You are on page 1of 13

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:


To appreciate the importance of effective intercultural communication skills in
today's business world
To heighten your awareness of differences in communication styles across
cultures and some key factors that may influence business communication across
cultures
To develop attitudes conducive for effective intercultural communication

Consider the following scenarios:
Scenario #1
The US marketing manager of a major car producer was finding it increasingly difficult to work in
Japan. In meetings, the Japanese colleagues hardly ever said anything. When they were asked
if they agreed to his suggestions they always said "yes", but they didn't do anything to follow up
the ideas. The only time they opened up was in a bar in the evening, but that was getting
stressful, as they seemed to expect him to go out with them on a regular basis.
Scenario #2
A North American was working in Indonesia as a consultant to banks on disaster recovery. At
one of his presentations to a client – an Indonesian bank, he suggested that individual employees
who did a good job ought to be given greater recognition by which he meant singling them out for
praise in front of their colleagues. His audience was horrified.
Scenario #3
A Singapore businessman in Saudi Arabia is keen to secure an important deal. He has a tight
schedule, and can’t afford to waste any time. His frustration increases because he has to wait for
ages to get an appointment with his Saudi partner. Meetings never start on time, and when they
do, there are frequent interruptions, with people coming in to get papers signed. The Saudi
partner even takes phone calls when his visitor is in the room.
Scenario #4
Fatimah, a Malaysian graduate student, works part-time in a chain drugstore in California. One
day while helping her unpack a new shipment of toiletries, Mr Hayes, the manager of the store,
invites her to take a break and sit down and have a cup of coffee with him. Shyly, she accepts.
Mr Hayes chats with her casually, but notices that when he speaks to her, Fatimah looks down on
the floor and seems disinterested. He believes she is being disrespectful and reprimands her for
it. She is surprised by his anger.
Scenario #5
A negotiation is taking place to discuss the costs of renovating an office space in China for a new
US company. Mr Jones then asks, “Okay, then, how much will everything cost? Just give me a
ballpark figure.” Mr Zhang and Mr Li look at each other with a rather puzzled look. Then Mr Li
hesitatingly gave an estimated cost. In response, Mr Jones says, “You can’t be serious. That’s
going to cost us an arm and a leg!” The Chinese became a little uncomfortable.

So.  Culture teaches values and priorities. In one scene. much to Heinrich Harrer’s amazement and frustration. even if confined to your home country. it is not at all uncommon to walk into an office and to find ourselves looking at a multinational multicultural workforce. The Tibetans made a big fuss about this and work on building the theatre had to be stopped for a while. and prescribes behavior. while he and a group of Tibetans were digging the piece of land on which the theatre was going to be built.In each of the above scenarios. what may be acceptable or appropriate in one culture may be unacceptable in another culture. their shovels and spades uncovered earthworms in the ground. 1 Definition of culture Bovee. clothing and food . verbal communication. but rather it is learned. given that some things have more significance than others”. expectations. culture’s influence on written business communication. an Austrian living in Tibet. shared view a group of people has about life’s concerns that ranks what is important. non-verbal communication. attitudes. fundamental cultural orientations. and tips on how to communicate effectively across cultures.  Culture is shared by a society and members of a society agree about the meanings of things and why. instills attitudes about what things are appropriate. What do you think happened? Why did the Tibetans make such a big fuss about the earthworms? Why was Heinrich Harrer amazed and frustrated by what happened? The iceberg is a good analogy to use to illustrate the concept of culture in which the part above water that can be seen illustrates tangible expressions of culture like behaviour. In subsequent sections. values. (Varner and Beamer. However. was asked by the Dalai Lama to build some sort of a movie theatre in Lhasa. beliefs. imparted to us through our upbringing and exposure to the practices and rules of conduct of the culture of which we are a part. and norms for behaviour. today’s business environment. this is becoming more and more the norm these days. Coupled with the easy availability of sophisticated means of long-distance communication like the email and videoconferencing facilities. With more and more companies going global in today’s changing business environment. Work only resumed after all the earthworms were safely collected in containers and transferred to another location. it is important for you to develop effective intercultural communication skills. we see people of different cultures communicating with one another and how their different cultural orientations result in problems or misunderstandings in the communication. which in turn shape attitudes. in order to succeed at the workplace today. Thill & Schatzman (2003) define culture as a shared system of symbols. will more likely place you in communication situations involving colleagues or clients whose cultures are different from yours.  Culture prescribes behaviour and members of a society usually behave in ways that they think are appropriate or acceptable in their culture. 1995: 2) It is useful to take note of a few points about the above definition:  Culture is not something that we are born with. Heinrich Harrer. It is “the coherent. In the movie Seven Years in Tibet. the following topics will be dealt with: definition of culture. In fact. learned.

