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Hoval Rotary Heat Exchanger

for Heat Recovery in Ventilation Systems.

Casing for installation


in air handling units or
for duct connection

Storage mass consisting


of pure aluminium or
coated with sorbent

Rigid and longlasting spokes


construction

Hub with longlasting and long


service life inner
ball bearings

Adjustable
transverse seal
with a 3-lip
rubberseal

Purge sector
prevents
contamination
of supply air by
extract air

Three-phase drive motor


with belt pulley and V-belt,
continuously controllable

Low leakage thanks


to high-quality
peripheral slide seal

Table of Contents

1 Principle of operation___________2
1.1 Heat transfer
1.2 Moisture transfer
1.3 Leakage
1.4 Frost limit
1.5 Heat recovery efficiency
1.6 Pressure drop
1.7 Pressure difference

2 Performance control_ __________7


3 Construction__________________8
3.1 Rotor
3.2 Casing
3.3 Drive

4 Options_ ___________________12
4.1 Drive motor A
4.2 Control unit R
4.3 Operating unit B
4.4 Motion detection D
4.5 Purge sector S
4.6 Inspection port I

5 Unit type reference_ __________16


6 Design calculation____________18
6.1 Design data
6.2 Selection program Hoval CAPS
6.3 Performance chart
6.4 Tested data

9Commissioning and
maintenance_ _______________23
9.1 Commissioning
9.2 Maintenance

10 Design considerations________24
10.1 Data collection
10.2 Rules and guidelines
10.3 Positioning of units
10.4 Wheel type
10.5 Cost-effective design
10.6 Performance control
10.7 Bypass
10.8 Frost limit
10.9Use and sizing of the purge sector
10.10 Internal leakage
10.11 Pressure difference
10.12 Cross-contamination
10.13 Supply air humidification
10.14 Corrosion
10.15 Application limits
10.16 Clogging
10.17 Condensation in the warm air stream
10.18 Exchanger selection
10.19 Technical data

11 Specification texts_ __________27


11.1 Condensation wheel
11.2 Sorption wheel

12 Order form_________________28

7 Dimensions and weights_______20


8 Transport and installation_______22
8.1 Transportation
8.2 Mechanical installation
8.3 Condensate drain connection
8.4 Fitting of sensors
8.5 Electrical connection
8.6Assembly of segmented rotary heat
exchangers
8.7 Horizontal installation

Hoval Rotary Heat Exchangers


Handbook for Design, Installation and Operation
Subject to technical alterations.
Art.Nr. 4208534 04/2009
Hovalwerk AG, Liechtenstein, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009
1

Principle of operation

Fresh air
t21
x21

Supply air
t22
x22

Exhaust air
t12
x12

Extract air
t11
x11

Fig. 1: Principle of operation and air conditions

1 Principle of operation
Within the guidelines for heat recovery (e.g. VDI 2071) Hoval
rotary heat exchangers are classified as regenerators with
rotating heat carrier (category 3). In a counterflow arrange
ment, the rotating, air permeable storage mass is heated and
cooled alternately by the heat releasing and heat absorbing
air streams. Depending on the air conditions
and on the surface of the storage mass also moisture may
be transferred in this process. The supply and extract air
streams must be adjacent and pass through the heat exchanger simultaneously.
The storage mass is formed of narrow, triangular air channels in axial direction, consisting of thin metal foil. The depth
of the storage mass (in the direction of air flow) usually is
200mm; the airway height is generally 1.62.9 mm, depending on the application. With these dimensions a laminar
flow through the air channels results.

1.1 Heat transfer


The rotor with its axial, smooth air channels serves as a
storage mass, half of which is heated by the warm air stream
and half of which is cooled by the cold air stream, in a
counterflow arrangement. Consequently, the temperature of
the storage mass varies depending on the axial coordinate
(rotor depth) and on the angle of rotation.
The principle of operation is easy to understand by following
the condition of an air channel during one revolution (see
figure 3). From this process, the following can be seen:
The air temperature at the exchanger outlet is not uniform; it depends on the angle of rotation.
The heat recovery efficiency may be influenced by adjusting the speed of rotation.
The heat recovery efficiency may also be influenced via
the storage mass: wider or narrower air channels, different thickness of the storage material, other rotor depth.
Pressure drop will also be affected.
The specific heat output capacity depends on the temperature difference between the two air streams. Hence
the rotary heat exchanger is suitable for heat as well as
cool recovery, i.e. for winter and summer operation.

Definition of key figures according to VDI 2071


Heat recovery figure of cold air

t22 - t21
2 =
t11 - t21

Moisture recovery figure of cold air

x22 - x21
2 =
x11 - x21

Legend:
t = Air temperature [K; C]
x = Absolute humidity [g/kg]

Fig. 2: Geometry of the storage


mass
2

1st Index: 1
2
2nd Index: 1
2

Warm air
Cold air
Exchanger inlet
Exchanger outlet

Principle of operation

Warm air entry


The wheel rotating at a speed of up to
20rpm, the air channel in question has
entered from the cold air into the warm air.
The storage mass has been cooled down
nearly to the cold air temperature. This
applies particularly on the cold air inlet side
(=warm air outlet).
Now warm air flows through this channel,
in counterflow as regards temperature,
and is severely cooled in this process. In
turn, the storage mass is heated. The local
heat recovery efficiency, i.e. directly at the
entry into warm air, is very high.
Condensation can occur easily.

Mid warm air


This air channel has already passed half
of its time in the warm air. The storage
mass has become warmer due to the warm
air flow; consequently the warm air is no
longer cooled as severely as in the entry
zone. The channel temperature is about
the same on the inlet side and on the
outlet side. Condensation occurs only if the
humidity differential is great.

Warm air exit


The air channel is on the verge of leaving
the warm air. On the inlet side it has nearly
reached the temperature of extract air. The
heat transfer rate is now low.
The duration of stay in the warm air as well
as in the cold air, i.e. the speed of rotation,
is decisive for the performance of the rotary heat exchanger. Also, the performance
depends on the storage mass (thickness,
geometry), the heat transfer and the air
velocity.

rm AIR
Wa

CO

Cold air exit


The air channel in question has gone
through the cold air zone. The storage
mass has been severely cooled; near the
inlet the temperature has almost reached
the temperature of cold air. After cross-over
to the warm air side the cycle starts anew.

L D AI R

Mid cold air


Half of the dwell time in the cold air is over.
The storage mass has become markedly
colder. Temperatures at the inlet and at the
outlet are about the same.

Cold air entry


After passover from the warm air side to
the cold air side, cold air now flows through
the channel (in counterflow as regards
temperature). Due to the large temperature
difference the heat transfer rate is very
high, i.e. the cold air is strongly heated; in
turn, the storage mass is severely cooled.
Possible condensate on the exchanger
surface is (partly) taken up by the heated
cold air.

Fig. 3: Conditions depending on the angle of rotation


3

Principle of operation

Temperature

1.2 Moisture transfer


Rotary heat exchangers can transfer moisture as well as
heat. The decisive criterion for the transfer of moisture is the
material or surface of the storage mass.

