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F. Civan, SPE, U. of Oklahoma

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2005 SPE Production and Operations

Symposium held in Oklahoma City, OK, U.S.A., 17 19 April 2005.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of

information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as

presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to

correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any

position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at

SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of

Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper

for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is

prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to a proposal of not more than 300

words; illustrations may not be copied. The proposal must contain conspicuous

acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.

Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract

There is no consensus about the proper theory and equation of

permeability of porous media in spite of the numerous

investigations conducted to date. Many different expressions

have been proposed in the literature for permeability

prediction and/or correlation. The presently available and

frequently used models, including the popular KozenyCarman equation, have certain limitations and are inadequate

for applications involving the geological porous media. The

bottom-line question is just what is the equation of

permeability of the geological porous formations?

This paper provides some insights into the

relationship of the porosity and permeability. The bundle of

leaky capillary hydraulic tubes with cross-flow model of

porous media by Civan1-7 is shown to alleviate the deficiencies

of the present models. This model adequately approximates

the actual flow schemes in porous media because it allows for

interactions between the capillary hydraulic paths. The

porosity-permeability data of various core samples are

analyzed with this model. It is demonstrated that the power

law exponent of the leaky-tube model deviates significantly

from the unity. Therefore, the Kozeny-Carman8-9 equation

having a constant exponent of unity cannot describe such core

data.

Introduction

Permeability is a primary characteristic parameter of porous

materials involving fluid flow. The permeability of geological

porous formations depends on many variables in a

complicated manner. The proper modeling of the permeability

of porous materials is instrumental in the applications

involving porous materials encountered in the nature and

engineering. Predictability of permeability is essential for the

development of accurate methods for monitoring and

describing the transport of various fluid phases and species,

such as pollutants, water, oil, and gas, in large subsurface

geological porous formations, ordinarily referred to as

no consensus among the present approaches as to the proper

theory and the equation of permeability of porous media in

spite of numerous investigations conducted to date.

Various theoretical and laboratory studies have been

carried out to determine the functional relationships for

permeability. The conventional approaches used for

characterization of flow through porous media estimate the

permeability based on the description of flow either around the

grains (microscopic description) or through a bundle of

capillary tubes (macroscopic description) (Rajani10). Various

approaches are available for determining the permeability,

including (1) empirical models, (2) hydraulic-tube models, (3)

network models, (4) homogenization, (5) renormalization, (6)

neural networks, (7) effective medium theory, (8) fractal

representation, and (9) well-log based equations.

Consequently, many different expressions have been proposed

in the literature for permeability prediction and/or correlation.

The bottom-line question is just what is the equation of

permeability for geological porous media?

The majority of the previous approaches incorporated

both the independent and dependent variables into the

development of the equations for permeability of porous

media. Frequently, some independent variables have been

omitted and/or considered implicitly through the dependent

variables. There is a tendency of expressing permeability in

terms of the conveniently measurable parameters. However,

these parameters may not necessarily be the truely

independent variables. This results in the loss of the identity of

some independent variables and/or multiple counting of some

variables in different forms of the dependent variables. The

examples of such cases have been reported in a review limited

to only 32 of the different equations presently available for

permeability prediction and/or correlation (Babadagli and AlSaimi11). It is important to correctly identify the truly

independent variables and express the permeability in terms of

these variables.

Civan1-7 developed a new equation of permeability

based on a model of porous media considering the fractal

attributes of pores and description of the flow channels as a

bundle of tortuous capillary hydraulic tubes undergoing crossflow in between them. This formulation accounts for the

constrictions along the hydraulic tubes by means of a fractal

description of the cross-sectional area available for fluid flow.

The various hydraulic tubes interact with each other

depending on the pore connectivity. Hence, this model

represents the actual flow patterns occurring in porous media

better than the previous models. The result is a permeability-

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SPE 94271

equation. It expresses the mean-hydraulic tube diameter as a

power-law function of the pore volume to matrix grain

volume. The effect of the cementation and/or grain fusing and

embedment is also considered by a cement exclusion factor.