customers. Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time. values.while the part below the surface represents the underlying attitudes. 2. Clothing Food Behaviour Attitudes Values Beliefs Meanings Norms Photo by Cliff Wassman To be effective in communicating across cultures. Five main cultural orientations will be looked at: (a) how contexting and face saving affect communication. as well as habit. attitudes. (b) how the individual is viewed in relation to the group. We also need to accept what Mole (1996) has pertinently pointed out – that very often the way others do things is not different out of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice. It is very important to note that statements made about any culture are mere generalizations about cultural norms. or even a profession that has its own specialized ways of doing things. Of greater importance is striving to understand the underlying factors responsible for those differences. it will be substituted with something else that is viewed as more acceptable. And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs. Note that these are “orientations” or . (c) how time is perceived. Fundamental cultural orientations To understand the belief systems and fundamental values that are at the heart of culture. It is only with a better understanding of these factors that we can then communicate more clearly and build more meaningful relationships with colleagues. At any one time. it is useful to examine some fundamental cultural orientations. the most obvious being the culture of the country in which we live. and meanings (please see picture below). The norms of a culture also change over time. suppliers. the emphasis in what follows will be on communication across national cultures. values. each of us belongs to more than one culture. the categories of which remain the same though the specific orientations differ from one country to the next. though it may sometimes seem that way. a religious group. Therefore. Given the constraint of time. and exceptions must be allowed as individuals in the same culture do not necessarily behave according to the norms of their culture. As members of a particular culture realize that a practice or custom no longer works. (d) how status is accorded. they are not absolute truths. it is not enough to recognize differences in behaviours. and (e) how decisions are made. and other individuals both locally and internationally. beliefs. Other cultural entities include an ethnic group. tradition and accepted norms. the first important step towards more effective intercultural communication is to increase our awareness of those crucial underlying factors starting firstly with our own cultures then proceeding with the target cultures. though change usually takes time.

Usually. people rely more on verbal communication and less on circumstances and non-verbal cues to convey meaning so they are very direct. this indirectness may be seen as dishonesty. the indirectness that characterizes the communication in most high-context cultures is to a large extent a strategy to avoid causing another person to lose face. Individuals in a collectivist culture do not usually seek recognition and are uncomfortable if it is given. The less they share. to convey meaning.1 How contexting and face-saving affect communication All communication occurs in a context. people rely less on verbal communication and more on the context of nonverbal cues. in low-context cultures such as the United States. the less important it is for them to express directly what they wish to say or write. to people coming from low-context cultures. beliefs and traits. . which throughout their lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Very often. the more they must express in words and gestures to be understood. Examples of individualist cultures include the US. Avoid stereotyping any group of people by assuming that everyone belonging to a cultural group shares exactly the same cultural behaviors. Most Asian and Latin American countries are generally collectivist in orientation. However. a single person can earn credit or blame for the success or failure of a company project while in a collectivist culture. The more two people share knowledge and experience. In an individualist culture.2 How the individual is viewed in relation to the group Cultures can be characterized as either more individualist or collectivist in orientation. In a collectivist culture. cohesive groups. Face-saving is the act of preserving one’s outward dignity. independence is highly valued. NOT a dichotomy between high and low contexts. credit or blame goes to the group. precise and explicit in their communication. they can appear as rather indirect and vague in their verbal communication. 2. Hofstede (1991) defines the individualist culture as one in which the ties between individuals are loose and everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family. examples of which include most Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Switzerland and Germany. Varner and Beamer (1995) point out that in an individualist culture. the value attached to the maintenance of status and respect varies significantly from culture to culture. the more highly contexted a culture is. shared by the parties in the communication. 1996:26). the more importance its members attach to face saving. Cultures can be placed on a continuum from high to low context. 2. In contrast. This is the concept of contexting. the individual is regarded as part of the group and a high degree of interdependence prevails in the same group. environmental settings. it can be viewed as consideration for another person’s sense of dignity. In high-context cultures. In that sense. 'members of a team are more concerned with fulfilling their obligations to a group than being self-fulfilled in terms of personal achievements' (Abdullah.“tendencies”. most parts of Western and Northern Europe and Australia and New Zealand. He contrasts this with a collectivist culture in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. and implicit information. Though people of all cultures are concerned with face saving. in a collectivist culture. suggesting that the speaker may have something to hide. As a result.