Water

Warm air entry


(t11, x11)

Three different designs are usual in the market:

Hygroscopic wheel (enthalpy wheel)


The metallic storage mass has a capillary surface structure
due to chemical treatment (pickling). Therefore (to a certain
degree) moisture is transferred by sorption, i.e. without condensation. Depending on the air conditions, condensation
may also occur.
Sorption wheel
Here the storage mass has a surface that transmits moisture by pure sorption, i.e. without condensation. Based on
comprehensive measurements carried out in the HVAC testing centre of the Lucerne University of wheels from different
manufacturers in the individual categories, characteristics
can be given for the different designs. As a reference value
for the moisture transfer rate the condensation potential is

Rel. humidity

Condensation wheel
The storage mass consists of smooth, untreated metal
(mostly aluminium), transferring moisture only when condensation occurs on the warm air side and (part of) this is taken
up by the cold air.
The occurrence of condensation causes an increase in pressure drop. Condensation may be carried along with the air
flow.

Cold air entry


(t21, x21)

Saturation humidity
cold air

Condensation potential
of warm air

Fig. 4: Definition of the condensation potential

used; this is the difference between the warm air humidity


and the saturation humidity of cold air (see figure 4).
Please note the following:
The higher the condensation potential, the greater the
expected amount of condensation on the warm air side.
If the condensation potential is zero or negative, no
condensation can occur. Hence the transfer of moisture is
possible only by sorption.
The given characteristics show typical values for a mass
flow ratio of 1.0 and a pressure drop of about 130Pa with
an airway height of 1.9mm.

Sorption wheel

0.8

Hygroscopic wheel

Moisture recovery figure 2

0.7

Condensation wheel

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

-4

-2

Condensation potential [g/kg]

10
Fig. 5: Characteristic moisture recovery
figures of different wheel types depending on
the condensation potential

Based on the test results, the different wheel types may be


characterised as follows:
Condensation wheel
The transfer of moisture is possible only if condensation occurs. With large temperature differences, moisture recovery
figures up to 60% may be achieved. Figure 6 shows that the
moisture recovery figure of a condensation wheel is quite
high over a broad temperature range and that moisture is
transferred mainly when it is needed, i.e. during winter.
Hygroscopic wheel
Moisture is transferred by sorption as well as condensation,
the contribution of sorption being very low. Therefore, the
moisture transfer rate during so-called summer operation
(<0) is also low.
(Moisture transfer by sorption depends on the chemical treatment and varies from one manufacturer to the next. At best,
values of the sorption wheel can be achieved.)
Sorption wheel
The moisture recovery figure is almost independent of the
condensation potential. The slight decline can be traced
back to the temperature difference decreasing at the same
time.
The following conclusions may be drawn:
Condensation wheels are a good choice for heat and
moisture recovery in air handling systems without mechanical cooling, i.e. for winter operation. This becomes
clear also from figure 7, showing the supply air humidity
depending on the outside temperature for usual extract
air conditions (22C/50%RH) (relating to average fresh
air humidity according to VDI 2067). In comparison with
a hygroscopic wheel, the supply air humidity is a little
lower only in the temperature range between 5C and
+10C.
For cooling operation in summer, in other words when
fresh air needs to be dried for mechanical cooling, sorption wheels ought to be used.
Hygroscopic wheels with low sorption rate are not necessary in winter operation and not efficient enough in summer operation.

Fresh air temperature t21 [C]


Fig. 6: Moisture recovery figure of a condensation wheel depending on the
fresh air temperature t21 (for extract air at 22 C / 50 %)

Humidity [g/kg]

The scope of the reference value (= the condensation


potential) is limited to the air conditions usual in ventilation
engineering. The heat recovery figure must be at least
70 %. The moisture recovery must not be limited by the
saturation line (e.g. at very low outside temperatures).

Moisture recovery

Principle of operation

Fresh air temperature t21 [C]

Supply air (hygroscopic wheel)


Supply air (condensation wheel)
Fresh air
Fig. 7: Supply air humidity depending on the fresh air temperature t21 (for
extract air at 22 C / 50 %)

1.3 Leakage
Components of air handling units, such as dampers, ducts or
casings, are not normally 100% leakproof. This is mainly because it is not necessary to ensure the correct operation and
it would be very expensive. In practical use, however, leakage must not exceed technically justifiable limits. Therefore,
test specifications and limits exist for certain components,
such as dampers. For heat recovery units, there is no such
data at the moment, however, actual values are known from
tests.
A distinction has to be made between leakage to outside
(external leakage) and leakage between supply and extract
air (internal leakage). While sealing to outside normally does
not cause problems (it is above all a question of build quality), the internal leakage mainly depends on the exchanger
construction. Three aspects are important when talking
about rotary heat exchangers:

Principle of operation

Carryover
To a minor degree, the two air flows mix due to the rotating
storage mass. Depending on the air velocity and rotation
speed, carryover amounts to about 2% to 4% of the air flow
rate. Carryover of exhaust air to the fresh air side can be
minimised by installing a purge sector. Yet a precondition for
the correct function is a pressure gradient from the fresh air
to the exhaust air (see also 10.9).
Peripheral seal
Sealing at the periphery is important for the internal leakage
of the rotary heat exchanger. Hoval uses a costly but highly
efficient slide seal: a plastic seal tape being pressed onto
the storage mass by means of springs. This design keeps
cross-contamination via the inside of the rotor casing to a
minimum.
Transverse seal
A seal is also required between the warm air and the cold air.
Hoval uses an adjustable threefold lip seal, ensuring a minimal air gap to the storage mass. This reduces direct carryover from warm air to cold air (and vice versa) to a minimum.
1.4 Frost limit
If the warm air stream is severely cooled down, it is not only
possible for condensation to form but also to freeze. The
cold air temperature at which freezing starts is called the
'frost limit'.
Condensation wheel: The condensation formed due to
cooling of the warm air may freeze at low outside temperatures. With equal mass flows on the warm air and cold
air side, frost hazard exists if the mean air entry temperature of the two air streams is lower than 5C.
Sorption wheel: The vapour transfer by sorption usually
prevents condensation; the frost hazard is low.
1.5 Heat recovery efficiency
In principle, nearly any efficiency can be achieved if sized
and designed to suit. The 'correct' efficiency is a subjective
decision and depends on the economic calculation, i.e. on
operating data such as energy prices, useful life, running
times, temperatures, maintenance costs, interest rates, etc.
It is important that the calculated optimum values for heat
recovery efficiency and pressure drop are then put into practice. Even small deviations (a few percent less efficiency, a
few pascals more pressure drop) can cause substantially
worse values for the present value and payback period.
1.6 Pressure drop
Heat recovery units cause additional pressure drop on
the extract and fresh air sides; incurring higher running
costs. Under present conditions the economical values for
6

r otary heat exchangers range between 80Pa and 130Pa.


However, to cut down costs, heat recovery units whose
pressure drop exceeds these values are often installed. The
profitability of heat recovery is thereby jeopardised.
1.7 Pressure difference
A distinction is made between the internal pressure difference (between fresh air and exhaust air) and external
pressure difference (between inside and outside of the
exchanger).
External pressure difference:
This pressure difference has a major effect on the external
leakage of the heat exchanger. However, when the exchanger is properly and carefully installed in a ductwork system, its
effect can be neglected.
Internal pressure difference:
Likewise, the internal pressure difference has a crucial
influence on internal leakage between the two air streams.
Although Hoval rotary heat exchangers are very tight in
comparison with other constructions, the following should be
considered when designing:
The pressure difference in the heat exchanger should be
kept to a minimum.
The pressure gradient and thus leakage should be from
the fresh air to the exhaust air side.
The internal pressure difference also may cause a defor
mation of the casing; a pressure difference of more than
1500Pa should therefore be avoided.
Notice
The pressure difference depends on the position of
the fans. Overpressure on one side and underpressure on the other side add up.

