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Continental J.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014


ISSN: 2141 4238
Wilolud Journals, 2014
http://www.wiloludjournal.com
Printed in Nigeria
doi:10.5707/cjptres.2014.7.1.8.16

HISTOLOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF POMESTEEN POWER SUPPLEMENT ON THE


LIVER OF ADULT WISTAR RATS
Ekundina V.O., 2Ebeye O.A.,1 Oladele A.A and 2Ajayi M
1
*Department of Medical Laboratory Science Afe-Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.
2
Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology Delta State University, Abraka.
ABSTRACT
Pomesteen power is a product of forever living product, a company known
internationally for providing health services using herbs and other natural
supplements. This study assessed the histological effects of pomesteen power
drink on the liver of thirty (30) adult male wistar rats; the animals were
randomly divided into five groups with six animals in each. Group 1 served as
control while groups 2, 3, 4, 5, were test groups and received a daily dosage of
0.5ml, 1.0ml, 1.5ml and 2.0ml of pomesteen drink respectively for 30days.
Following an overnight fast the animals were sacrificed, liver tissue harvested,
fixed tissues were processed for routine paraffin sections and
photomicrographs obtained. Results revealed a dose dependent reduction in
liver weight that was not statistically significant however, histopathological
findings showed mild congestion of the liver that was also dose dependent. In
conclusion consumption of pomesteen power drink may be safe for
consumption however functional studies are recommended in further studies to
corroborate these findings.
Keywords: pomesteen power, liver, histopathology and wistar rat.
Received for Publication: 22/05/14
Accepted for Publication: 02/07/14
Corresponding Author: kemvic30@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION
The use of natural supplement for medicinal benefits has played an important role in nearly
every culture on earth, (Houghton, 1996). Herbal medicine was practiced by ancient people of
Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americans, (Wargovich et al, 2001). Over 50% of all modern
clinical drugs are of natural product origin and natural products play an important role in drug
development programs of the pharmaceutical industry, (Wargovich et al., 2001).
Forever living company (An international family of companies that produces and market
exclusive health and beauty product) produces pomesteen power supplement drink which has as

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Ekundina et al.,: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014

its major constituent mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
raspberry, blackberry, blueberry and grape seed fruits.
Pomegranate (PG) juice (Punica granatum Lin, family Punicaceae), have emerged as candidate
natural product with an antioxidant activity in two recent studies, (Schubert, 1999 and Aviram, et
al., 2000). Pomegranate is a well known medicinal plant in Ayurveda and Unani literature. The
plant is supposed to be native of Iran and is extensively cultivated as fruit tree or ornamental or
for medicinal purposes in tropical, sub tropical countries such as Spain, Morocco, Egypt,
Afganisthan, Iran, India and Far East. laboratory research and clinical trials, juice of the
pomegranate may be effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation,
macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation (Aviram et al.,2000 ), activation of
immune system and boosting of the male reproductive functions (Ebeye et al., 2013)
Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana) Linn, commonly known as mangosteen, is a tropical fruit
tree belonging to the family Clusiaceae (Guttiferae).
The pericarp or fruit hull (rind) which is thick, hard, and a dark purple to red purple in color, has
a tradition of use in Southeast Asia to cure a broad range of ailments (Morton, 1987).
Extensive phytochemical studies have revealed that the mangosteen-fruit pericarp is rich in
xanthones with many diverse structures (PedrazaChaverri et al., 2008). Of these, mangosteens
have been mostly reported for their remarkable biological activities such as anti-oxidant v
(Williams et al., 1995), anti-HIV (Chen et al., 1996), anti-fungus (Sakagami et al., 2005), antiallergy (Chairungsrilerd et al., 1998), anti-bacterial (Sakagami et al., 2005), anti-malarial
(Mahabusarakam et al., 2006), anti-cancer (Nagakawa et al., 2007), and anti-inflammation
(Tewtrakul et al., 2009). Other than xanthones, the pericarp of mangosteen also contains an
abundance of epicathechin based tannins (Mahabusarakam et al., 1987; Yu et al., 2007).
Liver is the largest organ in the body, it plays a major role in maintaining the bodys internal
milieu and also protects itself from the challenges it faces during its functioning. Since it is
involved in the biochemical conversions of various endogenous and exogenously administered
substances, there is a possibility of generating various highly reactive species of free radicals,
(Kiuchi, 2004). The liver as a major metabolic organ is affected by various chemicals and toxins
daily and identification of a successful hepatoprotective agent will provide a useful tool for the
treatment of hepatic diseases. In absence of reliable liver-protective drugs in modern medicine, a
large number of medicinal preparations are recommended for the treatment of liver disorders and
quite often claimed to offer significant relief, (Arulkumaran, 2007). The liver is expected not
only to perform physiological functions but also to protect against the hazards of harmful drugs
and chemicals.
This present study was carried out to investigate the effect of pomesteen power on the
histomorphology of the liver.
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Ekundina et al.,: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014

