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Packed bed flow

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Introduction :The flow of fluids through beds composed of stationary granular particles is

a frequent occurrence in the chemical industry and therefore expressions are

needed to predict pressure drop across beds due to the resistance caused by the

presence of the particles. For example, in fixed bed catalytic reactors and drying

columns containing silica gel or molecular sieves, gases are passed through a bed

of particles.

The resistance to the flow of a fluid through the voids in a bed of solids is

the resultant of the total drag of all the particles in a bed. Depending on the

Reynolds number, DpG0/, laminar flow, turbulent flow, form drag, separation, and

wake formation occur. As in the drag of a single solid particle, there is no sharp

transition between laminar and turbulent flow like that occurring in flow through

conduits of cross section. The most common methods of correlating total pressure

drop through a bed of solids to the drag of the individual particles are based ob

estimates of the total drag of the fluid on the solid boundaries of the tortuous

channels through the bed particles.

Objective of the experiment is to check whether the experimentally obtained data

fits to the following equations at the following conditions:

a) Ergun Equation:

fP = [(1/ReP).150(1-)/s] + 1.75; (for 1<ReP<1000)

b) Kozeny-Carman Equation:

fP = [(1/ReP).150(1-)/s]; (for ReP<1)

c) Blake-Plummer Equation:

fP = 1.75;

(for ReP>1000).

(Where ReP=particle Reynolds number=voDp/)

Mathematical Theory:

For fluid flow through packed bed, the friction factor, fP and particle Reynolds

number Rep are defined as:

ReP = DPV0/ ----------------------- (b)

Where,

P = Pressure drop across the packed bed of length L.

= Density of the fluid.

= Viscosity of the fluid.

V0 = Superficial or empty-tower velocity.

DP = Equivalent particle diameter (of bed particles)

s = Sphericity of the bed particles.

= Bed porosity or void fraction.

Where,

volume as the particle, so that particle volume vp = (/6)DP3.

Sphericity s is defined as the ratio of surface area of the equivalent sphere (i.e. of

dia DP) to actual particle surface area, sP.

Porosity is the ratio: [Void volume/ total bed volume];

Now, the actual channels are irregular in shape, have a variable cross

section and orientation, and are highly interconnected. To calculate an equivalent

channel diameter, it is assumed that the bed has a set of uniform circular channels

whose total surface area and the void volume match that of the bed. The total

surface is the surface area per particle times the number of particles, but it is more

convenient to base the calculations on volume fraction particles in the bed and the

surface-volume ratio for the particles. This ratio is 6/Dp for a sphere, since sp=

Dp2 and vp = 1/6Dp3. For other shapes or irregular particles, the equation for

surface-volume ratio includes a sphericity s, defined as the surface-volume ratio

for a sphere of diameter Dp divided by the surface-volume ratio for the particle

whose nominal size is Dp. Thus

s= (6/Dp) / (sp/vp)

Or,

sp /vp= (6/sDp)

ERGUN Equation:

It is the most general correlation between f p and (1/Rep) for flow through

packed bed. The main contribution to the pressure drop, due to flow of fluid through

packed bed, occurs due to the kinetic losses caused by changes in channel cross

section and flow direction. As the fluid passes between particles, the channel

becomes smaller and then larger, and the maximum velocity is much greater than

the average velocity. Since the channel area changes rapidly, most of the kinetic

energy of the fluid is lost and this loss is repeated at each layer.

An equation covering the entire range of flow rates can be obtained by assuming

that the viscous losses and the kinetic energy losses are additive. The result is

called the

ERGUN equation:

fp= [(1/Rep)150(1-)/s]+1.75

This equation fitted data for spheres, cylinders, and crushed solids over a wide

range of flow rates.

KOZENY-CARMAN Equation:

For low Rep values, the first term on the RHS of the ERGUN equation is >>1.75, so

that the term 1.75 may be neglected, and the resulting equation is called the

KOZENY-CARMAN equation. This is applicable for flow through beds at particle

Reynolds numbers up to 1.0. There is no sharp transition to turbulent flow at this

Reynolds number, but the frequent changes in shape and the direction of the

channels in the bed lead to significant kinetic energy losses at higher Reynolds

numbers. For a given system, the equation:

fp = [(1/Rep)150(1-)/s]

indicates that the flow is proportional to the pressure drop and inversely

proportional to the fluid viscosity. This statement is also known as Darcys law,

which is often used to describe flow of liquids through porous media.

BLAKE-PLUMMER Equation;

As the flow rate through a packed bed increases, the slope of the p-versus-V 0

plot gradually increases, and at very high Reynolds numbers, p varies with the 1.9

or 2.0 power of the superficial velocity. An empirical correlation for pressure drop in

packed beds at high Reynolds number (R ep > 1000) is the BLAKE-PLUMMER

equation:

p/L=[(1.75V02)/(gcsDp)][(1-)/]

Simplifying and approximating we get:

fp= 1.75

Therefore,

For low ReP values (i.e. ReP <1) the Kozeny-Carman equation is valid and the

plot of fP -vs- (1/ReP) should be a straight line passing through origin.

For intermediate ReP values (i.e. 1<ReP<1000) the Ergun equation is valid

and the plot of fP -vs- (1/ReP) should be straight line having y intercept is =

+1.75.

And for high ReP values (i.e. ReP>1000) the Blake-Plummer equation is valid

and the plot of fP -vs- (1/ReP) should be a straight line parallel to (1/ReP) axis.

Apparatus Used:

The main lab setup that was used is shown in the figure 1 above.