Performance control

2 Performance control

With the Hoval rotary heat exchanger the performance


reduction for heat as well as moisture recovery is simply and
economically accomplished by reducing the speed of rotation. All Hoval rotary exchangers can therefore be supplied
with a controllable actuator.
Performance control may also be accomplished by installing
bypass dampers for one or both air streams. This possibility used mainly in process technology and with different air
flow rates is to be provided by the installer.

Relative heat recovery

100 %
80 %
60 %
40 %
20 %
0%

10

15

20

25

20

25

Speed of rotation [rpm]


Fig. 8: Dependency of heat recovery on the speed of rotation

100 %
Relative moisture recovery

Hoval rotary heat exchangers always operate as a tempera


ture moderator between the two air streams. The direction of
the heat transmission is of no consequence, i.e. depending
on the temperature difference between extract air and fresh
air, either heat or cool recovery takes place. Therefore performance control of the Hoval rotary heat exchanger is not
necessary when the extract air temperature is identical with
the desired room temperature. In this case, the fresh air is
always either heated or cooled through the heat exchanger
in the direction of the set temperature.
In many cases, however, heat gains are present in the
ventilated space (people, machinery, lighting, solar, process
plants), which increase the room temperature, so that the
extract air temperature is higher than the set temperature. In
this case, at full performance of the heat exchanger, check at
which outside temperature heat-up begins, and if this cannot
be tolerated, the performance of the heat exchanger must be
controlled.

80 %
60 %
40 %
20 %
0%

10

15

Speed of rotation [rpm]


Fig. 9: Dependency of moisture recovery on the speed of rotation

Construction

3 Construction
A rotary heat exchanger consists of a rotor, a casing and an
actuator.
3.1 Rotor
Storage mass
A corrugated and a flat metal foil are each coiled to form the
storage mass, creating triangular, axial air channels.
The thickness of the material (usually aluminium) is 60 to
Fig. 13: The rotor is stabilised by
Fig. 14: Hub with long-lasting,
means of welded double spokes.
sealed-for-life inner bearing
120, depending on the application. Likewise, the surface
treatment depends on the intended application; two different
series are built:
Series A
Condensation wheel, consisting of corrosion-resistant
aluminium.
Series S
Construction
Sorption wheel, consisting of aluminium backing foil which The depth of the rotor is 200mm. The wheel is strengthened
is coated with a sorbent (e.g. silicagel) to accomplish
by means of double spokes, which are bolted (and welded)
vapour transfer without condensation.
in the hub and welded in the rotor shell (see figure 13), ensuring a long life span.
For reasons of rigidity and easy insertion, large rotors are
divided into several segments. The rotor diameter can be
selected as desired:
one-piece rotors in steps of 10 mm
segmented rotors in steps of 50 mm
At the perimeter the rotor is enclosed by a welded aluminium
shell, ensuring true running and allowing maximum use of
the wheel face area.
Fig. 10: The wheel is
assembled from alternate
layers of flat and corrugated
aluminium foil.

Fig. 11: Production on


state-of-the-art machinery ensures consistent, high quality.

Fig. 12: Large wheels are


cut into several segments.
8

Hub with inner bearing


The hub, whose size depends on the wheel diameter has
an axle with two inner ball bearings. It is fitted in the cross
members of the casing. This bearing construction offers the
following advantages:
The internal bearings are protected against dirt and require little space.
The axial restraint with Seeger circlips facilitate removal
and replacement.
Both bearings are installed in the hub, i.e. in the same
part, ensuring exact alignment with each other (unlike
exterior bearings). This does not affect the life span of the
bearings.
Due to the fixing of the inner ball bearings via the hub
and Seeger circlips, the position of axle, hub and rotor is
accurately fixed.
The fixed axle links the two crossmembers of the casing,
increasing its stability.

5000

3800

3000

2550
2620

2000

Rotor diameter (in mm)

1500

600

Construction

Rotor construction

one-piece

segmented (4 segments)

segmented (8 segments)

Casing construction

Sheet steel casing, one-piece

Sheet steel casing, partitioned


(only for 4-segment rotors)

Construction of sections

Required
driving torque

500 Nm
400 Nm
300 Nm
200 Nm
100 Nm
0 Nm
Table 1: Designs and rotor dimensions (for standard casings)
9

Construction

3.2 Casing
Construction
The casing construction mainly depends on the rotor size.
For wheels up to 2620mm diameter, standardised self-supporting casings of Aluzinc sheet steel are employed. These
are manufactured in two variants (see table 1):
Sheet steel casing, one-piece
The rigid casing of Aluzinc sheet steel is composed of two
face plates, the spacing adapters and two crossmembers
supporting the rotor. For wheel sizes from a diameter of
1810 mm, the crossmembers have an additional supporting strut in the middle.
Sheet steel casing, partitioned
The partitioned casing is composed of a base and hood.
The base comprises the crossmembers with the rotor
bearing. After insertion of the segmented wheel in the
base, the hood is put over and fastened to the base.
Notice
This partitioned design of the sheet steel casing
does not allow for installation and assembly of
segmented wheels from the front and thus not
inside a modular unit.
For diameters over 2620mm a construction of extruded
aluminium sections is used. The casing is characterised by
high stability and dimensional flexibility. In addition, the face
plates are easy to take off and refit, facilitating the assembly
of segmented wheels. The height and width of this construc
tion of sections is limited to 4.5 m. Larger casings (galvanised welded constructions) are built to special order.
Design
The casings are available in two different designs:
For installation in air handling units design G
The casing with the rotor is installed in an air handling
unit. The casing sides are therefore open, enabling inspection and maintenance works.
For duct connection design K
Similar to design G, but the sides are closed. The side
wall covering the actuator is designed as an inspection
panel.

Fig. 15: Sheet steel casings are built for one-piece rotors
up to a size of 2620 mm.

Special sizes
The outside casing dimensions may be adapted to exactly
fit e.g. the inside cross-section of an air handling unit. In
other words, the height and width of the casing can be selected as desired. (For maximum dimensions see section 7
'Dimensions and weights'). The hub may also be positioned
off-centre.
Notice
For special sizes the casing construction may deviate
from the scheme shown in table 1.

Sealing
The plastic slide seal at the rotor periphery is pressed
onto the rotor face and onto the frame by means of double
springs. The transverse seal between the two air streams
consist of an adjustable Aluzinc plate with a rubber lip seal.

Fig. 16: Peripheral slide seal


10

Fig. 17: Transverse seal

Construction

3.3 Drive
The wheel is driven by means of an electric motor and a
drive belt. The motor is usually fixed on a hinged plate in the
casing, on the left or on the right of the wheel.
In many cases installers and AHU manufacturers install their
own drive system, Hoval therefore offers this component as
an option. There are two possibilities:
Constant drive
The motor is switched on and off via a simple switch or
contact. Performance control (i.e. a variation of the heat or
moisture recovery efficiency) is not possible.
Variable speed drive
The actuator is controlled by means of a control unit. As
a rule, a frequency inverter is used for this. As ancillary
functions motion detection (by means of an encoder) and
so-called intermittent operation have become customary. In
this operating mode the wheel is slightly moved at intervals
to prevent clogging.
The control unit and thus the rotor is usually controlled via
room temperature, the cascade controller accessing the
rotary heat exchanger as energy resource in heating as well
as cooling operation.