businesspeople try to reach decisions as quickly and efficiently as possible. as this will be viewed as a sign of disrespect and can also lead to a loss of face. Again.4 How status is accorded Cultures also differ in how status is accorded. It is not unusual in such cultures for business meetings to be interrupted by other things completely unrelated to the discussion. Preset schedules are subordinate to interpersonal relations and people take whatever time is needed to get to know each other and build a foundation for the business relationship. This is in part related to the collectivist nature of these cultures as well as concern for maintaining harmony. and so on. 2. Main points are agreed upon first while the details are left to be worked out later. cultures can be placed on a continuum from less hierarchical to more hierarchical. In the former. Similarly. Apart from the US and the UK in which time is perceived as such. . especially in front of other people. In such cultures. people speak politely and formally. within an organisation. time is seen as more fluid and people do not observe strict schedules.5 How decisions are made In the United States and Canada. This behaviour may however be interpreted as a lack of assertiveness on the part of the employee in cultures that are less hierarchical and where employees are free to interrupt their superiors and voice their own opinions. In monochronic cultures.2. spending time on each little point is considered a mark of good faith and anyone who ignores the details is seen as being evasive and untrustworthy. family background. In polychronic cultures. organizations are less hierarchical and titles are usually only used when they are relevant to the competence one brings to the task. They include Japan. In some cultures. status is accorded to people based more on their individual achievements while in others status is ascribed to people by virtue of their age.3 How time is perceived Hall (1991) makes a distinction between cultures that are monochronic and those that are polychronic. This leads to the practice of never questioning what they say. 2. time is seen as a way to organize the business day efficiently. for example. it is important to show the proper respect for individuals depending on their rank and position. some Asian countries also fall in this category typically in business contexts. people place a high emphasis on schedules. In such cultures. However. It is also considered inappropriate to interrupt authority figures when they are speaking and their opinions carry a lot of weight. a precise reckoning of time and promptness and schedules usually take precedence over interpersonal relations. Singapore and Hong Kong. in some other cultures. decisions in business negotiations are not made by delegates without consulting the organization. Most Asian and Arab countries are more hierarchical compared to the US and most other European countries. Latin Americans prefer to make their deals slowly. organizations are usually more hierarchical and extensive use of titles especially for high ranking executives and officials is the norm. When addressing people who are older or of higher status. Singapore is also more polychronic in nature. after much discussion and the Japanese and many of their Asian counterparts look for group consensus before making a decision. This contrasts with the practice in some other more individualist cultures where decisions can be made on the spot by representatives of the organization. In most Asian societies. In the latter. profession. a medical doctor. like Greece for example. Most Arab and African countries are in this category. In social contexts. People in such cultures try to get to the point quickly when communicating and they also tend to focus on only one task during each scheduled period.