Theoretically, the power law exponent may vary from zero to

infinity. Therefore, the deviations from the Kozeny-Carman

equation as indicated by various core data and pointed out by

many studies can be represented accurately. This is a practical

and simplified lumped-parameter model offerring various

advantages. It allows for straight-line plotting, accurate

correlation, and practical interpretation of the porositypermeability data. Civan1-7 demonstrated that this model

represents the behavior of the geological porous media

accurately. Haro12 demonstrated that Civans leaky-tube

model leads to a perfect permeability transform using logs and

cores.

Most previous approaches determined the

permeability from porosity alone (Nelson13). Civan1-7 has

shown that, in addition to porosity, at the least the

coordination number and cementation factor should also be

taken into account in order to formulate a meaningful equation

of permeability. The coordination number is a measure of the

pore connectivity. It affects the cross flow between the

capillary hydraulic tubes. The cementation and grain fusing

reduce the porosity by occupying part of the pore space. These

affect the pore connectivity by obstruction of the pore throats.

The permeability equations omitting the effects of these

variables on the behavior of the fluid in an interconnected pore

structure often fail to describe the permeability in the

geological porous media. However, this is only a required

condition and not a sufficient condition for accurate prediction

of permeability. Different hydraulic flow units are

encountered when moving from point to point in

heterogeneous porous media. Hence, Civan4,6 pointed out that

the kinetic equations are also needed to express the functional

dependency of the relevant factors and to accurately account

for the variation and transformation of the hydraulic flow units

to other types of reservoir flow units in the geological porous

media.

Civan4-7 implemented the effects of the pore

connectivity, the valve action of pore throats, and the

cementation factor into a bundle of tortuous leaky capillarytubes model of porous media to derive a macroscopic equation

of permeability. Then, the parameters of the power-law

equation were related to the pore connectivity measured by the

coordination number using suitable functional relationships,

derived from the rate equations. The validity and accuracy of

this approach was confirmed by comparison with the directly

measured core data and the pore-scale simulation generated

data. The proposed approach allowed for incorporation of

various data within a single, compact, and simple power-law

equation over the full range of porosity and permeability. The

power law parameters were formulated and determined as

functions of the coordination number and/or porosity, because

the coordination number correlates well with porosity. The

analysis of the permeability vs. porosity data demonstrated

that the power law flow unit model alleviates the deficiencies

of the Kozeny-Carman equation.

of the present approach is providing an accurate and practical

equation of permeability. This equation can be readily

incorporated into the modeling of the geological porous media

processes into large-scale field simulations. The majority of

the presently available simulators lack in the capability of

accurate prediction of permeability while focusing primarily

on the solution of the governing partial differential equations

using accurate and elegant numerical procedures. However,

the accuracy of the numerical results generated by such

simulators is obviously limited by the least accurate

ingredient, one of which is usually the prediction of

permeability. Therefore, the accurate equation of permeability

is instrumental in improving the capabilities of such

simulators.

The Equation of Permeability of Porous Media

Frequently, the permeability of porous media (K) is defined by

the frictional drag according to Darcys law. Permeability is

an empirical proportionality factor in Darcys law and a

characteristic property of porous media. It can be inferred

through a suitable flow description in porous media. For this

purpose, typical fluid assumptions include incompressible,

Newtonian, single-phase, and isothermal conditions. Typical

flow assumptions consider a laminar conditition and Darcian

flow regime. The internal flow along the hydraulic flow paths

is usually described as a Hagen-Poiseuille flow.

Permeability of geological formations may vary at

the spatial scale by heterogeneity and/or temporal scale by

evolution of the pore structure and alteration of pore

connectivity by various mechanisms, such as porous matrix

deformation and rock-fluid-particle interactions. Therefore,

different hydraulic flow units may be encountered at different

locations and/or time in a heterogeneous geological porous

medium.

