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# Dec-12

JJ205
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES :
Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve
engineering problems (C3)
CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)
CLO 3. study the theory of engineering mechanics to solve related
engineering problems in group (A3)

Objectives:
At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:
1. Understand the conditions for the equilibrium of a
particle.
a.

a.
b.

## Explain free body diagram

Draw free body diagram
i.
ii.
iii.

c.

## Draw outline shape

Show all forces
Identify each force.

a.
b.
c.

## Explain scalar notation

Analyze procedures for the analysis of coplanar force
equilibrium
Solve problems regarding coplanar force equilibrium problem
for a particle.

## JJ205 ENGINEERING MECHANICS

CHAPTER 3:
EQUILIBRIUM
CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve
engineering problems (C3)
CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)
Prepared by:
Siti Syazwani Binti Ilmin

## Condition for the Equilibrium of a

Particle
A particle is in equilibrium provided it is at rest of
originally at rest or has a constant velocity if originally in
motion.
Term equilibrium is used to describe an object at rest.
To maintain equilibrium, it is necessary to satisfy
Newtons first law of motion, which requires the resultant
force acting on a particle to be equal to zero.
Mathematically, it be stated as:
F = 0

(3.1)

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Free-Body Diagram

particle.

## To apply the equation of equilibrium,

This follow Newtons second law of motion, which
can be written as F = ma.

## Since the force system satisfies Eq. 3.1, then, ma =0,

and therefore the particles acceleration a=0.

## Count all the known and unknown forces (F) which

act on the particle.
To count this, draw the particles free-body diagram.
This diagram is simply a sketch which shows the
particle free from its surroundings with all the forces
that act on it.

## Consequently the particle indeed moves with constant

velocity or remains at rest.

## Procedure For Drawing A Free-Body

Diagram:
There are three necessary steps to construct a freebody diagram.
1. Draw Outlined Shape.

## Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its

surroundings by drawing its outlined shape.

## For spring, F=ks.

Indicate on this sketch all the forces that act on the particle.
These forces can be active forces, which tends to set the
particle in motion, or,
They can be reactive forces which are the result of the
constraints or supports that tend to prevent motion.
To account for all these forces, it may help to trace around the
particles boundary, carefully noting each force acting on it.

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Example 3.1

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## 3. Indentify Each Force.

The forces that are known should be labeled with their proper
magnitudes and directions.
Letters are used to represent the magnitudes and directions of forces
that are unknown.

## The sphere in Figure (a) has a mass of 6 kg and is supported as

shown. Draw a free-body diagram of the sphere, the cord CE, and
the knot at C.

TB
A
B

Continue

TC

## Consider the spool having a weight W which is

Suspended from the crane boom. If we wish to
obtain the forces in cables AB and AC then we
can consider the free-body diagram of the ring
at A since these forces act on the ring. Here the
cables AD exert a resultant force of W on the
ring and the condition of equilibrium is used to
obtain TB and TC.

Solution:
Sphere:
By inspection, there are only two
forces acting on the sphere.
Its weight
The force of cord CE.
The sphere has a weight of 6kg
(9.81 m/s2)= 58.9 N.
FBD shown as Figure (b).

Continue

Solution:
Cord CE:
FBD shows only two forces
acting on it.
FCE and FEC pull on the cord and
keep it in tension, so that, it
doesnt collapse.
For equilibrium,
FCE = FEC

-Knot:
-Knot at C is subjected to 3
forces caused by the cords
CBA and CE and
the spring CD.

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## Coplanar Force Systems

These scalar equations of equilibrium require that
the algebraic sum of the x and y components of
all the forces acting on the particle be equal to
zero.

## If a particle is subjected to a system of coplanar forces that lie

in the x-y plane, Fig. 3.1, then each force can be resolved into
its i and j components.
For equilibrium, eq. 3.1 can be written as:
F = 0
Fx i + Fy j =0
y

## For this vector equation to

be satisfied, both the x and y
Components must be equal to
Zero. Hence;
Fx = 0
(3.2)
Fy = 0

F1

F2

## As a result, Equation 3.2 can be solved for at most

two unknowns, generally represented as angles
and magnitudes for forces shown on the
particles free-body diagram.

F3
F4

Figure 3.1

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continue

Scalar Notation.
Scalar notation is used to represent the components when
applying the two equilibrium equations that requires the
resolution of vector components along a specified x or y axis.
The sense of direction for each component is accounted for by
an algebraic sign which corresponds to the arrowhead direction
of the component along each axis.
If a force has an unknown magnitude, then the arrowhead
sense of the force on the free-body diagram can be assumed.
Since the magnitude of a force is always positive, then, if the
solution yields a negative scalar, this indicates that the sense of
the force acts in the opposite direction.

10 N
Figure 3.2

Example:
Consider the free-body diagram of the particle subjected to the
two forces shown in fig. 3.2.
It is assumed that the unknown force F acts to the right to
maintain equilibrium.
Applying the equation of equilibrium along the x axis, we have:

Both terms are positive since both forces act in the positive x
direction.
Solved the equation, we get, F = -10 N.
The negative sign indicates that F must act to the left to hold the
particle in equilibrium.

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## Procedure for analysis:

Coplanar force equilibrium problems for a particle can
be solved using the following procedure.
1.

Free=Body Diagram

2.

## Establish the x, y axes in any suitable orientation.

Label all the known and unknown force magnitudes and directions
on the diagram.
The sense of a force having an unknown magnitude can be
assumed.

## Three-Dimensional Force Systems

For particle equilibrium, we require:
F = 0
If the forces are resolved into their respective I, j, k
components, then we have:

Equations of Equilibrium

## Apply the equations of equilibrium Fx=0 and Fy=0.

Components are positive if they are directed along a positive axis,
and negative if they are directed along the negative axis.
If more than two unknowns exist and the problem involves a
spring, apply F=ks to relate the spring force to the deformation s
of the spring.
If the solution yields a negative result, this indicates the sense of
the force is the reverse of that shown on the free-body diagram.

## To ensure equilibrium, we must therefore require that

the following three scalar component equations be
satisfied:

continue

## These equations represent the algebraic sums of the x,

y, z force components acting on the particle.
By using them, we can solve for at most three
unknowns, generally represented as angles or
magnitudes of forces shown on the particles FBD.

## Procedure for analysis:

Three-dimensional force equilibrium problems for a
particle can be solved using the following procedure:
i. Free-Body Diagram.
a) Establish the x, y, z axes in any suitable orientation.
b) Label all the known and unknown force magnitudes and
directions on the diagram.
c) The sense of a force having an unknown magnitude can be
assumed.

## ii. Equations of equilibrium.

a) Use the scalar equations of equilibrium,