METHODOLOGY
Experimental Animals
Thirty (30) Swiss albino Wistar male rats (150-250g) was used for the study, and were obtained
from the animal house of the department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta
State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria. The animals was kept under standard laboratory
condition and are fed with standard livestock grower marsh and clean water for 14 days to
acclimatize before the experimental procedure used for this studies.
Experimental Design
A total of thirty (30) Male Albino Wister rats were used for the experiment.
CONTROL = control (n = 6)
GROUP 1 =feed+water+ 0.5ml pomesteen power treated rats (n = 6)
GROUP 2 = feed+water+1.0ml pomesteen power treated rats (n = 6)
GROUP 3 = feed+water+1.5ml pomesteen power treated rats (n = 6)
GROUP 4 =feed+water+ 2.0ml pomesteen power treated rats (n = 6)
The animals were housed in a cage of five compartments with six rats to one compartment.
At the end of the study (end of the third week), the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation.
The abdomen of each rat was carefully dissected, the kidney removed and fixed in 10% formolsaline for histological studies following the method of Carleton (1967).
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All data are expressed as meanSD. Pair wise comparison between
test and control groups were done using the student t-test. Differences between groups were
considered significant at p<0.05.
PHOTOMICROGRAPHY
The stained tissue images were captured using a digital
SCOPETEXDCM 500, 5.0 mega pixel connected to a computer.

microscopic

eyepiece

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Morphological results
Table 1. Effect of pomesteen power drink on liver weight of adult wistar rats
control
0.5ml
1.0ml
1.5ml
Liver weight (g)
6.10 0.72
6.09 0.22 5.57 0.25
5.50 0.95

2.0ml
5.40 0.40

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Ekundina et al.,: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014

Liver weight (g)


6.2
6
5.8
5.6

6.1

6.09

Liver weight (g)

5.4
5.57

5.5

5.4

1.0ml

1.5ml

2.0ml

5.2
5
control

0.5ml

Total body weight


Table 2. Effect of pomesteen power drink on total body weight in adult wistar rats
Initial
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Control
213.33 11.55
226.67 11.55
223.33 18.93
223.33 2.89
0.5ml
163.33 5.77
186.67 15.28
180.00 5.34
190.00 3.60
1.0ml
163.33 5.77
188.33 18.93
186.33 14.43
193.33 15.28
1.5ml
186.67 11.55
187.67 01.55
184.67 6.55
189.67 5.50
2.0ml
153.33 5.77
170.00 10.00
173.33 5.77
187.67 2.55

Total body weight (g)

250
200
Initial

150

Week 1
100

Week 2
Week 3

50
0
control

0.5ml

1.0ml

1.5ml

2.0ml

Figure 2. Effect of pomesteen power drink on total body weight in adult wistar rats

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Ekundina et al.,: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014

Histological results

Plate 1: Control H&E x100 shows hepatocytes with distinct central veins, the nucleus appears
coarse and distinct polyhedral arrangement of cells seen.

Plate 2: 0.5ml of pomesteen H&E x100 hepatocytes display an eosinophillic background with
slight lipofuscin granules seen with separated vascular channels sinusoids.

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Ekundina et al.,: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014

Plate 3: 1.0ml pomesteen power x100 H&E micrograph shows hepatocytes with distinct central
vein with lobes filled with blood. The Interstitium is free of any collection.

Plate 4: 1.5ml pomesteen power x100 H&E hepatocytes appears well stained and differentiated,
the central vein appears distinct and the Interstitium is free from congestion and collection.

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Ekundina et al.,: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014

Plate 5: 2.0ml of pomesteen x100 micrograph shows liver section with mild fragmentation, the
sinusoids and vessels are free of inflammatory cells and congestion. Hepatocytes appear
deranged with slight loss of radial arrangement
This study accessed the Histolological Effects of Pomesteen Power Supplement on the Liver in
Adult Wistar Rats. The administration of pomesteen power supplement with standard dosage
coupled with non- availability of adequate scientific studies on their safety has raised concerns
on their liver toxicity, however the absence of evidence of hepatotoxicity in this present study
agrees with the study Ebeye et al., (2013). The supplement showed no significant effects on the
total body weight on the animal over the periods of administration; however there was a slight
decline in the liver weight which was dose dependent. This could indicate atrophy in the liver
organ which could be an indication to hepatotoxicity. Histological evaluation of the liver tissue
reveals no marked alteration in the histo-cytoarchitecture of the liver of the control and test
groups.
Conclusively the consumption of pomesteen power supplement at the dosage studied reveals no
toxic/damaging effect on the liver, however, liver functional assessment of the liver is
recommended in further study to corroborate these findings.
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