The equation of permeability K = function

(Variables) should express the permeability as a function of

the relevant independent variables. Obviously, the effective

porosity is a primary factor. But, permeability cannot be

predicted from porosity alone (Nelson13). However, most

internal properties and parameters of porous media depend

primarily on porosity. There are several examples of such

parameters. Specific surface determines the pore surface or

wall friction effect. Tortuosity is a measure of the length of the

hydraulic flow tubes. Coordination number is a measure of the

pore connectivity affecting the extent of cross flow between

the various hydraulic tubes. Grain cementation and/or fusing

may cause a reduction of porosity and loss of pore

connectivity. Such factors have been shown to depend on the

effective porosity and therefore can be eliminated by

expressing them as functions of porosity. Such multiple affects

of porosity has been usually described by the power-law type

functions.

The difficulty in distinguishing between the variables

of permeability into one category or another is due to the

intermingled nature of some variables. For example, the welllog parameters often include the effect of several independent

variables. Also, permeability is usually formulated in terms of

the conveniently measurable variables and not necessarily by

using the truly independent variables.

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SPE 94271

classified into two groups: a) Microscopic scale and b)

macroscopic scale. The macroscopic scale variables averaged

over the representative volume element of porous media are

preferred in most field scale simulation. This is because the

macroscopic properties can be more conveniently measured

than the microscopic properties.

The mathematical formulation of the permeability

equation is discussed here in terms of two approaches: a)

Expressing the functional relationship of the permeability by

means of the method of separation of independent variables

and b) applying a bundle of capillary and leaky tubes with

cross flow model of porous media (Civan1-7, and Civan and

Nguyen14).

Empirical Equation of Permeability via the

Separation of Variables

The equation of permeability expresses the functional

relationship of the permeability (dependent variable) by means

of the method of distinguishing and separation of independent

variables. The theoretical trends of the effects of various

independent variables can be correlated at the macroscopic

scale with the core data and their parametric sensitivity can be

determined. These relationships can be invoked into the

general permeability correlation, given as:

n

K / K o = f ( xi / xio ) .......................................................(1)

i =1

variable (xi/ xio). It is reasonable to consider a multi-variable

power-law correlation as:

where

mi

K / K o = a ( xi / xio ) ......................................................(2)

i =1

n

i =1

parameters. These parameters can be determined by a multivariable least-squares method. The number of independent

variables is denoted by the index n. The relevant independent

variables can be combined in terms of the meaningful

dimensionless groups. This can help determine the universal

equation of permeability applicable to the geological porous

media as a predictive tool.

Theoretical Equation of Permeability based on the

Leaky-Tube Model of Porous Media

The mathematical foundation is based on the representation of

porous media by a bundle of capillary and leaky tubes model

allowing cross-flow between the preferential hydraulic paths

(Fig. 1). The flow characteristics are determined by several

factors, including the coordination number, mean-pore

diameter, mean-hydraulic tube diameter, specific pore surface,

and tortuosity. The hydraulic tubes or preferential flow paths

connect the pore bodies with each other as described in Fig. 1.

These tubes can also interact because of the cross-flow

established in between them (Civan7, and Civan and

Nguyen14). The network of pore bodies connects the pore

the pore bodies. The permeability of porous media decreases

when the pore throats close and interrupt the continuity of the

flow.

Civan1-7 theoretically expressed the mean-pore

diameter as a three-parameter power-law function of the pore

volume to matrix volume ratio based on the fractal attributes

of the interconnected pore space in porous media as:

=

.............................................................. (4)

where K and are the permeability and porosity,

K

respectively,

is a cement exclusion factor. These parameters have values

defined as < 1.0 , 0 < , and 0 .

The cement exclusion factor is necessary in order to

relate the pore surface expressed per bulk volume b to the

pore surface expressed per grain volume g according to the

following equation:

b = g ( ) ................................................................. (5)

The cement exclusion factor is given by:

= 1 c ........................................................................... (6)

where c is the volume fraction of the cementation and/or

grain consolidation in bulk porous media. The cement

exclusion factor is = 1.0 when the grain consolidation by

cementing, fusing, and other means, is zero, and

therefore c = 0 .

