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JJ207 Thermodynamic

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TOPIC 1

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF THERMODYNAMICS

At the end of the topic you will be able to:

Describe the concepts of dimension, SI and imperial units

Describe the dimensional homogeneity

Solve unit conversion

Define the principles of a system, boundary, surrounding, differentiate between

open and closed system.

Define energy conversion.

Compare the properties of systems, state and equilibrium.

Define process and cycle.

State and explain Zeroth's law of thermodynamics.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

he study of thermodynamics is concerned with the ways energy is stored within a body

and how energy transformations, which involve heat and work, may take place. One of

the most fundamental laws of nature is the conservation of energy principle. It simply

states that during an energy interaction, energy can change from one form to another but the

total amount of energy remains constant. That is, energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Did you realize that the work of an engineer is limited unless he has a source of power

to drive his machines or tools? However, before such a study can begin, it is necessary to be

sure of the number of definitions and units, which are essential for a proper understanding of

the subject. We are familiar with most of these items in our everyday lives, but science

demands that we have to be exact in our understanding if real progress is to be made.

When engineering calculations are performed, it is necessary to be concerned with the

units of the physical quantities involved. A unit is any specified amount of a quantity by

comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measured. For example, meters,

centimeters and millimeters are all units of length. Seconds, minutes and hours are alternative

time units.

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

1.1

An important component to the solution to any engineering thermodynamic problem

requires the proper use of units. The unit check is the simplest of all engineering checks that

can be made for a given solution. Since units present a major hindrance to the correct solution

of thermodynamic problems, we must learn to use units carefully and properly. The system of

units selected for this course is the SI System that is also known as the International System

(sometimes called the metric system). In SI, the units of mass, length, and time are the kilogram

(kg), meter (m), and second (s), respectively.

1.1.1

Any physical situation can be described by certain familiar properties e.g. length,

velocity, area, volume, acceleration etc. These are all known as dimensions. Of course

dimensions are of no use without a magnitude being attached. We must know more than that

something has a length. It must also have a standardized unit - such as a meter, a foot, a yard

etc. Dimensions are properties which can be measured. Units are the standard elements we use

to quantify these dimensions. In dimensional analysis we are only concerned with the nature of

the dimension i.e. its quality not its quantity. The following common abbreviation are used:

length = L, mass = M, time = T, force = F.

In this module we are only concerned with L, M, T and F. We can represent all the

physical properties we are interested in with L, T and one of M or F (F can be represented by a

combination of LTM). These notes will always use the LTM combination.

The following table lists dimensions of some common physical quantities:

Quantity

velocity

acceleration

force

energy (or work)

power

pressure ( or stress)

density

specific weight

SI Unit

m/s

m/s2

N

kg m/s2

Joule J

N m,

kg m2/s2

Watt W

N m/s

kg m2/s3

Pascal P,

N/m2,

kg/m/s2

kg/m3

N/m3

kg/m2/s2

.

ms

ms-2

Dimension

LT-1

LT-2

kg ms-2

M LT-2

kg m2s-2

ML2T-2

Nms-1

kg m2s-3

ML2T-3

Nm-2

kg m-1s-2

kg m-3

ML-1T-2

ML-3

kg m-2s-2

ML-2T-2

-1

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

System of Units) and it is a legally accepted system in many countries. SI units will be used

throughout this module.

Length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity

are the six fundamental physical quantities. These six quantities are absolutely independent of

one another. They are also called the Indefinables of mechanics. The SI base units are listed in

Table 1.1-1.

Table 1.1-1 Fundamental units

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Mass

Time

Length

Thermodynamic temperature

Electric current

Luminous intensity

kilogram

second

meter

degree Kelvin

ampere

candela

kg

s

m

K

A

cd

All other physical quantities, which can be expressed in terms of one or more of these,

are known as derived quantities. The unit of length, mass, time, electric current,

thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity are known as fundamental units. Physical

quantities like area, volume, density, velocity, acceleration, force, energy, power, torque etc. are

called derived quantities since they depend on one or more of these fundamental quantities. The

units of the derived quantities are called derived units as shown in Table 1.1-2.