Fig. 18: Fig. 39: The


high-quality casings are built
on Hoval's state-of-the-art
machinery.
11

Options

4 Options
4.1 Drive motor A
The rotor is driven by means of
a worm gear motor and a V-belt.
The size of the motor relates to the
wheel diameter.
When connected to the mains
directly the drive motor allows only
on/off operation at constant speed.
If the rotational speed and thus
the performance of the rotary heat
exchanger is to be controlled, a
control unit (option R) is required.

Fig. 19: Drive motor

Motor designation

A 90

A 370

A 750

A 1500

Power output

kW

0.09

0.37

0.75

1.5

Output shaft

mm

20 x 50

20 x 50

25 x 50

25 x 50

Current Y (mains operation)

0.37

1.2

2.03

3.66

Current (with control unit)

cos
Protection rating

0.63

2.08

3.5

6.34

0.73

0.72

0.76

0.78

IP 54

IP 54

IP 54

IP 54

Nominal motor speed n1

min-1

1280

1380

1370

1365

Output speed n2 at 50 Hz

min-1

85

138

137

195

Nominal motor torque m1

Nm

0.67

2.6

5.2

10.5

16

31

44

Output torque m2

Nm

Wheel diameter

mm

Control unit

Type

Table 2: Data sheet for drive motor A

12

up to 1200 up to 2700 up to 4000 up to 5000


R54 / 370

R54 / 370

R54 / 750 R54 / 1500

Options

4.2 Control unit R


Construction
A frequency inverter is used as the control unit, allowing
stepless speed variation of three-phase motors. Protective
rating IP54 is provided for installation in the air handling
unit. The power section is protected against overvoltage,
undervoltage and inadmissible inverter temperature. The
aluminium casing and the standard input and output filters
increase the noise immunity. Fault messages can be read
from a blinking LED.
In principle, the control unit is factory-set and supplied ready
for use. Individual parameter settings are possible using an
optional operating unit (option B).

qualifications for their respective tasks (stipulated in IEC 364


or DIN VDE 0105).
Commissioning
Before starting up the control unit make sure that the
rotary heat exchanger works properly.
The direction of rotation may be altered by changing over
the motor phases.
During failure-free operation a green LED lights up.
Possible failure causes are shown on the control unit.

Function
The control unit can be used for condensation wheels and
sorption wheels with different rotational speeds. It accepts
all common control signals.
Relating to the maximum frequency of the selected
parameter set (condensation wheel or sorption wheel)
translation of the set value into the rotating field frequency
is alternatively linear or quadratic.
When the input signal falls below the set threshold value
the rotor stops. Then, after an adjustable lag time, inter
mittent operation starts: the wheel is turning at the ad
justed speed for a few seconds.
For motion detection an encoder may be connected
(option D).
Readiness to operate and possible faults are signalled via
a relay.
Design guidelines
The control unit is not built for outdoor use.
The control unit is usually fitted to the side wall of the
wheel casing.
The installation position is strictly vertical.
Provide sufficient ventilation for heat removal.
Installation
Caution
All transportation, installation, commissioning and
maintenance works are to be carried out by qualified
staff (observe IEC 364 or VENELEC HD 384 or DIN
VDE 0100 and IEC report 664 or DIN VDE 0110 as
well as national accident prevention regulations or
VGB 4).
Qualified staff under these fundamental safety instructions
are persons familiar with setting up, installing, commissioning and operating the product, having the necessary

Fig. 20: Control unit R54


13

Options

R54/370 (Type: F-D 370-WT VECTOR IP54)


R54/750 (Type: F-D 750-WT VECTOR IP54)
10k

+10 V Reference voltage


Analog setpoint input
GND (analog)
Analog output
+15 V (max. 100 mA)
Start clockwise rotation
External sensor
Priority speed of rotation
Parameter set switching
Enable
GND (digital)
Relay output 1 (make contact)
Relay output 1 (change-over contact)
Relay output 1 (break contact)
PTC motor temperature monitoring
PTC motor temperature monitoring

2
3
4
5
6
B1

Notice
Terminal con
nection diagram
for R54/1500
available on
demand.

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Relay output 2 (make contact)


Relay output 2 (change-over contact)
Relay output 2 (break contact)

17
18
19

Terminals 1, 2, 3

Connection of the control signal

Terminals 5, 7, 11

Connection of the encoder for motion detection

Terminal 6

Rotor start (terminal 10 must be live)

Terminal 9 not live

Operating mode sorption wheel

Terminal 9 live

Operating mode condensation wheel

Terminal 10

Reset function by short-time voltage interruption,


acknowledgment of faults

Terminals 15, 16

Connection of thermal contacts of the motor

Terminals 17, 18, 19

Volt-free output for output of faults via relay

Table 3: Terminal connection diagram of control inputs for the control units R54/370 and R54/ 750

Output to motor

Input from mains

General data

Dimensions

R54/750

R54/1500

Max. motor power

kW

0.37

0.75

1.50

Nominal output current

2.2

4.0

7.0

Max. output voltage

3 x 230

3 x 230

3 x 230

Output frequency

Hz

0..500

0..500

0..250

Nominal voltage

230

230

230

Supply frequency

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

Fuse protection

AT

12

IP 54

IP 54

IP 54

Protection rating
Ambient temperature

0..40

0..40

0..40

Air humidity

20..90

20..90

20..90

Power loss

35

45

100

Height x width x depth

mm

282 x 112 x 70

282 x 112 x 70

353 x 180 x 77

Table 4: Technical data of control units


14

R54/370

Options

4.3 Operating unit B


The operating unit allows for individual setting of the control
unit. Parametrisation is easy and quick thanks to the LCD
graphic display, the clear menu structure and parameter
plain text display.
4.4 Motion detection D
The motion of the wheel may be monitored by means of an
encoder on the wheel periphery. This way a possible standstill, e.g. due to a torn V-belt, can quickly be detected and
remedied.
Fig. 21: Operating unit B

4.5 Purge sector S


The purge sector minimises carryover from the extract air to
the supply air stream (see also 1.3 and 10.9).
Fresh air

Notice
The purge sector is only available from a wheel
diameter of 1000mm.
Exhaust air

4.6 Inspection port I


Inspection ports allow for visual checks of the motor and
V-belt. They are particularly recommended in applications
where inspections are not possible from the side. The casings are available with either one or two inspection ports.

Fig. 22: Purge sector S

Notice
It is not always possible to install inspection ports in
casings with small dimensions. If this is the case, it
is shown in the selection program Hoval CARS. For
detailed information please seek Hoval advice.

Fig. 23: Carryover of extract


air to the supply air can be
minimised by installing a
purge sector.

Fig. 24: Inspection port I


15

Unit type reference

5 Unit type reference

Example of type designation

AV- A1-15 0 0 /1. 9 - G M - A15 8 0 x B15 8 0 - A1,1I V,

Arrangement
Air flow case A, B, C or D (cf. page 28)
(The arrangement is not relevant for the design
and hence not part of the type designation in the
selection program.)