The values of the parameters and may vary

significantly if the fluid flow through pore throats is restricted.

Civan4,6,7 derived the theoretical expressions relating the

parameters and of Eq. (4) to the phenomenological

parameters of the fluid and rock interaction processes and

parameters based upon a fractal view of porous media.

Different flow units may be encountered due to the pore

alteration and/or changing location in a heterogeneous porous

medium (Civan6). Therefore, the characteristic parameters of

Eq.(4) are variable with the porosity according to the

following relationship:

( 1 )max 1 = max C /A

(7)

1

1

)max (

)min

max

min

C /A

min

min max

; <0

maximum values. Thus, when and vary but is

approximately constant, a convenient straight-line plot of the

core porosity-permeability data can be obtained using one of

the following linearized forms of Eq.(4):

K

(8)

( 2 )1 log 2 = log

( 2 + 1)

www.petroman.ir

= log

( )

log

(9)

SPE 94271

improved accuracy.

The best estimate values of the parameters , ,

min , max ,

( )

1

min

( )

1

max

Eqs.(7) and (8) or (9) are estimated by means of the leastsquares method to match the measurements of the

permeability and porosity of the core samples. Then, the

fractal dimension d (dimensionless) is calculated by

(Civan4,6,7):

d = 3(1 + 2 ) .......................................................................(10)

The value of d depends on the constriction of the hydraulic

tubes in a porous medium. The value is d < 3 for a porous

medium containing constricted tubes. The value is close to the

value d = 3 for a porous medium containing non-constricted

tubes.

Applications

The above-mentioned parameters of the leaky-tube model of

porous media are correlated in order to develop an accurate

equation of permeability. The core data of Sakurai et al.16,

Archie17, and Cinar et al.18 are analyzed in order to

demonstrate the application and accuracy of the equation of

permeability based on the leaky-tube model. Applications of

Eq. (8) are provided elsewhere by Civan7. Equation (9) is used

here. The results obtained by these equations are identical for

the same data. However, the coefficient of the least-squares

linear regression is closer to 1.0 for Eq.(9) than Eq.(8).

Veracruz Basin Formation. As described by Sakurai et al16,

the lithologies in the Veracruz Basin in Mexico include sand,

shale, conglomerate, limestone, and igneous rock. Fig. 2

shows the linear regression of these data with the power-law

flow unit equation using Eq.(9). Fig. 3 shows that the powerlaw flow unit equation satisfactorily represents the data trends

except for a few outliers. The best estimates of the parameter

values input to Fig. 2 and the coefficient of regression R 2 are

presented in Table 1, column 2. The value of d = 2.2 implies

that the porous medium is effectively open for flow. This

fractal porous medium is very close to the theoretical case of d

= 3 for a non-fractal 3-dimensional medium. Fig. 4 shows the

variation of and with described by Eq.(7). The

interconnectivity function varies in the range of 0 200 .

The cement exclusion factor is = 0.5 . This is an indication

that the formation contains some permeability- and porosityreducing constituents and/or features. The power-law

exponent varies in the range of 1.55 < .

Upper Wilcox (Mercy) Sandstone Formation. Archie17

describes the upper Eocene Wilcox formation in Mercy, Texas

as friable and partly cemented sandstone, containing poorly

sorted grains and grading to shaly sandstone in the lowpermeability range. Figure 5 shows the linear regression of

these data with the power-law flow unit equation using Eq.(9).

Figure 6 shows that the power-law flow unit equation

represents the data trends satisfactorily. The best estimates of

the parameter values input to Fig. 5 and the coefficient of

regression R 2 are presented in Table 1, column 3. The value

fractal porous medium, partly constricted with cement. This

fractal porous medium deviates significantly from the

theoretical case of d = 3 for a non-fractal 3-dimensional

medium. Fig. 7 shows the variation of and with as

described by Eq.(7). The interconnectivity function varies in

the range of 0 270 . The cement exclusion factor

= 0.422 is significantly lower than the unity for this partly

cemented sandstone. The power-law exponent varies in the

range of 2.51 < .