Table 1.1-2 Derived units

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Area

Volume

Velocity

Acceleration

Density

meter square

meter cube

meter per second

Meter per second

squared

kilogram / meter cube

kg/m3

Force

Pressure

Newton

Newton/meter square

N

N/m2

m2

m3

m/s

m/s2

Notes

1 m3 = 1 x 103 litre

1 N = 1 kgm/s2

1 N/m2 = 1 Pascal

1 bar = 105 N/m2 = 102 kN/m2

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

Often times, the engineer must work in other systems of units. Comparison of the

United States Customary Units (USCS), or English, and the slug systems of units with the SI

system is shown below.

mass

time

length

force

1.1.2

SI

kilogram (kg)

second (s)

meter (m)

Newton (N)

USCS

pound-mass (lbm)

second (s)

foot (ft)

pound-force (lbf)

Slug

slug-mass (slug)

second (s)

foot (ft)

pound-force (lbf)

Dimensional Homogeneity

both sides. A valid equation in physics must be homogeneous, since equality cannot apply

between quantities of different nature. This can be used to spot errors in formula or

calculations. For example, if one is calculating a speed, units must always combine to [length]/

[time]; if one is calculating an energy, units must always combine to [mass][length]/[time],

etc.

The Dimensional Homogeneity

1.1.3

All terms in an equation must be dimensionally homogeneous.

That is, we cant add apples to

oranges

Neither can we add J/mol to J/kg s.

By keeping track of our units/dimensions,

we can automatically do a reality check on

our equations.

But the fun doesnt stop there

A dimensional analysis can help to determine the form of an equation

that we may have forgotten.

Unit conversion

We all know from experience that conversion of units can give terrible headaches if

they are not used carefully in solving a problem. But with some attention and skill, conversion

of units can be used to our advantage.

Measurements that describe physical quantities may be expressed in a variety of

different units. As a result, one often has to convert a quantity from one unit to another. For

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

example, we would like to convert, say, 49 days into weeks. One approach is to multiply the

value by ratios of the equivalent units. The ratios are formed such that the old units are

cancelled, leaving the new units.

The example of unit conversions are:

1 kg = 1000 g

1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm

Multiple and sub-multiple of the basic units are formed by means of prefixes, and the

ones most commonly used are shown in the following table:

Table 1.1.3 Multiplying factors

Multiplying Factor

1 000 000 000 000

1 000 000 000

1 000 000

1 000

100

10

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.000 001

0.000 000 001

0.000 000 000 001

12

10

109

106

103

102

101

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

Prefix

Symbol

tera

giga

mega

kilo

hector

deca

desi

centi

milli

micro

nano

pico

T

G

M

k

h

da

d

c

m

n

p

Example 1.1

Convert 1 km/h to m/s.

1 km 1 km 1000 m

1h

x

x

h

h

1 km

3600 s

1000 m

3600 s

0.278 m/s

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

Example 1.2

Convert 25 g/mm3 to kg/m3.

Solution to Example 1.2

1 kg = 1000 g

1 m = 1000 mm

1 m3 = 1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm3

= 109 m3

25 g

25 g

1 kg

10 9 mm 3

x

x

1000 g

mm 3

mm 3

1 m3

25 x 1 x 10 9 kg

1000 m 3

25 x 10 6 kg/m 3

Example 1.3

Convert 15 MN/m2 to N/m2

1 MN = 106 N/m2

15 MN 15 MN 10 6 N

x

1 MN

m2

m2

Example 1.4

15 x 10 6 N/m 2

1 kg = 1 000 000 mg

1 m3 = 1000 litre

15 mg

15 mg

1 kg

1000 litre

x

x

litre

litre

1 000 000 mg

1 m3

15 x 10 -3 kg/m 3

1.2.1

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

region in space chosen for study. The fluid contained by the cylinder head, cylinder walls and

the piston may be said to be the system.