The additional apparatus those were used are:

1. Collecting vessel: Bucket was used for higher flow rates and measuring

cylinder of capacity 1lit was used for lower flow rates.

2. Stop Watch.

Packing Materials:

Two types of packing materials were used.

2. Raschig Ring.

DP

Do(DP) Di

Length of the packed bed= 0.925 m

Inside Diameter of packed bed = 0.037 m

Weight of empty bucket(1)= 1.44 Kg ; Weight of empty bucket(2)= 1.54 Kg

At 300C, Viscousity Coeffecient = 8*10

Density

water

= 996 kg/m3

Ns/m2

Manometric fluid Hg

mercury = 13550 kg/m3

Sl.

no.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Manometer reading ( cm of Hg )

LHS

121

126

132

152

156

158

161

136

143

RHS

106

104

97

77

72

70

68

93

86

of water :

taken: t(s)

W (Kg)

difference

15

22

35

75

84

88

93

43

57

0.17

0.62

0.96

2.52

1.77

1.76

1.8

1.13

1.56

10

10.51

10.64

15.59

10.21

10.11

10.04

10.12

10.12

Volumetric

flowrate

(m3/s)

0.00001707

0.00005923

0.00009059

0.00016229

0.00017406

0.00017478

0.00018000

0.00011211

0.00015477

Where,

Total weight ( in Kg ) weight of empty bucket( in Kg ) = net weight of water ( in

Kg )

Volumetric flow rate of water (m3 / sec) = W / ( t*

water

No. of observations

1.

2.

3.

4.

1.5

1.7

1.6

1.7

1.625

Sl.

no.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Manometer reading ( cm of Hg )

LHS

120

123

134

137

143

147

149

RHS

108

104

96

93

88

83

80

difference

12

19

38

44

55

64

69

Net mass

of water

(Kg)

Time taken

(s)

Volumetric

flowrate

(m3/s)

0.62

0.98

1.89

2.01

2.43

2.67

2.84

9.98

9.96

10.21

9.83

9.94

10.23

10.21

0.00006237

0.00009879

0.00018586

0.00020529

0.00024545

0.00026205

0.00027928

No. of

observation

s

1.

2.

3.

4.

Length

of

Raschi

g Ring

(cm)

1.7

1.5

1.7

1.7

Mean

Length

(cm)

L

Outer

diameter

(cm)

Mean

Outer

Diameter

(cm)

Inner

Diameter(cm

)

D0

1.65

1.5

1.4

1.6

1.6

1.525

D1

1.1

1.0

1.11

1.1

TOTAL VOLUME OF

BED(empty)(m3)

0.00117

RASCHIG RING(m3)

0.00089

Mean

Inner

Diamete

r (cm)

SPHERICAL BALL(m3)

0.00056

1.0775

Material

Dp

L

L= D0

Sphere

Raschig Ring

s

1.0

0.58(for D1/ D0=0.5)

0.33(for D1 / D0=0.75)

m2

= 0.00056 / 0.00117 = 0.4786

s=1

Volumetric

flow rate of

water (m3 /

sec) ( Q )

Superficial

Velocity

V0 = v

(m/sec)

Manometer

Reading

( in m )

h

0.00001707

Actual

average

linear

velocity)

v = Q/A

(m/sec)

0.0159

Pressure

drop

p= h ( Hg

- water )*g

0.0076

0.015

(in Pa)

1847.321

0.00005923

0.00009059

0.00016229

0.00017406

0.00017478

0.00018000

0.00011211

0.00015477

0.0551

0.08429

0.1510

0.1619

0.1626

0.1675

0.1043

0.1440

0.0264

0.0403

0.0723

0.0775

0.0778

0.0802

0.0499

0.0689

0.022

0.035

0.075

0.084

0.088

0.093

0.043

0.057

2709.404

4310.416

9236.606

10345

10837.62

11453.39

5295.654

7019.82

Friction

Factor,

fp

Particle

Reynolds

Number,

Rep

118.607

9

14.4166

9.8425

6.5529

6.3874

6.6401

6.6036

7.8871

5.4839

153.7575

0.006504

534.105

815.3194

1462.719

1567.922

1573.991

1622.546

1009.539

1393.933

0.001872

0.001227

0.000684

0.000638

0.000635

0.000616

0.000991

0.000717

1/Rep

Porosity ( ) = 0.00089/0.00117 = 0.7607

s= 0.33 ( since, D1/D0 = 0.71 )

Here since L

raschig

Volumetric

flow rate of

water (m3 /

sec) ( Q )

Superficial

Velocity

V0 = v

(m/sec)

0.00006237

Actual

average

linear

velocity)

v = Q/A

(m/sec)

0.0580

Manometer

Reading

( in m )

h

0.0441

0.012

0.00009879

0.0919

0.0699

0.00018586

0.1729

0.00020529

Pressure drop

p= h ( Hg

- water )*g

Friction

Factor,

fp

Particle

Reynolds

Number,

Rep

1477.857

7.9484

871.6089

0.019

2339.94

5.0093

1381.53

0.1316

0.038

4679.88

2.8265

2600.992

0.1910

0.1453

0.044

5418.809

2.6847

2871.764

0.00024545

0.2285

0.1737

0.055

6773.511

2.3482

3433.072

0.00026205

0.2438

0.1855

0.064

7881.903

2.3959

3666.292

0.00027928

0.2599

0.1977

0.069

8497.677

2.2741

3907.417

1 / Rep

(in Pa)

0.00114

7

0.00072

4

0.00038

4

0.00034

8

0.00029

1

0.00027

3

0.00025

6

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