Nacatoch (Bellevue) Fine Grained Sandstone Formation.

Archie17 describes the Nacatoch sandstone formation in

Bellevue, Louisiana as being friable, shaly, and calcareous

sandstone, containing poorly sorted grains and having

comparatively high porosity for permeability. Figure 8 shows

the linear regression of these data with the power-law flow

unit equation using Eq.(9). Figure 9 shows that the power-law

flow unit equation represents the data trends satisfactorily. The

best estimates of the parameter values input to Fig. 8 and the

coefficient of regression R 2 are presented in Table 1, column

4. The value of d = 1.5 implies that the area open for flow

belongs to a partly constricted fractal porous medium. The

fractal porous medium deviates significantly from the

theoretical case of d = 3 for a non-fractal 3-dimensional

medium. Figure 10 shows the variation of and with

described by Eq.(7). The interconnectivity function varies in

the range of 0 106 . The cement exclusion factor

= 0.6 is lower than the unity for this comparatively high

porosity sandstone for permeability. The power-law exponent

varies in the range of 4.5 < .

Compacted Salt Granulates. Cinar et al18 present the data on

an artificially compacted sodium chloride salt granulates.

Figure 11 shows the linear regression of these data with the

power-law flow unit Eq.(9). Figure 12 shows that the powerlaw flow unit equation represents the data trends accurately.

The best estimates of the parameter values input to Fig. 11 and

the coefficient of regression R 2 are presented in Table 1,

column 5. The value of d = 0.6 implies that the area open for

flow belongs to a highly constricted fractal porous medium.

Figure 13 shows the variation of and with according

to Eq.(7). The range of 0 0.00006 indicates that the

interconnectivity of the pores is very limited to almost none.

The best estimate of the cement exclusion factor = 0.248 is

significantly lower than the unity. This is because the

compacted sodium chloride salt granulates are strongly fused

together. The power-law exponent varies in the range of

1.75 < .

Discussion and Conclusions

It has been shown that the leaky-tubes model can adequately

represent the flow units and accurately correlates the

permeability-porosity relationship of actual geological porous

formations. The permeability-porosity relationships of the

geological porous formations differ significantly from the

Kozeny-Carman equation. The power-law exponent varies in a

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SPE 94271

wide range for all the data analyzed and is much greater than

the constant = 1.0 value indicated by the Kozeny-Carman

equation. Therefore, the Kozeny-Carman equation cannot

represent the data analyzed in this paper. It is concluded that

the leaky-tube model provides a practical and accurate

equation of permeability.

The present applications of the equation of

permeability based on the leaky-tube model resorted to the

determination of the relevant parameter values by the leastsquares linear regression method. Because the present model

is nonlinear, the uniqueness of the determined parameter

values may be questioned. This inverse parameter estimation

approach has been applied here because the only information

available for the core samples consisted from the porositypermeability cross-plots. However, the uniqueness in the

parameter values can be achieved by direct measurements of

their values. This requires the special core analysis using the

tedious and expensive petrographical and petrophysical

techniques. For example, the cementation factor, the fractal

dimension, and the minimum and maximum values of the

porosity can be determined directly by means of the wellestablished computer-aided tomography and thin-section

analysis methods. Such detailed analyses are recommended

for future studies. Nevertheless, the present least-squares

linear regression method provides a reasonable correlation of

the porosity-permeability data of the various core samples.

3.