The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. The surroundings

may be affected by changes within the system.

The boundary is the surface of separation between the system and its surroundings. It

may be the cylinder and the piston or an imaginary surface drawn as in Fig. 1.1, so as to enable

an analysis of the problem under consideration to be made.

Boundary

Surrounding

System

Figure 1.1

A system can either to be close or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a fixed

volume in space is chosen for study. A close system (also known as a control mass) consists of

a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary. That is, no mass can enter or leave

a close system, as shown in Fig. 1.2. But energy, in the form of heat or work can cross the

boundary, and the volume of a close system does not have to be fixed. Examples of closed

systems are sealed tanks and piston cylinder devices (note the volume does not have to be

fixed).

SURROUNDINGS

SYSTEM

S

I

S

T

E

M

BOUNDARY

Fig. 1.2 A closed system with a moving boundary

An open system, or a control volume, as it is often called, is a properly selected region

in space. It usually encloses a device, which involves mass flow such as a boiler, compressor,

turbine or nozzle. Flow through these devices is best studied by selecting the region within the

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

device as the control volume. Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control

volume, as shown in Fig. 1.3. Examples of open systems are pumps, compressors, turbines,

valves, and heat exchangers.

Fluid Inlet

SURROUNDINGS

QOUT

SYSTEM

WOUT

BOUNDARY

Fluid Outlet

Fig 1.3 Open system in turbine

1.2.2

Energy Conversion

Thermodynamics is the science of the relationship between heat, work, and systems that

analyze energy processes. The energy processes that convert heat energy from available sources

such as chemical fuels into mechanical work are the major concern of this science.

Thermodynamics consists of a number of analytical and theoretical methods which may be

applied to machines for energy conversion.

Energy is used in almost all facets of living and in all countries, and makes possible the

existence of ecosystems, human civilizations and life itself. Different regions and societies

adapt to their environments and determine their own energy resources and energy uses. The

standards of life achieved in countries are often a function of energy-related factors.

Energy can exist in many forms, and can be converted from one form to another with

energy conversion technologies. We use energy carriers (often simply referred to as energy),

produced from energy sources, in all aspects of living. It is important to distinguish between

energy forms, sources and carriers.

Energy forms. Energy comes in a variety of forms, including fossil fuels, fossil fuelbased products (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel), uranium, electricity, work (such as the mechanical

energy in a rotating engine shaft), heat, heated substances (e.g., steam, hot air), light and other

electromagnetic radiation.

Energy sources. Energy resources (sometimes called primary energy forms) are found

in the natural environment. Some are available in finite quantities (e.g., fossil fuels, fossil

fuelcontaining substances such as oil sands, peat and uranium). Some energy resources are

renewable (or relatively renewable), including sunlight (or solar energy), falling water, wind,

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

tides, geothermal heat and biomass fuels (when the growth rate exceeds or meets the rate of

use). Energy resources are often processed from their raw forms prior to use.

Energy carriers. Energy carriers (sometimes called energy currencies) are the energy

forms that we transport and use, and include some energy resources (e.g., fossil fuels) and

processed energy forms (e.g., gasoline, electricity, work and heat). Processed energy forms are

not found in the environment.

1.2.3

pressure, and temperature to which numerical values can be assigned at a given time without

knowledge of the history of the system. Any characteristic of a system in equilibrium is called a

property. Many other properties are considered during the course of our study of engineering

thermodynamics. Thermodynamics also deals with quantities that are not properties, such as

mass flow rates and energy transfers by work and heat. Properties are considered to be either

intensive or extensive.

Intensive properties are those which are independent of the size of the system such as

temperature, pressure and density.

Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size or extent of the system.

Mass, volume and total energy are some examples of extensive properties.

