You are on page 1of 19

Part 1: Mosaic gene inheritance

Some basics

Human Father

In the nucleus of each cell, humans


have 23 pairs of chromosomes a
total of 46
Offspring will randomly inherit half
of each chromosome from their
mother, and half from their father
For each observable trait, an
organism inherits 2 alleles (2
variations that make up a gene)

50% of genes come from the


mother, and 50% come from the
father

Understanding
Gene Inheritance

Dominant: Only one allele is needed to show observable trait (phenotype)


Recessive: Two alleles are needed to show observable trait (phenotype)
Homozygous:
Two of the same
alleles inherited

b
B

Heterozygous:
Two different
alleles inherited

Chromosome

2 alleles = 1
gene

Moms
half

Remember:
One half comes
from each parent

Dads
half

Genotype
The genetic makeup

mm

Mm

Phenotype
Physical, observable expression of genotype
(color/pattern in our case)

In theory
Same phenotype,
different genotype!

MM

Non-mosaic

Mosaic
Mosaic

DOMINANT GENES

Mosaic (Mm) a dominant gene


(Based on empirical evidence)

M = Abnormal
gene (Mosaic
m = Normal
gene

Non-mosaic Mother

Mosaic Father

Mosaic

Non-mo

Mosaic

Non-mo

Mosaic
Non-mo

If joeys do not inherit the mosaic phenotype, then they do not


have the mosaic gene and can not pass it on to future progeny

In theory, inheritance of
the mosaic gene should
work in a similar way to
earlobes in humans.
Those that inherit two
copies of the dominant
gene EE will have
children with unattached
earlobes 100% of the
time, even if the other
parent does not have the
dominant gene.

Mosaic Mother

Mosaic Father

Mosaic Mosaic

Mosaic Non-mo

Super Mosaic Father

Mosaic
Non-mo

Super
mosaic

Non-mosaic Mother

In theory

75% of gliders produced by a mosaic x mosaic


pairing should be mosaic, with 1 in 3 of those
mosaics being a super mosaic (will always
produce mos, even when paired with a non-mo)

Mosaic Mosaic

Mosaic Mosaic

Mosaic

And yet based on breeder observation, it is not


possible to breed a super mosaic
Could inheriting two copies of the
mosaic gene result in homozygous
lethal embryonic death?
Homozygous inheritance of lethal
genes exists in horses, cats, rats,
alpaca, and mice (1).

Agouti gene in mice

1: Gruneberg 1936; Hintz and Van Vleck 1979; Geissler


et al. 1981; Niwa et al. 1991; Hosoda et al. 1994;
Santschi et al. 1998

Lethal white in horses

Merle
gene in
Australian
Shepherds

So how can we prove this?

66%

33%

If MM is lethal, then
rather than produce a 3:1
(75%) mosaic offspring,
mosaic x mosaic pairings
hypothetically will result
in a 2:1 (66%) ratio of
mosaic to non-mosaic
offspring.

Why not just use the database?

Oftentimes breeders do not put pet-only gliders in the database.


Rarer colors are more likely to be sold for breeding, and thus be put in
the database, skewing results.

Part 2: Powdering (graying)

Some famous piebalds before and after

Sparrow
Credit: Tyler Cleckley,
Shelley S.

Kaleidoscope
Credit: Priscilla Price

Photo credit: Brittany H.

Sometimes, gliders can powder pied (progressive pieds)

Photo credit: Adri Lopez

Diamond as a joey

Pixie
Diamond as an adult

Possible candidate genes?


Vitiligo gene
Chinchilla/silvering gene
G locus graying gene (what turns gray horses white)
Silvering Gene

Gray at 4 years old

Sometimes blood mark patches


are left on horses that gray out

Same horse 3 years later

Part One: Mosaic Gene Inheritance


Must have lineage
Must be breeding mosaic x mosaic
Report how many gliders born mosaic vs. non

Part Two: Powdering (Graying)

Must have lineage


May be pet-only or breeding
Pictures of glider as a joey and as an adult (preferred)
OR your description on whether or not glider has powdered