Nomenclature

a = empirical constant, dimensionless

C/A = combined parameter

d = fractal dimension

K = permeability, L2

Ko = reference permeability, L2

mi = exponent, dimensionless

n = number of independent variables

= cement exclusion parameter, fraction

c = fractional bulk volume occupied by cementation

materials, fraction

= exponent, dimensionless

= exponent, dimensionless

= interconnectivity function, L

= interconnectivity coefficient, L

= porosity, fraction

o = reference porosity, fraction

b = total pore surface per bulk volume, L2/L3

g = total pore surface per grain volume, L2/L3

o =

reference value

min= minimum value

max= maximum value

12.

References

1.

2.

31101. Proceedings of the SPE Formation Damage Symposium,

Lafayette, Louisiana, (February 14-15, 1996), p. 311.

Civan, F., Predictability of porosity and permeability

alterations by geochemical and geomechanical rock and fluid

interactions, Paper SPE 58746, Proceedings of the SPE

International Symposium on Formation Damage held in

Lafayette, Louisiana, (23-24 February, 2000) p. 359-370.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

Modeling, Assessment, and Mitigation, Gulf Publ. Co., Houston

(2000) 742 p.

Civan, F., Scale effect on porosity and permeability- kinetics,

model, and correlation, AIChE J. (2001) vol. 47, No. 2, p. 271287.

Civan, F., Fractal formulation of the porosity and permeability

relationship resulting in a power-law flow units equation- a

leaky-tube model, Paper SPE 73785, Proceedings of the SPE

International Symposium on Formation Damage held in

Lafayette, Louisiana (23-24 February, 2002).

Civan, F., Relating Permeability to Pore Connectivity Using A

Power-Law Flow Unit Equation, Petrophysics Journal

(November-December 2002) Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 457-476.

Civan, F., Leaky-Tube Permeability Model for Identification,

Characterization, and Calibration of Reservoir Flow Units, SPE

84603, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held

in Denver, Colorado (5 - 8 October 2003) 14p.

Carman, P.C., Flow of Gases through Porous Media,

Butterworths, London (1956).

Kozeny, J., Uber kapillare leitung des wasser im boden,

Sitzungsbericht der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien (1927)

v. 136, p. 271-306.

Rajani, B.B., A simple model for describing variation of

permeability with porosity for unconsolidated sands, In Situ

(1988) vol. 12, n. 3, p. 209-226.

Babadagli, T. and Al-Salmi, S., A Review of PermeabilityPrediction Methods for Carbonate Reservoirs Using Well-Log

Data, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering (April 2004)

pp. 75-88.

Haro, C. F., The Perfect Permeability Transform Using Logs

and Cores, Paper SPE 89516, presented at the SPE Annual

Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Houston, Texas,

USA (26-29 September 2004) 17p.

Nelson, P.H., Permeability-porosity relationships in sedimentary

rocks, The Log Analyst (1994) p. 38-62, May-June.

Civan, F. and Nguyen, V., Modeling Particle Migration and

Deposition in Porous Media by Parallel Pathways with

Exchange, Chapter 11, Handbook of Porous Media, Second

Edition, Vafai, K. (Ed.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, New

York (2005).

Leverett, M.C., Capillary behavior in porous solids, Trans.

AIME (1941) vol. 142, pp. 152-169.

Sakurai, S., Ambrose, W.A., Jennette, D.C., Holtz, M.H.,

Dutton, S.P., Fouad, K., Wawrzyniec, T.F., Dunlop, D.B., and

Guevara, E.H., and Grimaldo-Suarez, F.M., Aguilera-Gomez,

L.E., and Rodriguez-Larios, J.A., Petrophysical Evaluation of

Miocene-Pliocene Gas Reservoirs: Veracruz and Macuspana

Basins, Mexico, Petrophysics Journal (March-April 2003),

Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 116-125.

Archie, G.E., Introduction to Petrophysics of Reservoir Rocks,

Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

(May 1950), Vol. 34, No. 5, 943-961.

Cinar, Y., Pusch, G., and Reitenbach, V., Analysis of the Pore

Structure of Compacted Salt Material Based on the

Measurement of Hydraulic Properties, Technical Paper

presented at the Solution Mining Research Institute, Spring 2001

Technical Meeting, Orlando, Florida (2001).