The word state refers to the condition of system as described by its properties. Since

there are normally relations among the properties of a system, the state often can be specified

by providing the values of a subset of the properties. Consider a system that is not undergoing

any change. The properties can be measured or calculated throughout the entire system. This

gives us a set of properties that completely describe the condition or state of the system. At a

given state all of the properties are known; changing one property changes the state.

An equilibrium state is one in which all the bulk physical properties of the system are

uniform throughout the system and do not change with time. Two variables are required to

specify an equilibrium state.

If two thermodynamic systems such as gases are put in thermal contact, after a time no

further changes in the pressures and volumes will occur, each gas being in an equilibrium state.

The gases are then said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other. A system is said to be in

thermodynamic equilibrium if it maintains thermal (uniform temperature), mechanical (uniform

pressure), phase (the mass of two phases, e.g. ice and liquid water, in equilibrium) and chemical

equilibrium.

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JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

(a) Before

(b) After

Fig. 1.4 Thermal equilibriums

1.2.4

When there is a change in any of the properties of a system, the state changes and the

system are said to have undergone a process. A process is a transformation from one state to

another. However, if a system exhibits the same values of its properties at two different times,

the state remains the same at these times. A system is said to be at a steady state if none of its

properties changes with time. A process occurs when a systems state (as measured by its

properties) changes for any reason.

Processes may be reversible or actual (irreversible). In this context the word reversible

has a special meaning. A reversible process is one that is wholly theoretical, but can be

imagined as one which occurs without incurring friction, turbulence, leakage or anything which

causes unrecoverable energy losses. All of the processes considered below are reversible and

the actual processes will be dealt with later. Processes may be constrained to occur at constant

temperature (isothermal), constant pressure, constant volume, polytropic and adiabatic (with no

heat transfer to the surroundings).

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10

JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

Fig. 1.5 Process path from initial (1) to final (2) state

A process (or a series of connected processes) with identical end states is called a cycle.

Below is a cycle composed of two processes, A and B. Along process A, the pressure and

volume change from state 1 to state 2. Then to complete the cycle, the pressure and volume

change from state 2 back to the initial state 1 along process B. Keep in mind that all other

thermodynamic properties must also change so that the pressure is functions of volume as

described by these two processes. The cycles studied in thermodynamics are combinations of

various thermodynamic processes, primarily isothermal, adiabatic, polytropic, isobaric(constant

pressure) and isochoric (constant volume) processes.

A thermodynamic cycle is a series of thermodynamic processes which returns a system

to its initial state. Properties depend only on the thermodynamic state and thus do not change

over a cycle. Variables such as heat and work are not zero over a cycle, but rather are process

dependent. The first law of thermodynamics dictates that the net heat input is equal to the net

work output over any cycle. The repeating nature of the process path allows for continuous

operation, making the cycle an important concept in thermodynamics. Thermodynamic cycles

often use quasistatic processes to model the workings of actual devices

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11

JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

1.2.5

equilibrium among bodies, or thermodynamic systems, in contact. Systems are in thermal

equilibrium if they do not exchange energy in the form of heat.

The zeroths law states that if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third

system, then they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

This means that thermal equilibrium is transitive and it affords the definition of an

empirical physical parameter, called temperature, which is the same for all systems in thermal

equilibrium. The law permits the construction of a thermometer to measure this property.

A system is said to be in thermal equilibrium when it experiences no net change in thermal

energy. If A, B, and C are distinct thermodynamic systems, the zeroths law of thermodynamics

can then be expressed as:

"If A and C are each in thermal equilibrium with B, A is also in thermal equilibrium with C."

If we also grant that all thermodynamic systems are in thermal equilibrium with themselves,

then thermal equilibrium is also a reflexive relation. Relations that are both reflexive and

Euclidean are equivalence relations. One consequence of this reasoning is that thermal

equilibrium has a transitive relationship between the temperature T of A, B, and C:

If T (A) = T(B)

And T (B) = T(C)

Then T (A) = T(C).

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