Installation position
V = vertical
H = horizontal
(The installation position is not relevant for the
design and hence not part of the type designation
in the selection program.)

Wheel type
A = Condensation wheel of aluminium
S = Sorption wheel with sorbent coating

Rotor construction
1 = one-piece wheel, normally delivered in assembled
form (installed in the casing)
4 = 4-segment wheel, normally with construction of
sections so that the 4 segments can be removed and
replaced anytime. Under certain conditions a sheet
steel casing is available as well.
8 = 8-segment wheel, always with construction of sections

Wheel diameter (in mm)


Can be selected as desired in steps of 10 mm (one-piece wheels)
or 50 mm (4- or 8-segment wheels)

Airway height (in mm)


1.6 mm
1.9 mm
2.9 mm

16

Unit type reference

Example of type designation

AV- A1-15 0 0 /1. 9 - G M - A15 8 0 x B15 8 0 - A1,1I V,

Casing design
G = Casing for installation in AHU (open sides)
K = Casing for duct connection (closed sides)

Delivery
M = The wheel is installed in the casing (standard for one-piece wheels, o
ptional
for 4- and 8-segment wheels with construction of sections).
G = The wheel segments and the casing are delivered separate, for assembly
on site (for 4- or 8-segment wheels with construction of sections).
B = The 4 wheel segments and the casing are delivered separate, for assembly
on site (only for 4-segment wheels with sheet steel casing).
Notice
Insertion of the wheel segments is only possible while the upper half
of the casing is off. Therefore the installation e.g. into a closed air
handling unit is not possible.

Casing size (in mm)


Dimension A x dimension B, can be selected as desired

Options
A
= Drive motor
1..4 indicates the position (= not part of the type designation in the selection program)
R54 = Control unit
B
= Operating unit
D
= Motion detection
S
= Purge sector
I
= Inspection ports, installed in the drive corner
Indicate number: 1I or 2I
V (= front) or H (= rear) indicates the position if only 1 inspection port is selected
(cf. page 28, not part of the type designation in the selection program)

17

Design calculation

6 Design calculation
6.1 Design data
When designing, correct data is essential to achieve the desired values. This is often particularly difficult in air handling
installations because the specific density and specific heat
are dependent on temperature. Also the water vapour contained in the air is very important for the design. For an exact
calculation of a heat exchanger the air conditions at entry to
the exchanger are required (see also section 10.1).
Warm air Air flow rate at exchanger entry

Cold air

V11

m/s

Rel. humidity at exchanger entry RH11

Temperature at exchanger entry t11

Max. pressure drop

p1

Pa

Air flow rate at exchanger entry

V21

m/s

Rel. humidity at exchanger entry RH21

Temperature at exchanger entry t21

Max. pressure drop

Pa

p2

6.3 Performance chart


Calculation of the heat recovery efficiency and pressure
drop with the performance chart is an approximate method,
whose accuracy in most cases is sufficient for temperatures
between 15C and +25C (see figure 26, 27).
6.4 Tested data
Especially for rotary heat exchangers, where the processes
of heat and material transmission are quite complex, it is essential that theoretically found values are verified by independent testing. Therefore, Hoval has had tested all relevant
data
heat recovery efficiency
moisture recovery efficiency
pressure drop
at different mass flows, mass flow ratios and rotation speeds
in the HVAC testing centre of the Lucerne University. Tests
have been carried out under EN 308. All given data are
based on these test results to safeguard designers, installers and operators.

Table 5: Design data

For an economic calculation the following data is required:


Desired temperature
Operation time
Location (region or climatic zone)
Energy costs (with increase rate)
Cost of electricity
Additional costs (installation and extra costs
minus capital savings and subsidies)
Interest rate
6.2 Selection program Hoval CAPS
The design of Hoval rotary heat exchangers is easy and
quick with the selection program Hoval CARS (=Computer
Aided Rotary Heat Exchanger Selection). It runs under
Microsoft Windows and offers the following:
Reliable design data thanks to Eurovent-certified data
Exact calculation of a specific Hoval rotary heat
exchanger
Calculation of all appropriate rotary heat exchangers for a
specific project
Price calculation
Notice
The selection program Hoval CAPS is available for
download on our homepage (www.hoval.com).
The selection program Hoval CARS is also available as
Windows DLL file for implementation into other calculation
programs (on request).
18

Sorptionsrotor

Firma
Projekt
Datum

Typ

S4 200/1,9-GG 220X220-A,R54,D,2I

Preis
Rotorausfhrung
Rotordurchmesser
Lagenhhe
Gehusemass A
Gehusemass B
Gehusetiefe T
Luftdruck
Folienstrke
Rotordrehzahl
Gehusekonstruktion
Gewicht ca.

0
S
2000
1,9
2200
2200
430
1013
0,06
20
Profilkonstruktion
334
Aussenluft

Winter

CHF
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
hPa
mm
1/min
kg

4
G
G

vierteiliger Rotor
Gehuse fr Gerteeinbau
Lieferung Profilkonstruktion geteilt

Antrieb
Regelgert
Regelgert
Bedieneinheit
Drehzahlberwachung
Splzone
Inspektionsdeckel

X
X
2

Abluft
1

Abluft
1

A/370
R20
R54/370
B
D
S
1I,2I

Sommer
Aussenluft
2

Leistungen
Rckwrmzahl
Rckfeuchtzahl
Druckverlust
Volumenstrom
- bei Dichte
Massenstrom
Geschwindigkeit
Leistung

p
V

m
w
Q

79,6
82,1
73
9000
1,2
10775
1,7
113

79,2
82,1
73
9000
1,2
10775
1,7
-113

79,6
79,7
73
9000
1,2
10775
1,7
49,7

79,2
79,7
73
9000
1,2
10775
1,7
-49,7

Eintritt
Temperatur
relative Feuchte
absolute Feuchte

t
rF
x

-10
90
1,6

22
45
7,4

25
50
9,9

30
60
16

C
%
g/kg

Austritt
Temperatur
relative Feuchte
absolute Feuchte

t
rF
x

15,5
58,1
6,4

-3,4
88,8
2,6

29
58,5
14,8

26
52,6
11,1

C
%
g/kg

%
%
Pa
m3/h
kg/m3
kg/h
m/s
kW

Neben unseren allgemeinen Lieferbedingungen gelten folgende Konditionen:

Zahlung
Lieferung
Verpackung
Bindung
Liefertermin

Hoval CARS, 2008000013006-10000-00001-00000-00001

DB11032009135144.doc

Fig. 25: The design of Hoval


rotary heat exchangers is
easy and quick with the
selection program Hoval
CARS.