E01 = m

ft 3.048*

2

*

ft 9.290 304 E02 = m2

psi 6.894 757 E+00 = kPa

darcy 9.869 233 E01 = m2 = 1012m2

cp 1.0*

E03 = Pa.s

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SPE 94271

PARAMETERS OF THE EQUATION OF

PERMEABILITY BASED ON THE LEAKY-TUBE

MODEL OF POROUS MEDIA.

Parameters

Sakurai

et al.16

Veracruz

Basin

Archie17

Upper

Wilcox

(Mercy)

Archie

Nacatoch

(Bellevue)

Cinar et

18

al.

Compacted

Salt

-0.14

-0.27

-0.25

-0.40

2.2

1.4

1.5

0.6

0.5

0.422

0.6

0.248

min

0.0001

0.00047

0.0001

0.00005

max

( )

min

( )

max

0.645

0.398

0.222

0.571

min

max

200

270

106.

0.00006

C/A

70

100

50.

50.

R2

0.85

0.66

0.88

0.94

17

consisting from the interacting bundle of preferential

capillary hydraulic paths formed in the horizontal

flow direction over a network of interconnected

pores. A different pattern of hydraulic paths would

be formed in other flow directions.

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SPE 94271

0.5

1.0

y=x

R = 0.8465

0.8

or / max

0.0

max

-0.5

-1

0.4

-1

-1.0

0.2

-1.5

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.0

0.00

0.5

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

Porosity, , fraction

log10 [/()]

using Eq. 9.

and exponent with porosity for the data of Sakurai et

al.

1.0E+03

0.5

y=x

2

R = 0.6612

(2+1) 1 log10 {K/[()2]}

1.0E+02

Permeability, K, mD

0.6

1.0E+01

1.0E+00

1.0E-01

0.0

-0.5

1.0E-02

1.0E-03

0.00

-1.0

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

-1.0

Porosity, , fraction

-0.5

0.0

0.5

log10 [/()]

data of Archie17 using Eq. 9.

www.petroman.ir

SPE 94271

0 .4

1.0E+03

y= x

(2+1 ) 1 log10 {K/[( ) 2]}

0 .3

Permeability, K, mD

1.0E+02

1.0E+01

1.0E+00

R2 = 0.879

0 .2

0 .1

0 .0

- 0 .1

1.0E-01

- 0 .2

1.0E-02

0.05

- 0 .2

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

- 0 .1

0 .0

of Archie.

0 .2

0 .3

0 .4

log10 [/ ( )]

0.30

Porosity, , fraction

0 .1

data of Archie16 using Eq. 9.

1.0E+03

1.0

1.0E+02

Permeability, K, mD

-1 -1

/ max or /max

0.8

0.6

0.4

1.0E+01

1.0E+00

0.2

1.0E-01

0.20

0.0

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

Porosity, , fraction

Porosity, , fraction

Fig. 7- Variation of the interconnectivity parameter

and exponent with porosity for the Upper Wilcox

(Mercy) data of Archie.

0.25

Archie.

www.petroman.ir

SPE 94271

1.0E-11

1.0

Permeability, K, mD

0.8

-1 -1

/ max or /max

1.0E-12

0.6

0.4

1.0E-13

1.0E-14

1.0E-15

1.0E-16

0.2

1.0E-17

1.0E-18

0.00

0.0

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Porosity, , fraction

Porosity, , fraction

Fig. 10- Variation of the interconnectivity parameter

and exponent with porosity for the Nacatoch

(Bellevue) data of Archie.

0.5

1.0

0.8

or / max

0.0

-1

max

-0.5

0.6

0.4

-1

y=x

2

R = 0.9405

-1.0

0.2

-1.5

0.0

0.00

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

Porosity, , fraction

log10 [/()]

using Eq. 9.

and exponent with porosity for the data of Cinar et

al.

www.petroman.ir

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