require that

the algebraic sum of the x and y components of

all the forces acting on the particle be equal to

zero.

in the x-y plane, Fig. 3.1, then each force can be resolved into

its i and j components.

For equilibrium, eq. 3.1 can be written as:

F = 0

Fx i + Fy j =0

y

be satisfied, both the x and y

Components must be equal to

Zero. Hence;

Fx = 0

(3.2)

Fy = 0

F1

F2

two unknowns, generally represented as angles

and magnitudes for forces shown on the

particles free-body diagram.

F3

F4

Figure 3.1

continue

continue

Scalar Notation.

Scalar notation is used to represent the components when

applying the two equilibrium equations that requires the

resolution of vector components along a specified x or y axis.

The sense of direction for each component is accounted for by

an algebraic sign which corresponds to the arrowhead direction

of the component along each axis.

If a force has an unknown magnitude, then the arrowhead

sense of the force on the free-body diagram can be assumed.

Since the magnitude of a force is always positive, then, if the

solution yields a negative scalar, this indicates that the sense of

the force acts in the opposite direction.

10 N

Figure 3.2

Example:

Consider the free-body diagram of the particle subjected to the

two forces shown in fig. 3.2.

It is assumed that the unknown force F acts to the right to

maintain equilibrium.

Applying the equation of equilibrium along the x axis, we have:

Both terms are positive since both forces act in the positive x

direction.

Solved the equation, we get, F = -10 N.

The negative sign indicates that F must act to the left to hold the

particle in equilibrium.

Dec-12

continue

Coplanar force equilibrium problems for a particle can

be solved using the following procedure.

1.

Free=Body Diagram

2.

Label all the known and unknown force magnitudes and directions

on the diagram.

The sense of a force having an unknown magnitude can be

assumed.

For particle equilibrium, we require:

F = 0

If the forces are resolved into their respective I, j, k

components, then we have:

Equations of Equilibrium

Components are positive if they are directed along a positive axis,

and negative if they are directed along the negative axis.

If more than two unknowns exist and the problem involves a

spring, apply F=ks to relate the spring force to the deformation s

of the spring.

If the solution yields a negative result, this indicates the sense of

the force is the reverse of that shown on the free-body diagram.

the following three scalar component equations be

satisfied:

continue

y, z force components acting on the particle.

By using them, we can solve for at most three

unknowns, generally represented as angles or

magnitudes of forces shown on the particles FBD.

Three-dimensional force equilibrium problems for a

particle can be solved using the following procedure:

i. Free-Body Diagram.

a) Establish the x, y, z axes in any suitable orientation.

b) Label all the known and unknown force magnitudes and

directions on the diagram.

c) The sense of a force having an unknown magnitude can be

assumed.

a) Use the scalar equations of equilibrium,

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