Design calculation

Face velocity w [m/s]


5.00 m

4.50 m

4.00 m

3.60 m

2.90 m
3.20 m

2.60 m

2.30 m

2.00 m

1.70 m

1.50 m

1.30 m

1.10 m

0.80 m

0.95 m

170

5,0

0.70 m

5,2

0.60 m

5,4

180

160

62
0.50 m

190

63
64
65

4,8

66
4,6

140
130
120
110
100
96

90

67

4,4

68

4,2
4,0

69

3,8

70

3,6

71

3,4

72

3,2

73

73,4

3,0

74

2,8

75

80

2,6

70

2,4

76

2,2

77

60

Heat recovery figure 2 [%]

Pressure drop p [Pa]

150

2,0

78

50
100

7000

1'000

10'000

100'000

1'000'000

Air flow rate V [m/h]


Relates to: Air density 1.2 kg/m
Mass flow ratio 1.0
Airway height 1.9 mm
Fig. 26: Performance chart for determination of the pressure drop and heat recovery figure for different wheel sizes

Sorption wheel

0.8

Condensation wheel

Moisture recovery figure 2

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
-6

-4

-2

10

Condensation potential [g/kg]


Relates to: Pressure drop 100 Pa
Airway height 1.9 mm

Fig. 27: Moisture transmission of different


wheel types
19

Dimensions and weights

7 Dimensions and weights

40

B (max. 2700)
75

The size of the casing relates to the wheel diameter. Please


find below the dimensions and weights of some selected
sizes. The outside dimensions may be individually specified; the heights and widths given in the table are minimum
dimensions for the respective wheel size.
Notice
For wheel diameters up to 1550mm the drive motor
does not fit into the given minimum casing size. For
detailed information please seek Hoval advice.
The weights refer to rotary heat exchangers with casing
(design G), airway height 1.9mm, without drive, without
packing.

1)

75
A (max. 2850)

320
1)

Additional supporting strut for rotor diameters from 1810mm

Fig. 28: Dimensions for one-piece sheet steel casings (design G)

Rotor
[mm]
600

Minimum casing size [mm]


A=B

A=B

AxB|BxA

680

910

680 x 1140

53

700

780

980

780 x 1180

59

800

880

1055

880 x 1225

66

900

980

1125

980 x 1265

74

1000

1080

1195

1080 x 1305

82

1100

1180

1265

1180 x 1350

92

1200

1280

1335

1280 x 1390

101

1300

1380

1460

1380 x 1535

120

1400

1480

1530

1480 x 1580

139

1500

1580

1600

1580 x 1620

1600

1680

153
167

1700

1780

182

1800

1880

198

1900

1980

214

2000

2080

2100

2180

The drive motor A always


fits into the casing.

231
249

2200

2280

2300

2380

288

2400

2480

308

268

2500

2580

341

2620

2700

367

Minimum size without drive motor A


Minimum square size with drive motor A
Minimum rectangular size with drive motor A
Table 6: Minimum sizes and weights for one-piece rotors

20

Weight
[kg]

Dimensions and weights

40

B (max. 4500)
70

B (max. 2700)
75

70

75

70

A (max. 2850)

320

A (max. 4500)

430

Fig. 29: Dimensions for partitioned sheet steel casing (design G)

Fig. 30: Dimensions for construction of sections (design G)

Rotor
[mm]

Minimum casing size


[mm]
A=B

Weight
[kg]

Rotor
[mm]

1500

1650

219

1500

1700

229

1600

1750

238

1600

1800

248

1700

1850

257

1800

2000

288

1800

1950

277

2000

2200

331

382

1900

2050

298

2200

2400

377

433

2000

2150

320

2400

2600

426

487

2100

2250

342

2600

2800

490

556

2200

2350

366

2800

3000

550

621

2300

2450

390

3000

3200

608

684

2400

2550

414

3200

3400

750

2500

2650

452

3400

3600

819

2550

2700

465

3600

3800

890

3800

4000

965

Table 7: Minimum sizes and weights for 4-segment rotors with partitioned
sheet steel casing

Minimum casing size


Weight [kg]
[mm]
A=B
4-segment 8-segment

Table 8: Minimum sizes and weights for segmented rotors with construction
of sections

21

Transport and installation

8 Transport and installation


The following should be checked before installation:
Has the rotary heat exchanger been damaged during
transport? (visual check of casing and rotor)
Has the correct type been delivered (design, series, size,
options)?
How is the exchanger to be positioned (purge sector)?
( note the label!)
8.1 Transportation
The rotor should be vertical during transport.
The rotary heat exchanger should be lifted by the cross
members of the casing. To avoid damage, the lifting slings
must be vertical.
In general: Do not suspend the exchanger from one point
but always under a crane beam (see figure 31).

Fig. 31: Lifting the exchanger

8.2 Mechanical installation


The casing design K (for duct connection) may be bolted
or riveted at the face plate up to 4 cm from the outer
frame.
Attention
Please note: The casing cannot take up any extra
load (e.g. ducts).
For installation of the rotary heat exchanger in an air
handling unit the casing dimensions should be reasonably
adapted to the unit size.
If required, baffle plates may be installed to adapt the cas
ing to the unit's cross section.
Attention
Take care that the wheel is not damaged or
blocked and that sealings remain intact.

Fig. 32: Bolting area

If the exchanger is to be installed in horizontal or inclined


position, vertical forces must be supported at the bearing.
After installation, check if the rotor runs smoothly.
Readjust sealing as necessary.
8.3 Condensate drain connection
If condensation is expected, make sure that this can drain
away freely. We recommend condensate drip trays on both
sides, i.e. for both air streams. Correspondingly sized con
densate drains should be installed.
8.4 Fitting of sensors
If for example temperature sensors are required in the cas
ing make sure that the wheel rotation is not obstructed by
their installation.
22

Fig. 33: Matched casing dimensions

Commissioning and maintenance

8.5 Electrical connection


Constant drive
The actuator is to be electrically connected by the installer
(star connection). The direction of rotation may be altered by
changing over the phases.
Variable speed drive
Control unit fitted in or at the casing:
Wiring from the actuator to the control unit is factory-fitted.
Connection to the control unit is to be carried out by the
installer.
External control unit:
Wiring from the actuator to the control unit as well as
connection of the control unit are to be effected by the
installer.

9 Commissioning and maintenance


9.1 Commissioning
Prior to start-up make sure that the air streams can flow
freely through the exchanger.
Check if the exchanger has been properly installed and
make sure that the application limits (temperature, pressure difference, etc.) cannot be exceeded.
Check if the wheel rotates in the correct direction and if
the control unit works correctly (with optional functions,
where appropriate).
Check tension of the drive belt and fixing of the actuator.
Visually check the wheel sealings. In case of readjust
ments, make sure the wheel can rotate easily and is not
blocked. The required driving torques indicated in table1
must not be exceeded.

8.6 Assembly of segmented rotary heat exchangers


To ensure correct assembly, supervision by a Hoval expert or 9.2 Maintenance
Only periodic visual checks are necessary. After initial
by an authorised specialist is recommended.
3-monthly inspection intervals, checks may be carried out
every 12 months. Check the following:
8.7 Horizontal installation
Tension of drive belt
If the rotor is to be installed in horizontal position, a special
Sealing of drive motor
design must be ordered. Consultation with the manufac State of the bearings (assess via bearing noise)
turer is recommended. The bearing is to be supported at
Function of slide seal
installation.
Function of transverse seal
Casing condition
Wheel condition
Based on long experience, clogging of heat exchangers
installed in air handling equipment is not expected. However,
should dirt enter the exchanger when used for special applications, the exchanger may be cleaned as follows:
Remove dust and fibres with a soft brush or with a vacuum cleaner. Take care when cleaning with compressed air
that the wheel is not damaged. Keep at a distance!
Oils, solutions, etc. can be removed with hot water
(max.70C) or grease solvents, by washing or immersing. Cleaning with high-pressure devices is possible if:
a flat nozzle 40 is used (type WEG40/04)
the max. water pressure is 100bar
Attention
When cleaning take care that the exchanger is not
damaged, neither mechanically nor chemically:
Choose harmless cleansing agents.
Clean carefully. The material thickness is less
than 0.1mm!