Verbal communication In discussing verbal communication. please? Could I have the cheque. top-level executives also talk about the movies they have watched during the weekend. with participants sometimes bringing in personal issues that may not be directly relevant to the topics being discussed but are nevertheless useful in establishing more comfortable interpersonal relations between them? Sometimes. or share about the latest novels or other books they have read. you need to pay careful attention to your choice of words and expressions. executives know each other very well that the professional and the personal are no longer clearly demarcated. please. perhaps even more so in these contexts. these are common: Please queue up. In other contexts.Gender relations are also crucial in decision-making processes. and clarity of pronunciation will be examined. To go. e. e.g. it is still a reality that women are less represented in executive-level positions. 3. the inroads made in diversifying corporate cultures cannot be ignored because many women have broken the barriers of power in their work. idiomatic expressions and slang. In many corporate meetings. serious and professional.  Unfamiliar words The use of unfamiliar words can also cause a breakdown in communication. please? Take away. professionalism takes a backseat and personal matters come into the picture.1 Choice of words and expressions When you are communicating with people of a different culture.g. organization of messages. more and more women have occupied top-level corporations and therefore have provided strong voices in decision-making. In Singapore. the choice of words and expressions. these are culturally not acceptable since meeting participants are expected to be formal. these are common: In the United States. Male executives are generally still the ones who make important decisions in their companies. “table” When one suggests tabling something for discussion. you are in a sense trying to understand the corporate culture of the participants. All this tells us that we also need to be very careful about understanding the nature of corporate culture – it varies from one corporation to another. Please get in line. Even in top-level meetings. Avoid ambiguous words. 3.  Ambiguous words The same word may have very different interpretations in different cultures and this could give rise to miscommunication when interacting with people across cultures. please. If you attend a meeting or are observing one. . acronyms. Nevertheless. from one country to another. In recent years. unfamiliar words. How do they make decisions? Are the participants conscious of the fact that their meetings are formal and therefore they need to use language that is appropriate for the situation? Or is the whole discussion informal. All points made and examples given are for communication in the English language. However. it means putting it on the meeting agenda in England but it means taking it off the agenda in the US. Could I have the bill.

FYI. e. e.g. it is important to recognize that people from different cultures attach different meanings to nonverbal signals.2 Organization of messages It is also important to organize your messages in a way that is suitable for your target audience whose culture is different from yours. pot / port pan / pen access / assess paint / pain tree / three cuff / carve Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication adds to the message and a failure to interpret nonverbal signals correctly can lead to unwanted misunderstandings and a breakdown in the communication process. The advertisement carries the slogan.” The slogan will not go down well with an American audience because the slang expression “it sucks” has negative connotations in the US. e. EDB. 3. In intercultural communication. for many other cultures like Latin American. An advertisement by Electrolux worked very well in Europe but was unusable in the United States. However. e. the word “sucks” has a literal meaning so the slogan is perfectly all right. ASAP. this direct approach is not usually favoured and may even sometimes be seen as tactless and rude. IPO  Idioms These expressions can create a breakdown in communication when used in an intercultural context. Acronyms Acronyms that are easily understood by members of one culture may be totally incomprehensible to members of another culture.g. differ / defer leaf / lift 4.3 Clarity of pronunciation The clear articulation of speech is important in any speaking situation but even more so when speaking in an intercultural communication context. “Nothing sucks like the Electrolux. Many English-speaking countries prefer a direct approach to most messages with the main idea presented first and the details given later. especially one involving non-native speakers of English. Seven types of nonverbal signals will be .g. Some words are so close in pronunciation that articulating them wrongly or “lazily” could create confusion in communication. 3. Japanese and Arabic cultures. This preference can be traced back to the nature of the culture with respect to contexting and face-saving. To break a leg (To do well at some performance) To hold one’s tongue (To refrain from saying something unpleasant or nasty) To rain cats and dogs (To rain very heavily) More money down the drain (More money to spend)  Slang Cultures may develop their own slang that may be foreign to other cultures using the same language.g. In Europe.

including Singapore and China. 4. In these countries. eye contact. While in some cultures.2 Eye contact In most Asian cultures. Public Social-consultative Casual-personal Intimate . the same posture may be viewed as a sign of the other person being uptight or even aggressive. for example. The way we sit. the head nod means yes. the physical space between speakers adds to the message. 4. shaking their heads back and forth means yes. and turn-taking. the handshake is usually very soft. in some other cultures. in Bulgaria. However. laughter. volume and speed. lowering of the eyes usually indicate respect and humility for the other party. almost limp. Turkey. trustworthiness and integrity.examined in this section: body language. tone. people nod their heads up and down to signal no.3 Laughter In many Asian cultures. in North America and northern European culture. physical space. a firm handshake is a sign of strength and character and indicates sincerity. Culture determines whether the distance is too close or too far away. sitting upright in a chair may be viewed as being alert and showing respect for the other party in the communication process. 4. a joke related by a Western colleague. Iran and Bengal. In fact. In most Western cultures. parts of Greece. However. touch. rather it is an indication of humility using a Western form of greeting. Head movements.5 Physical space Goodman (1995) highlights that in interpersonal communication. especially in the form of giggling. Foster (2000) posits that this does not indicate insincerity. as shown in the diagram below. laughter.1 Body language Posture. may not be a reaction to anything humorous but rather an expression of embarrassment when people do not understand something. However. direct eye contact shows openness. stand and walk sends a nonverbal message. Yugoslavia. 4. in countries like Japan and Thailand. Distance can be thought of as showing degrees of intimacy. 4. In many parts of the world. eye contact is generally indirect.4 Touch The handshake has become an accepted touch between business people when they first meet but the type of handshake varies widely across cultures.