23

Design considerations

10 Design considerations
10.1 Data collection
The data listed in section 6 is necessary when designing and
planning. For exact design the following errors should be
avoided when collecting the data:
Volume flow is not equal to mass flow. For an accurate
design the mass flows of fresh and extract air should be
known.
For winter operation the moisture in the air is often estimated too high. (Where does the moisture come from?)
Are the temperatures (fresh air, extract air) really as
stated in practice (or are they wishful thinking)?

be clearly higher than the desired temperature, a perform


ance control (speed control) should be considered (see also
section 2).
10.7 Bypass
With different air flow rates during recirculation or mixed
air operation, it may be useful to install a bypass in parallel
with the rotor. The bypass should be sized in a way to cause
equal pressure drop through the bypass as through the
wheel.
Fresh air
Exhaust air
Fresh air bypass
Exhaust air bypass
Recirculation

10.2 Rules and guidelines


Ascertain before designing which rules and guidelines apply.
For instance, for some applications (e.g. hospitals) some
heat recovery systems are not suitable or can only be allowed after appropriate proving.
10.3 Positioning of units
Where should the heat recovery unit be positioned?
Which is the optimum air path?
Which dimensions are allowed?
Should the rotor be installed horizontally?
10.4 Wheel type
Depending on the application, decide which wheel type
(condensation wheel, sorption wheel) should be used. We
recommend the following:
For air handling installations without mechanical cooling and without humidity control a condensation wheel is
sufficient.
For air handling installations with mechanical cooling a
sorption wheel is recommended for drying humid fresh
air in cooling operation. As a rule, the same applies for
installations with humidity control (depending on internal
moisture gains).
10.5 Cost-effective design
Select the most economical type regarding efficiency and
pressure drop. The following rules apply:
long periods of operation (e.g. 3 operating shifts) high
efficiency, low pressure drop
high dirt hazard large airway height
The optimum rotary heat exchanger selection can only be
based on an economic efficiency calculation.
10.6 Performance control
Check which internal heat sources are available in the
ventilated room. If the extract air temperature is expected to
24

Fig. 34: Bypass arrangement

10.8 Frost limit


If condensation can form and could freeze, provide adequate
precautionary measures (pre-heating, bypass, etc.). For
more detailed information please seek Hoval advice.
Frost hazard exists if:
t11 + t21
5 C
tm =

2
Also consider that, at low supply air temperatures, conden
sation can form and even freeze on the outside of air ducts.

Design considerations

10.9 Use and sizing of the purge sector


Fresh air

Supply air

Exhaust air

Extract air

Fresh air

Supply air

Exhaust air

Extract air

Fresh air

Supply air

Exhaust air

Extract air

Fresh air

Supply air

Exhaust air

Extract air

Both fans on suction side


To ensure the correct func
tion of the purge sector, a
pressure gradient from the
fresh air to the exhaust air
stream of at least 200Pa is
needed.

Exhaust fan on suction


side, fresh air fan on pressure side
To keep the flowrate through
the purge sector low, avoid
major pressure gradients
(>600Pa). It may be advisable to use a small purge
sector (2x3).
Both fans on pressure side
To ensure the correct func
tion of the purge sector, a
pressure gradient from the
fresh air to the exhaust air
stream of at least 200Pa is
needed.

Extract fan on pressure


side, supply fan on suction
side
This arrangement is not recommended. Extract air may
be carried over to the supply
air stream. The purge sector
is useless.

The size of the purge sector depends on the pressure difference between fresh air and exhaust air. (If this is unknown a
standard purge sector of 5 is installed.)
up to 200 Pa Purge sector ineffective
200600Pa Standard purge sector (2x5)
recommended
600900Pa Small purge sector (2x3) recommended
over900Pa Purge sector useless
Table 9: Size recommendations for purge sectors

Since the purge sector virtually bypasses the fresh air via
the rotor to the exhaust air, it also changes temperature of
the storage mass. Test results show that the heat recovery
efficiency is lowered by about 1%.
10.10 Internal leakage
The internal leakage from the fresh air to the exhaust air side
depends on the corresponding pressure difference:
p = p21 p12
It is composed of the sealing leakage and the purge flowrate.
For an approximate calculation please contact the Hoval
technical department.
10.11 Pressure difference
To keep internal leakage within acceptable limits, the pressure difference between fresh air and exhaust air should not
exceed 1500Pa. The maximum pressure difference allowed
is 2000Pa.
10.12 Cross-contamination
In principle, cross-contamination between the two air
streams is inevitable when using rotary heat exchangers.
Therefore, unless special precautionary measures are taken,
adhere to the VDI6022 standard: 'Regenerators using rotors are only to be used if, from the point of view of hygiene,
it would also be possible to use recirculation.' Crosscontamination is due to the following:
Carryover (see also 1.3 and 10.9)
A certain amount of air (depending on rotation speed, air
velocity and rotor construction) is carried over from one
air stream to the other inside the rotor.
Leakage (see also 1.3)
Depending on the pressure gradient and the quality of
seals, there is leakage through the peripheral and transverse seals.
Contamination
Since the storage mass passes alternately through the
two air streams, they can influence each other. This way,
minute particles and thus odours (e.g. cigarette smoke)
can be transmitted.
Transmission of substances
Rotary heat exchangers also transmit gaseous substances. The quantity depends on the wheel type and on
the substance itself. Unfortunately, only a small amount
of measurement data is available; on the other hand it is
known from practical experience that normally this does
not cause problems in air conditioning systems.
In rare cases odorous substances can 'accumulate' inside
the wheel and be emitted again under extreme fresh air con
ditions (very high relative humidity). This may cause odour
problems. However, in most cases problems can be avoided
25

Design considerations

by specially adjusting the cleaning operation or by setting a


minimum rotation speed.
10.13 Supply air humidification
The humidifier downstream of the rotor is to be sized in a
way to achieve the desired value even at minimum fresh
air humidity. Since the rotor speed is usually controlled
depending on the supply air temperature the corresponding
moisture content is to be taken into account when sizing the
humidifier.
10.14 Corrosion
Hoval rotary heat exchangers series A (aluminium) have
proved satisfactory for installation in air handling equipment.
If a corrosion hazard exists, such as e.g. in kitchens or in
certain industrial applications, coated aluminium is usually
adequate. The Hoval technical department will advise what
is suitable for specific applications.
10.15 Application limits
Prior to selecting a rotary heat exchanger, check if any application limits are exceeded:
Temperature

-4070 C

Pressure difference

max. 2000 Pa

Pressure diff. to outside

max. 2000 Pa

Pressure drop

80100 Pa (recommendation)

Table 10: Application limits

10.16 Clogging
In 'normal' air handling equipment the air streams are mostly
cleaned with coarse dust filters. Therefore there is no dirt
hazard for the rotary heat exchanger. Yet if clogging is expected in special applications consider the following:
Install the exchanger in such a way that it is easy to clean
without removal or
fit inspection ports before and after the rotary heat
exchanger.
If possible, filter the air streams so that dirt built-up is
minimised or cleaning intervals are longer.
It was found in practice that dirt built-up is far less than expected. The Hoval technical department will advise.
10.17 Condensation in the warm air stream
If more water condenses from the warm air than the (heated)
cold air can take up, condensate is formed. Since, due to
thermodynamics this occurs mainly in the first third of the
warm wheel side, part of it is carried along by the warm air
flow. This is to be considered concerning the component
next in line. In general, condensate drip trays should be
26

installed on the warm air as well as on the cold air side. In


addition, check the following and arrange for appropriate
measures:
How is the condensate drained away?
Does frost hazard exist (see sections 1.4 and 10.8)?
10.18 Exchanger selection
With the acquired data and known conditions the rotary heat
exchanger can now be selected. This can be done with the
computer program Hoval CARS. It calculates suitable selections, complete with technical data and prices.
10.19 Technical data
The following data defines the selected rotary heat exchanger and its performance.
Type
Weight
Height x width x length
Rotor diameter
Warm air:
Air flow rate at exchanger entry
Temperature at exchanger entry
Rel. humidity at exchanger entry
Rel. humidity at exchanger exit
Temperature at exchanger exit
Pressure drop (with condensation)
Cold air:
Air flow rate at exchanger entry
Temperature at exchanger entry
Rel. humidity at exchanger entry
Rel. humidity at exchanger exit
Temperature at exchanger exit
Pressure drop
Mass flow ratio

kg
mm
mm

V11
t11
rF11
rF12
t12
p1

m3/s
C
%
%
C
Pa

V21
t21
rF21
rF22
t22
p2
m2/m1

m3/s
C
%
%
C
Pa

Notice
For the exact specification of a wheel state data in
winter operation as well as summer operation.

Specification texts

11 Specification texts
11.1 Condensation wheel
Rotary heat exchanger for heat transfer consisting of rotor
and casing:

11.2 Sorption wheel


Rotary heat exchanger for heat and moisture transfer consisting of rotor and casing:

Rotor
The storage mass consists of coiled layers of corrugated
and smooth, corrosion-resistant aluminium foils. Thus small,
axially arranged, smooth air channels for laminar flow are
formed. At the periphery the storage mass is enclosed within
the rotor shell; in the centre there is the hub with sealed-forlife, maintenance-free ball bearings and the axle. The wheel
is stabilised by spokes between the rotor shell and hub.
The storage mass consists of pure aluminium.

Rotor
The storage mass consists of coiled layers of corrugated and
smooth, corrosion-resistant aluminium foils with a silicagel
coating for the transfer of moisture. Thus small, axially arranged, smooth air channels for laminar flow are formed.
At the periphery the storage mass is enclosed within the
rotor shell; in the centre there is the hub with sealed-for-life,
maintenance-free ball bearings and the axle. The wheel is
stabilised by spokes between the rotor shell and hub.
The storage mass consists of corrosion-resistant aluminium
foil which is coated with a high-efficient sorbent for the transfer of moisture.

Casing
The casing is suitable for installation in air handling units or
for duct connection. There is a high-quality peripheral slide
seal on both sides, which by means of double-acting springs
reduces internal leakage to a minimum. As transverse seal
a lip seal is used. The drive motor for the wheel may also be
fitted in the casing.
Self-supporting construction of Aluzinc sheet steel
Construction of extruded aluminium sections with face
plates of Aluzinc sheet steel

Casing
The casing is suitable for installation in air handling units or
for duct connection. There is a high-quality peripheral slide
seal on both sides, which by means of double-acting springs
reduces internal leakage to a minimum. As transverse seal
a lip seal is used. The drive motor for the wheel may also be
fitted in the casing.
Self-supporting construction of Aluzinc sheet steel
Construction of extruded aluminium sections with face
plates of Aluzinc sheet steel

Options
Drive motor A: three-phase drive motor with belt pulley
and V-belt.
Control unit R54: for continuous speed control; protection
rating IP 54. The software includes motion detection and
intermittent operation for cleaning.
Operating unit B: allows for programme alterations and
manual operation (to be plugged into the R54 control
unit).
Motion detection D: by means of an inductive sensor and
a corresponding transmitter on the wheel periphery.
Purge sector: prevents carryover from the extract air to
the supply air if there is a pressure gradient between supply air inlet and exhaust air outlet.
Inspection ports: allow for visual checks of the motor and
V-belt.

Options
Drive motor A: three-phase drive motor with belt pulley
and V-belt.
Control unit R54: for continuous speed control; protection
rating IP 54. The software includes motion detection and
intermittent operation for cleaning.
Operating unit B: allows for programme alterations and
manual operation (to be plugged into the R54 control
unit).
Motion detection D: by means of an inductive sensor and
a corresponding transmitter on the wheel periphery.
Purge sector: prevents carryover from the extract air to
the supply air if there is a pressure gradient between supply air inlet and exhaust air outlet.
Inspection ports: allow for visual checks of the motor and
V-belt.

27

Supplementary Sheet for Ordering


Rotary Heat Exchangers

Company:
Contact:
Client order No.:
Rotor type:
Date:

Case A

Case B

Extract air

Supply air

Supply air

Extract air

Case C

Case D

Supply air

Drive/
mounting plate

Pos. 1

Pos. 2

Pos. 3

Pos. 4
28

Dimensions
Dimension A = ______ mm
Dimension B = ______ mm
Inspection ports

None

1 pc front side

1 pc rear side
Purge sector

No

Yes (clockwise rotation)

Air flows side by side


View on extract air inlet

Extract air
Supply air

Extract air

Arrangement

Case A

Case B

Case C

Case D

Air flow above and below


View on extract air inlet

Installation position
Vertical
Horizontal
Inclined
Remarks
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

Conservation of Energy
Protection of the Environment

The Hoval group with production facilities and sales


officesinmore than 50 countries worldwide has the above
guiding principle. The company, established in 1945, is a
pioneer in heating technology. Today Hoval develops and
manufactures innovative solutions that maximise energy
efficiency and thus help protect the environment in the
following product lines:
Hoval Heating Technology.
From a comprehensive range Hoval offers innovative
system solutions for a variety of energy sources (oil, gas,
wood, pellets and solar) as well as heat pumps. The range
of performance extends from a small apartment to a tower
block.

Hoval Residential Ventilation.


A better atmosphere and heat energy efficiency in your own
home: With the HomeVent Hoval sets the standards in air
quality for single family houses and apartments.

Hoval Heat Recovery.


Efficient energy use through heat recovery: Hoval offers two
different solutions: plate heat exchangers as a recuperative
system and rotary heat exchangers as a regenerative
system.
Hovalwerk AG
Austrasse 70, 9490 Vaduz, Liechtenstein
tel +4233992400, fax +4233992731
info.lufttechnik@hoval.com, www.hoval.com

Art.Nr. 4208534 04/2009

Hoval Indoor Climate Systems.


Supply fresh air, remove extract air, heat and cool, filter and
distribute air, make use of waste heat or recover c ooling
energy: Whatever the task may be Hoval systems can
provide a tailor-made answer with minimal design and
installation outlay.

Conservation of Energy Protection of the Environment