In some cultures. Filipinos and Thais usually speak in soft. The actual distance for each of these categories again differs from culture to culture so failing to understand differences in the appropriate physical distance between speakers can lead to some discomfort and serious miscommunication. 4. being cool and self-possessed is what is admired. In these cultures. In Latin American cultures. However. Culture’s influence on written business communication Cultures also influence our written business communication.6 Tone.Space between speakers Source: Goodman’s Working in a Global Environment The intimate space is reserved for people one is closest too and this space is generally extremely inappropriate at the workplace. with more ups and downs in intonation. 4. What in one culture may sound like a heated argument may in another culture be considered the norm for a reasonable discussion. people in these cultures usually wait for the other party to finish speaking before making their point. Taking time to process the information before one starts speaking is in fact a sign of respect for the other person but people in some other cultures feel uncomfortable with these periods of silence and tends to fill them up with ‘unnecessary’ talk. the pace of speaking is generally fast and volume loud. volume and speed of speaking also vary widely in different cultures. This way of speaking shows that one has one’s heart in the matter. The casual-personal range denotes the space where friends and relatives are usually comfortable in.7 Turn-taking and silence Turn-taking in conversation and the role of silence also differ between cultures. Indonesians. in some other cultures. it is acceptable and even desirable to interrupt while someone else is speaking as it indicates enthusiasm and interest in the conversation. hushed tones. volume and speed Tone. interrupting is considered rude. In some cultures. . The socio-consultative distance is generally appropriate for the workplace whole the public space at work is limited to formal presentations. emotions are also generally restrained and losing one’s control may be considered very bad form. a period of silence between contributions is accepted as the norm. 5.

In Singapore. be aware of what it means to be from your own country. it does not mean that they are inefficient or stupid. and working down to the street. and addresses are written the Western way. beginning with the name. Last names are usually written in uppercase and dates are given in the year.1 Organisation of messages In most English-speaking countries. In China. because different cultures have different ways of behaving and interpreting behaviours so you must:  Recognise differences. Tips for effective intercultural communication In order for you to become an effective communicator in this global workplace. You have to give up your ethnocentricity in an intercultural communication context. 6. in many oriental cultures. Then. The address is usually written beginning with the country and postal code.2 Mechanics and format The mechanics and format of letter writing also differ across cultures. the writing style of business messages that is preferred is direct. business letters are usually very formal and respectful of rank and hierarchy. Click here for an example of letter using the kishotenketsu organisation. behaviours and customs and to see other groups as inferior by comparison. 5. Japan.day format. what is regarded as good writing style follows the kishotenketsu organization. (2003: 63-72):  Develop a sense of cultural awareness. learn all you possibly can about the culture of the people with whom you need to communicate. . city and country plus postal code. Writing in these cultures is marked by indirectness and paragraph development may be said to be turning and spiraling in a circular fashion. First of all. Thill and Schatzman. sho is raising the subject where the company may be introduced before the writer moves gradually into the purpose of the letter. Being different should not always be seen as negative.month. Just because people do things differently from you. street address and finally company and/or personal name. This direct rhetorical pattern of writing can be represented by a straight line from the opening sentence to the last sentence.year). This writing style is characteristic of low-context cultures.  Do away with ethnocentrism. because of the British influence. Writers will also ensure that every part of the message is directly relevant to the subject under discussion. which also tend to be high-context in orientation.month. most of the time dates are written the European way (day. followed by the city (and prefecture). and South Korea. the following is a list of things that you should try to work towards (adapted from Bovee.5. Ki is the small talk which has nothing to do with the business at hand. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to judge all other groups according to your own group’s standards. for example. clear and concise. However. ten is rolling it where further effort is made to establish rapport and credibility. the preferred writing style could be very different. In Japan.  Show respect for your counterparts. and ketsu is ending it beautifully by focusing on the addressee and offering congratulations on his or her company’s achievements.

consider his/her point of view and understand where he/she is coming from. Using a language that is only understood by the few people from your own culture may be seen as your way of excluding all others in the group or may suggest that you have something negative to say.  Listen carefully and empathise.  Speak slowly and clearly  Be careful with pronunciation  Simplify speech . When in an intercultural context. or environmental discomforts. appearance. Do not assume it is the other person’s responsibility to make the communication work. Just try to act in a way appropriate to the target culture. Learn to adapt. Put yourself in the other person’s shoes. Do not get distracted by dress. acronyms. always use a language which is understood by all.  Look beyond the superficial. Be flexible and ready to adapt or adjust your behaviour. but do not overdo your adjustment as then you may be perceived as insincere. Remember what may be the norm for you may not be the norm for other cultures.  Do not lapse into your own language while in the presence of others who do not speak it.  Take responsibility for the communication. you must be tolerant of deviations from the norms .  Be more tolerant. simple sentences and short paragraphs  Number points for clarity  Reflect your relationship with the reader in your choice of words In oral communication.  Send clear messages in both oral and written communication  Use simple.  Use short. you also have to do your part to ensure effective communication. colloquialisms and idiomatic expressions In written communication. Because people of different cultures do things differently from one another.what you are used to in your own culture. frequently used words  Be very careful with translation  Avoid slang. When using language. be yourself and show sincerity. As a party in the communication process.

Gibson. pp. N. D. As in all our interpersonal communication. Inc. Singapore: Prentice Hall. The cultural context in business communication. for example. Campbell.P. In Lee. it is unrealistic to expect to understand another culture completely. Goodman. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International.B. 4. 8. 8th edition. 6. 11. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Going glocal: Cultural dimensions in Malaysian management. E. Rhetorical ethos: A bridge between high-context and lowcontext cultures. do not overgeneralize and look at people as stereotypical “Germans” or “Americans” and then never move beyond that view. (1990). Axtell. one from the other. C. we need to communicate with individuals as individuals who are by their very nature unique. (1996). Do’s and taboos around the world. (1991).T. No matter how much you study French culture. G. New York: IEEE. London: Harper Collins. Intercultural business communication. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (2000). (2005). References 1. Hofstede. style and behaviour to what is culturally acceptable to your audience  Watch the other person for misunderstanding and be ready to provide feedback As a final note. Asma. Niemeier. while learning all you can about a particular culture is a good way to figure out how to send and receive intercultural messages effectively. Feng. (2002). & Thill. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute of Management. 2. Inc. The dance of life: The other dimension of time. 5. 9. (2000). 31 – 48. A. A. pp. Dirven (eds. J. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Bovee. (1995). R. whatever culture they come from. In S. NY: Anchor Press. C. To be effective in intercultural communication.V. An IT student’s guide to business and technical communication. Hall. Business communication today. The global etiquette guide to Asia. it helps to learn useful general information but it is imperative to be aware and open to variations and individual differences. 10. M. R. C. et al. Inc. Inc. Garden City.P. . In addition. you will never be French if you are a Singaporean who have been born and bred in Singapore. (1996).). Intercultural communication. (1998). 7.E. New York: The Benjamin Company. Foster. Multicultural manners: New rules of etiquette for a changing society. 3. (1983). Make one point at a time  Adapt tone of voice. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dresser. Working in a global environment. Campbell and R. Cultures and organizations. 207 – 246.L.

F. Varner. C. International business communication. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. USA: Richard D. Intercultural communication in the global workplace. 14. I. J. . 13.A. (1993). New York: Harper Collins. (1996). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in global business. (1995). Mind your manners: Managing business cultures in Europe. (1998). 15. and Hampden-Turner. D. and Beamer. New York: McGraw-Hill. Trompenaars. L. Mole. Irwin.12. Victor.